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It is the third largest city in Tamil Nadu.Located on the banks of River Vaigai, it has been a major settlement for two millennia and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. Madurai is closely associated with the Tamil language, as all three primary congregations of Tamil scholars, the Third Tamil Sangams, were held in the city between 1780 BCE and the 3rd century CE. The recorded history of the city goes back to the 3rd century BCE, being mentioned byMegasthenes, the Greek ambassador to India, and Kautilya, a minister of the Mauryan emperor Chandragupta Maurya. The city is believed to be of significant antiquity and has been ruled, at different times, by the Early Pandyas, Medieval Cholas, Later Cholas, Later Pandyas, Madurai Sultanate, Vijayanagar Empire, Madurai Nayaks, Chanda Sahib, Carnatic kingdom, and the British. The city has a number of historical monuments, with the Meenakshi Amman Temple and Tirumalai Nayak Palace being the most prominent. Madurai is an important industrial and educational hub in South Tamil Nadu. The city is home to various automobile, rubber, chemical and granite manufacturing industries. It has developed as a second-tier city for information technology (IT), and some software companies have opened offices in Madurai. Madurai has important government educational institutes like the Madurai Medical College, Homeopathic Medical College, Madurai Law College, Agricultural College and Research Institute. Madurai city is administered by a municipal corporation established in 1971 as per the Municipal Corporation Act. Madurai is the second corporation in Tamil Nadu next to Chennai corporation. The city covers an area of 147.99 km2 and had a population of 1,230,015 in 2001. The provisional population totals of the 2011 census indicate the population of the city as 10,16,885. The city is also the seat of a bench of the Madras High Court, one of only a few courts outside the state capitals of India. Contents [hide]
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1 Etymology 2 History 3 Architecture 4 Geography and climate 5 Demographics 6 Administration and politics 7 Transport
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7.1 Road 7.2 Rail 7.3 Air
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8 Education 9 Economy 10 Religious sites 11 Culture, tourism and entertainment
Empire  The city is also mentioned in Kautilya's Kautilya (370–283 BCE) Arthashastra. . The view is contested by some scholars who believe "Methora" refers to the north Indian city of Mathura. Madurai is mentioned in the works of Roman historiansPliny historians the Younger (61 – c. Manamadurai. 90 – c. The word Madurai is derived from Madhura (sweetness) arising out of the divine nectar showered on the city by the Hindu god Shiva from his matted hair. meaning the junction of four towers. as it was a large and established city in the th Mauryan Empire. . Sundarar and Thirugnanasambandar. Purser (1858) shows Madurai city as seen from the north bank of theVaigai the river Madurai has been inhabited since at least the 3rd century BCE. with the city referred as "Methora" in his accounts. The different names by which the city has been referred to historically are listed in the 7th-century 7th poem Thiruvilayaadal puraanam written by Paranjothi Munivar. Sangam literature like Maturaikkāñci records the importance of Madurai as a capital city to the Panydan dynasty. referring to the three Tamil Sangams held at Madurai. CE 168). namely Appar. address the city as Thirualavai. Megasthenes may have visited Madurai during the 3rd century BCE. Ptolemy (c. 112 CE). 24 CE). "Koodal". Another theory is that Madurai is the derivative of the word Marutham. History Hand coloured antique wood engraving drawn by W. "Naanmadakoodal" and "Thirualavai". Koodal means an assembly or congregation of scholarly people. and also in Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. refers to the four major temples for which Madurai was known for. Naanmadakoodal. "Malligai Maanagar". .• • • • • 12 Media and utility services 13 See also 14 Notes 15 References 16 External links Etymology The city is referred by various names like "Madurai". Tevaram. the 7th– 7th or 8th-century Tamil compositions on Shiva by the three prominent Nayanars (Saivites). There is a town in the neighbouring Dindigul district called Vada Madurai (North Madurai) and another in Sivagangai district called Manamadurai. those of the Greek geographerStrabo(64/63 (64/63 BCE – c. which refers to the type of landscape of the Sangam age.
