BioBio-treatment of solid waste

Composting of Organic Wastes and Production of Organic Fertilizers

Eng. Mohamed Khaire

1. 2. 3. 3 4. 5. 6. 7.

Introduction Definition and Principles Composting Methodology Composting types and Techniques Composting Application Domestic composting Compost in Jordan

Type of Solid waste Biological Transformation
Aerobic digestion in presence of oxygen and nutrient to produce stable organic matter, CO2, CO2 Heat, H2O, NH3 Heat H2O NH3 and SO4 SO4 Anaerobic digestion in presence of water and absence of oxygen to produce stable organic matter , CO2, Heat, NH3,SO4 and methane CO2 NH3,SO4

What is A Compost
Composting is an aerobic biological decomposition process where microorganisms convert raw organic materials relatively stable humus-like humusmaterial

1.Process schematic Out Material COMPOST • Organic fertilizers • Mulch • Soil conditioner • Landfill covers

Input Material Composting Organic Wastes Bacteria, • Animal manure Fungi, worms, • Agricultural & waste • WWTP Excess oxygen Sludge

Waste Component good for compost
Organic Fraction of Municipal solid waste such as paper, cardboard, food waste, wood Yard trimmings include leaves from trees and shrubs, pine needles, grass, clippings, tree bark, woody branches, roots, Bio solids are the solid portion of waste from municipal sewage treatment plants.

What not to compost
a) Though often discouraged, composting waste of humans and other carnivorous or omnivorous animals (dogs, cats, pigs) is possible but you must be very careful about pathogens b) Perennial weeds that are resistant to decay such as Bermuda grass, mint, bindweed c) Some diseased plants

What not to compost
d) Meat and dairy (if worried about attracting pests) e) Large quantities of fats and oils can’t readily be broken d b b k down by compost organisms b i f ) Leaves of eucalyptus, walnut, and other trees with tannins or known all elochemicals, conifers (acidic, slow). Small amounts of these materials are okay.

Advantages of composting
Physical Advantages: No Odor Increasing the soil water holding capacity means safe irrigation water Increase the soil aeration and gases exchange due to increasing the internal pours between soil particles

Chemical Advantages:
Creating suitable pH for plant growth Stabilizing the volatile nitrogen of organic waste into large protein particles Reducing the need for chemical fertilizers (Ground and surface water protection) Slow releasing of nutrients to plants Increasing the cationic exchange capacity Increasing organic matter concentration rather than nutrient value

Biological Advantages
Eliminating weed seeds, fly eggs and pathogens as a egg result of hygenisation (> 55 °C) Conserve the biological balance of soil microorganisms Fighting the plant diseases competition on the roots and surrounded area (due to Pinicillium production from the microorganism)

Advantages of composting
Environmental Advantages
Environmental safe, No chemicals risks and hazards Reduce the animals and plants waste Reduce the heavy metals adsorbed by plants due to Joining it Coarse compost reduces the soil erosion

Advantages of composting
General Adv Advantages: Easy to handle, store, transport Can be added at any time of the year Dose not release heat so it protects the plants Economic and agricultural value Used inside and outside homes safely

Factors affect the compost productions
Aeration and presence of oxygen Mixing Ratio of input materials Moisture content Heat Released from the degradation process Microorganism

Factors affect the compost productions Aeration and oxygen presence 1. Aerobic bacteria require oxygen, respire CO2. 2. Anaerobic bacteria (problems). 3. 3 Oxygen is often the limiting factor when compost temperature goes down after first weeks. 4. At 10%–12% CO2, need to turn. 5. Turning pile reintroduces oxygen, stimulating aerobic bacteria population.

