You are on page 1of 24

-

UNIT 2 INFLUENCE LINES FOR STATICALLY DETERMINATE TRUSSES


Structure
2.1 Introduction
Objectives

2.2 Influence L i e s for Panelled Beams


- 2.2.1 Floor System
2.2.2 Influence Lines

2.3 Influence Lines for Statically Determinate Trusses


2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.3.5 Types of Truss Static Determinacy of Trusses General Principles Influence Lines for Pratt Truss Influence Llnes for Truss with Top Chord not Parallel to Bottom Chord

2.4 Maximum Force in Truss Members


2.4:l Due t o Umformly Distributed Load and a Concentrated Load 2.4.2 Due to Uniformly Distributed Self Load and Rolling Load

2.5 Influence Tables 2.6 Summary

2.7 Key Words


2.8 Answers to S AQs

2.1 INTRODUCTION

You are now aware that in actual practice, we have to deal with both fixdd loads and loads which are moving or rolling with positions that are liable to change. The common types of rolling loads are the axle loads of moving trucks or vehicles, wheel loads of railway trak and wheel loads of moving cranes on gantry girder etc. In TJnit 1, you have learnt how to obtain influence lines for internal/external actions in the case of statically determinate beams of different types; and under various cases of rolling loads. In this unit, we will proceed further and apply those principles to obtain influence lines for panelled beams, which will lead us to obtain influence lines for statically determinate trusses. We will understand the concepts by solving and discussing various numerical problems.

Objectives
After studying this unit, you should be able to draw influence lines fdr panelled beams or floor system supported by girders, develop influence lines for different types of statically determinate trusses, find maximum force in a truss member under moving load(s), and make use of influence tables.

2.2 INFLUENCE LINES FOR PANELLED BEAMS


2.2.1 Floor System
In the panelled beams floor system, roof slab transmits the load to the cross beams through stringers and through these cross beams the load is transmitted to the main girders. Therefore, whether the loads applied to cross beams are uniformly distributed load or concentrated loads, their effect on the girder is in the form of concentrated loads at points where cross beams rest on girders. These points-are referred to as panel points and are shown in Figure 2.1.

Rolling Loads d Innoeare Lints

/r

Panol points / Girder

a rmin worn

Figure 2 . 1 :Floor System

2.2.2 Influence Lines


In case of panelled beam, since the load is transmitted through the panel points therefore the influence lines for shear force and moment which are obtained for a simple beam need to b&modified.We will explain the procedure by considering an exaqple. Example 2.1 Consider a panelled beam AG shown in Figure 2.2 having 7 panel points, equally spaced at intervals of 2 m. To illustrate the procedure let us set the following objectives : (a) To detennine influence lines (ILs) for shear force in panel DE
(b) To determine influence lines for moment at panel point D

(c) To determine influence lines for moment at 7 m from A, i.e. midway between the panel DE. Solution (a) To Determine Shear Force in Panel DE A point to note is that since live loads can be applied to the girder only by floor beams which are located at panel points A, B, . . ., G therefore, the shear has the same value at any section within a given panel.
(i) Consider unit load at A, RA = 1 and RG = 0,also the floor beam reactions to

the right orthe panel DE are also zero. Therefore, by computing the ,shear in the panel DE from the forces acting to the right of the panel the shear equals zero. (ii) Consider unit load at B, RG = 116, hence, the shear at B = (-) 116. When unit load at C, RG = 216 = 113, therefore, shear force at C = (-) 113. When unit load is at D, RG = 316 = 112, therefore, SF at D = (-) 112 as shown in Figure 2.2 (b), It can be seen that as unit load travels from one point to other, the influence line is a straight line for the panel under consideration. So we have obtained the IL from A to D. (iii) Consider unit load located between panel DE [Figure 2.2 (c)]. Let the load be at distance x from A, Thus, 6 m 5 x I 8 m n panel is dependent When a unit load is located between DE, the shear i on the ratio of joists load at D and E. Shear in panel, VDE = RA - Reaction at panel point D.
RA can be determined by taking moments about G.

RD can be determined in panel DE by isolating panel DE [Figure 2.2 (c)] and taking moments about C. RDx2 = 1~ ( 8 - X )

Muence Lines for


Statically Determinate

Trusses

This shows linear variation.

If we substitule x = 6, we get VDE = (-) 0.5 which matches with the value obtained earlier. For x = 8, VDE = + 0.33
C

Also by putting Eq. (2.1) equal to zero, we get x = 7.2 m, i.e. shear in panel DE is zero at x = 7.2 m from A. (iv) The IL for the remaining portion i.e., from E to G is similar to that of a simple beam. 'The complete IL is shown in Figure 2.2 (b).

