2.1 INTRODUCTION
You are now aware that in actual practice, we have to deal with both fixdd loads and loads which are moving or rolling with positions that are liable to change. The common types of rolling loads are the axle loads of moving trucks or vehicles, wheel loads of railway trak and wheel loads of moving cranes on gantry girder etc. In TJnit 1, you have learnt how to obtain influence lines for internal/external actions in the case of statically determinate beams of different types; and under various cases of rolling loads. In this unit, we will proceed further and apply those principles to obtain influence lines for panelled beams, which will lead us to obtain influence lines for statically determinate trusses. We will understand the concepts by solving and discussing various numerical problems.
Objectives
After studying this unit, you should be able to draw influence lines fdr panelled beams or floor system supported by girders, develop influence lines for different types of statically determinate trusses, find maximum force in a truss member under moving load(s), and make use of influence tables.
/r
a rmin worn
(c) To determine influence lines for moment at 7 m from A, i.e. midway between the panel DE. Solution (a) To Determine Shear Force in Panel DE A point to note is that since live loads can be applied to the girder only by floor beams which are located at panel points A, B, . . ., G therefore, the shear has the same value at any section within a given panel.
(i) Consider unit load at A, RA = 1 and RG = 0,also the floor beam reactions to
the right orthe panel DE are also zero. Therefore, by computing the ,shear in the panel DE from the forces acting to the right of the panel the shear equals zero. (ii) Consider unit load at B, RG = 116, hence, the shear at B = () 116. When unit load at C, RG = 216 = 113, therefore, shear force at C = () 113. When unit load is at D, RG = 316 = 112, therefore, SF at D = () 112 as shown in Figure 2.2 (b), It can be seen that as unit load travels from one point to other, the influence line is a straight line for the panel under consideration. So we have obtained the IL from A to D. (iii) Consider unit load located between panel DE [Figure 2.2 (c)]. Let the load be at distance x from A, Thus, 6 m 5 x I 8 m n panel is dependent When a unit load is located between DE, the shear i on the ratio of joists load at D and E. Shear in panel, VDE = RA  Reaction at panel point D.
RA can be determined by taking moments about G.
RD can be determined in panel DE by isolating panel DE [Figure 2.2 (c)] and taking moments about C. RDx2 = 1~ ( 8  X )
Trusses
If we substitule x = 6, we get VDE = () 0.5 which matches with the value obtained earlier. For x = 8, VDE = + 0.33
C
Also by putting Eq. (2.1) equal to zero, we get x = 7.2 m, i.e. shear in panel DE is zero at x = 7.2 m from A. (iv) The IL for the remaining portion i.e., from E to G is similar to that of a simple beam. 'The complete IL is shown in Figure 2.2 (b).
(a) Panelled
Beam
f DE Midpoint o
(b) To Determine ZLfor Moment a%anel Point D [Rgure 2.2 (d)] \ (i) When the unit load is between ? and D, the moment at D is equal to (RG x distance of panel point D t o m G).
This being a linear equation, its value at A, i.e. x = 0 is zero and linearly 6 increases; at D, MD = x 6 = 3.0 12 (ii) When the unit load is to the right of D, the moment at D varies with variation of RA and is equal to 12x MD = RA x distance D from A = l " ix)X6 = x 6 =   12x 2
1 1
This being a linear equation indicates the value of moment at D, 12 12 MD = 3.0, when x = 6 and decreases to G, MD = x 6 = 0 12
1
(c)
T o Determine ZL for Moment at Midpoint of Panel DE, i.e. 7 m from A and 5 mfrom B (MP) In this case, the approach to obtain IL will be similar to that in Case (b) above, but IL diagram will differ in the panel DE.
(i) From first principles, we can write the equation for the moment when the unit load+ to the left of D. IL will vary similar to reaction RG and therefore, IL for moment
Mp = RG x 5 =  x 5 which is a straight line. L
X
which is the value of Mp when load is at D. (ii) Similarly, when load is to the right of E, the expression will be
On putting, x = 8 m, we have
which is the value of Mp when load is at E. It reduces uniformly to zero when load is at G, i.e. at x = 12,
Therefore, the IL for moment Mp will be as shown in Figure 2.2 (e). Now, the influence lines for shear oi moment for any other panel can be constructed employing the above concepts. You are advised to carefully study the above principles as these will be made use of to obtain influence lines for trusses in subsequent sections.