Mixing ratios of input materials
C/N ratio - Moisture content
Range of C/N ratios and N,P,K for some animal manures
C/N Diary Sheep Turkey Hens Broiler 19 nd 11 11 15 N 0.5 1.4 1.5 1.6 4.2 P 0.2 0.5 0.6 0.5 1.7 K 0.6 1.2 nd 0.4 nd

-------- % -------

Factors affect the compost productions
composition of the raw materials (porosity, size)

1. Moisture needs of decomposers 2. Moisture content in compost pile should be 50%–60% (moist as a wrung-out sponge a) Add water as pile is built. More water should be put on layers in top half of pile pile. b) Excess moisture will cause compaction, loss of air c) Insufficient moisture will cause a pile to decompose slowly, and cause to heat to goes up d) Seasonal moisture considerations (e.g., tarping in winter)

Factors affect the Compost Production Microorganism
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Compost Classifications
The compost quality depends on the following: moisture and nutrient concentration, pH soluble salts, organic matter concentration, C:N ratio, water-holding capacity, bulk density, cation exchange capacity, particle size, presence of weed seeds, and odor .

Compost Quality Guidelines Based on End Use
Characteristic Potting Grade Potting Media Amendment Grade* Top Dressing Grade Soil Amendment Grade*

Recommended Uses

Growing medium without additional blending

Formulating growing media for potted plants (pH <7.2)

Primarily turf top dressing

Improvement of agricultural soils, restoration of disturbed soils, establishment and maintenance of landscape plants (pH <7.2)


Dark brown to black

Dark brown to black

Dark brown to black

Dark brown to black


Good, earthy smell

No objectionable odor

No objectionable odor

No objectionable odor

Particle size (in)





Compost Quality Guidelines Based on End Use
Potting Media Amendment Grade* Should be identified <6.0


Potting Grade

Top Dressing Grade Should be identified <5.0

Soil Amendment Grade* Should be identified <20.0


5.0-7.6 <2.5

Soluble salt content (mmhos/cm)

Foreign Materials

Not more than 1% by dry weight of combined glass, plastic, other foreign particles 1/8 - 1/2 in <200

Not more than 1% by dry weight of combined glass, plastic, other foreign particles 1/8 - 1/2 in

Not more than 1% by dry weight of combined glass, plastic, other foreign particles 1/8 - 1/2 in

Not more than 5% by dry weight of combined glass, plastic, other foreign particles

Respiration rate (mg/kg per hour)#



<400 EPA

Heavy metals Content
Maximum Concentration in mg/kg 13-10 3 200-50 100-80 150 1-0.8 62-50 500-300 Heavy Metals Arsenic Cadmium Chromium Copper Lead Mercury Nickel Zinc

Composting Methodology
The method of composting will be based on windrow technology

Sorting container
Mechanical treatment tment

Aeration raw

Seiving Balance
Control room

Storage & handling

Final fermentation

The composting process


Composting Phases Organic wastes under go several biological processes as the following: -Start phase -Biodegradation phase - Final Phase

C:N Ratio
Factors to consider when estimating C:N ratio of different materials i. Stage of growth/age of material ii. S ii Storage/treatment / iii. Where grown, how fertilized iv. With manures, grain-fed animals will have higher N manure

Suggested mixture ratios of input materials C/N mix from 25-30 %
Run Chicken Manure % 70 65 95 23 72 Cow Manure % horses Manure % Sawdust% Sawdust%


25 20 10

5 5 5 5

Monitoring program and analysis
During the composting processes, the following test will be carried out to ensure the proper functioning of the biological process. The scheduled analysis is:
Test Water content pH Temperature Organic carbon C/N Heavy metals (Pb, Br, Ca, Ni) Na, Ca, K, Mg Frequency Daily Daily Daily Daily Weekly Start and end Start and end

Methods used in the composting process Passive Composting or Cold composting method: Application: A li i If you don't need a lot of compost, aren't in a hurry, or don't have access to a lot of raw material

Passive Composting
Place the compost bin in a convenient location, Since material will be added to the passive compost pile frequently, make sure it's easily accessible accessible. add the ingredients as you get them while keeping in mind that the pile should be about 50% 50% "greens" and 50% "browns 50% Add water to keep the moisture Avoid adding any seeds and do not add material from possibly diseased plants.