(a) Panelled

Beam

(b) ILD for Shear


in Panel DE

(c) Unit Load over Panel DE

(d) ILD for BM at D

(e) ILD for BM at

f DE Midpoint o

figure 2 2 :Panelled Beam

(b) To Determine ZLfor Moment a%anel Point D [Rgure 2.2 (d)] \ (i) When the unit load is between ? and D, the moment at D is equal to (RG x distance of panel point D t o m G).

This being a linear equation, its value at A, i.e. x = 0 is zero and linearly 6 increases; at D, MD = -x 6 = 3.0 12 (ii) When the unit load is to the right of D, the moment at D varies with variation of RA and is equal to 12-x MD = RA x distance D from A = l " ix)X6 = x 6 = - - 12-x 2

1 1

This being a linear equation indicates the value of moment at D, 12- 12 MD = 3.0, when x = 6 and decreases to G, MD = ----x 6 = 0 12
1

(c)

T o Determine ZL for Moment at Mid-point of Panel DE, i.e. 7 m from A and 5 mfrom B (MP) In this case, the approach to obtain IL will be similar to that in Case (b) above, but IL diagram will differ in the panel DE.

(i) From first principles, we can write the equation for the moment when the unit load+ to the left of D. IL will vary similar to reaction RG and therefore, IL for moment
Mp = RG x 5 = - x 5 which is a straight line. L
X

Atx=O, Mp=O; and

which is the value of Mp when load is at D. (ii) Similarly, when load is to the right of E, the expression will be

On putting, x = 8 m, we have

which is the value of Mp when load is at E. It reduces uniformly to zero when load is at G, i.e. at x = 12,

(iii) When load is within DE,

which is a straight line.


36-6 - 2.5 Checking at x = 6 m, we get, Mp = 11

Therefore, the IL for moment Mp will be as shown in Figure 2.2 (e). Now, the influence lines for shear oi moment for any other panel can be constructed employing the above concepts. You are advised to carefully study the above principles as these will be made use of to obtain influence lines for trusses in subsequent sections.

SAQ I
la)

How 1s a panrlleti hcant d~fierent from a 5implc bearn

'"

(b) Resolve Exaniple 2.1 by a.;sumiog the le!igth of each pnncl tcr Sr

' !?I

2.3 INFLUENCE LINES FOR STATICALLY DETERMINATE TRUSSES


2.3.1 Types of Truss
A t r u ~ is s an articulated structure consisting of straight members, so arranged and comeqted that they primarily transmit axial forces. The joints between two members are assumdfl to be smooth (frictionless) hinges, that do not transmit any moments. If the membe? of a truss all lie in one plane it is called plane truss and a three dimensional truss is called a space truss. In this unit we will be dealing with plane trusses only. Plane Truss

The basic form of a plane truss is a triangle formed by joining together three members at their ends resulting in a rigid structure. When you add another two members connected to two of the joints, it results into another stable triangle. This way a whole structure can be built up. Each of the trusses shown in Figure 2.3 has been formed by starting with the base triangle abc and then adding two bars to two of the joints already formed. Such trusses are called simple trusses.

Figure 23 :Simple Tmssw

Trusses are commonly used in roofs of buildings for different purposes like garages, work shops, auditoriums, warehouses, living quarters, offices etc. In some of these uses, false ceillng is provided to present a smooth and flat ceiling to the occupant. Another area of common use of trusses is for building bridges which can be seen often in case of railway and highway bridges and also temporary military bridges.

2 . 3 . 2 Static Determinacy of Trusses


A plane truss, conceptually, can be bought of as a structural system with j nurnbe; of joints lying in one plane. The forces acting on the joints are the member forces, external loads and reactions. Since the structure and all joints are in equilibrium, so the following two equations of equilibrium must be fulfilled for each joint.

~ O B b ~ g i L ~PDd ads Inn@ende Lines

Therefore, for the entire truss having j number of joints, we can write 2j number of equations. The unknowns are the member forces (m) and the reactions (r). The relationship between j, m and r determines the determinacy of the truss : (a) When 2j < (m + r) This means there are more unknown than the number of equilibrium equations available. Such a truss is statically indeterminate and will not be considered in this unit.
(b) When 2j = (m+ r)

This truss is statically determinate and the unknowns can be obtained from the equilibrium equations. We will be constructing influence lines for these types of statically determinate trusses. A few examples are shown in Figure 2.4. (c) When 2j > (m + r) Here the unknowns are less than the number of equilibrium equations. Such trusses are unstable. The methods ~f analysis of statically determinate plane trusses for static loads are given in Umt 1 of "Strength of Materials" and Unit 10 of "Engineering Mechanics" which must be revised before proceeding further.

