Fusion fuel is everywhere! 2.FUSION POWER: The Best Way to Generate Electricity i. old coal! 2. Solar Power 3. Intro ii. So many ways to generate electricity. "Solar Chimneys" 7. It’s so safe! 4. A new way---fusion power? 1. River Power 6. 1. Tidal Power 4. Wind Power 8. Really clean! v. Why is fusion power so good? 1. Hotter than the Sun 3. Well. How do we really get electricity from that? iv. Conclusion III: Credit to resources ---------------------------------------- . Fusing atom nuclei 2. Tokamaks and Magnetic Confinement 4. "Traditional" Nuclear Power iii. Inertial Confinement 5. It’s so efficient! 3. Biomass Power 9. Wave Power 5.

Tidal Power When on the topic of environmentally friendly power. Tides are very powerful and are a potential main energy source. To provide 24-hour long power. Though many people talk about “hydroelectric power” . To use solar power you have to install it on your house. carbon dioxide. pressed by environmental and economical reasons. we just can’t use solar. but it isn’t so easy to snatch that power from nature. Fish migrating up the river also are blocked by the huge dam. one could not keep from discussing tidal power. carbon dioxide contributes to the greenhouse effect. and sulfur dioxide. Coal Power Most of the electricity we use today comes from coal. Also. Burning coal produces a lot of carbon monoxide. Wave Power Getting the big waves all for us! That sounds like a tempting thing to do! Many scientists are designing models for turning waves into electrical power. but there are a few disadvantages. As a result. Solar Power One of the most popular candidates for future electricity generation is solar power. a dam must be created blocking a river-mouth. making water flow in too small an amount. We must find better ways to generate electricity. River Power (old hydroelectric power) This is OLD POWER. We must pick one out for the future of electric generation. Big waves can’t be found anywhere. Carbon monoxide is a poison to humans. and sulfur trioxide and sulfur dioxide make acid rain. and tides rushing into the river will turn turbines and generate electricity. The sun is unlimited. Uh-oh! Huge dam ahead! The salmon cannot reproduce! Then all of the fish die. Wave power is a piece of hi-tech. solar panels don’t work at night. Imagine a salmon trying to go up the river to lay eggs. They are also unreliable since waves are not powerful 24/7. creating a big factory using solar power isn’t practical. To create a tidal power station. people have invented too many ways to generate electricity.So many ways to generate electricity! Nowadays. However the initial cost of solar panels is so great and the lifetime is so short that it is not economically efficient. sulfur trioxide. and wave power generators are very expensive compared to their lifetime. which in turn can create floods. This type of dam dams up a lot of sand and silt behind the turbines.

we can all feel its power. cars run on us!” Mrs. many people have to move out. They like to fly in wide spaces. “Hey!” he said to her wife. Hydroelectric power isn’t good at all! Solar Chimneys Back to the sun! Well. and then hot air rises to the chimney. it has a huge disadvantage: hitting birds. swallows. burning fuel made from biomass produces exactly as much pollution as burning normal coal and gasoline. in order to avoid the high cost of solar panels. and we can use wind turbines. This method does not generate electricity very efficiently because greenhouses do not get really hot. Though it might seem a great idea. The weather is not sunny the whole year either. “What’ll we do with all that ol’ wheat?” “Get it to that factory o’er there and turn it into fuel! Ye know. Biomass power is the conversion of biomass. scientists are also researching on a new type of solar energy: “solar chimneys”. Wind blows on the turbines. “Hydroelectric power” is just damming up a river and using the flow of the water to generate electricity. it isn’t. Farmer X was storing up wheat. Another disadvantage is that it produces tons of noise. to gasoline or coal. First of all. so they are likely harmed by wind turbines. Look at the picture. Solar chimneys are simply experiments. X replied. That would be the equivalent of a wind farm. There are three disadvantages. like crops and trash. sparrows. It heavily damages the scenery. though. . and then burning the fuel produced. That’s the reason why from ancient times people run windmills. and other kinds of small birds thrive. It is simply a chimney mounted upon a greenhouse. Now we need a lot more power. Do you like wind farms? Biomass/Trash Power It is the harvesting season. Will this be the future of farming? Will wheat be turned into fuel? These are all questions about biomass power. The greenhouse gets hot. In the countryside where most “wind farms” are built. See how much the river rose! Many centuries-old famous monuments were destroyed by a dam (this is the Three Gorges dam). Imagine living by a hundred of idling cars. Wind Power Wind! Whooooooosh! When there is a big wind. which has turbines that turn and generate electricity. turning them and generating electricity with a generator.as a great new source of power. When the land upstream is flooded.

