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Desert Islands

and Other Texts


1953-1974

Copyright 2004 Semiotext(e !"" rights reser#ed$ 2002 Les editions de Minuit, 7, rue BernardPalissy, 75006 Paris.Semiotext e! 2571 %$ &i'th Street (os !nge"es) C! 90057 ***$semiotexte$org 501 +hi"osophy ,a"" Co"-m.ia /ni#ersity 0e* 1or2) 01 10027

3istri.-ted .y The 45T +ress) Cam.ridge) 4ass$ and (ondon) 6ng"and Spe7ia" than2s to 'e""o* trans"ators in this #o"-me8 Christopher 9-sh) Char"es Sti#a"e and 4e"issa 474ahon) !"exander ,i72ox) Tea" 6i7h$ Other trans"ations are inde.ted to 3a#id ($ S*eet) :arred 9a2er) and :eanine ,erman;s #ersions pre#io-s"y p-."ished in &e"ix <-attari;s Chaosophy (0e*1or28 Semiotext(e ) 1995 $ (ysa ,o7hroth;s 'irst trans"ations o' 3e"e-=e;s arti7"es on ,-me) >ant) and 9ergson) s-.se?-ent"y re#ie*ed .y 6"ie 3-ring) *ere a"so in#a"-a."e$ Spe7ia" than2s to <ian7ar"o !m.rosino) 6ri7 6i7h) Tea" 6i7h) !mes ,odges) +atri7ia &erre"") :anet 4et7a"'e 'or their 7"ose reading and s-ggestions$ The 5ndex *as esta."ished .y <ian7ar"o !m.rosino$

Co#er +hoto8 :ean:a7?-es (e.e"$ :ean-

:a7?-es (e.e" ar7hi#e) +aris 3esign8 ,edi 6" >ho"ti

ISB"# $-5%&'5-0$%-0 +rinted in the /nited States o' !meri7a

Desert Islands
and Other Texts
1953-1974

<i""es 3e"e-=e

6dited .y 3a#id (apo-@ade Trans"ated .y 4i7hae" Taormina

S645OT6AT(6 &OB65<0 !<60TS S6B56

Contents

5ntrod-7tion

3esert 5s"ands

15

:ean ,yppo"ite;s Logic and Existence

19

5nstin7ts and 5nstit-tions

22

9ergson) 1C59-1941

32

9ersson;s Con7eption o' 3i''eren7e

52

:ean-:a7?-es Bo-ssea-8 +re7-rsor o' >a'2a) Ce"ine) and +onse

5D

The 5dea o' <enesis in >ant;s 6stheti7s

10

72

Baymond Bo-sse") or the !.horrent Ea7--m

74

,o* :arry;s +ataphysi7s Opened the %ay 'or +henomeno"osy

77

F,e %as my Tea7herF

C1

The +hi"osophy o' Crime 0o#e"s

11

CD

On <i".ert Simondon

90

,-mans8 ! 3-.io-s 6xisten7e

94

The 4ethod o' 3ramati=ation

117

Con7"-sions on the %i"" to +o*er and the 6terna" Bet-rn

12

12C

0iet=s7he;s 9-rst o' (a-shter

131

4ysti7ism and 4aso7hism

135

On 0iet=s7he and the 5mage o' Tho-ght

143

<i""es 3e"e-=e Ta"2s +hi"osophy

13

14D

<-ero-"t;s <enera" 4ethod 'or Spino=a

15D

The &iss-re o' !naxagoras and the (o7a" &ires o' ,era7"it-s

1D 2

,-me

17 0

,o* 3o %e Be7ogni=e Str-7t-ra"ismG

14

19 3

Three <ro-p-Be"ated +ro."ems

20 4

F%hat O-r +risoners %ant &rom /s$$$F

20 D

5nte""e7t-a"s and +o*er

15

21 4

Bemar2s (on :ean-&ranoois (yotard

21 D

3e"e-=e and <-attari &ight 9a72$$$

23 0

,e"ene Cixo-s) or %riting in Stro.e

16

23 2

Capita"ism and S7hi=ophrenia

24 2

1o-r Spe7ia" F3esiring-4a7hinesF8 %hat !re TheyG

24 4

,$4$;s (etters

17

24 7

,ot and Coo"

25 2

0omadi7 Tho-ght

2D 2

On Capita"ism and 3esire

18

27 4

&i#e +ropositions on +sy7hoana"ysis

2C 1

&a7es and S-r'a7es

2C 4

+re'a7e to ,o7?-enghem;s LApres-Mai des faunes

19

2C 9

! +"anter;s !rt

29 2

0otes

31 3

(ist o' Trans"ators

20

31 4

5ndex

21

5ntrod-7tion

This first volume gathers together almost all the texts which Gilles Deleu e !u"lishe# i$ %ra$ce a$# a"roa# "etwee$ 1953 a$# 1974& starti$g with Empiricism and Subjectivity, his first "oo'& a$# e$#i$g with the #e"ates followi$g AntiOedipus, co(authore# with %elix Guattari) This collectio$ esse$tiall* co$tai$s articles& "oo' reviews& !refaces& i$terviews& a$# co$fere$ces all !reviousl* !u"lishe# i$ %re$ch& "ut $ot fou$# i$ a$* o$e wor' "* Deleu e)

+$ or#er to avoi# a$* "ias as to or#er or em!hasis& + have res!ecte# the strict chro$olog* of !u"licatio$ ,$ot of com!ositio$-) . thematic orga$i atio$ woul# have /i"e# with the !revious collectio$ Negotiations, as well as the "i"( liogra!hical !ro/ect u$#erta'e$ arou$# 1989&0 "ut it might have erro$eousl* suggeste# that this collectio$ co$stitute# a "oo' 1"*1 Deleu e& or at least o$e he was !la$$i$g)

The co$#itio$s for !u"licatio$ s!ecifie# "* Deleu e have "ee$ res!ecte#2 $o texts !rior to 1953& a$# $o !reviousl* u$!u"lishe# or !osthumous texts) Those texts !u"lishe# for the first time i$ this volume are all me$tio$e# i$ the 1989 "i"liogra!h*) . seco$# volume will collect texts !u"lishe# "etwee$ 1975 a$# 19952 Two Regimes of Madness and ot er te!ts "#eu! regimes de fous et autres te!tes$% 3Davi# 4a!ou/a#

22

3esert 5s"ands

Geogra!hers sa* there are two 'i$#s of isla$#s) This is valua"le i$formatio$ for the imagi$atio$ "ecause it co$firms what the imagi$atio$ alrea#* '$ew) 5or is it the o$l* case where scie$ce ma'es m*tholog* more co$crete& a$# m*tholog* ma'es scie$ce more vivi#) &ontinenta' is'ands are acci#e$tal& #erive# isla$#s) The* are se!arate# from a co$ti$e$t& "or$ of #isarticulatio$& erosio$& fracture6 the* survive the a"sor!tio$ of what o$ce co$tai$e# them) Oceanic is'ands are origi$ar*& esse$tial isla$#s) 7ome are forme# from coral reefs a$# #is!la* a ge$ui$e orga$ism) 8thers emerge from u$#erwater eru!tio$s& "ri$gi$g to the light of #a* a moveme$t from the lowest #e!ths) 7ome rise slowl*6 some #isa!!ear a$# the$ retur$& leavi$g us $o time to a$$ex them) These two 'i$#s of isla$#s& co$ti$e$tal a$# origi$ar*& reveal a !rofou$# o!!ositio$ "etwee$ ocea$ a$# la$#) 9o$ti$e$tal isla$#s serve as a remi$#er that the sea is o$ to! of the earth& ta'i$g a#va$tage of the slightest saggi$g i$ the highest structures6 ocea$ic isla$#s& that the earth is still there& u$#er the sea& gatheri$g its stre$gth to !u$ch through to the surface) :e ca$ assume that these eleme$ts are i$ co$sta$t strife& #is!la*i$g a re!ulsio$ for o$e a$other) +$ this we fi$# $othi$g to reassure us) .lso& that a$ isla$# is #eserte# must a!!ear p i'osop ica''y $ormal to us) ;uma$s ca$$ot live& $or live i$ securit*& u$less the* assume that the active struggle "etwee$ earth a$# water is over& or at least co$tai$e#) <eo!le li'e to call these two eleme$ts mother a$# father& assig$i$g them ge$#er roles accor#i$g to the whim of their fa$c*) The* must somehow !ersua#e themselves that a struggle of this 'i$# #oes $ot exist& or that it has somehow e$#e#) +$ o$e wa* or a$other& the ver* existe$ce of isla$#s is the $egatio$ of this !oi$t of view& of this effort& this co$victio$) That =$gla$# is !o!ulate# will alwa*s come as a sur!rise6 huma$s ca$ live o$ a$ isla$# o$l* "* forgetti$g what a$ isla$# re!rese$ts) +sla$#s are either from "efore or for after huma$'i$#)

>ut ever*thi$g that geogra!h* has tol# us a"out the two 'i$#s of isla$#s& the imagi$atio$ '$ew alrea#* o$ its ow$ a$# i$ a$other wa*) The e'an that #raws huma$s towar# isla$#s exte$#s the #ou"le moveme$t that !ro#uces isla$#s i$ themselves) Dreami$g of isla$#s3whether with /o* or i$ fear& it #oes$0t matter3is #reami$g of !ulli$g awa*& of "ei$g alrea#* se!arate& far from a$* co$ti$e$t& of "ei$g lost a$# alo$e3or it is #reami$g of starti$g from scratch& recreati$g& "egi$$i$g a$ew) 7ome isla$#s #rifte# awa* from the co$ti$e$t& "ut the isla$# is also that towar# which o$e #rifts6 other isla$#s origi$ate# i$ the ocea$& "ut t e is'and is a'so t e origin, ra#ical