Figure 2.4 :StnMe and Statically Detednate Simple Trusses

2.3.3 General Principles


Influence lines can be constructed for the forces in the truss members based on the principles and procedures evolved for the simple beams (Unit 1) and the panelled beams This is significant in determining the location of live loads which will cause maximum memher forces in truss members as well as the magnitude of these maximum forces.

2.3.4 Influence Lines for Pratt Truss


We will now take up the construction of influence lines for a truss by considering a pratt tmss shown in Figure 2.5.
Example 2.2

Develop influence lines for forces in members L2L3, UzL2 and U2L3 of the pram truss shown in Figure 2.5 (a). Consider the unit load to be moving along the lower chord of the truss

w6.

Solution

(a) Influence Line fdr Force in Member L2L3.


(i) Consider tree body diagram shown in Figure 2.5 (b) by cutting a Sectlon A-A. Consider unit load to the left of A-A.

Take moments about U2 of all forces acting on right side of Section A-A
F b k X 4 = Rh x 12

I d u e m e L~DW for
Statically Determinate

Trusses

,'.

Fh, =
(Tension)

RL6x 12 . , 4

..
*

x x~ 12 x where Rk = X FbLZ = 4 18 =6 18

Thus. tension in L2L3 is directly proportional to R L ~Since . RL6varies

therefore the influence line is a linearly as unit load moves from to L2; straight 1ine.from zero at (x = 0) to 1 at L2 (X = 6).
(ii) Now consider unit load to the right of Section line A-A. Take moments of all forces on left of Section A-A about U2.

F,,

;I?[

Fkhx4

= Rkx6
L-x - 18-x -L 18

where Rb =

(b) S d o n at AA

(c) Sectloo at BB

(d) ILQ for F o m la L &


(e)

ILD for Force la U2L2

(0 ILD for F o m in UzL3

18-x

18-x (Tension) 12

This is a linear variation with value = i at x = 6, i.e. at and equal to zero at I ! + , , i.e. x = 18. The complete Influence Line Diagram (ILD) for the force in member & is shown in Figure 2.5 (d).

~ells~owlrul IdkmCeUro

(b) Z&?rence Line for Force in hiember U &

(i) Consider the free body diagram obtained in Section B-B. C o n s i d e r unit load between Lo and L2 and free body to the right of the Section B-B. From the statical equation V = 0,we have

FU2& = RL, = 18 Influence line for left portion shows tension, varying from zero at LQ to +1/3 at h.
(ii) Now consider unit load between L3 and Lg and free body to the left of

Section B-B; again considering the vertical equilibrium of forces in this section. F L ~= u~
= (-)

18-x 7 (compression)

1 Influence line for right of Section B-B indicates value of - 5at b (x = 9) and the value is zero at Lg (X= 18). (iii) When the unit load is between LQ and b

As in the case of panelled beams so in the case of trusses also the loads can be transmitted through the joints LQ and L3 only. Hence, the IL Diagram for force in member U2LQ will be a straight line joining the ordinates at & and Lj.As these are of opposite signs, the influence line diagram (ILD) will cross the axis at a point 0,whose position can be determined by similar triangles.

It gives

OLQ = 1.2m

The complete Influence Line Diagram for force in member U2LQ is shown in Figure 2.5 (e). (c) Influence Line for Force in Member U2Lj
(i) When load is between Lo and L;? consider free body on right of Section

A-A. Considering vertical equilibrium : Fbu2 x sin 8 = (-) RL, = (-) 18'
.'A.

Fl&

= (-)

5 "SeC

8 (compression)

IL has value of zero at Lo and is (-)

1 cosec 8 at LQ which means it is 3

similar to IL for member U2L2 multiplied by cosec 8 and of opposite sign. (ii) ,When load is between Lj and Lg,consider free body to the left of A-A. Resolving the forces vertically :

: .

Fu24 =

18-x 1 8cosec 8

1 . IL varies from 0 at Lg,i.e. x = 18 to - cosec 8 at L 3 (x = 9) and is tensile. 2

1 The values between L2 and & varies linearly from - - cosec 8 to 3 1 5 5 5 +cosec 8.As cosec 8 = -, this value ranges from- -to -,and the 2 4 12 8' distance k0 = 1.2 m. The complete influence line diagram for force in member U2L3 is shown in Figure 2.5 (0. Thus, we have constructed ILDs for three members, namely L2L3,U2L2and U2L3. ILDs for other members of the truss can be constructed in a similar way.

Idltmm Liws for


S b t i d y Determinate Trusses

SAQ 2 . (a) What is Statical Determinacy ? State the tl~ree cases of determinacy.
(b) For the pratt truss given in Example 2.2, draw intlueilce lines lor remaining members. (Due to symmetry only half the number of rnembcrs are to hc considered.)