SAQ I
la)
'"
(b) Resolve Exaniple 2.1 by a.;sumiog the le!igth of each pnncl tcr Sr
' !?I
The basic form of a plane truss is a triangle formed by joining together three members at their ends resulting in a rigid structure. When you add another two members connected to two of the joints, it results into another stable triangle. This way a whole structure can be built up. Each of the trusses shown in Figure 2.3 has been formed by starting with the base triangle abc and then adding two bars to two of the joints already formed. Such trusses are called simple trusses.
Trusses are commonly used in roofs of buildings for different purposes like garages, work shops, auditoriums, warehouses, living quarters, offices etc. In some of these uses, false ceillng is provided to present a smooth and flat ceiling to the occupant. Another area of common use of trusses is for building bridges which can be seen often in case of railway and highway bridges and also temporary military bridges.
Therefore, for the entire truss having j number of joints, we can write 2j number of equations. The unknowns are the member forces (m) and the reactions (r). The relationship between j, m and r determines the determinacy of the truss : (a) When 2j < (m + r) This means there are more unknown than the number of equilibrium equations available. Such a truss is statically indeterminate and will not be considered in this unit.
(b) When 2j = (m+ r)
This truss is statically determinate and the unknowns can be obtained from the equilibrium equations. We will be constructing influence lines for these types of statically determinate trusses. A few examples are shown in Figure 2.4. (c) When 2j > (m + r) Here the unknowns are less than the number of equilibrium equations. Such trusses are unstable. The methods ~f analysis of statically determinate plane trusses for static loads are given in Umt 1 of "Strength of Materials" and Unit 10 of "Engineering Mechanics" which must be revised before proceeding further.
Develop influence lines for forces in members L2L3, UzL2 and U2L3 of the pram truss shown in Figure 2.5 (a). Consider the unit load to be moving along the lower chord of the truss
w6.
Solution
Take moments about U2 of all forces acting on right side of Section AA
F b k X 4 = Rh x 12
I d u e m e L~DW for
Statically Determinate
Trusses
,'.
Fh, =
(Tension)
RL6x 12 . , 4
..
*
x x~ 12 x where Rk = X FbLZ = 4 18 =6 18
therefore the influence line is a linearly as unit load moves from to L2; straight 1ine.from zero at (x = 0) to 1 at L2 (X = 6).
(ii) Now consider unit load to the right of Section line AA. Take moments of all forces on left of Section AA about U2.
F,,
;I?[
Fkhx4
= Rkx6
Lx  18x L 18
where Rb =
(b) S d o n at AA
(c) Sectloo at BB
18x
18x (Tension) 12
This is a linear variation with value = i at x = 6, i.e. at and equal to zero at I ! + , , i.e. x = 18. The complete Influence Line Diagram (ILD) for the force in member & is shown in Figure 2.5 (d).
~ells~owlrul IdkmCeUro
(i) Consider the free body diagram obtained in Section BB. C o n s i d e r unit load between Lo and L2 and free body to the right of the Section BB. From the statical equation V = 0,we have
FU2& = RL, = 18 Influence line for left portion shows tension, varying from zero at LQ to +1/3 at h.
(ii) Now consider unit load between L3 and Lg and free body to the left of
Section BB; again considering the vertical equilibrium of forces in this section. F L ~= u~
= ()
18x 7 (compression)
1 Influence line for right of Section BB indicates value of  5at b (x = 9) and the value is zero at Lg (X= 18). (iii) When the unit load is between LQ and b
As in the case of panelled beams so in the case of trusses also the loads can be transmitted through the joints LQ and L3 only. Hence, the IL Diagram for force in member U2LQ will be a straight line joining the ordinates at & and Lj.As these are of opposite signs, the influence line diagram (ILD) will cross the axis at a point 0,whose position can be determined by similar triangles.
It gives
OLQ = 1.2m
The complete Influence Line Diagram for force in member U2LQ is shown in Figure 2.5 (e). (c) Influence Line for Force in Member U2Lj
(i) When load is between Lo and L;? consider free body on right of Section
AA. Considering vertical equilibrium : Fbu2 x sin 8 = () RL, = () 18'
.'A.
Fl&
= ()
5 "SeC
8 (compression)
similar to IL for member U2L2 multiplied by cosec 8 and of opposite sign. (ii) ,When load is between Lj and Lg,consider free body to the left of AA. Resolving the forces vertically :
: .
