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eFlashcards for Module I

Term 1 of 108 Feedforward control Manipulation of the final control element (valve position or setpoint of a lower-level flow controller) using a measure of a disturbance rather than the output of a feedback controller Term 2 of 108 Decoupling control Technique in which interacting control loops are automatically compensated when any one control loop takes a control action Term 3 of 108 Dynamic compensation Technique used in control to compensate for dynamic response differences to the different input streams to a process Term 4 of 108 Closed loop Combination of control units in which the process variable is measured and compared with the desired value or setpoint Term 5 of 108 Gas chromatography Separation technique that involves passing a gaseous moving phase through a column that contains a fixed adsorbent phase Term 6 of 108 Tuning Process of adjusting control constants in algorithms or analog controllers so as to produce the desired control effect Term 7 of 108 Control valve Power-actuated device that modifies the fluid flow rate in a process control system and is used to control properties such as upstream pressure, downstream pressure, flow rate, or liquid level Term 8 of 108 Controller Device or program that operates automatically to regulate a controlled variable

Term 9 of 108 Programmable automation controller Term for the combined functionality of PLCs and PCs Term 10 of 108 Programmable logic controller (PLC) Digitally operating electronic system, designed for use in an industrial environment, that uses a programmable memory for the internal storage of user-oriented instructions for implementing specific functions such as logic, sequencing, timing, counting, and arithmetic, to control, through digital or analog inputs and outputs, various types of machines or processes Term 11 of 108 ISA The International Society of Automation Term 12 of 108 Negative pressure Occurs when the pressure on the wet leg connected to the low side of the transmitter (when the take is in the lower level portion) is greater than the pressure on the high side Term 13 of 108 Position algorithm Algorithm for digitally executing PID control; the continuous control is discretized by replacing the integral term with a summation and the derivative term with a difference Term 14 of 108 Magnetic flowmeters Instruments that obtain the flow velocity by measuring the changes of induced voltage of the conductive fluid passing across a controlled magnetic field Term 15 of 108 Integral mode Mode in the PID algorithm that ensures that there will be no deviation between setpoint and controlled variable Term 16 of 108 Setpoint Input variable that sets the desired value of the controlled variable

Term 17 of 108 Positive displacement flowmeter Instrument that measures the volume or flow rate of a moving fluid or gas by dividing the media into fixed, metered volumes Term 18 of 108 Controller, direct acting Controller in which the value of the output signal increases as the value of the input (measured variable) increases Term 19 of 108 Response speed Length of time required for the measured value to rise to within a certain percentage of its final value as a result of a step change in the actual value Term 20 of 108 Analog To model a physical quantity, continuously variable from the lower range limit to the upper range limit Term 21 of 108 Span Difference between upper and lower range values Term 22 of 108 Ultrasonic flowmeter Instrument that sends sound waves through a flowing stream to measure (1) the Doppler shift as ultrasonic waves are bounced off particles in the flow stream or (2) the time differential of ultrasonic waves with the flow stream compared to the flow stream Term 23 of 108 Digital System in which only a number of states are allowed. In binary digital, only two states (0 and 1) are allowed. In the decimal system, only ten states (0 through 9) are allowed Term 24 of 108 Single board computer controller Printed circuit board that contains a complete computer, including processor, memory, I/O, and clock

Term 25 of 108 Loop diagram Schematic representation of a complete hydraulic, electric, magnetic, or pneumatic circuit Term 26 of 108 Derivative mode Mode in the PID algorithm that may be used for improved response of the control loop Term 27 of 108 Interactive PID algorithm Predominant PID form for analog controllers Term 28 of 108 Inferential measurement Methodology that allows process quality, or a difficult-to-measure process parameter, to be inferred from other easily made plant measurements such as pressure, flow, or temperature Term 29 of 108 Feedback control loop Components and processes that are involved in correcting or controlling a system by using part of the output as input Term 30 of 108 Span error How well the full scale output of an instrument matches a full span change in the actual variable, usually expressed as a percent of span Term 31 of 108 Coriolis flowmeter Instrument for measuring mass flow rate by determining the torque caused by radial acceleration of the fluid Term 32 of 108 Override control Technique in which more than one controller manipulates a final control element Term 33 of 108 Compound range Measurement of the amount pressure is above or below atmospheric pressure; includes positive and negative pressures