2.3.5 Influence Lines for Truss with Top Chord not Parallel to Bottom Chord
We can develop the influence lines for e s s e s in which their top chord is riot parallel to the bottom chord with the help of following illustrative example :
Example 2.3

Consider the truss shown in Figure 2.6 (a) which has a span of 20 m and a maximum rise of 4 m at the centre of the truss. Draw the intluence lines diagram . for forces in the members BC, CF and FG. The load moves along the bottom chord of the truss. Solution Influence Line for Force in Member BC Let us first cut Section 1-1 such that it passes thfough BC and divides the truss into two parts. Now, consider the equilibrium of the free body on the left side [Figure 2.6 (b)]. Take moments of all the forces about F in following two situations : When the unit logd is to the right of F,

When the unit load is to the left of F,

MF In either case, we have, FBC = -where MF is the bending moment at F for a 3 simply supported beam AE.
Therefore, the IL for force in member BC can be obtained by first cwnstructing the IL for moment at F, i.e. MF and then dividing its ordinates by 3. The IL for BC thus, obtained is shown in Figure 2.6 (c). Influence Line for Force in Member CF Since the top chord is inclined, we extend members BC and FG and see that they meet at 0, which is 10 m from support A. Now, extend member CF and drop a perpendicular from 0 on extended CF which meets it at P.
,

where, sin 0 = - =

HD HC

-=5.83

'3

Rdliag L 4 saa Intlueace Lines

(i) Consider unit load between A and B. Taking moments of all forces on the right of the Section 1-1 about 0,we can write

" +

FCF =

30 1 0 . 2 9x RE = (-) 2.92 RE (compression)

Therefore, IL for force in CF can be indirectly constructed by constructing ILD for RE first and then multiplying all its ordinates by 2.92.

m.lus,

IL for RE =

X L

where L = span = 20 m For x = 0, i.e. at A its ordinate = 0, and


5 1 Atx = 5 m, i.e. at B, its ordinate = - - 20 4

1 Ordinate for IL for CF at B = (-) 2.92 x - = (-) 0.73 (compresion)


4

A A

(c) (c) .,

1I

1I

ILD for Force in BC

--Figure 2 6

(d) ILD for

F-

b CF

(ii) Next considering the unit load between C and E, i.e. to right of section C. Taking moments of all forces to left of Section 1-1 about the p i n t 0,

So for the portion CE, the IL Diagram of F C can ~ be obtained from the IL Diagram of RA after multiplying its ordinates by 0.97.

Equation of ILD of RA is : RA =

L - x - 20-x L 20
20

11 Stati

nee Linea Detennir Tru

20-x Equation of ILD of F C is ~ : FcF = 0.97 x ----- = 0.0486 (20 - x)

This gives,

FC= ~ 0 for .r = 20 (unit load at E), and F c ~ = 0.486 for x = 10 (unit load at C).
(iii) The unit load lying between B and C or the
BC

As in a panelled beam so here also the ldads are transmitted only through the joints B and C. Hence, the IL diagram for FCFin the portion BC will be a straight line joining the negative brdinate of - 0.73 at B to the positive ordinate of 0.486 at C as shown in Figure 2.6 (d). This meets the axis at Q where BQ = 3m and CQ = 2 m as obtained from the solution of the similar triangles. The complete influence lines diagram for force in member CF is shown in Figure 2.6 (d). Influence Line for Force in Member FG In order to obtain this, let us see the equilibrium of free body diagram to the left of Section 1-1. Taking moments about C,
FFG x CR = MC (i.e. bending moment at C)

In triangle OFB;

Therefore, we get,-a = 11.31' CR which is perpendicular to FG drawn from C is given by,

Therefore, in this case also, the IL for force in member FG can be obtained hy first constructing the IL for bending moment at C and then dividing all its ordinates by 3.92. The final influence line diagram for FG is drawn in Figure 2.6 (e).

2.4 MAXIMUM FORCE IN TRUSS MEMBERS


As explained in Unit 1 of this Block the influence line diagrams are used for finding out that particular combination or position of moving loads (concentrated or uniformly distributed) which produces the extreme effects on a static quantity. In the case of pin-jointed trusses, the most common static quantity is the "force" in a particular member of the truss. In rare cases, it may be the "reaction" at a particular support or the "deflection" of a particular joint. Here, we will deal with those cases where maximum forces in a particular member is sought. As given in Section 1.5 of Unit 1 , we may have the following cases of load systems : (a) single concentrated load crossing a span, (b) series of concentrated loads crossing a span, (c) uniformly distributed moving load - longer than the span, and (d) uniformly distributed moving load - shorter than the span.