Fu24 =
18x 1 8cosec 8
1 The values between L2 and & varies linearly from   cosec 8 to 3 1 5 5 5 +cosec 8.As cosec 8 = , this value ranges from to ,and the 2 4 12 8' distance k0 = 1.2 m. The complete influence line diagram for force in member U2L3 is shown in Figure 2.5 (0. Thus, we have constructed ILDs for three members, namely L2L3,U2L2and U2L3. ILDs for other members of the truss can be constructed in a similar way.
SAQ 2 . (a) What is Statical Determinacy ? State the tl~ree cases of determinacy.
(b) For the pratt truss given in Example 2.2, draw intlueilce lines lor remaining members. (Due to symmetry only half the number of rnembcrs are to hc considered.)
2.3.5 Influence Lines for Truss with Top Chord not Parallel to Bottom Chord
We can develop the influence lines for e s s e s in which their top chord is riot parallel to the bottom chord with the help of following illustrative example :
Example 2.3
Consider the truss shown in Figure 2.6 (a) which has a span of 20 m and a maximum rise of 4 m at the centre of the truss. Draw the intluence lines diagram . for forces in the members BC, CF and FG. The load moves along the bottom chord of the truss. Solution Influence Line for Force in Member BC Let us first cut Section 11 such that it passes thfough BC and divides the truss into two parts. Now, consider the equilibrium of the free body on the left side [Figure 2.6 (b)]. Take moments of all the forces about F in following two situations : When the unit logd is to the right of F,
MF In either case, we have, FBC = where MF is the bending moment at F for a 3 simply supported beam AE.
Therefore, the IL for force in member BC can be obtained by first cwnstructing the IL for moment at F, i.e. MF and then dividing its ordinates by 3. The IL for BC thus, obtained is shown in Figure 2.6 (c). Influence Line for Force in Member CF Since the top chord is inclined, we extend members BC and FG and see that they meet at 0, which is 10 m from support A. Now, extend member CF and drop a perpendicular from 0 on extended CF which meets it at P.
,
where, sin 0 =  =
HD HC
=5.83
'3
(i) Consider unit load between A and B. Taking moments of all forces on the right of the Section 11 about 0,we can write
" +
FCF =
Therefore, IL for force in CF can be indirectly constructed by constructing ILD for RE first and then multiplying all its ordinates by 2.92.
m.lus,
IL for RE =
X L
A A
(c) (c) .,
1I
1I
Figure 2 6
F
b CF
(ii) Next considering the unit load between C and E, i.e. to right of section C. Taking moments of all forces to left of Section 11 about the p i n t 0,
So for the portion CE, the IL Diagram of F C can ~ be obtained from the IL Diagram of RA after multiplying its ordinates by 0.97.
Equation of ILD of RA is : RA =
L  x  20x L 20
20
11 Stati
This gives,
FC= ~ 0 for .r = 20 (unit load at E), and F c ~ = 0.486 for x = 10 (unit load at C).
(iii) The unit load lying between B and C or the
BC
As in a panelled beam so here also the ldads are transmitted only through the joints B and C. Hence, the IL diagram for FCFin the portion BC will be a straight line joining the negative brdinate of  0.73 at B to the positive ordinate of 0.486 at C as shown in Figure 2.6 (d). This meets the axis at Q where BQ = 3m and CQ = 2 m as obtained from the solution of the similar triangles. The complete influence lines diagram for force in member CF is shown in Figure 2.6 (d). Influence Line for Force in Member FG In order to obtain this, let us see the equilibrium of free body diagram to the left of Section 11. Taking moments about C,
FFG x CR = MC (i.e. bending moment at C)
In triangle OFB;
Therefore, in this case also, the IL for force in member FG can be obtained hy first constructing the IL for bending moment at C and then dividing all its ordinates by 3.92. The final influence line diagram for FG is drawn in Figure 2.6 (e).
The main principles of analysis of all these cases are fhe same as explained in the unit on ILD of beams (Unit 1). Their.applications in the case of trusses are shown through the following examples.