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a$# a"solute) 9ertai$l*& se!arati$g a$# creati$g are $ot mutuall* exclusive2 o$e has to hol# o$e0s ow$ whe$ o$e is se!arate#& a$# ha# "etter "e se!arate to create a$ew6 $evertheless& o$e of the two te$#e$cies alwa*s !re#omi$ates) +$ this wa*& the moveme$t of the imagi$atio$ of isla$#s ta'es u! the moveme$t of their !ro#uctio$& "ut the* #o$0t have the same o"/ective) +t is the same moveme$t& "ut a #iffere$t goal) +t is $o lo$ger the isla$# that is se!arate# from the co$ti$e$t& it is huma$s who fi$# themselves se!arate# from the worl# whe$ o$ a$ isla$#) +t is $o lo$ger the isla$# that is create# from the "owels of the earth through the li?ui# #e!ths& it is huma$s who create the worl# a$ew from the isla$# a$# o$ the waters) ;uma$s thus ta'e u! for themselves "oth moveme$ts of the isla$# a$# are a"le to #o so o$ a$ isla$# that& !recisel*& lac's o$e 'i$# of moveme$t2 huma$s ca$ #rift towar# a$ isla$# that is $o$etheless origi$ar*& a$# the* ca$ create o$ a$ isla$# that has merel* #rifte# awa*) 8$ closer i$s!ectio$& we fi$# here a $ew reaso$ for ever* isla$# to "e a$# remai$ i$ theor* #eserte#)

.$ isla$# #oes$0t sto! "ei$g #eserte# sim!l* "ecause it is i$ha"ite#) :hile it is true that the moveme$t of huma$s towar# a$# o$ the isla$# ta'es u! the moveme$t of the isla$# !rior to huma$'i$#& some !eo!le ca$ occu!* the isla$#3it is still #eserte#& all the more so& !rovi#e# the* are sufficie$tl*& that is& a"solutel* se!arate& a$# !rovi#e# the* are sufficie$t& a"solute creators) 9ertai$l*& this is $ever the case i$ fact& though !eo!le who are shi!wrec'e# a!!roach such a co$#itio$) >ut for this to "e the case& we $ee# o$l* extra!olate i$ imagi$atio$ the moveme$t the* "ri$g with them to the isla$#) 8$l* i$ a!!eara$ce #oes such a moveme$t !ut a$ e$# to the isla$#0s #eserte#$ess6 i$ realit*& it ta'es u! a$# !rolo$gs the e'an that !ro#uce# the isla$# as #eserte#) %ar from com!romisi$g it& huma$s "ri$g the #eserte#$ess to its !erfectio$ a$# highest !oi$t) +$ certai$ co$#itio$s which attach them to the ver* moveme$t of thi$gs& huma$s #o $ot !ut a$ e$# to #eserte#$ess& the* ma'e it sacre#) Those !eo!le who come to the isla$# i$#ee# occu!* a$# !o!ulate it6 "ut i$ realit*& were the* sufficie$tl* se!arate& sufficie$tl* creative& the* woul# give the isla$# o$l* a #*$amic image of itself& a co$scious$ess of the moveme$t which !ro#uce# the isla$#& such that through them the isla$# woul# i$ the e$# "ecome co$scious of itself as #eserte# a$# u$!eo!le#) The isla$# woul# "e o$l* the #ream of huma$s& a$# huma$s& the !ure co$scious$ess of the isla$#)

%or this to "e the case& there is agai$ "ut o$e co$#itio$2 huma$s woul# have to re#uce themselves to the moveme$t that "ri$gs them to the isla$#& the moveme$t which !rolo$gs a$# ta'es u! the

24

e'an that !ro#uce# the isla$#) The$ geogra!h* a$# the imagi$atio$ woul# "e o$e) To that ?uestio$ so #ear to the ol# ex!lorers31which creatures live o$ #eserte# isla$#s@13o$e coul# o$l* a$swer2 huma$ "ei$gs live there alrea#*& "ut u$commo$ huma$s& the* are a"solutel* se!arate& a"solute creators& i$ short& a$ +#ea of huma$it*& a !rotot*!e& a ma$ who woul# almost "e a go#& a woma$ who woul# "e a go##ess& a great .m$esiac& a !ure .rtist& a co$scious$ess of =arth a$# 8cea$& a$ e$ormous hurrica$e& a "eautiful witch& a statue from the =aster +sla$#s) There *ou have a huma$ "ei$g who !rece#es itself) 7uch a creature o$ a #eserte# isla$# woul# "e the #eserte# isla$# itself& i$sofar as it imagi$es a$# reflects itself i$ its first moveme$t) . co$scious$ess of the earth a$# ocea$& such is the #eserte# isla$#& rea#* to "egi$ the worl# a$ew) >ut si$ce huma$ "ei$gs& eve$ volu$taril*& are $ot i#e$tical to the moveme$t that !uts them o$ the isla$#& the* are u$a"le to /oi$ with the e'an that !ro#uces the isla$#6 the* alwa*s e$cou$ter it from the outsi#e& a$# their !rese$ce i$ fact s!oils its #eserte#$ess) The u$it* of the #eserte# isla$# a$# its i$ha"ita$t is thus $ot actual& o$l* imagi$ar*& li'e the i#ea of loo'i$g "ehi$# the curtai$ whe$ o$e is $ot "ehi$# it) Aore im!orta$tl*& it is #ou"tful whether the i$#ivi#ual imagi$atio$& u$ai#e#& coul# raise itself u! to such a$ a#mira"le i#e$tit*6 it woul# re?uire the collective imagi$atio$& what is most !rofou$# i$ it& i)e) rites a$# m*tholog*)

+$ the facts themselves we fi$# at least a $egative co$firmatio$ of all this& if we co$si#er what a #eserte# isla$# is i$ realit*& that is& geogra!hicall*) The isla$#& a$# all the more so the #eserte# isla$#& is a$ extremel* !oor or wea' $otio$ from the !oi$t of view of geogra!h*) This is to its cre#it) The ra$ge of isla$#s has $o o"/ective u$it*& a$# #eserte# isla$#s have eve$ less) The #eserte# isla$# ma* i$#ee# have extremel* !oor soil) Deserte#& the isla$# ma* "e a #esert& "ut $ot $ecessaril*) The real #esert is u$i$ha"ite# o$l* i$sofar as it !rese$ts $o co$#itio$s that "* rights woul# ma'e life !ossi"le& whether vegeta"le& a$imal& or huma$) 8$ the co$trar*& the lac' of i$ha"ita$ts o$ the #eserte# isla$# is a !ure fact #ue to circumsta$ce& i$ other wor#s& the isla$#0s surrou$#i$gs) The isla$# is what the sea surrou$#s a$# what we travel arou$#) +t is li'e a$ egg) .$ egg of the sea& it is rou$#) +t is as though the isla$# ha# !ushe# its #esert outsi#e) :hat is #eserte# is the ocea$ arou$# it) +t is "* virtue of circumsta$ce& for other reaso$s tha$ the !ri$ci!le o$ which the isla$# #e!e$#s& that shi!s !ass i$ the #ista$ce a$# $ever come ashore) The isla$# is #eserte# more tha$ it is a #esert) 7o much so& that i$ itself the isla$# ma* co$tai$ the liveliest of rivers& the most agile fau$a& the "rightest flora& the most ama i$g $ourishme$t& the har#iest of savages& a$# the castawa* as its most !recious fruit& it ma* eve$ co$tai$& however mome$taril*& the shi! that comes to ta'e him awa*) %or all that& it is $ot a$* less a #eserte# isla$#) To cha$ge this situatio$& we woul# have to overhaul the ge$eral #istri"utio$ of the co$ti$e$ts& the state of the seas& a$# the li$es of $avigatio$)