RoMng Loads and Id-Liats

The main principles of analysis of all these cases are fhe same as explained in the unit on ILD of beams (Unit 1). Their.applications in the case of trusses are shown through the following examples.

2.4.1 Due to Uniformly Distributed Load and a Concentrated Load


Example 2.4 In the truss given in Figure 2.5 (a) of Example 2.2, find the maximum forces (compressing or tensile) in the member & , L and U2ZQ due to the following loads moving along the bottom chord : (a) a uniformly distributed load (longer than the span) of 2 W m and a single concentrated load of 15 kN. (b) a uniformly distributed load of 20 kN/mand 2 m long. (c) a train of wheels as shown below crossing the span from left to right.

Solution A ' ~ n i f o r mDistributed l~ Load (Longer than the Span) of 2 kN/m and a Single Concentrated Load of 15 kN. (i) For member ZQL, as the ILD is tensile throughout, the whole span has to be covered by the uniformly distributed load for maximum tension and the concentrated load will be placed at the maximum ordinate, i.e. at point [Figure 2.7 (b)]. This will give FkL3 (max) = q x (area of ILD) + P x (maximum ordinate)

+ 33 I

d (tensile)

(ii) For member U2L2as the ILD at Figure 2.5 (b) have both compressive and X 1A tensile zones, to find the position of zero ordinate; -- - giving

3 - x - in x = 1.2 m. For maximum tension, the uniformly distributed load covers the span LQO and the concentrated load is at [Figure 2.7 (c)].

This will give, ( F

~ (tensile) ~ ~ ,= 2)x ~x -~ x 7.2


= 7.4 kN (tensile)

6:

)+ ( i)
15 x

For maximum compression,the uniformly distributed load covers the span O& and the concentrated load is at & [Figure 2.7 (d)]. This will give, ( F ~ (compression) ~ ~ )=~ 2 x~- x - x 10.8 - 15 x -

(:

: ) ( ;)

A Uniformly Distributed Load of 20 kN/m and 2 m Long (i) For maximum force in member L2L3 the position of the 2 m load is shown c SL SR in Figure 2.7 (e) such that YL = y ~= ,Ymax - SL + SR [See Eq. (1.7)].

Iduence Lines for Statically Determinate Trusses

(b) Max. Tensile Force in L&3 Case (a)

(c) Max. Tensile Force in U&2 Case (a)

(d) Max. Comp. Force in U&2 Case (a)

(e) Max. Tensile Force in L&3 Case (b)

(g) Max. Comp. Force in U&2 Case (b)

I (h) Max. Tensile Force


In L&3 Case (c)

0.222

(1) Max. Tensile Force in U&2 Case (c)

Rolling Loads osd lonuence L i w s

(tensile) (ii) For maximum force in member U2Lz there will be different positions of the 2 m load, i.e. (a) for maximum tension, and (b) for maximum compression.

(max) =

yff +ymax

xcxq =

x 20 x 2 = 3 7 . 7 8 kN

For Maximum Tension [Figure 2.7 (f)]

F u 2 k (max) = 0'241 2 0'333 x 20 x 2 = 1 1 . 4 8 1 kN (tension)


+

For Muximum Compression [Figure 2.7 (g)] 1 C = 2, SL=-1 1 y m a x = -5, , SR=3.6 18

FU2& (max) =

- Oe407 2

x 20 x 2 = - 1 8 . 1 4 8 kN (compression)

.A T h i n of Wheels Crossing the Spanfrom Left to Right (i) Consider the two possible positions of the loads systems for maximum farce in member b L 3 [Figure 2.7 (h)]. Placing the heaviest load of 200 kN a&y,, 1.0, we have for the first position,

Fk4

= (100 x 0.5)

+ (200 x 1.O) + (50 X 0.833)

291.67 kN

and for the second position F ~ L= , (50 x 0.667) + (200 x 1.0) + (100 x 0.75) = 308.33 kN Hence, FLQL,(max) = -308.33 kN (tension) (ii) For the maximum force in the member U24! the load positions are shown in Figure 2.7 (i) and (j). The ordinate c~lculations can be verified. For Mavimum Tensile Force [Figure 2.7 (i)]

Fm, = - x 100

For Maximum Compression Force [Figure 2:7 (j)]

(i

1k 1
+ - x 200

- (0.222 x

50) = 7 2 . 2 2 kN (tension)

2.4.2 Due to Uniformly Distributed Self Load and Rolling Load


Let us consider another example to further illustrate the procedure for determining maximum forces in different members.

Example 2.5 Consider the truss shown in Figure 2.8 (a) wherein the maximum forces in members CE and DE are to be obtained due to a self load of 20 kN/m covering the entire span and a live rolling load of 30 kN/m which is longer than the span passing over lower chord of the truss.