Solution A ' ~ n i f o r mDistributed l~ Load (Longer than the Span) of 2 kN/m and a Single Concentrated Load of 15 kN. (i) For member ZQL, as the ILD is tensile throughout, the whole span has to be covered by the uniformly distributed load for maximum tension and the concentrated load will be placed at the maximum ordinate, i.e. at point [Figure 2.7 (b)]. This will give FkL3 (max) = q x (area of ILD) + P x (maximum ordinate)
+ 33 I
d (tensile)
(ii) For member U2L2as the ILD at Figure 2.5 (b) have both compressive and X 1A tensile zones, to find the position of zero ordinate;   giving
3  x  in x = 1.2 m. For maximum tension, the uniformly distributed load covers the span LQO and the concentrated load is at [Figure 2.7 (c)].
6:
)+ ( i)
15 x
For maximum compression,the uniformly distributed load covers the span O& and the concentrated load is at & [Figure 2.7 (d)]. This will give, ( F ~ (compression) ~ ~ )=~ 2 x~ x  x 10.8  15 x 
(:
: ) ( ;)
A Uniformly Distributed Load of 20 kN/m and 2 m Long (i) For maximum force in member L2L3 the position of the 2 m load is shown c SL SR in Figure 2.7 (e) such that YL = y ~= ,Ymax  SL + SR [See Eq. (1.7)].
0.222
(tensile) (ii) For maximum force in member U2Lz there will be different positions of the 2 m load, i.e. (a) for maximum tension, and (b) for maximum compression.
(max) =
yff +ymax
xcxq =
x 20 x 2 = 3 7 . 7 8 kN
FU2& (max) =
 Oe407 2
x 20 x 2 =  1 8 . 1 4 8 kN (compression)
.A T h i n of Wheels Crossing the Spanfrom Left to Right (i) Consider the two possible positions of the loads systems for maximum farce in member b L 3 [Figure 2.7 (h)]. Placing the heaviest load of 200 kN a&y,, 1.0, we have for the first position,
Fk4
= (100 x 0.5)
291.67 kN
and for the second position F ~ L= , (50 x 0.667) + (200 x 1.0) + (100 x 0.75) = 308.33 kN Hence, FLQL,(max) = 308.33 kN (tension) (ii) For the maximum force in the member U24! the load positions are shown in Figure 2.7 (i) and (j). The ordinate c~lculations can be verified. For Mavimum Tensile Force [Figure 2.7 (i)]
Fm, =  x 100
(i
1k 1
+  x 200
 (0.222 x
50) = 7 2 . 2 2 kN (tension)
Example 2.5 Consider the truss shown in Figure 2.8 (a) wherein the maximum forces in members CE and DE are to be obtained due to a self load of 20 kN/m covering the entire span and a live rolling load of 30 kN/m which is longer than the span passing over lower chord of the truss.
b0
,E
,G
1e.m m.
Solution
,=
Influence L i n e Diagram for Force in Member CE Tmng a Section X X through the members DF, DE, CE of the truss as shown in Figure 2.8 (b), we consider following three cases : Case I :When the Load is between A and C
'
Consider the free body diagram for the right hand side of the Section XX. Taking moments of all forces about point D, we get,
Hence, ILD for FcE will be FcE = 4.041 x = 0.1616 x. This gives FCE= 0 25 when x = 0 (load at A), and FCE= 0.808 when x = 5 m (load at C).
We consider the freebody diagram of the left hand side of Section XX, and again taking moments of all forces about D, we get,
= 1.732 RA 5 sin 6 0 Lx  25x We know that ILD for RA has the equation RA = L  25 =
RA x 7.5
RA x 7.5
When the load is at E (x = lo), we get, FCE = 1.039, and when load is at K (x = O), we get, FCE= 0.
Case I11 : When the Load is in the Region CE
According to the principle of panelled sections, the ordinates at C and E for the ILD has to be joined by a straight line shown in Figure 2.8 (c).
Influence Line Diagram of Force in Member DE This is obtained by the same process as above but only under the co&ditionsof equilibrium of vertical forces along the cut sectian of the truss, i.e. V = 0)
(x
giving FDEsin 60 = RA or RK as the case may be. This is shown in Figure 2.8 (d). At the point C, the ordinate of the ILD is 0.2 cosec 60' = 0.231. At the point E, the ordinate is  0.6 cosec 60' =  0.693. This changes sign between C and E and has zero value at 0 where CO = 1.25 m, OE = 3.75 m.