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This is to state o$ce agai$ that the esse$ce of the #eserte# isla$# is imagi$ar* a$# $ot actual& m*thological a$# $ot geogra!hical) .t the same time& its #esti$* is su"/ect to those huma$ co$#itio$s that ma'e m*tholog* !ossi"le) A*tholog* is $ot sim!l* wille# i$to existe$ce& a$# the !eo!les of the earth ?uic'l* e$sure# the* woul# $o lo$ger u$#ersta$# their ow$ m*ths) +t is at this ver* mome$t literature "egi$s) 4iterature is the attem!t to i$ter!ret& i$ a$ i$ge$ious wa*& the m*ths we $o lo$ger u$#ersta$#& at the mome$t we $o lo$ger u$#ersta$# them& si$ce we $o lo$ger '$ow how to #ream them or re!ro#uce them) 4iterature is the com!etitio$ of misi$ter!retatio$s that co$scious$ess $aturall* a$# $ecessaril* !ro#uces o$ themes of the u$co$scious& a$# li'e ever* com!etitio$ it has its !ri es) 8$e woul# have to show exactl* how i$ this se$se m*tholog* fails a$# #ies i$ two classic $ovels of the #eserte# isla$#& Bo"i$so$ a$# 7u a$$e) Su(anne and t e )acific em!hasi es the se!arate# as!ect of isla$#s& the se!aratio$ of the *ou$g woma$ who fi$#s herself there61 Robinson &rusoe, the creative as!ect& the "egi$$i$g a$ew) +t is true that the wa* m*tholog* fails is #iffere$t i$ each case) +$ the case of Girau#oux0s 7u a$$e& m*tholog* #ies the !rettiest& most graceful #eath) +$ Bo"i$so$0s case& its #eath is heav* i$#ee#) 8$e ca$ har#l* imagi$e a more "ori$g $ovel& a$# it is sa# to see chil#re$ still rea#i$g it to#a*) Bo"i$so$0s visio$ of the worl# resi#es exclusivel* i$ !ro!ert*6 $ever have we see$ a$ ow$er more rea#* to !reach) The m*thical recreatio$ of the worl# from the #eserte# isla$# gives wa* to the reco$stitutio$ of ever*#a* "ourgeois life from a reserve of ca!ital) =ver*thi$g is ta'e$ from the shi!) 5othi$g is i$ve$te#) +t is all !ai$sta'i$gl* a!!lie# o$ the isla$#) Time is $othi$g "ut the time $ecessar* for ca!ital to !ro#uce a "e$efit as the outcome of wor') .$# the !rovi#e$tial fu$ctio$ of Go# is to guara$tee a retur$) Go# '$ows his !eo!le& the har#wor'i$g ho$est t*!e& "* their "eautiful !ro!erties& a$# the evil #oers& "* their !oorl* mai$tai$e#& sha""* !ro!ert*) Bo"i$so$0s com!a$io$ is $ot =ve& "ut %ri#a*& #ocile towar#s wor'& ha!!* to "e a slave& a$# too easil* #isguste# "* ca$$i"alism) .$* health* rea#er woul# #ream of seei$g him eat Bo"i$so$) Robinson &rusoe re!rese$ts the "est illustratio$ of that thesis which affirms the close ties "etwee$ ca!italism a$# <rotesta$tism) The $ovel #evelo!s the failure a$# the #eath of m*tholog* i$ <urita$ism) Thi$gs are ?uite #iffere$t with 7u a$$e) +$ her case& the #eserte# isla$# is a #e!ositor* of rea#*(ma#e& luxurious o"/ects) The isla$# "ears imme#iatel* what it has ta'e$ civili atio$ ce$turies to !ro#uce& !erfect& a$# ri!e$) >ut m*tholog* still #ies& though i$ 7u a$$e0s case it #ies i$ a !articularl* <arisia$ wa*) 7u a$$e has $othi$g to create a$ew) The #eserte# isla$# !rovi#es her with the #ou"le of ever* o"/ect from the cit*& i$ the wi$#ows of the sho!s6 it is a #ou"le without co$siste$c*& se!arate# from the real& si$ce it #oes $ot receive the soli#it* that o"/ects or#i$aril* ta'e o$ i$ huma$ relatio$s& ami#st "u*i$g a$# selli$g& excha$ges a$# !rese$ts) 7he is a$ i$si!i# *ou$g woma$) ;er com!a$io$s are $ot .#am& "ut *ou$g ca#avers& a$# whe$ she ree$ters the worl# of livi$g me$& she will love them i$ a u$iform wa*& li'e a !riest& as though love were the mi$imum threshol# of her !erce!tio$)

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:hat must "e recovere# is the m*thological life of the #eserte# isla$#) ;owever& i$ its ver* failure& Bo"i$so$ gives us some i$#icatio$2 he first $ee#e# a reserve of ca!ital) +$ 7u a$$e0s case& she was first a$# foremost se!arate) .$# $either the o$e $or the other coul# "e !art of a cou!le) These three i$#icatio$s must "e restore# to their m*thological !urit*) :e have to get "ac' to the moveme$t of the imagi$atio$ that ma'es the #eserte# isla$# a mo#el& a !rotot*!e of the collective soul) %irst& it is true that from the #eserte# isla$# it is $ot creatio$ "ut re(creatio$& $ot the "egi$$i$g "ut a re("egi$$i$g that ta'es !lace) The #eserte# isla$# is the origi$& "ut a seco$# origi$) %rom it ever*thi$g "egi$s a$ew) The isla$# is the $ecessar* mi$imum for this re( "egi$$i$g& the material that survives the first origi$& the ra#iati$g see# or egg that must "e sufficie$t to re(!ro#uce ever*thi$g) 9learl*& this !resu!!oses that the formatio$ of the worl# ha!!e$s i$ two stages& i$ two !erio#s of time& "irth a$# re("irth& a$# that the seco$# is /ust as $ecessar* a$# esse$tial as the first& a$# thus the first is $ecessaril* com!romise#& "or$ for re$ewal a$# alrea#* re$ou$ce# i$ a catastro!he) +t is $ot that there is a seco$# "irth "ecause there has "ee$ a catastro!he& "ut the reverse& there is a catastro!he after the origi$ "ecause there must "e& from the "egi$$i$g& a seco$# "irth) :ithi$ ourselves we ca$ locate the source of such a theme2 it is $ot the !ro#uctio$ of life that we loo' for whe$ we /u#ge it to "e life& "ut its re!ro#uctio$) The a$imal whose mo#e of re!ro#uctio$ remai$s u$'$ow$ to us has $ot *et ta'e$ its !lace amo$g livi$g "ei$gs) +t is $ot e$ough that ever*thi$g "egi$& ever*thi$g must "egi$ agai$ o$ce the c*cle of !ossi"le com"i$atio$s has come to com!letio$) The seco$# mome$t #oes $ot succee# the first2 it is the rea!!eara$ce of the first whe$ the c*cle of the other mome$ts has "ee$ com!lete#) The seco$# origi$ is thus more esse$tial tha$ the first& si$ce it gives us the law of re!etitio$& the law of the series& whose first origi$ gave us o$l* mome$ts) >ut this theme& eve$ more tha$ i$ our fa$tasies& fi$#s ex!ressio$ i$ ever* m*tholog*) +t is well '$ow$ as the m*th of the floo#) The ar' sets #ow$ o$ the o$e !lace o$ earth that remai$s u$covere# "* water& a circular a$# sacre# !lace& from which the worl# "egi$s a$ew) +t is a$ isla$# or a mou$tai$& or "oth at o$ce2 the isla$# is a mou$tai$ u$#er water& a$# the mou$tai$& a$ isla$# that is still #r*) ;ere we see origi$al creatio$ caught i$ a re(creatio$& which is co$ce$trate# i$ a hol* la$# i$ the mi##le of the ocea$) This seco$# origi$ of the worl# is more im!orta$t tha$ the first2 it is a sacre# isla$#) Aa$* m*ths recou$t that what we fi$# there is a$ egg& a cosmic egg) 7i$ce the isla$# is a seco$# origi$& it is e$truste# to ma$ a$# $ot to the go#s) +t is se!arate& se!arate# "* the massive ex!a$se of the floo#) 8cea$ a$# water em"o#* a !ri$ci!le of segregatio$ such that& o$ sacre# isla$#s& exclusivel* female commu$ities ca$ come to "e& such as the isla$# of 9irce or 9al*!so) .fter all& the "egi$$i$g starte# from Go# a$# from a cou!le& "ut $ot the $ew "egi$$i$g& the "egi$$i$g agai$& which starts from a$ egg2 m*thological mater$it* is ofte$ a !arthe$oge$esis) The i#ea of a seco$# origi$ gives the #eserte# isla$# its whole mea$i$g& the survival of a sacre# !lace i$ a worl# that is slow to re("egi$) +$ the i#eal of "egi$$i$g a$ew there is somethi$g that !rece#es the "egi$$i$g itself& that ta'es it u! to #ee!e$ it a$# #ela* it i$ the !assage of time) The #esert isla$#

(ean )y**olite+s Logic and ExistenceA


is the material of this somethi$g immemorial& this somethi$g most !rofou$#)

Cea$ ;*!!olite0s earlier *enesis and Structure of +ege',s ,) enomeno'ogy of Spirit, was a comme$tar* o$ ;egel& !reservi$g ;egel i$ its e$tiret*) 2 The i$te$tio$ "ehi$# ;*!!olite0s $ew "oo' is ?uite #iffere$t)3 +$vestigati$g 4ogic& <he$ome$olog*& a$# the =$c*clo!e#ia& ;*!!olite starts from a !recise i#ea to ma'e a !recise !oi$t2 ) i'osop y must be onto'ogy, it cannot be

27

anyt ing e'se- but t ere is no onto'ogy of essence, t ere is on'y an onto'ogy of sense% ;ere we have& it seems& the thesis of this esse$tial "oo'& whose st*le alo$e is a tour #e force) +f ;*! ( !olite0s thesis 0!hiloso!h* is o$tolog*0 mea$s o$e thi$g a"ove all& it is that !hiloso!h* is $ot a$thro!olog*)

.$thro!olog* as!ires to "e a #iscourse on huma$it*) .s such& it !resu!!oses the em!irical #iscourse .D1huma$it*& i$ which the s!ea'er a$# the o"/ect of his s!eech are se!arate) Beflectio$ is o$ o$e si#e& while "ei$g is o$ the other) 7ee$ i$ this light& u$#ersta$#i$g is a moveme$t which is $ot a moveme$t of the thi$g6 it remai$s outsi#e the o"/ect) E$#ersta$#i$g is thus the !ower to a"stract6 a$# reflectio$ is merel* exter$al a$# formal) +t follows that em!iricism ultimatel* se$#s us "ac' to formalism& /ust as formalism refers "ac' to em!iricism) 1=m!irical co$scious$ess is a co$scious$ess #irecte# at !reexiste$t "ei$g& relegati$g reflectio$ to su"/ectivit*)1 7u"/ectivit* will thus "e treate# as a fact& a$# a$thro!olog* will "e set u! as the scie$ce of this fact) Fa$t0s legitimi i$g su"/ectivit* #oes $ot cha$ge the esse$tial !oi$t)