(b) Section through XX

(c) ILD f o r Force I n CE

b0

,E

,G

(d) ILD for Force In DE

1e.m m.
Solution

,-=

Influence L i n e Diagram for Force in Member CE Tmng a Section X- X through the members DF, DE, CE of the truss as shown in Figure 2.8 (b), we consider following three cases : Case I :When the Load is between A and C
'

Consider the free body diagram for the right hand side of the Section X-X. Taking moments of all forces about point D, we get,

But the equation of ILD for RK with reference to origin at A is as follows :

Hence, ILD for FcE will be FcE = 4.041 x -= 0.1616 x. This gives FCE= 0 25 when x = 0 (load at A), and FCE= 0.808 when x = 5 m (load at C).

Rolling Loads a d Influeace Lines

Case I1 : When the Load is between E and K

We consider the free-body diagram of the left hand side of Section X-X, and again taking moments of all forces about D, we get,

FcE x h = RA x 7.5 giving

= 1.732 RA 5 sin 6 0 L-x - 25-x We know that ILD for RA has the equation RA = L - 25 =

RA x 7.5

RA x 7.5

When the load is at E (x = lo), we get, FCE = 1.039, and when load is at K (x = O), we get, FCE= 0.
Case I11 : When the Load is in the Region CE

According to the principle of panelled sections, the ordinates at C and E for the ILD has to be joined by a straight line shown in Figure 2.8 (c).

Influence Line Diagram of Force in Member DE This is obtained by the same process as above but only under the co&ditionsof equilibrium of vertical forces along the cut sectian of the truss, i.e. V = 0)

(x

giving FDEsin 60 = RA or RK as the case may be. This is shown in Figure 2.8 (d). At the point C, the ordinate of the ILD is 0.2 cosec 60' = 0.231. At the point E, the ordinate is - 0.6 cosec 60' = - 0.693. This changes sign between C and E and has zero value at 0 where CO = 1.25 m, OE = 3.75 m.

Maximum Force in Member CE under the given Loading From the inspection of ILD for member CE [Figure 2.8 (c)], it can be concluded that while self load is already spread over the entire span, the rolling load should also cover the entire span to obtain maximum tensile force in CE. FCh, = (20 + 30) x (Area of entire ILD from A to K)
,

721.5 kN (tension)

Maximum Force in Member DE under the given Loading From the inspection of ILD for DE [Figure 2.8 (d)], it can be observed that while the self load is distributed over the entire span, the rolling load should cover the full stretch of 18.75 m starting from 0 where the IL is zero to the right hand support K. FDFmax= 20 x (Area of entire ILD from A to K) + 30 x (Area of ILD from 0 to K)

SAQ 3
(a)

Draw the 1LD for the forces in members HC and BC of the truss shown in Figure 2.9 (a). The load moves along the bottom chord of the truss. (i) Compute the maximum value of these forces due to a long uniform moving load of 10 kN/m and a. concentrated moving load of 60 kN. (ii) Compute the maximum value of these forces due to a 1 m long uniform moving load of 20 kN/m.

(iii) Compute the maximum value of these forces due to a truck shown in Figure 2.9 (b) travelling from right ot Ieft.

Figure 2 . 9

(h) Draw the IL diagram for the forces in members HJ and JC of thc truss shown in Figure 2.10 (a). The load moves along the bottom chord of the truss.
(i) Compute the maximum value of these forces due to a long unifonn moving

load of 10 kN/m and a concentrated moving load of 60 kN.


(ii) Compute the maximum value of these forces due to a 1 m long uniform

moving load of 20 kN/m. (iii) Compute the maximum value of these forces due to a truck shown in Figure 2.10 (b) travelling from right to left.

figure 210

SAQ 4
(a) Draw the ILD for the forces in members JK, JD and JC of the truss shown in Figure 2.1 1 (a). The load moves along the hottom chord of the truss. (i) Compute the maximum value of these forces due to a long uniform moving load of 10 kN/m and a concentrated moving load of 60 kN.
(ii) Compute the maximum value of these forces due to a 1 m long uniform

moving load of 20 kN/m. (iii) Compute the maximum value of these forces due to a truck shown in Figure 2.1 1 (b) travelling from right to left.

Rdling Loads 4 I ~ c Lines e

Figure 2.1 1

( h ) How principles of analysis of trusses are different from those of beams ?