However. the huge energy in the sun comes from a fusion reaction: 2H+3H=>4He+neutron. so we can only increase the temperature to 100 million degrees or more. Two isotopes of hydrogen. Keeping that high a temperature inside a lab isn’t something easy! (think of stuffing a piece of the sun into your room!) Tokamaks and Magnetic Confinement At 100 million degrees. However. we need a temperature higher than the sun in order to make that reaction happen. deuterium and tritium. and it has a similarily-shaped magnetic field in it. this reaction is hard to control. and those neutrons fly on to break up even more atoms. scientists have invented something called a tokamak. exposing the protons and neutrons. Taking this advantage. electrons get so much energy that they fly away from the nucleus. Fission may be environmentally friendly (no pollution).EFDA.Secondly. This process creates a lot of energy. This makes more neutrons. In the plasma state. Biomass isn’t so “environmentally friendly” after all! Fission (traditional nuclear) Power BOOOOOM!!! The first test bomb of the Manhattan Project exploded! It is simply natural to try to confine this immense power in a power station. matter goes into the th 4 state of matter called plasma. In the sun. Fusion means “fusing atoms” which is building big atoms out of smaller ones. For example. making the nuclei move faster. turning biomass into fuel uses toxic chemicals that are extremely dangerous.org. so any failure will result in a huge explosion and a release of lethal nuclear waste. However. Plasma has charge. The plasma is heated by passing . in laboratories we can’t reach very high pressures. so fusion can happen at 15 million degrees Kelvin (Fusion 2100. Fusion power Like fission power. Fission relies on breaking up a 235 U atom with a neutron. but it really isn’t safe. This reaction happens between atomic nuclei and can be created in a lab. It’s donut-shaped. smash together to form helium and a neutron. very high pressures exist. so it can be affected by magnetic fields. it prevents it from hitting the walls of the tokamak and destroying the station. fusion power is also nuclear power. Attracting the plasma. Fusion doesn’t rely on splitting atoms into smaller ones. it uses fusion instead of fission. 01:00). We have now succeeded in making fission power stations. JET. However.

Heating the plasma is also very hard. and it’s also very difficult to create laser and ion beams that can heat matter from the solid state up to the plasma state. There is also gaseous fusion fuel inside the solid ball. The solid ball. Nevertheless. The heat boils the water. This heat is then passed by the conductors into a container filled with water. We can’t just wait for that! How can we really get electricity from that? Well. In this way. creating a great deal of heat. electricity can be generated. there are still big problems for inertial confinement. heated up by laser beams. In this way. we can’t just put wires into the plasma to generate electricity! Then how do we really get electricity out of a tokamak? The walls of a tokamak have heat conductors in them. But…do you know that deuterium and tritium can be . For example. and the steam pushes turbines connected to a generator. A huge absorber is in the container preventing the lab from exploding. stable fusion can be achieved. These two names may sound like some sci-fi extraterrestrial element. Why is fusion so good? Fusion fuel is everywhere! Deuterium and tritium. it is difficult to create a solid ball of fusion fuel.electricity through the tokamak and electromagnetic waves. The neutrons resulting from the fusion reaction then slams into the wall. resulting in a huge energy input. As a result. tokamaks are as big as a factory and are difficult to build. turns into plasma and starts to fuse on itself. However. scientists are finding different ways to confine and heat plasma. Inertial Confinement Inertial confinement works by hitting solid deuterium and tritium with laser or ion beams.

Fusion does not disrupt animals in any way. It is so safe! Nuclear power stations have a very bad reputation for being dangerous. deuterium can still last for millions of years and lithium can last for at least 1000 years. However. As I said before. For example. but not for fusion. However. Understanding Physics). . The “fusion of one gram of hydrogen-2 [deuterium] produces 5. 57000000 versus 7.) This large amount of fuel is much more than what we need! It is so efficient! One of the cardinal advantages of fusion power is its efficiency. This is because fusion reactions require high temperatures and are not completely self-sustained. fission reactions are chain reactions and the reactor is struggling to keep it from going out of control. According to the JET (Joint European Torus) official website. like initial cost.170. wind and tidal power stations disrupt animal life. author’s trans. Really clean! The advantage of no atmospheric pollution is shared with fission. But fusion power overcomes all of these drawbacks. the ratio is still very high. even if we generate all of our electricity from fusion. Above all of these. and the station can be restarted quickly. and though there is no natural tritium. fusion power stations are simply…clean! The best way to generate electricity! Fusion power is clean. and the production of solar panels use rare materials. Isn’t that number astounding? Though plasma is extremely thin and coal is relatively dense. It overcomes many drawbacks and disadvantages of our current electricity generation system. 81. and many other kinds of electric generation. tidal. On the other hand. For years nobody can live there because of the radioactive waste. it can be made from lithium. if anything goes wrong. fission is very unstable and can get out of control. efficient. That is the case for fission. Any failure will certainly result in an huge outburst of radioactive waste and even may cause complete destruction of the neighborhood.7 X 107 kilocalories” (Asimov. so a failure makes the temperature decrease and the only bad thing that would happen is a temporary shutdown.170 kilocalories. On the other hand. “forty trillion tons of deuterium can be extracted from the ocean as nuclear fuel” (Future Science and Technology Discovery. solar. not an explosion or meltdown. Compare that to coal‘s tiny energy output. “the energy contained in one gram of coal is about 30 kiloJoules” (New Mexico Solar Energy Association). the first thing that happens in a fusion power station is a power loss. and the making of a fusion power station does not use any rare materials. and safe.184=7. To give you a picture. 30 kJ / 4.extracted from the ground and from the ocean in huge amounts? Deuterium can be extracted from the oceans (the H in H2O is sometimes 2H). other methods often are not environmentally friendly in other aspects.

uk/ http://TheCanadianEncyclopedia.org.com/ (accessed through proxy) Columbia Encyclopedia (through http://www. It is the best way to generate electricity. It is our best solution for our electricity generation problems.clara.EFDA.co.com/ http://Clean-Energy-Ideas.net/darvill/ (Andy Darvill’s Science Site) http://www.net) . lack of fuel. danger.ITER.answers.princeton. and much more.com) Isaac Asimov’s Understanding Physics (accessed through www.ThinkQuest.org http://home.com/ http://AlternativeUse.pollution. poison.BBC. References: JET. movie “Fusion 2100” Future Science and Technology Discovery.edu/~chm333/ New Energy Times website www.jolomo.TechnologyStudent.com/ http://news. 81 Princeton University CHM333 database: http://www.org (ITER official website) Library.

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