19ritical co$scious$ess is a co$scious$ess that reflects the '$owi$g self& "ut which relegates "ei$g to the thi$g(i$(itself)1 Fa$t i$#ee# achieves the s*$thesis of the i#e$tit* of su"/ect a$# o"/ect3"ut o$l* a$ o"/ect relative to the su"/ect2 the ver* i#e$tit* is the s*$thesis of the imagi$atio$ a$# is $ot !osite# i$ "ei$g itself) ;e goes "e*o$# the !s*chological a$# the em!irical& all the while remai$i$g withi$ the a$thro!ological) 7o lo$g as the #etermi$atio$ is o$l* su"/ective& we ca$$ot get outsi#e a$thro!olog*) Aust we get outsi#e it& a$# how #o we #o so@ These two ?uestio$s are i$ fact o$e ?uestio$2 the wa* to get outsi#e is also the $ecessit* to #o so) To his cre#it& Fa$t0s i$sight is that thought is !resu!!ose# as give$2 thought is give$ "ecause it thi$'s itself a$# reflects itself& a$# it is !resu!!ose# as give$ "ecause the totalit* of o"/ects !resu!!oses thought as that which ma'es u$#ersta$#i$g !ossi"le) Thus& i$ Fa$t& thought a$# the thi$g are i#e$tical& "ut the thi$g i#e$tical to thought is o$l* a relative thi$g& $ot the thi$g(as("ei$g& $ot the thi$g(i$(itself ;egel& therefore& as!ires to the verita"le i#e$tit* of what is give$ a$# what is !resu!!ose#& i$ other wor#s& to the ."solute) +$ his <he$ome$olog*& we are show$ that the ge$eral #iffere$ce "etwee$ "ei$g a$# reflectio$& of "ei$g(i$(itself a$# "ei$g(for( itself& of truth a$# certai$t*& #evelo! i$ the co$crete mome$ts of a #ialectic whose ver* moveme$t a"olishes this #iffere$ce& or !reserves it o$l* as a $ecessar* a!!eara$ce) +$ this se$se& the <he$ome$olog* starts from huma$ reflectio$ to show that this huma$ reflectio$ a$# its

28

co$se?ue$ces lea# to the a"solute '$owle#ge which the* !resu!!ose) .s ;*!!olite remar's& it is a ?uestio$ of 1re#uci$g1 a$thro!olog*& of 1removi$g the o"stacle1 of a '$owle#ge whose source is foreig$) >ut it is $ot /ust at the fi$ish& or at the "egi$$i$g& that a"solute '$owle#ge is% F$owle#ge is alrea#* a"solute i$ ever* mome$t2 a figure of co$scious$ess is a mome$t of the co$ce!t& o$l* i$ a #iffere$t guise6 the exter$al #iffere$ce "etwee$ "ei$g a$# reflectio$ is& i$ a #iffere$t guise& the i$ter$al #iffere$ce of >ei$g itself or& i$ other terms& >ei$g which is i#e$tical to #iffere$ce& to me#iatio$) 17i$ce the #iffere$ce of co$scious$ess has retur$e# i$to the self& these mome$ts are the$ !rese$te# as #etermi$e# co$ce!ts a$# as their orga$ic moveme$t which is grou$#e# i$ itself)1

;ow 1arroga$t&1 someo$e will sa*& to act li'e Go# a$# gra$t *ourself a"solute '$owle#ge) >ut we have to u$#ersta$# what "ei$g is with res!ect to the give$) >ei$g& accor#i$g to ;*!!olite& is $ot essence "ut sense% 7a*i$g that this worl# is sufficie$t $ot o$l* mea$s that it sufficie$t for us, "ut that it is sufficie$t unto itse'f a$# that the worl# refers to "ei$g $ot as the esse$ce "e*o$# a!!eara$ces& a$# $ot as a seco$# worl# which woul# "e the worl# of the +$tel( ligi"le& "ut as the se$se of this worl#) 9ertai$l*& we fi$# this su"stitutio$ of se$se for esse$ce alrea#* i$ <lato& whe$ he shows us that the seco$# worl# is itself the su"/ect of a #ialectic that ma'es it the se$se of this worl#& $ot some other worl#) >ut the great age$t of su"stitutio$ is agai$ Fa$t& "ecause his criti?ue re!laces formal !ossi"ilit* with tra$sce$#e$tal !ossi"ilit*& the "ei$g of the !ossi"le with the !ossi"ilit* of "ei$g& logical i#e$tit* with the s*$thetic i#e$tit* of recog$itio$& the "ei$g of logic with the logical $ature of "ei$g3i$ a wor#& the criti?ue re!laces esse$ce with se$se) .ccor#i$g to ;*!!olite& the great !ro!ositio$ of ;egel0s 4ogic is that there is $o seco$# worl#& "ecause such a !ro!ositio$ is at the same time the ratio$ale for tra$sformi$g meta!h*sics i$to logic& the logic of se$se) 0There is $o "e*o$#0 mea$s there is $o "e*o$# to the worl# ,"ecause >ei$g is o$l* se$se-6 a$# that there is i$ the worl# "e*o$# to thought ,"ecause i$ thought it is "ei$g which thi$'s itself-6

a$# fi$all*& that there is i$ thought $o "e*o$# of la$guage) Cea$ ;*!!olite0s "oo' is a reflectio$ o$ the co$#itio$s of a$ a"solute #iscourse6 a$# i$ this res!ect& those cha!ters o$ the i$effa"le a$# o$ !oetr* are crucial) The same !eo!le who chitchat are those who "elieve i$ the i$effa"le) >ut if >ei$g is se$se& true '$owle#ge is $ot the '$owle#ge of a$ 8ther& $or of some other thi$g)

29

."solute '$owle#ge is what is closest& so to s!ea'& what is most sim!le2 it is ere% 1>ehi$# the curtai$ there is $othi$g to see&1 or as ;*!!olite sa*s2 1the secret is that there is $o secret)1

:e see the$ the #ifficult* which the author em!haticall* u$#erli$es2 if o$tolog* is a$ o$tolog* of se$se a$# $ot esse$ce& if there is $o seco$# worl#& how ca$ a"solute '$owle#ge "e #isti$guishe# from em!irical '$owle#ge@ Do we $ot fall "ac' i$to the sim!le a$thro!olog* which we /ust critici e#@ ."solute '$owle#ge must at o$e a$# the same time i$clu#e em!irical '$owle#ge a$# $othi$g else& si$ce there is $othi$g else to i$clu#e& a$# *et it has to i$clu#e its ow$ ra#ical #iffere$ce from em!irical '$owle#ge) ;*!!olite0s i#ea is this2 esse$tialism& #es!ite a!!eara$ces& was $ot what !reserve# us from em!iricism a$# allowe# us to go "e*o$# it) %rom the view!oi$t of esse$ce& reflectio$ is $o less exterior tha$ it is i$ em!iricism or !ure criti?ue) =m!iricism !osite# #etermi$atio$ as !urel* su"/ective6 esse$tialism& "* o!!osi$g #etermi$atio$s to o$e a$other a$# to the ."solute& lea#s o$l* to the "ottom of this limitatio$) =sse$tialism is o$ the same si#e as em!iricism) 8$ the other ha$#& however& the o$tolog* of se$se is total Thought that '$ows itself o$l* i$ its #etermi$atio$s& which are mome$ts of form) +$ the em!irical a$# i$ the a"solute& it is the same "ei$g a$# the same thought6 "ut the em!irical& exter$al #iffere$ce of thought a$# "ei$g has give$ wa* to the #iffere$ce which is i#e$tical to >ei$g& to the i$ter$al #iffere$ce of >ei$g that thi$'s itself) Thus a"solute '$owle#ge is i$ effect #isti$ct from em!irical '$owle#ge& "ut o$l* at the cost of #e$*i$g the '$owle#ge of $o$(#iffere$t esse$ce) +$ logic& therefore& there is $o lo$ger& as there is i$ the em!irical realm& what + sa* o$ the o$e ha$# a$# the se$se of what + sa* o$ the other3the !ursuit of the o$e "* the other "ei$g the #ialectic of <he$ome$olog*) 8$ the co$trar*& m* #iscourse is logicall* or !ro!erl* !hiloso!hical whe$ + s!ea' the se$se of what + sa*& a$# whe$ >ei$g thus s!ea's itself) 7uch #iscourse& which is the !articular st*le of !hiloso!h*& ca$$ot "e other tha$ circular) +$ this co$$ectio$& we ca$$ot fail to $otice those !ages ;*!!olite #evotes to the !ro"lem of "egi$$i$g i$ !hiloso!h*& a !ro"lem which is $ot o$l* logical& "ut !e#agogical)