2.5 INFLUENCE TABLES


In order to determine maximum forces in members, it is more systematic and convenient to express influence lime data in the form of influence tables rather than in the shape of a figure.
I

The influence table given in Table 2.1 refers to the Pratt Truss example (Example 2.2) considered in Section 2.3.4 (Figure 2.5).
Table 2.1 :Influence Table for Pratt Truss of Figure 2.5
Member Force due to Unit Load at Panel Point
Member

Lo L1 Lab L1L2 L2L3 0 0 0 0


-

L2

L3 L4 Ls L6 1-

+ 0.625 + 0.625 + 0.500

+ 0.500
0.500

+ 0.375
+ 0.375

+ 0.250 + 0.250 + 0.500

+ 0.125 + 0.125
+ 0.250

0 0 0 0 0

+ 1.000
- 0.833
p~

+ 0.750
- 0.625
-

bul
u1u2

- 1.041 - 0.500

- 0.417- - 0.208
p

- 1.000

- 0.750

- 0.500
p

- 0.250
- 0.375

u2u3 0 - 0.375 - 0.750 -

- 1.1 25
+ 0.625
0

- 0.750
+ 0.417 + 0.417
0

u1Lz
u & 3

0 0 0

- 0.208 - 0.208
'

+ 0.833

+ 0.208

- 0.417
0

+ 0.208
0 0 0

UlLl

+ 1 .ow

- 0.333 -0.500 0 + 0.167 + 0.333 U&Z U3L3 0 0 0


0

- 0.167
0

The forces in member L2L3, U2L2and U2L3have been worked out from the example (Example 2.2) solved in Section 2.3.4. The forces for other members can be similarly worked out. In order to utilise the Influence Table for workirlg out maximum member forces by approximate method, it is appropriate to prepare another table, which is nothing but a summary of Table 2.1. This summary table is given in Table 2.2.

Table 2.2 :Summary of Influence Table for Truss o f Figure 2.5

lollueoce L i for Statically Determinate Trusses

lllustration Let us demonstrate the use of the Influence Tables by considering member U2L3 of truss shown in Figure 2.5. Here, we have,

Dead Load = 200 N per metre, Uniform live load = 1000 N per metre, and Concentrated live load = 1000 N. Table 2.3 :Member U2L3
-

Maximum Tension (N)


Dead Load Live load : Uriiform , Concentrated Total ?dead + live) member force
2000 x 3 x 0.625 =

Maximum Compression (N)

+ 3750 +

+ 3750
looO x 3 (-0.625) = - 1880 1000 x (- 0.417) = -'417

1 0 ~3 ) (+ ~ 1.250) = +3750 1000 x (+ 1.250) = 625


,

+8125

+ 453

So, it can be seen that in this case, there is no stress reversal. Draw the influence line diagram for the forces in the members CD, PC, PK and KD of the truss shown in Figure 2.12 (a). The load is moving on a floor system restins on the bottom chord of the truss. Find the maximum value of the axial force in the members due to the following moving load systems : (a) A long uniform moving load of '10 kN/m and a concentrated moving load of 60 kN. (b) A 1 m long moving uniform load of 20 kN/m.
I

(c) A truck travelling from right to left, the wheel loads of which are shown in Figure 2.12 (b).

Rolliog Lmds and Influence Lines

SAQ 6
Figure 2.13 (a) shows an N-truss with a-movingInad system transmitted by cross-girders to the top chords of the truss. Draw the ILD for the members U2U3,L T 2 ~L1L2, ; , U2L2,CT3L2. br4L1and find Lhe niaximum forces in thesc members due to the load system shown in Figure 2.13 (b).

Figure 213

2.6 SUMMARY
Influence lines for statically determinate trusses can be constructed conveniently by first understanding the concept for influence line for panelled beams. The influence lines for panelled beams are slightly different from that of simple beam because in their cases the load is transmitted to the main girder by cross beams at panel points. The influence lines for forces in different members of statically determinate trusses can be convenientlv constructed bv ado~ting - suitable sections across the truss, which Dass through the rne'mber under corkideration. The appropriate free body diagram is th'en considered to arrive at a relationship between the force in concerned member and the relevant reactions at the supports. This relationship helps in constructing the influence line diagram for the force in the member under consideration. Influence lines help us understand the variation in the force in member as unit load travels from one end to the other. The influence tables further help usin determining the maximum forces in any member for a given set of loading.

.'

2.7 KEY WORDS


Panel Point Truss

Influence L i e s for

Stdcally Determinate
Trusses

: These are the points where cross beams rest on the maG girder. : Truss is a articulated structure consisting of straight members in triangular formation. Trusses are commonly used in roofs of buildings for different purposes like garages, workshops, auditoriums, warehouses, living quarters, offices etc.

Plane Truss and Space Truss Statically Determinate Structures

: Plane truss is a truss whose all members lie in one plane and three dimensional truss whose all members do not lie in one plane is called a space truss. : It is a structure in which number of unknowns can be obtained from equilibrium equations.