Maximum Force in Member CE under the given Loading From the inspection of ILD for member CE [Figure 2.8 (c)], it can be concluded that while self load is already spread over the entire span, the rolling load should also cover the entire span to obtain maximum tensile force in CE. FCh, = (20 + 30) x (Area of entire ILD from A to K)
,
721.5 kN (tension)
Maximum Force in Member DE under the given Loading From the inspection of ILD for DE [Figure 2.8 (d)], it can be observed that while the self load is distributed over the entire span, the rolling load should cover the full stretch of 18.75 m starting from 0 where the IL is zero to the right hand support K. FDFmax= 20 x (Area of entire ILD from A to K) + 30 x (Area of ILD from 0 to K)
SAQ 3
(a)
Draw the 1LD for the forces in members HC and BC of the truss shown in Figure 2.9 (a). The load moves along the bottom chord of the truss. (i) Compute the maximum value of these forces due to a long uniform moving load of 10 kN/m and a. concentrated moving load of 60 kN. (ii) Compute the maximum value of these forces due to a 1 m long uniform moving load of 20 kN/m.
(iii) Compute the maximum value of these forces due to a truck shown in Figure 2.9 (b) travelling from right ot Ieft.
Figure 2 . 9
(h) Draw the IL diagram for the forces in members HJ and JC of thc truss shown in Figure 2.10 (a). The load moves along the bottom chord of the truss.
(i) Compute the maximum value of these forces due to a long unifonn moving
moving load of 20 kN/m. (iii) Compute the maximum value of these forces due to a truck shown in Figure 2.10 (b) travelling from right to left.
figure 210
SAQ 4
(a) Draw the ILD for the forces in members JK, JD and JC of the truss shown in Figure 2.1 1 (a). The load moves along the hottom chord of the truss. (i) Compute the maximum value of these forces due to a long uniform moving load of 10 kN/m and a concentrated moving load of 60 kN.
(ii) Compute the maximum value of these forces due to a 1 m long uniform
moving load of 20 kN/m. (iii) Compute the maximum value of these forces due to a truck shown in Figure 2.1 1 (b) travelling from right to left.
Figure 2.1 1
The influence table given in Table 2.1 refers to the Pratt Truss example (Example 2.2) considered in Section 2.3.4 (Figure 2.5).
Table 2.1 :Influence Table for Pratt Truss of Figure 2.5
Member Force due to Unit Load at Panel Point
Member
L2
L3 L4 Ls L6 1
+ 0.500
0.500
+ 0.375
+ 0.375
+ 0.125 + 0.125
+ 0.250
0 0 0 0 0
+ 1.000
 0.833
p~
+ 0.750
 0.625

bul
u1u2
 1.041  0.500
 0.417  0.208
p
 1.000
 0.750
 0.500
p
 0.250
 0.375
 1.1 25
+ 0.625
0
 0.750
+ 0.417 + 0.417
0
u1Lz
u & 3
0 0 0
 0.208  0.208
'
+ 0.833
+ 0.208
 0.417
0
+ 0.208
0 0 0
UlLl
+ 1 .ow
 0.167
0
The forces in member L2L3, U2L2and U2L3have been worked out from the example (Example 2.2) solved in Section 2.3.4. The forces for other members can be similarly worked out. In order to utilise the Influence Table for workirlg out maximum member forces by approximate method, it is appropriate to prepare another table, which is nothing but a summary of Table 2.1. This summary table is given in Table 2.2.
lllustration Let us demonstrate the use of the Influence Tables by considering member U2L3 of truss shown in Figure 2.5. Here, we have,
Dead Load = 200 N per metre, Uniform live load = 1000 N per metre, and Concentrated live load = 1000 N. Table 2.3 :Member U2L3

+ 3750 +
+ 3750
looO x 3 (0.625) =  1880 1000 x ( 0.417) = '417
+8125
+ 453
So, it can be seen that in this case, there is no stress reversal. Draw the influence line diagram for the forces in the members CD, PC, PK and KD of the truss shown in Figure 2.12 (a). The load is moving on a floor system restins on the bottom chord of the truss. Find the maximum value of the axial force in the members due to the following moving load systems : (a) A long uniform moving load of '10 kN/m and a concentrated moving load of 60 kN. (b) A 1 m long moving uniform load of 20 kN/m.
I
(c) A truck travelling from right to left, the wheel loads of which are shown in Figure 2.12 (b).