Term 34 of 108 Compact transmitters Devices that combine the sensor and communicating electronics in one package Term 35 of 108 Control in the field (CIF) Control loop resides across a fieldbus only, not within a controller Term 36 of 108 Globe valve Valve with a linear-motion closure member, one or more ports, and a body that is distinguished by a globular-shaped cavity around the port region Term 37 of 108 Logic diagram Diagram that is used to define on/off control Term 38 of 108 Tuning Process of adjusting control constants in algorithms or analog controllers so as to produce the desired control effect Term 39 of 108 Derivative mode Mode in the PID algorithm that may be used for improved response of the control loop Term 40 of 108 Derivative-on-error Option that permits the user to make the derivative mode sensitive only to changes in the controlled variable, not to the setpoint; also referred to as derivative-on-measurement Term 41 of 108 Cavitation Occurs in liquid flow when the fluid pressure drops below the liquid's vapor pressure and the vapor pressure is below the outlet pressure Term 42 of 108 Controller, reverse acting Controller in which the value of the output signal decreases as the value of the input (measured variable) increases

Term 43 of 108 Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) Generic name for a computerized system that is capable of gathering and processing data and applying operational controls over long distances. Typical uses include power transmission and distribution and pipeline systems Term 44 of 108 Time-proportioning Form of control in which the PID controller output consists of a series of periodic pulses whose duration is varied to relate to the normal continuous output Term 45 of 108 Ideal PID algorithm Most common form of the PID algorithm Term 46 of 108 Rotating paddle wheel Device for detecting the presence or absence of bulk solids Term 47 of 108 Consensus standards Recommended practices, standards, and other documents developed by professional societies and industry organizations Term 48 of 108 Acceptable analyzer sample Sample that is representative of the process stream and compatible with the analyzer's sample introduction requirements Term 49 of 108 Controller, direct acting Controller in which the value of the output signal increases as the value of the input (measured variable) increases Term 50 of 108 Compact transmitters Devices that combine the sensor and communicating electronics in one package

Term 51 of 108 Zero error Output of an instrument for a measurement that is at the low end of the span, usually expressed as a percent of span Term 52 of 108 Response speed Length of time required for the measured value to rise to within a certain percentage of its final value as a result of a step change in the actual value Term 53 of 108 Accuracy Ratio of the error to the full-scale output, generally expressed as a percentage of span Term 54 of 108 Ultrasonic flowmeter Instrument that sends sound waves through a flowing stream to measure (1) the Doppler shift as ultrasonic waves are bounced off particles in the flow stream or (2) the time differential of ultrasonic waves with the flow stream compared to the flow stream Term 55 of 108 Digital System in which only a number of states are allowed In binary digital, only two states (0 and 1) are allowed In the decimal system, only ten states (0 through 9) are allowed Term 56 of 108 Quarter-amplitude Process-control tuning criterion in which the amplitude of the deviation (error) of the controlled variable, following a disturbance, is cyclic; also known as the quarter decay ratio Term 57 of 108 Rotary valve Valve for the admission or exhaust of working fluid, where the valve is a ported piston or disk that turns on its axis Term 58 of 108 Thermocouple Device that is used to measure temperature via the contact between two dissimilar metallic electrical conductors

Term 59 of 108 Specification form Data sheet that is filled out for each tag-marked device Term 60 of 108 Compound range Measurement of the amount pressure is above or below atmospheric pressure; includes positive and negative pressures Term 61 of 108 Span error How well the full scale output of an instrument matches a full span change in the actual variable, usually expressed as a percent of span Term 62 of 108 Reynolds number Ratio of inertial forces (vs) to viscous forces (/L); used for determining whether a flow will be laminar or turbulent Term 63 of 108 Regulator Controller in which all the energy to operate the final controlling element is derived from the controlled system; also known as a self-actuating controller Term 64 of 108 Hybrid controller Architecture that blends benefits of both PLCs and DCSs Term 65 of 108 Ziegler-Nichols method Method for determining optimum controller settings when tuning a process control loop; referred to as the "ultimate cycle method" Term 66 of 108 Operating instructions Procedures for the operation of a plant Term 67 of 108 Programmable automation controller Term for the combined functionality of PLCs and PCs