2.8 ANSWERS TO SAQs


SAQ 1

(a) Refer preceding text in Section 2.2.1. (b) With the change in each length of panel from 2 m to 3m, substitute for L = 18 m and distance of panel point D = 9 m and E as 12 m from A. The mid point of DE is now at 10.5 m from A instead of 7 m Rest of the procedure remains same as Example 2.1.
SAQ 2

(a) Refer preceding text in Section 2.3.2. (b) The answer can be verified by checking the values of the ordinates from the Influence Table given in Table 2.1.
SAQ 3
,

(a) The influence line diagram for the forces in members HC and BC of the truss is shown in Figure 2.14.

(a) ILD for F ~ c

(b) ILD for Fec

(i) FHC ),,(

= 147.10 kN ; FBC (mu) = 149.94 kN .

(ii) Here, we ha.ve,


y~ = y~ = 0.894;

F H C ( ~ , ) = 18.37kN; FBC(-)

= 16.31kN.

(iii) FHC ),,(

= 418.85 kN ; FBC

= 387.35 kN

(b) The influence line diagram for the forces in members H J and JC of the truss is shown in Figure 2.15.

(i) Maximum FHJ = 378 kN ; Maximum F j c = 67.5 kN

(ii) Maximum FHJ = 35.4 kN ; Maximum F j c = 9.67 kN


(iii) Maximum FHJ = 855 kN ; Maximum FJc = 208.35 kN

Rolting Loads and Muenm Lines

(a) ILD for FHJ

F'
I

(b) ILD for FJC

SAQ 4

(a) The influence line diagram for the forces in members JK, JD and JC of the truss is shown in Figure 2.16.

(a) ILD for FII(

1E
I
I

IF
I

(b) ILD for FJD

*A
(c) ILD for FJC

From the influence line diagram given in Figure 2.16, we have following results (which may be verified) : x )U1.4kN; F J D ( ~ = = ) 69.98kN;md (i) F j ~ ( ~ a = Fjc I,( = 76.28 kN (ii) FJK (-) = 26.27 kN; FJD (,,) Fjc (max) = 10.92kN (iii) FjK (rnax) = 655.10 kN; FJD F j c (ma) = 254.66 kN (b) Refer preceding text.
SAQ 5
= 12.93 kN; and = 273.75 kN; and

From the influence line diagram given in Figure 2.17, we have following results (which may be verified) : (a) Due to Uniform Moving Load and Concentrated h a d Maximum force in member CD = 320 kN (tensile) Maximum force in member PC = 79.544 kN (tensile) and - 39.545 kN (wmp.) Maximum force in member PK = 49.236 kN (tensile) and - 93.413 kN (wmp.) Maximum force in member KD = 60 kN (tensile)

(b) Due to ~ h o r t ' ~ n i f o r Moving m Load (1 m long) Member CD : yma = 1.333 ; y~ = y~ = 1.296

Intluence Iines for S t a t i d y Determinate Trusses

= 26.293 kN (tensile)

Member PC : Fmax = 12.818 k?l (tensile) Member PK : Fmax = MemberKD : F,,,


- 10.92 kN

(compression)

= 9.583 l c l l (tensile)

(a). ILD for FCD

(b) ILD for FPK

t
A

1
I

-I

(c) ILD tor FpC

81 I

C1

10

1F
I

Ie

(d) ILD for FRD

Figore 217

(c) Due to Series of Concentrated Loads Member CD : Fmax = 50 x -

= 655.556 kN (tensile)

b") + (

200 x -

2 @ 0 x - t (100 x 1)

761

Member PC : Fm, = 238.20 kN (tensile) Membgr PK : F,, Member KD : F,,


SAQ 6

= - 250.72 kN (compression)
=

179.15 kN (tensile)

From the influence line diagrallis shown in Figure 2.18, the maximum forces in the members are as follows :
F r r , ~ ,= (40 x 1.78) + (40 x 1.60) = 135.11 kN (compression)
Fu~L, =

40 x -

40 x -

=, 63.3 kN

(tensile)

F u , ~= (40 x 0.278) + (40 x 0.139 x 0.083) = 16.67 k N (tensile)

FuA = (40 x 0.167) + (40 x 0.083) = 10 kN (tensile)


= 50 kN (compression)

Rolling Loads and influence Lines

(a) ILD for UzU3

(b) ILD for U&l

(c) ILD for L1L2

(d) ILD for U&2


0.166
\

\ e
0.666
1.0

I
I

I I

(e) ILD for U3L2

I
1

'"2

"4
Figure 218

'"6

1 ~ 7

(0 ILD for U4L3