SAQ 6
Figure 2.13 (a) shows an Ntruss with amovingInad system transmitted by crossgirders to the top chords of the truss. Draw the ILD for the members U2U3,L T 2 ~L1L2, ; , U2L2,CT3L2. br4L1and find Lhe niaximum forces in thesc members due to the load system shown in Figure 2.13 (b).
Figure 213
2.6 SUMMARY
Influence lines for statically determinate trusses can be constructed conveniently by first understanding the concept for influence line for panelled beams. The influence lines for panelled beams are slightly different from that of simple beam because in their cases the load is transmitted to the main girder by cross beams at panel points. The influence lines for forces in different members of statically determinate trusses can be convenientlv constructed bv ado~ting  suitable sections across the truss, which Dass through the rne'mber under corkideration. The appropriate free body diagram is th'en considered to arrive at a relationship between the force in concerned member and the relevant reactions at the supports. This relationship helps in constructing the influence line diagram for the force in the member under consideration. Influence lines help us understand the variation in the force in member as unit load travels from one end to the other. The influence tables further help usin determining the maximum forces in any member for a given set of loading.
.'
Influence L i e s for
Stdcally Determinate
Trusses
: These are the points where cross beams rest on the maG girder. : Truss is a articulated structure consisting of straight members in triangular formation. Trusses are commonly used in roofs of buildings for different purposes like garages, workshops, auditoriums, warehouses, living quarters, offices etc.
: Plane truss is a truss whose all members lie in one plane and three dimensional truss whose all members do not lie in one plane is called a space truss. : It is a structure in which number of unknowns can be obtained from equilibrium equations.
(a) Refer preceding text in Section 2.2.1. (b) With the change in each length of panel from 2 m to 3m, substitute for L = 18 m and distance of panel point D = 9 m and E as 12 m from A. The mid point of DE is now at 10.5 m from A instead of 7 m Rest of the procedure remains same as Example 2.1.
SAQ 2
(a) Refer preceding text in Section 2.3.2. (b) The answer can be verified by checking the values of the ordinates from the Influence Table given in Table 2.1.
SAQ 3
,
(a) The influence line diagram for the forces in members HC and BC of the truss is shown in Figure 2.14.
F H C ( ~ , ) = 18.37kN; FBC()
= 16.31kN.
= 418.85 kN ; FBC
= 387.35 kN
(b) The influence line diagram for the forces in members H J and JC of the truss is shown in Figure 2.15.
F'
I
SAQ 4
(a) The influence line diagram for the forces in members JK, JD and JC of the truss is shown in Figure 2.16.
1E
I
I
IF
I
*A
(c) ILD for FJC
From the influence line diagram given in Figure 2.16, we have following results (which may be verified) : x )U1.4kN; F J D ( ~ = = ) 69.98kN;md (i) F j ~ ( ~ a = Fjc I,( = 76.28 kN (ii) FJK () = 26.27 kN; FJD (,,) Fjc (max) = 10.92kN (iii) FjK (rnax) = 655.10 kN; FJD F j c (ma) = 254.66 kN (b) Refer preceding text.
SAQ 5
= 12.93 kN; and = 273.75 kN; and
From the influence line diagram given in Figure 2.17, we have following results (which may be verified) : (a) Due to Uniform Moving Load and Concentrated h a d Maximum force in member CD = 320 kN (tensile) Maximum force in member PC = 79.544 kN (tensile) and  39.545 kN (wmp.) Maximum force in member PK = 49.236 kN (tensile) and  93.413 kN (wmp.) Maximum force in member KD = 60 kN (tensile)
(b) Due to ~ h o r t ' ~ n i f o r Moving m Load (1 m long) Member CD : yma = 1.333 ; y~ = y~ = 1.296
= 26.293 kN (tensile)
(compression)
= 9.583 l c l l (tensile)
t
A
1
I
I
81 I
C1
10
1F
I
Ie
Figore 217
= 655.556 kN (tensile)
b") + (
200 x 
2 @ 0 x  t (100 x 1)
761
=  250.72 kN (compression)
=
179.15 kN (tensile)
From the influence line diagrallis shown in Figure 2.18, the maximum forces in the members are as follows :
F r r , ~ ,= (40 x 1.78) + (40 x 1.60) = 135.11 kN (compression)
Fu~L, =
40 x 
40 x 
=, 63.3 kN
(tensile)
\ e
0.666
1.0
I
I
I I
I
1
'"2
"4
Figure 218
'"6
1 ~ 7
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