when the second Pandyan empire was established with Madurai Madurai as its capital. Rajagopalachari in 1939 removed restrictions prohibiting Shanars and Dalits from entering Hindu temples. housing the headquarters of the District Superintendent. Architecture . that Mahatma Gandhi. including Madurai. first adopted the loin cloth as his mode of dress after seeing agricultural labourers wearing it. . The Madurai Sultanate then seceded from Delhi and functioned as an independent kingdom until its gradual annexation by theVijayanagar theVijayanagar Empire in 1378  CE. which was ousted by the Pandyas around 590 CE. five municipalities were constituted in the two districts and six taluk boards were set up for local administration. Presidency  The British government made donations to the Meenakshi temple and participated in the Hindu festivals during the early part of their rule. In 1837. Madurai came under the direct control of the British East India Company and was annexed to the Madras Presidency. The city was constituted as a municipality in 1866 CE. Nayak rule ended in 1736 CE and Madurai was repeatedly captured several times by Chanda Sahib (1740 – 1754 CE). The Temple Entry Authorization and Indemnity Act passed by the government of Madras Presidency under C. The city evolved as a political and industrial complex through the 19th and 20th centuries to become a district headquarters of a larger Madurai district. most of present day Tamil Nadu. . was resurveyed between 1880 and 1885 CE and subsequently. Subbaraman and Mohammad Ismail Sahib. The city remained under the control of the Cholas until the early 13th century. R. Madurai became independent from Vijayanagar in 1559 CE under the Nayaks. Leaders of the independence movement in Madurai included N. came under the rule of theKalabhras dynasty. Marat and Perumaal Mesthiri  streets. The Pandyas were outsted from Madurai by the Chola dynasty during the early arly 9th  century. The moat was drained and the debris was used to construct new streets – Veli. Khan first ruler of the Sultanate of Madurai. in 1921. In 1801. M. The city. . After the death of Kulasekara Pandian (1268–1308 (1268 1308 CE). The British government faced initial hiccups during the earlier period of the establishment of municipality in land ceiling and tax collection in Madurai and Dindigul districts under the the direct administration of  the officers of the government. Arcot Nawab and Muhammed Yusuf Khan (1725 – 1764 CE) in the middle of 18th century. It was in Madurai. Madurai came under the rule of theDelhi the  Sultanate. the fortifications around the temple were demolished by the British. The temple entry movement was first led in Madurai Meenakshi temple by independence activist A. 1335–1339 1335 CE After the Sangam age.Coin of Jalaluddin Ahsan Khan. Vaidyanatha Iyer in 1939. along with the district. Police stations were established in Madurai city. pre-eminent leader of Indian nationalism in British-ruled ruled India.
temple. with urbanisation. Madurai became the headquarters of a large colonial al political complex and an industrial town. Vishwanatha Nayak (1159–64 64 CE). which acted as the geographic and ritual center of the ancient t city of Madurai. while the poorest were placed in the  fringe streets. the first Madurai Nayak king. With the advent of British rule during the 19th century. The wealthy and higher echelons of the society were placed in streets close to the temple. corresponding to the Tamil month names and also to the festivals associated. the social hierarchical classes became unified. The city's axes were aligned with the four quarters of o the compass. The temple chariots used in processions are progressively larger in size based on the size of the concentric streets. Avani-moola moola and Masi streets.  and the four gateways of the temple provided access to it. also anglicised as silpa sastra meaning rules of architecture) related to urban planning. Chittirai. The city is divided into a number of concentric quadrangular streets around the temple. redesigned the city in accordance with the principles laid out by Shilpa Shastras (Sanskrit: śilpa śāstra. These squares retain their traditional names names of Aadi. The temple prakarams (outer precincts of a temple) and streets accommodate an elobrate festival calendar in which dramatic processions circumambulate the shrines at varying distances from the centre. Ancient Tamil classics record the temple as the center of the city and the surrounding streets appearing liken a lotus and its petals.Map of Madurai showing center of the city and some important landmarks Madurai is built around the Meenakshi Amman Temple. Geography and climate Vaigai river in Madurai Madurai Climate chart (explanation explanation) .