30

;*!!olite thus rises u! agai$st a$* a$thro!ological or huma$ist i$ter!retatio$ of ;egel) ."solute '$owle#ge is $ot a reflectio$ of huma$it*& "ut a reflectio$ of the ."solute i$ huma$it*) The ."solute is $ot a seco$# worl#& a$# *et a"solute '$owle#ge is i$#ee# #isti$ct from em!irical '$owle#ge& /ust as !hiloso!h* is #isti$ct from a$* a$thro!olog*) +$ this regar#& however& if we must co$si#er #ecisive the #isti$ctio$ ;*!!olite ma'es "etwee$ 4ogic a$# <he$ome$olog*& #oes the !hiloso!h* of histor* $ot have a more am"iguous relatio$ to 4ogic@ ;*!!olite sa*s as much2 the ."solute as se$se is "ecomi$g6 a$# it is certai$l* $ot a$ historical "ecomi$g) >ut what is the relatio$ of 4ogic0s "ecomi$g to histor*& if 0historical0 i$ this i$sta$ce #esig$ates a$*thi$g "ut the sim!le character of a fact@ The relatio$ of o$tolog* a$# em!irical huma$it* is !erfectl* #etermi$e#& "ut $ot the relatio$ of o$tolog* a$# historical huma$it*) .$# if as ;*!!olite suggests fi$itu#e itself must "e rei$tro#uce# i$to the ."solute& #oes this $ot ris' the retur$ of a$thro!ologism i$ a $ew form@ ;*!!olite0s co$clusio$ remai$s o!e$6 it o!e$s the wa* for a$ o$tolog*) >ut + woul# o$l* !oi$t out that the source of the #ifficult*& !erha!s& was alrea#* i$ 4ogic itself) +t is i$#ee# tha$'s to ;*!!olite that we $ow reali e !hiloso!h*& if it mea$s a$*thi$g& ca$ o$l* "e o$tolog* a$# a$ o$tolog* of se$se) +$ the em!irical realm a$# i$ the a"solute& it is the same "ei$g a$# the same thought6 "ut the #iffere$ce "etwee$ thought a$# "ei$g has "ee$ sur!asse# i$ the a"solute "* the !ositi$g of >ei$g which is i#e$tical to #iffere$ce& a$# which as such thi$'s itself a$# reflects itself i$ huma$it*) This a"solute i#e$tit* of "ei$g a$# #iffere$ce is calle# se$se) >ut there is o$e !oi$t i$ a'' this where ;*!!olite shows his ;egelia$ "ias2 >ei$g ca$ "e i#e$tical to #iffere$ce o$l* i$ so far as #iffere$ce is ta'e$ to the a"solute& i$ other wor#s& all the wa* to co$tra#ictio$) 7!eculative #iffere$ce is self(co$tra#ictor* >ei$g) The thi$g co$tra#icts itself "ecause& #isti$guishi$g itself from all that is $ot& it fi$#s its "ei$g i$ this ver* #iffere$ce6 it reflects itself o$l* "* reflecti$g itself i$ the other& si$ce the other is its other) This is the theme ;*!!olite #evelo!s whe$ he a$al* es the three mome$ts of 4ogic2 "ei$g& esse$ce& a$# the co$ce!t) ;egel will re!roach <lato a$# 4ei"$i "oth for $ot goi$g a'' t e way to co$tra#ictio$2 <lato remai$s at sim!le alterit*6 a$# 4ei"$i & at !ure #iffere$ce) This su!!oses i$ the ver* least $ot o$l* that the mome$ts of <he$ome$olog* a$# the mome$ts of 4ogic are $ot mome$ts i$ the same se$se& "ut also that there are two wa*s& !he$ome$ological a$# logical& to co$tra#ict o$eself) +$ the wa'e of this fruitful "oo' "* Cea$ ;*!!olite& o$e might as' whether a$ o$tolog* of #iffere$ce coul#$0t "e create# that woul# $ot go all the wa* to co$tra#ictio$& si$ce co$tra#ictio$ woul# "e less a$# $ot more tha$ #iffere$ce) ;*!!olite sa*s that a$ o$tolog* of !ure #iffere$ce woul# restore us to a !urel* formal a$# exterior reflectio$& a$# woul# i$ the e$# reveal itself to "e a$ o$tolog* of esse$ce) ;owever& the same ?uestio$ coul# "e as'e# i$ a$other wa*2 is it the same thi$g to sa* that >ei$g ex!resses itself a$# that >ei$g co$tra#icts itself@ :hile it is true that the seco$# a$# thir# !arts of ;*!!olite0s "oo' esta"lish a theor* of co$tra#ictio$ i$ >ei$g& where co$tra#ictio$ itself is the a"solute of #iffere$ce& o$ the other ha$#& i$ the first !art ,the theor* of la$guage- a$# throughout the "oo' ,allusio$s to forgetti$g& remem"eri$g& lost mea$i$g-& #oes $ot ;*!!olite esta"lish a theor* of ex!ressio$& where #iffere$ce is ex!ressio$ itself& a$# co$tra#ictio$& that as!ect which is o$l* !he$ome$al@

5nstin7ts and

5nstit-tions

:hat we call a$ i$sti$ct a$# what we call a$ i$stitutio$ esse$tiall* #esig$ate !roce#ures of satisfactio$) 8$ the o$e ha$#& a$ orga$ism reacts i$sti$ctivel* to exter$al stimuli& extracti$g from the exter$al worl# the eleme$ts which will satisf* its te$#e$cies a$# $ee#s6 these eleme$ts

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com!rise worl#s that are s!ecific to #iffere$t a$imals) 8$ the other ha$#& the su"/ect i$stitutes a$ origi$al worl# "etwee$ its te$#e$cies a$# the exter$al milieu& #evelo!i$g artificial mea$s of satisfactio$) These artificial mea$s li"erate a$ orga$ism from $ature though the* su"/ect it to somethi$g else& tra$sformi$g te$#e$cies "* i$tro#uci$g them i$to a $ew milieu) 7o mo$e* will li"erate *ou from hu$ger& !rovi#e# *ou have mo$e*6 a$# marriage will s!are *ou from searchi$g out a !art$er& though it su"/ects *ou to other tas's) +$ other wor#s& ever* i$#ivi#ual ex!erie$ce !resu!!oses& as a$ a priori, the existe$ce of a milieu i$ which that ex!erie$ce is co$#ucte#& a s!ecies(s!ecific milieu or a$ i$stitutio$al milieu) +$sti$ct a$# i$stitutio$ are the two orga$i e# forms of a !ossi"le satisfactio$)

There is $o #ou"t that te$#e$cies fi$# satisfactio$ i$ the i$stitutio$2 sexualit* fi$#s it i$ marriage& a$# avarice i$ !ro!ert*) The exam!le of a$ i$stitutio$ li'e the 7tate& it will "e o"/ecte#& #oes $ot have a te$#e$c* to which it corres!o$#s) >ut it is clear that such i$stitutio$s are seco$#ar*2 the* alrea#* !resu!!ose i$stitutio$ali e# "ehaviors& recalli$g a #erive# utilit* that is !ro!erl* social) +$ the e$#& this utilit* locates the !ri$ci!le from which it is #erive# i$ the relatio$ of te$#e$cies to the social) The i$stitutio$ is alwa*s give$ as a$ orga$i e# s*stem of mea$s) +t is here& moreover& that we fi$# the #iffere$ce "etwee$ i$stitutio$ a$# law2 law is a limitatio$ of actio$s& i$stitutio$ a !ositive mo#el for actio$) 9o$trar* to theories of law which !lace the !ositive outsi#e the social ,$atural rights-& a$# the social i$ the $egative ,co$tractual limitatio$-& the theor* of the i$stitutio$ !laces the $egative outsi#e the social ,$ee#s-& so as to !rese$t societ* as esse$tiall* !ositive a$# i$ve$tive ,origi$al mea$s of satisfactio$-) 7uch a theor* will affor# us the followi$g !olitical criteria2 t*ra$$* is a regime i$ which there are ma$* laws a$# few i$stitutio$s6 #emocrac* is a regime i$ which there are ma$* i$stitutio$s& a$# few laws) 8!!ressio$ "ecomes a!!are$t whe$ laws "ear #irectl* o$ !eo!le& a$# $ot o$ the !rior i$stitutio$s that !rotect them)

>ut if it is true that te$#e$cies are satisfie# "* the i$stitutio$& the i$stitutio$ is $ot ex!lai$e# "* te$#e$cies) The same sexual $ee#s will $ever ex!lai$ the multi!le !ossi"le forms of marriage) 5either #oes the $egative ex!lai$ the !ositive& $or the ge$eral the !articular) The 1#esire to whet *our a!!etite1 #oes $ot ex!lai$ #ri$'s "efore #i$$er& "ecause there are a thousa$# other wa*s to whet *our a!!etite) >rutalit* #oes $ot ex!lai$ war i$ the least6 a$# *et "rutalit* #iscovers i$ war its "est mea$s) This is the !ara#ox of societ*2 we are alwa*s tal'i$g a"out i$stitutio$s& "ut we are

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i$ fact co$fro$te# "* !roce#ures of satisfactio$3a$# the te$#e$cies satisfie# "* such !roce#ures $either trigger $or #etermi$e the !roce#ures) Te$#e$cies are satisfie# "* mea$s that #o $ot #e!e$# o$ them) Therefore& $o te$#e$c* exists which is $ot at the same time co$strai$e# or harasse#& a$# thus tra$sforme#& su"limate#3to such a$ exte$t that $eurosis is !ossi"le) :hat is more& if $ee#s fi$# i$ the i$stitutio$ o$l* a ver* i$#irect satisfactio$& a$ 1o"li?ue1 satisfactio$& it is $ot e$ough to sa* 1the i$stitutio$ is useful&1 o$e must still as' the ?uestio$2 useful for whom@ %or all those who have $ee#s@ 8r /ust for a few ,the !rivilege# class-@ 8r o$l* for those who co$trol the i$stitutio$ ,the "ureaucrac*-@ 8$e of the most !rofou$# sociological !ro"lems thus co$sists i$ see'i$g out the $ature of this other i$sta$ce& o$ which the social forms of the satisfactio$ of te$#e$cies #e!e$#) The rituals of a civili atio$@ The mea$s of !ro#uctio$@ :hatever this other i$sta$ce is& huma$ utilit* is alwa*s somethi$g else tha$ mere a#va$tage) The i$stitutio$ se$#s us "ac' to a social activit* that is co$stitutive of mo#els of which we are $ot co$scious& a$# which are $ot ex!lai$e# either "* te$#e$cies or "* utilit*& si$ce huma$ utilit* !resu!!oses te$#e$cies i$ the first !lace) +$ this se$se& the !riest& the ma$ of ritual& alwa*s em"o#ies the u$co$scious of the ritual0s users)