Term 68 of 108 Position algorithm Algorithm for digitally executing PID control; the continuous control is discretized by replacing the integral term with a summation and the derivative term with a difference Term 69 of 108 Analog To model a physical quantity, continuously variable from the lower range limit to the upper range limit Term 70 of 108 Process analytical instruments Special class of sensors that enable the control engineer to control and/or monitor process and product characteristics Term 71 of 108 Decoupling control Technique in which interacting control loops are automatically compensated when any one control loop takes a control action Term 72 of 108 Bubbler Simple and inexpensive level measurement system for corrosive or slurry-type applications Term 73 of 108 Override control Technique in which more than one controller manipulates a final control element Term 74 of 108 Gauge Measurement of the amount that pressure is above atmospheric pressure; includes positive pressures only Term 75 of 108 Temporary relocatable process analyzer (TURPA) Tool that is used to help identify desirable sample points and control strategies Term 76 of 108 Loop diagram Schematic representation of a complete hydraulic, electric, magnetic, or pneumatic circuit

Term 77 of 108 Cage-guided Valve plug fitted to the inside diameter of the cage to align the plug with the seat Term 78 of 108 Control valve Power-actuated device that modifies the fluid flow rate in a process control system and is used to control properties such as upstream pressure, downstream pressure, flow rate, or liquid level Term 79 of 108 Primary controller Refers to the feedback controller in the outer loop whose output sets the setpoint for the inner loop controller Term 80 of 108 Differential pressure transmitter Instrument that determines the level of a liquid by measuring the pressure or head at some point in the tank below the zero level Term 81 of 108 Dynamic compensation Technique used in control to compensate for dynamic response differences to the different input streams to a process Term 82 of 108 Repeatability How well an instrument gives the same output for the same input when the input is applied in the same way over a short time period Term 83 of 108 Butterfly valve Valve with a circular body and a rotary motion disk closure member, pivotally supported by its stem Term 84 of 108 Feedback control principle Theory that states that if a controlled variable deviates from its desired value or setpoint, corrective action will move a manipulated variable in a direction that causes the controlled variable to return to setpoint

Term 85 of 108 Positioner Device that measures a valve's stem/shaft position, comparing it to a signal Term 86 of 108 Integral mode Mode in the PID algorithm that ensures that there will be no deviation between setpoint and controlled variable Term 87 of 108 Post-guiding Design in which a guide bushing or bushings are fitted into the body, bonnet, and/or bottom flange so as to guide a plug's post Term 88 of 108 Sample conditioning Taking the sample that a process provides and conditioning and modifying it in ways that allow the analyzer to accept it Term 89 of 108 Trial and error tuning Loop tuning technique in which an unsatisfactory loop closed-loop behavior is observed and an estimate is made as to which parameter(s) should be changed and by how much Term 90 of 108 Interactive PID algorithm Predominant PID form for analog controllers Term 91 of 108 Feedback control loop Components and processes that are involved in correcting or controlling a system by using part of the output as input Term 92 of 108 Location plan Diagram that shows the approximate location and elevation of tag-marked devices on a P&ID; also referred to as an instrument location drawing Term 93 of 108 Turbine meter Type of meter in which a turbine wheel or rotor is made to rotate by flowing gas; rate or speed at which the turbine wheel revolves is a measure of the velocity of the gas

Term 94 of 108 External reset Eliminates the need for reset on PID algorithms Term 95 of 108 Single board computer controller Printed circuit board that contains a complete computer, including processor, memory, I/O, and clock Term 96 of 108 Scaling Process where the analog signal quantity represents a physical quantity. For example, a 1 V to 5 V signal can represent 0% to 100% of a particular quantity, or a + 10 V signal can represent position and velocity and/or direction of travel Term 97 of 108 Parallel PID algorithm PID algorithm that uses independent gains on each mode Term 98 of 108 Controller Device or program that operates automatically to regulate a controlled variable Term 99 of 108 Proportional mode Mode in the PID algorithm that is responsible for most of the correction Term 100 of 108 Ratio controller Controller that maintains a predetermined ratio between two or more variables or that maintains the magnitude of a controlled variable at a fixed ratio to another variable Term 101 of 108 Open loop System in which no comparison is made between the actual value and the desired value of a process variable Term 102 of 108 Positive displacement flowmeter Instrument that measures the volume or flow rate of a moving fluid or gas by dividing the media into fixed, metered volumes

Term 103 of 108 Vortex shedding flowmeter Instrument that measures the frequency of vortices shed from a blunt obstruction, called a bluff body, placed in a pipe Term 104 of 108 Displacer Vertical body that is heavier than the fluid being measured Term 105 of 108 Turndown ratio Ratio of maximum to minimum measurable value Term 106 of 108 Proportional controller Controller that produces proportional control action only Term 107 of 108 Closed loop Combination of control units in which the process variable is measured and compared with the desired value or setpoint Term 108 of 108 Gas chromatography Separation technique that involves passing a gaseous moving phase through a column that contains a fixed adsorbent phase