 The maximum temperature of 42 °C for the decade of 2001 – 2010 was recorded in 2004 and in 2010.8) Mar 35.J F M A M J J A S O N D 20 14 18 55 70 40 50 104 119 188 145 51 30 32 35 37 37 36 36 35 34 32 30 29 20 21 23 25 26 26 25 25 24 24 23 21 Average max. occurring only during the winter season.7 (99. which is fostered by thePeriyar Dam.8 (98. Madurai is hot and dry for eight months of the year. although temperatures up to 42 °C are not uncommon. temperatures in °C Precipitation totals in mm [show]Imperial conversion Madurai is located at 9. tempered by heavy rain and thundershowers. The municipal corporation of Madurai has an area of 147. and the surrounding region occupies the plains of South India and contains several mountain spurs. Winter temperatures range between 29. with the former providing more rain during October to December.3) . and min.7 (96.The Sirumalai and Nagamalai hills lie to the north and west of Madurai. The average annual rainfall for the Madurai district is about 85. The soil type in central Madurai is predominantly clay loam.3 °C. The land in and around Madurai is utilised largely for agricultural activity.2 (91.4) Apr 37.8) Aug 35. cotton and sugarcane.8 (96. The city experiences a moderate climate from August to October.76 cm. and a cool and climate from November to February. while red loam and black cotton types are widely prevalent in the outer fringes of the city. It has an average elevation of 101 metres.977 km2.12°E.1) Feb 33. growth of vehicles and industrial activity. oil seed.1) May 37. Being equidistant from mountains and the sea. India Month Average high °C (°F) Jan 30.9) Jun 36. Paddy is the major crop. Madurai lies southeast of the western ghats. attributed to urbanisation.6 °C and 18 °C. which runs in the northwestsoutheast direction through the city. Cold winds are experienced during February and March as in the neighbouring Dindigul. A study based on the data available with the Indian Meteorological Department on Madurai over a period of 62 years indicate rising trend in atmospheric temperature over Madurai city.3 (99.2) Jul 36. The city of Madurai lies on the flat and fertile plain of the river Vaigai. Temperatures during summer generally reach a maximum of 40 °C and a minimum of 26. [hide]Climate data for Madurai.93°N 78.0 (96. Fog and dew are rare. millet.6 (87. followed by pulses. dividing it into two almost equal halves. it experiences similar monsoon pattern withNortheast monsoon and Southwest monsoon. The hottest months are from March to July.
1 72.1 (68.10 per cent during 1971–81 to 1.8 14. another common language in the city.291) (0.99 per cent of the population was under six years of age.1 (70) 23.6 per cent of the total population.9 1. Tamil is spoken by most. Madurai city had a population of 10. 12. The decline in the population growth rate between 1981 and 2001 is due to the bifurcation of Madurai district into two.Average low °C (°F) Precipitation mm (inches) Avg.62.2) 21. and the subsequently of part of the city into the Theni district in 1997. The literacy rate was 87 per cent. Madurai and Dindigul in 1984. Roman Catholics in Madurai are affiliated with the Roman Catholic Diocese of Madurai.0 3.5) 7.1 37.161) 0.4) 25.4 11. The increase in growth rate to 50 per cent from 1971 to 1981 is due to the city's upgrade to a municipal corporation in 1974 and the subsequent inclusion of 13 Panchayats into the corporation limits.6 32 83. Buddhishts.885 (before expansion of the city limits) within the corporation limits. The compounded annual growth rate dropped from 4.4 4. The urban agglomeration had a population of 14.3 (0.4 2. 8.27 per cent during 1991– 2004.6 (78.16. Under 6 per cent of the workforce was involved in agriculture as cultivators or agricultural labourers. Saurashtrian.2 80.1 (79) 25. Madurai had a literacy rate of 83. precipitation days Demographics [show]Historical population 20. The religion data in 2001 indicated a majority of Hindus with sizeable number of Christians and Muslims.1 Source: Indian Meteorological Department Mean data from 1971–2 According to 2011 provisional census data.08 per cent of the population within the Madurai corporation limits was under the age of 6.555) (1.26) (3.05 per cent. while Protestants are affiliated with the Madurai-Ramnad Diocese of the Church of South India. much higher than the national average of 15. Slum-dwellers comprise 32.858) (1.1) 25.303.6 4.420.313 men and 507. is the mother tongue of the Patnūlkarars who migrated from Gujarat in the 16th century CE.1 (79) 26. In 2001.265 households in the city. and the standard dialect is the Madurai Tamil dialect.276) (3. Sikhs and Jains were also present in smaller numbers.141 people. There were a total of 215.4 (77. with 509.1 2.42 per cent. were living in 208 slums located in various parts of the city in 2001.572 women.465) (0.3 (77. Madurai metropolitan area constitutes the third largest metropolitan area in Tamil Nadu and the 31st in India.000 males was slightly higher than the national average of 944.7) 26. making up 60.527 households. Administration and politics . The sex ratio of 979 females per 1.1 1.461) (2.0 (73.19 per cent while the effective literacy rate was 91.