;ow #iffere$t is i$sti$ct@ :ith i$sti$ct& $othi$g goes "e*o$# utilit*& exce!t "eaut*) :hereas te$#e$cies were i$#irectl* satisfie# "* the i$stitutio$& the* are #irectl* satisfie# "* i$sti$ct) There are $o i$sti$ctive !rohi"itio$s& or i$sti$ctive coercio$s6 o$l* re!ug$a$cies are i$sti$ctive) +$ this case& it is the te$#e$cies themselves& i$ the form of i$ter$al !s*chological factors& that trigger certai$ "ehaviors) E$#ou"te#l*& too& these i$ter$al factors will $ot ex!lai$ how the*& eve$ if the* were the self(same factors& trigger #iffere$t "ehaviors i$ #iffere$t s!ecies) +$ other wor#s& i$sti$ct fi$#s itself at the i$tersectio$ of a #ou"le causalit*& that of i$#ivi#ual !s*chological factors a$# that of the s!ecies itself3hormo$es a$# s!ecies(s!ecificit*) Thus& we as' ourselves o$l* to what exte$t i$sti$ct ca$ "e re#uce# to the sim!le i$terest of the i$#ivi#ual2 i$ which case& if we ta'e it to the limit& we shoul# $o lo$ger s!ea' of i$sti$ct& "ut rather of reflex& of tro!ism& of ha"it a$# i$tellige$ce) 8r is it that i$sti$ct ca$ "e u$#erstoo# o$l* withi$ the framewor' of a$ a#va$tage to the s!ecies& a goo# for the s!ecies& a$ ultimate "iological cause@ 1Eseful for whom@1 is the ?uestio$ we re#iscover here& "ut its mea$i$g has cha$ge#) +$sti$ct& see$ from "oth a$gles& is give$ as a te$#e$c* lau$che# i$ a$ orga$ism at s!ecies(s!ecific reactio$s)

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The !ro"lem commo$ to i$sti$ct a$# to i$stitutio$ is still this2 how #oes the s*$thesis of te$#e$cies a$# the o"/ect that satisfies them come a"out@ +$#ee#& the water that + #ri$' #oes $ot resem"le at all the h*#rates m* orga$ism lac's) The more !erfect a$ i$sti$ct is i$ its #omai$& the more it "elo$gs to the s!ecies& a$# the more it seems to co$stitute a$ origi$al& irre#uci"le !ower of s*$thesis) >ut the more !erfecti"le i$sti$ct is& a$# thus im!erfect& the more it is su"/ecte# to variatio$& to i$#ecisio$& a$# the more it allows itself to "e re#uce# to the mere !la* of i$ter$al i$#ivi#ual factors a$# exterior circumsta$ces3the more it gives wa* to i$tellige$ce) ;owever& if we ta'e this li$e of argume$t to its limit& how coul# such a s*$thesis& offeri$g to the te$#e$c* a suita"le o"/ect& "e i$tellige$t whe$ such a s*$thesis& to "e reali e#& im!lies a !erio# of time too lo$g for the i$#ivi#ual to live& a$# ex!erime$ts which it woul# $ot survive@

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:e are force# "ac' o$ the i#ea that i$tellige$ce is somethi$g more social tha$ i$#ivi#ual& a$# that i$tellige$ce fi$#s i$ the social its i$terme#iate milieu& the thir# term that ma'es i$tellige$ce !ossi"le) :hat #oes the social mea$ with res!ect to te$#e$cies@ +t mea$s i$tegrati$g circumsta$ces i$to a s*stem of a$tici!atio$& a$# i$ter$al factors i$to a s*stem that regulates their a!!eara$ce& thus re!laci$g the s!ecies) This is i$#ee# the case with the i$stitutio$) +t is $ight "ecause we slee!6 we eat "ecause it is lu$chtime) There are $o social te$#e$cies& "ut o$l* those social mea$s to satisf* te$#e$cies& mea$s which are origi$al "ecause the* are social) =ver* i$stitutio$ im!oses a series of mo#els o$ our "o#ies& eve$ i$ its i$volu$tar* structures& a$# offers our i$tellige$ce a sort of '$owle#ge& a !ossi"ilit* of foresight as !ro/ect) :e come to the followi$g co$clusio$2 huma$s have $o i$sti$cts& the* "uil#s i$stitutio$s) The ;uma$ is a$ a$imal #ecimati$g its s!ecies) Therefore& i$sti$ct woul# tra$slate the urge$t $ee#s of the a$imal& a$# the i$stitutio$ the #ema$#s of huma$it*2 the urge$c* of hu$ger "ecomes i$ huma$it* the #ema$# for "rea#) +$ the e$#& the !ro"lem of i$sti$ct a$# i$stitutio$ will "e gras!e# most acutel* $ot i$ a$imal 1societies&1 "ut i$ relatio$s of a$imal a$# huma$s& whe$ the #ema$#s of me$ come to "ear o$ the a$imal "* i$tegrati$g it i$to i$stitutio$s ,totemism a$# #omesticatio$-& whe$ the urge$t $ee#s of the a$imal e$cou$ters the huma$& either fleei$g or attac'i$g us& or !atie$tl* waiti$g for $ourishme$t a$# !rotectio$)

Bergson, 1859-194V

. great !hiloso!her creates $ew co$ce!ts2 these co$ce!ts simulta$eousl* sur!ass the #ualities of or#i$ar* thought a$# give thi$gs a $ew truth& a $ew #istri"utio$& a $ew wa* of #ivi#i$g u! the worl#) The $ame 0>ergso$0 remai$s associate# with the $otio$s of duration, memory, e'an vita', a$# intuition% ;is i$flue$ce a$# his ge$ius are evaluate# accor#i$g to the wa* i$ which these co$ce!ts have "ee$ im!ose# a$# use#& have e$tere# a$# remai$e# i$ the !hiloso!hical worl#) :ith Time and .ree /i'' the origi$al co$ce!t of #uratio$ was forme#6 i$ Matter and memory, a co$ce!t of memor*6 i$ &reative Evo'ution, that of e'an vita'% The relatio$shi! of these three $eigh"ori$g $otio$s ca$ show us the #evelo!me$t a$# the !rogress of >ergso$ia$ !hiloso!h*) :hat& the$& is this relatio$shi!@

To "egi$ with& + will set out to exami$e i$tuitio$ o$l*& $ot "ecause it is the esse$tial $otio$& "ut "ecause it ca$ i$struct us i$ the $ature of >ergso$ia$ !ro"lems) +t is $ot "* cha$ce that& whe$ s!ea'i$g of i$tuitio$& >ergso$ shows us the im!orta$ce& i$ the life of the mi$#& of a$ activit* that sets u! a$# orga$i es !ro"lems2 there are false !ro"lems more tha$ there are false solutio$s& more tha$ there are false solutio$s for true !ro"lems) 2 5ow& if a certai$ i$tuitio$ is alwa*s at the heart of a !hiloso!her0s #octri$e& o$e of the origi$al thi$gs a"out >ergso$ is that i$ his ow$ #octri$e& he orga$i e# i$tuitio$ itself as a true metho#& a metho# for elimi$ati$g false !ro"lems&

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for setti$g u! !ro"lems truthfull*& a metho# that sets them u!& the$& i$ terms of #uratio$) 1Guestio$s relate# to the su"/ect a$# to the o"/ect& to their #isti$ctio$ a$# their u$io$& must "e set u! i$ terms of time rather tha$ s!ace)1 3 5o #ou"t it is #uratio$ that /u#ges i$tuitio$& as >ergso$ recalls o$ $umerous occasio$s& "ut it $o$etheless remai$s the case that it is o$l* i$tuitio$ that ca$& whe$ it has "ecome co$scious of itself as a metho#& see' #uratio$ i$ thi$gs& a!!eal to #uratio$& i$vo'e #uratio$& !recisel* "ecause it owes #uratio$ all that it is) +f& therefore& i$tuitio$ is $ot a sim!le !leasure& $or a !rese$time$t& $or sim!l* a$ affective !rocess& we must first #etermi$e what its trul* metho#ological character is)

The first characteristic of i$tuitio$ is that i$ it a$# through it somethi$g is !rese$te#& is give$ i$ !erso$& i$stea# of "ei$g i$ferre# from somethi$g else a$# co$clu#e#) ;ere& alrea#*& the ge$eral orie$tatio$ of !hiloso!h* comes i$to ?uestio$& for it is $ot e$ough to sa* that !hiloso!h* is at the origi$ of the scie$ces a$# that it was their mother6 rather& $ow that the* are grow$ u! a$# well esta"lishe#& we must as' wh* there is still !hiloso!h*& i$ what res!ect scie$ce is $ot sufficie$t) <hiloso!h* has o$l* ever res!o$#e# to such a ?uestio$ i$ two wa*s& #ou"tless "ecause there are o$l* two !ossi"le res!o$ses) 8$e sa*s that scie$ce gives us a '$owle#ge of thi$gs& that it is therefore i$ a certai$ relatio$ with them& a$# !hiloso!h* ca$ re$ou$ce its rivalr* with scie$ce& ca$ leave thi$gs to scie$ce a$# !rese$t itself solel* i$ a critical ma$$er& as a reflectio$ o$ this '$owle#ge of thi$gs) 8$ the co$trar* view& !hiloso!h* see's to esta"lish& or rather restore& an ot er relatio$shi! to thi$gs& a$# therefore an ot er '$owle#ge& a '$owle#ge a$# a relatio$shi! that !recisel* scie$ce hi#es from us& of which it #e!rives us& "ecause it allows us o$l* to co$clu#e a$# to i$fer without ever !rese$ti$g& givi$g to us the thi$g i$ itself) +t is this seco$# !ath that >ergso$ ta'es "* re!u#iati$g critical !hiloso!hies whe$ he shows us i$ scie$ce& i$ tech$ical activit*& i$tellige$ce& ever*#a* la$guage& social life& !ractical $ee# a$#& most im!orta$tl*& i$ s!ace3the ma$* forms a$# relatio$s that se!arate us from thi$gs a$# from their i$teriorit*)

