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A. Population

1. entire group of people or elements

2. one or more common characteristics

3. can be infinite or finite

4. impossible or difficult to study a population

B. Sample

1. small subgroup of population is selected

2. assumed to be representative of population

C. Steps in sampling process

1. identify target population

2. identify accessible population (portion of population available to researcher)

3. determine desired sample size

4. select specific sampling technique

5. implement sampling plan

6. note the order (often the steps are incorrectly reversed, i.e. retrofit sample to population)

D. Random process

1. important for

a. ensuring generalization to population

b. demonstrate unbias

c. equalize characteristics among subjects

2. random selection

3. random assignment

II. Sample selection methods

A. Probability sampling

1. uses random processes to derive the sample

2. every element in the population has a known probability of being selected

3. sampling error can be estimated

4. types of probability sampling

a. in simple random sampling, every element of population has equal chance of being

selected (e.g. fishbowl technique- with and without replacement, table of random

numbers, SPSS)

b. in stratified random sampling, the population is divided into different groups or strata,

then a set number of subjects are selected from each strata (e.g. make strata, then take

25% from each strata)

c. in systematic sampling, the “kth” element from a random population list is selected (e.g.

k=100 or every hundredth person is selected), note this is convenient but not entirely

free of bias

d. in cluster sampling, the sampling unit is a naturally occurring group or clusters of the

population (useful for wide geographical areas, but greater possibility for sampling error

with small number of clusters)

B. Nonprobability sampling

1. when samples are not randomly selected

2. for example, intact classes, volunteers, typical group/person- all introduce bias

C. types of nonprobability sampling

a. in purposive sampling, subjects are chosen based on some characteristc of interest

b. in convenience sampling, subjects are chosen based on convenience

III. Sample Size

A. How many subjects do I need?

1. “size vs width”

2. e.g. Roosevelt vs Landon election)

3. e.g. Bush election

B. Key considerations

1. in general, the larger the sample size, the smaller the sampling error and the greater the

probability of generalization to population

2. descriptive and correlational research should have larger sampling sizes than experimental

studies (mortality)

KIN 504, Lecture 3

4. practical factors, i.e. cost, subject availability

5. statistical power (probably that test will detect even small differences) is better with larger

samples

IV. Data Analysis

A. Descriptive statistics

1. histograms

2. central tendency

a. mean

b. median

c. mode

3. variability

a. range

b. standard deviation (standard error)

c. variance

4. correlation

B. Hypothesis testing

1. state hypothesis, H1, and null hypothesis, H0

2. select probability level or the alpha level, (usually 0.05, 0.01) which is the probability of the

result occurring if the null hypothesis is true

3. conduct statistical test

4. accept/reject hypothesis based on p value being less than alpha level (type I error occurs when

null hypothesis is rejected incorrectly and = alpha level; type II error occurs when null

hypothesis is accepted incorrectly)

C. Ray’s tips on how to analyze data

1. visualize data (distribution, central tendency)

2. get easy to use statistical software (excel, SPSS, etc.)

3. use appropriate statistical test for the study design

a. considerations

-random sampling, normal distribution?

-are samples equally variable?

-are scores continuous or ordinal?

-are groups dependent or independent?

b. t tests

-one group (useful for determining if sample mean is different than population or

hypothetical mean)

-two independent groups, e.g. two different samples from a population

-two dependent groups, e.g. repeated measures or matched pairs, is more precise than

independent groups (better control)

-t statistic is determined and converted to a significance level (p value)

c. ANOVA

-is useful when there are more than 2 groups

-compares sample mean variability to estimated mean variability (i.e. if mean variability

is larger than estimated variability, then groups are not the same)

-f statistic is determined, then converted to a significance level (p value)

d. non parametric tests (when data are not linear or are linear but not normally distributed,

chi square, sign tests)

4. determine if calculated p value is acceptable (< 0.05 or 0.01)

5. to improve p value

a. increase n

b. remove outliers (3 standard deviations away)

c. use different stat test

d. repeat study

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