Annadurai Madurai West Sellur K. Raju Member of Parliament Madurai M. K.Nanthagopal Deputy Mayor R.Building of the Madurai Bench of Madras High court Municipal Corporation Officials Mayor Rajan Chellappa Commissioner R.K. Azhagiri The municipality of Madurai was constituted on 1 November 1866 as per the Town Improvement Act of 1865. Tamilarasan A. Gopalakrishnan[64 ] Members of Legislative Assembly Madurai Central Madurai East Madurai North Madurai South R. the Madurai municipality was dominated by reformists of the Indian National Congress. During the early years of independent India.The municipality was headed by a chairperson and elections were regularly conducted for the post except during the period 1891 to 1896. when no elections were held due to violent factionalism. Sundarrajan K. Bose R.Madurai was upgraded to a municipal corporation on 1 May 1971 as per the .
 In 2008. The district is divided into four subdivisions. at 22. Anna Nagar. among cities in Tamil Nadu. The city of Madurai is represented in the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly by five elected members. 1980– 84. Town planning and the Computer Wing. Madurai North. 1977–80. 1984–89. The legislative powers are vested in a body of 100 members. has constituted Madurai city as a separate district. The Communist Party of India (Marxist) won the seat three times during 1967–71.728. Madurai is also a part of the Madurai Lok Sabha constituency and elects a member to the Lok Sabha. assisted by Deputy Commissioners. and it was ranked 19th among 35 major cities in India. Public Health. which. 1999–2004 and 2004–09 general elections.000 people. one each from the 100 wards. The functions of the municipality are devolved into six departments: General. namely Thallakulam. The Communist Party of India (1957–61).1 of all the cities in Tamil Nadu. for administrative purposes. It is the second oldest municipal corporation in Tamil Nadu. Tamil Maanila Congress (Moopanar) (1996–98). Enforcement of law and order in the suburban areas are handled by the Madurai district police. All these departments are under the control of a Municipal Commissioner. 1989–91and 1991 elections. The Madurai city police force is headed by a Commissioner of police. As of 2008. However. Law and order is enforced by the Tamil Nadu Police. The city is also the seat of a bench of the Madras High Court. Madurai had the second lowest crime rate at 169. accounting for 1. the lower house of the Parliament of India. the crime rate in the city was 283. Janata Party (1998) and Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (2009) have each won once. The corporation received several awards in 2008 for implementing development works.1 per cent of all crimes reported in major cities in India.2 per 100. Madurai West. the Madurai parliament seat was held by the Indian National Congress seven times in the 1962–67. Madurai Central and Madurai South constituencies. once every five years. The legislative body is headed by an elected Mayor assisted by a Deputy Mayor.Madurai City Municipal Corporation Act.[ . with a total of 27 police stations. Revenue. Madurai recorded the second highest SLL (Special and Local Laws) crimes. Engineering. after Chennai. It started functioning in July 2004. one each for the Madurai East. 1971. 1971–77. one of only a few outside the state capitals of India. who is the supreme executive head. From 1957. Thilagar Thidal and Town.
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