>ut i$tuitio$ has a seco$# characteristic2 u$#erstoo# i$ this wa*& it !rese$ts itself as a retur$& "ecause the !hiloso!hical relatio$shi!& which !uts us i$ thi$gs i$stea# of leavi$g us outsi#e& is restore# rather tha$ esta"lishe# "* !hiloso!h*& re#iscovere# rather tha$ i$ve$te#) :e are se!arate# from thi$gs6 the imme#iate give$ is therefore $ot imme#iatel* give$) >ut we ca$$ot "e se!arate# "* a sim!le acci#e$t& "* a me#iatio$ that woul# come from us& that woul# co$cer$

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o$l* us) The moveme$t that cha$ges the $ature of thi$gs must "e fou$#e# i$ thi$gs themselves6 thi$gs must "egi$ "* losi$g themselves i$ or#er for us to e$# u! losi$g them6 "ei$g must have a fu$#ame$tal la!se of memor*) Aatter is !recisel* that i$ "ei$g which !re!ares a$# accom!a$ies s!ace& i$tellige$ce a$# scie$ce) ;e$ce >ergso$ #oes somethi$g e$tirel* #iffere$t from !s*cholog*& "ecause matter is more a$ o$tological !ri$ci!le of i$tellige$ce tha$ some mere i$tellige$ce is a !s*chological !ri$ci!le of matter itself or of s!ace) 4 %or the same reaso$& he refuses scie$tific '$owle#ge $othi$g& $ot o$l* telli$g us that it se!arates us from thi$gs a$# from their true $ature& "ut also that it gras!s at least o$e of the two halves of "ei$g& o$e of the two si#es of the a"solute& o$e of the two moveme$ts of $ature& the o$e i$ which $ature relaxes a$# !laces itself outsi#e of itself)5 >ergso$ will go eve$ further& "ecause u$#er certai$ co$#itio$s scie$ce ca$ "e u$ite# with !hiloso!h*& that is to sa*& reach& together with it& a total com!re( he$sio$)6 >e that as it ma*& we ca$ alrea#* sa* that there will $ot "e i$ >ergso$0s wor' a$*thi$g li'e a #isti$ctio$ "etwee$ two worl#s& o$e se$si"le& the other i$telligi"le& "ut o$l* two moveme$ts& or eve$ /ust two #irectio$s of o$e a$# the same moveme$t2 the o$e is such that the moveme$t te$#s to co$geal i$ its !ro#uct& i$ its result& that which i$terru!ts it6 a$# the other tur$s "ac' a$# retraces its ste!s& re#iscovers i$ the !ro#uct the moveme$t from which it resulte#) The two #irectio$s are $atural as well& each i$ its ow$ wa*2 the former occurs accor# i$g to $ature& though $ature ris's losi$g itself i$ it at each !ause& at each "reath6 the latter occurs co$trar* to $ature& "ut $ature re#iscovers itself i$ it& starts over agai$ i$ the te$sio$) The latter ca$ o$l* "e fou$# "e$eath the former& a$# it is alwa*s thus that it is re#iscovere#) :e re#iscover the imme#iate "ecause we must retur$ to fi$# it) +$ !hiloso!h* the first time is alrea#* the seco$#6 such is the $otio$ of fou$#atio$) 5o #ou"t it is the !ro#uct that is, i$ a wa*& a$# the moveme$t that is $ot& that is $o lo$ger) >ut it is $ot i$ these terms that the !ro"lem of "ei$g must "e set u!) .t ever* i$sta$t& the moveme$t is $o more& "ut !recisel* "ecause it is $ot ma#e u! of i$sta$ts& "ecause i$sta$ts are o$l* its real or virtual cessatio$s& its !ro#uct a$# the sha#ow of its !ro#uct) >ei$g is $ot ma#e u! of !rese$ts) +$ a$other wa*& the$& it is the !ro#uct that is $ot a$# the moveme$t that a'ready was% +$ o$e of .chilles0 ste!s& the i$sta$ts a$# the !oi$ts are $ot #ivi#e# u!) >ergso$ shows us this i$ his most #ifficult "oo'2 it is $ot the !rese$t that is a$# the !ast that is $o lo$ger& rather the !rese$t is useful6 "ei$g is the !ast& "ei$g use# to "e) 7 :e will see that far from elimi$ati$g the u$foreseea"le a$# the co$ti$ge$t& such a thesis la*s the fou$#atio$ for them) +$ #isti$guishi$g the two worl#s& >ergso$ re!lace# them "* the #isti$ctio$ of two moveme$ts& two #irectio$s of o$e a$# the same moveme$t& s!irit a$# matter& two times i$ the same #uratio$& the !ast a$# the !rese$t& which he '$ew how to co$ceive as coexiste$t !recisel* "ecause the* were i$ the same #uratio$& the o$e beneat the other& a$# $ot the o$e after the other) :e must simulta$eousl* u$#ersta$# the $ecessar* #isti$ctio$ as a #iffere$ce of time& "ut also u$#ersta$# the #iffere$t times& the !rese$t a$# the !ast& as co$tem!orar* with o$e a$other& a$# formi$g the same worl#) :e will $ow see i$ what wa*)

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:h* is what we re#iscover calle# the imme#iate@ :hat is imme#iate@ +f scie$ce is a real '$owle#ge of the thi$g& a '$owle#ge of realit*& what it loses or sim!l* ris's losi$g is $ot exactl* the thi$g) :hat scie$ce ris's losi$g& u$less it is i$filtrate# "* !hiloso!h*& is less the thi$g itself tha$ the #iffere$ce of the thi$g& that which ma'es its "ei$g& that which ma'es it this rather tha$ that& this rather tha$ somethi$g else) >ergso$ e$ergeticall* #e$ou$ces what seem to him false !ro"lems2 wh* is there somethi$g rather tha$ $othi$g& wh* or#er rather tha$ #is( or#er@ 8 +f such !ro"lems are false& "a#l* set u!& it is for two reaso$s) %irst "ecause the* ma'e of "ei$g a ge$eralit*& somethi$g immova"le or u$#iffere$tiate# that& i$ the immo"ile e$sem"le i$ which it is set& ca$ o$l* "e #isti$guishe# from $othi$g$ess& from $o$("ei$g) 7u"se?ue$tl*& eve$ if o$e tries to give a moveme$t to the immova"le "ei$g thus !osite#& this moveme$t woul# o$l* "e co$tra#ictio$2 or#er a$# #isor#er& "ei$g a$# $othi$g$ess& the si$gular a$# the multi!le) >ut i$ fact& "ei$g ca$$ot "e com!ose# with two co$tra#ictor* !oi$ts of view a$* more tha$ moveme$t is com!ose# of !oi$ts of s!ace or of i$sta$ts2 the stitchi$g woul# "e too loose) 9 >ei$g is a "a# co$ce!t to the exte$t that it serves to o!!ose ever*thi$g there is to $othi$g$ess& or the thi$g itself to ever*thi$g that it is $ot) +$ "oth cases "ei$g has left& it has #eserte# thi$gs& a$# it is $o more tha$ a$ a"stractio$) The >ergso$ia$ ?uestio$ is therefore $ot2 wh* somethi$g rather tha$ $othi$g& "ut2 wh* this rather tha$ somethi$g else@ :h* this te$sio$ of #uratio$@01 :h* this s!ee# rather tha$ a$other@1 :h* this !ro!ortio$@ 12 .$# wh* will a !erce!tio$ evo'e a give$ memor*& or !ic' u! certai$ fre?ue$cies rather tha$ others@ 13 +$ other wor#s& "ei$g is #iffere$ce a$# $ot the immova"le or the u$#iffere$tiate#& $or is it co$tra#ictio$& which is merel* false moveme$t) >ei$g is the #iffere$ce itself of the thi$g& what >ergso$ ofte$ calls the nuance% 1.$ em!iricism worth* of the $ame ) ) ) woul# measure out for the o"/ect a co$ce!t a!!ro!riate to o$l* that o"/ect& a co$ce!t of which o$e coul# "arel* sa* that it was still a co$ce!t "ecause it woul# a!!l* o$l* to that thi$g)110 .$# there is a$ o## text i$ which >ergso$ attri"utes to Bavaisso$ the goal of o!!osi$g i$tellectual i$tuitio$ to the ge$eral i#ea& li'e white light to the sim!le i#ea of color2 1+$stea# of #iluti$g his thought i$ the ge$eral& the !hiloso!her shoul# co$ce$trate it o$ the i$#ivi#ual ) ) ) The o"/ect of meta!h*sics is to reca!ture i$ i$#ivi#ual existe$ces& a$# to follow to the source from which it ema$ates& the !articular ra* that& co$ferri$g u!o$ each of them its ow$ $ua$ce& reattaches it there"* to the u$iversal light)1 15 The imme#iate is !recisel* the i#e$tit* of the thi$g a$# its #iffere$ce as !hiloso!h* re#iscovers or 1reca!tures1 it) >ergso$ #e$ou$ces a commo$ #a$ger i$ scie$ce a$# i$ meta!h*sics2 allowi$g #iffere$ce to esca!e3"ecause scie$ce co$ceives the thi$g as a !ro#uct a$# a result& while meta!h*sics co$ceives "ei$g as somethi$g u$mova"le that serves as a !ri$ci!le) >oth see' to attai$ "ei$g or to recom!ose it starti$g from resem"la$ces a$# ever greater o!!ositio$s& "ut resem"la$ce a$# o!!ositio$ are almost alwa*s practica', $ot o$tological& categories) :he$ce >ergso$0s i$siste$ce o$ showi$g us that for the sa'e of resem"la$ce we ris' !utti$g extremel* #iffere$t thi$gs& thi$gs that #iffer i$ $ature& u$#er the same wor#)10>ei$g i$ fact is o$ the si#e of #iffere$ce& $either si$gular $or multi!le) >ut what is $ua$ce& the #iffere$ce of the thi$g& what is the #iffere$ce of a sugar cu"e@ +t is $ot sim!l* its #iffere$ce from a$other thi$g2 there we woul# have o$l* a !urel* exterior relatio$& lea#i$g us& i$ the fi$al i$sta$ce& "ac' to s!ace) 5or is it its #iffere$ce with ever*thi$g that it is $ot2 we woul# "e le# "ac' to a #ialectic of co$tra#ictio$) <lato alrea#* #i#$0t wa$t alterit* a$# co$tra#ictio$ to "e co$fou$#e#) >ut for >ergso$& alterit* is still $ot e$ough to ma'e it so that "ei$g re/oi$s thi$gs a$# reall* is the "ei$g of thi$gs) ;e re!laces the <lato$ic co$ce!t of alterit* with a$ .ristotelia$ co$ce!t of alteratio$& i$ or#er to ma'e of it su"sta$ce