Methods used in the composting process Passively Aerated Windrows. Windrows.

Methods used in the composting process Windrow Composting

Piling the compost

Ready Pile

Windrow Composting pile

Machine used in wind draw composting to turn the compost upside down

Compost turning

Methods used in the composting process Composting using machine


Typical time Required for composting

Monitoring and Recording the Composting Monitor temperature with compost thermometer a) Take temperature daily for first month and after turning; then weekly b) T Temperature should be taken at several points h ld b k l i in the pile and averaged c) Thermometer should be inserted 18 inches to 2 feet into pile d) Hold thermometer by probe while inserting and removing (head can break)

Monitoring and Recording the Composting

Record temperature and observations on record-a-keeping sheet a) Track pile through decomposition process, creating heat curve graph as you go b) Use heat curve graph to assess pile performance, indicate when to turn

After Completion of the aerobic digestion Process
The fully digested wastes are distributed in a piles or raws to dry Leaving the piles for 4 weeks without turning or adding water Sieving and screaming the products Packaging and marketing

Assessing Compost Maturity & Stability
1. 2. 3. 3

4. 5. 6.

Parent material should be largely indistinguishable, texture should be crumbly Temperature has cooled down to ambient temperature Signs of macro life (e g redworms (e.g., redworms, sowbugs, springtails), though may not be present in large-scale operations Dark brown to blackish-brown color
Earthy smell (no ammonium or anaerobic odor)

Feels “greasy” or slick when squeezed between fingers

Assessing Compost Maturity and Stability
7. Maturity vs. stability: A set of 7 quantitative indicators are used to define the maturity and stability of compost • pH: 6.5 to 8.0 • Sulfides: zero to only trace • Ammonia = <0.05 ppm • Ammonium: 0.2 to 3.0 ppm • Nitrites: <1.0 ppm • Nitrates: <300 ppm • CO2: <1%

Final Product

Application of Treated Compost pp p

Distribution inside the farm

Processing after Distribution

Home Composting
Home composting is one of the most costcosteffective organic materials management strategies because it eliminates the costs of collection and processing Organic waste suitable for home O i i bl f h composting includes: grass clippings, hay, straw, sawdust, wood chips, kitchen waste (e.g., fruit and vegetable peels and rinds, tea bags, coffee grounds, eggshells), leaves

Stand the barrel on ground or panel Fill it with domestic organic waste yard waste, yard…

Turning the waste with a rod twice a week 1-2 L of water added weekly

Final compost can be reach after 12-24 12weeks

Containers used in home composting

Potential Disadvantages of composting
a) Cost and time: Many farmers and gardeners don’t make their own compost because of the labor and expense b) Space needed for composting can take ) p p g up available production land c) Odor or other impacts on neighbors can create challenges in urban/suburban areas d) Regulations: Regulations on leachate and testing if commercial composter or certified

Compost in Jordan
Facts and Statistic

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Livestock in Jordan

Agriculture in Jordan valley and the market potential
Type of plant Area in dunams* Vegetables in V t bl i greenhouses Vegetables in open area Orchards Total 180,577 180, 97, 97,026 291,457 291, 2 .5 1 451,443 451, 97, 97,026 603,885 603, 13, 13,854 Amount of manure Market per dunams in m3 Potential (m3) (m3 4 55, 55,416

Agricultural growths in rest of Jordan and market potential
Type of plant Area in dunams* Vegetables in greenhouses Vegetables in open area Orchards Total 355,600 355, 658,687 658, 1 355,600 355, 787,750 787, 207,111 207, 2 414,222 414, 5,976 3 Amount manure needed per dunams in m3 Market Potential (m3 (m3) 17,928 17,

Market distribution within jordan according to the area

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