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itself) >ei$g is alteratio$& alteratio$ is su"sta$ce) 17 .$# that is what >ergso$ calls duration, "ecause all the characteristics "* which he #efi$es it& after Time and .ree /i'', come "ac' to this2 #uratio$ is that which #iffers or that which cha$ges $ature& ?ualit*& heteroge$e it*& what #iffers from itself) The "ei$g of the sugar cu"e will "e #efi$e# "* a #uratio$& "* a certai$ ma$$er of !ersisti$g& "* a certai$ relaxatio$ or te$sio$ of #uratio$)

;ow #oes #uratio$ have this !ower@ 8r !ut the ?uestio$ a$other wa*2 if "ei$g is the #iffere$ce of the thi$g& what results from this for the thi$g itself@ :e e$cou$ter a thir# characteristic of i$tuitio$& more !rofou$# tha$ the !rece#i$g o$es) +$tuitio$ as a metho# is a metho# that see's #iffere$ce) +t !rese$ts itself as see'i$g a$# fi$#i$g #iffere$ces i$ $ature& the 1articulatio$s of the real)1 >ei$g is articulate#6 a false !ro"lem is o$e that #oes $ot res!ect these #iffere$ces) >ergso$ loves to cite <lato0s text com!ari$g the !hiloso!her to the goo# coo' who cuts thi$gs u! accor#i$g to their $atural articulatio$s6 he co$sta$tl* re!roaches scie$ce as well as meta!h*sics for havi$g retai$e# o$l* #iffere$ces of #egree where there use# to "e somethi$g e$tirel* #iffere$t& of thus "ei$g !art of a "a#l* a$al* e# 1com!osite)1 8$e of >ergso$0s most famous !assages shows us that i$te$sit* i$ fact covers u! #iffere$ces of $ature that i$tuitio$ ca$ re#iscover)18 >ut we '$ow that scie$ce a$# eve$ meta!h*sics #o $ot i$ve$t their ow$ errors or their illusio$s2 somethi$g fou$#s them i$ "ei$g) +$#ee#& to the exte$t that we fi$# ourselves "efore !ro#ucts& to the exte$t that the thi$gs with which we are co$cer$e# are still results& we ca$$ot gras! #iffere$ces of $ature for the sim!le reaso$ that there are$0t a$* there2 "etwee$ two thi$gs& "etwee$ two !ro#ucts& there are o$l* a$# there o$l* coul# "e #iffere$ces of #egree& of !ro!ortio$) :hat #iffers i$ $ature is $ever a thi$g& "ut a te$#e$c*) . #iffere$ce of $ature is $ever "etwee$ two !ro#ucts or "etwee$ two thi$gs& "ut in one and t e same t ing "etwee$ the two te$#e$cies that traverse it& i$ o$e a$# the same !ro#uct "etwee$ two te$#e$cies that e$cou$ter o$e a$other i$ it)19 +$#ee#& what is !ure is $ever the thi$g6 the thi$g is alwa*s a com!osite that must "e #issociate#6 o$l* the te$#e$c* is !ure& which is to sa* that the true thi$g or the su"sta$ce is the te$#e$c* itself) +$tuitio$ a!!ears ver* much li'e a true metho# of #ivisio$2 it #ivi#es the mixe# i$to two te$#e$cies that #iffer i$ $ature) ;e$ce we see the mea$i$g of the #ualisms #ear to >ergso$2 $ot o$l* the titles of ma$* of his wor's& "ut each of the cha!ters& a$# the hea#i$g that !rece#es each !age& exhi"it such a #ualism) Gua$tit* a$# ?ualit*& i$tellige$ce a$# i$sti$ct& geometric or#er a$# vital or#er& scie$ce a$# meta!h*sics& the close# a$# the o!e$ are its most '$ow$ figures) :e '$ow that i$ the e$# the* lea# "ac' to the alwa*s re#iscovere# #isti$ctio$ of matter a$# #uratio$) Aatter a$# #uratio$ are $ever #isti$guishe# as two thi$gs "ut as two moveme$ts& two te$#e$cies& li'e relaxatio$ a$# co$tractio$) >ut we must go further2 if the theme a$# the i#ea of !urit* have a great im!orta$ce i$ the !hiloso!h* of >ergso$& it is "ecause i$ ever* case the two te$#e$cies are $ot !ure& or are $ot e?uall* !ure) 8$l* o$e of the two is !ure& or simp'e, the other !la*i$g& o$ the co$trar*& the role of a$ im!urit* that comes to com!romise or to #istur" it)20 +$ the #ivisio$ of the com!osite there is alwa*s a right half6 it is

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that which lea#s us "ac' to #uratio$) Aore tha$ there ever reall* "ei$g a #iffere$ce of $ature "etwee$ the two te$#e$cies that #ivi#e the thi$g u!& the #iffere$ce itself of the thi$g was o$e of the two te$#e$cies) .$# if we rise to the #ualit* of matter a$# #uratio$& we see ?uite clearl* that #uratio$ shows us the ver* $ature of #iffere$ce& #iffere$ce of self from self& whereas mat ter is o$l* the u$#iffere$tiate#& that which is re!eate#& or the sim!le #egree& that which ca$ $o lo$ger cha$ge its $ature) Do we $ot at the same time see that #ualism is a mome$t alrea#* sur!asse# i$ >ergso$0s !hiloso!h*@ %or if there is a !rivilege# half i$ the #ivisio$6 it must "e that this half co$tai$s i$ itself the secret of the other) +f all the #iffere$ce is o$ o$e si#e& it must "e that this si#e com!rehe$#s its #iffere$ce from the other a$#& i$ a certai$ wa*& the other itself or its !ossi"ilit*) Duratio$ #iffers from matter& "ut it #oes so "ecause it is first that which #iffers i$ itself a$# from itself& with the result that the matter from which it #iffers is still esse$tiall* of #uratio$) .s lo$g as we remai$ withi$ #ualism& the thi$g is where two moveme$ts meet2 #uratio$& which "* itself has $o #egrees& e$cou$ters matter as a co$trar* moveme$t& as a certai$ o"stacle& a certai$ im!urit* that mixes it u!& that i$terru!ts its im!ulse 0e'an1, that gives it such a$# such a #egree here& a$other o$e over there) 21 >ut more !rofou$#l*& #uratio$ is i$ itself susce!ti"le to #egrees "ecause it is that which #iffers with itself& so that ever* thi$g is e$tirel* #efi$e# i$ #uratio$& i$clu#i$g matter itself) %rom a still #ualis( tic !ers!ective& #uratio$ a$# matter were o!!ose# as that which #iffers i$ $ature a$# that which has o$l* #egrees6 "ut more !rofou$#l* there are #egrees of #iffere$ce itself6 matter is the lowest& the ver* !oi$t where !recisel* #iffere$ce is no 'onger anyt ing but a #iffere$ce of #egree) 22 +f it is true that i$tellige$ce is o$ the si#e of matter accor#i$g to the o"/ect o$ which it "ears& we still ca$$ot #efi$e it i$ itself exce!t "* showi$g i$ what wa* it !ersists& that which #omi$ates its o"/ect) .$# if it is a ?uestio$ of fi$all* #efi$i$g matter itself& it will $ot "e e$ough to !rese$t it as a$ o"stacle a$# as a$ im!urit*6 it will alwa*s "e $ecessar* to show how it !ersists& its vi"ratio$ still occu!*i$g multi!le i$sta$ces) Thus a$* thi$g is com!letel* #efi$e# from the right si#e& "* a certai$ #uratio$& "* a certai$ #egree of #uratio$ itself)

. com!osite "rea's #ow$ i$to two te$#e$cies& o$e of which is #uratio$& sim!le a$# i$#ivisi"le6 "ut at the same time #uratio$ is #iffere$tiate# i$ two #irectio$s& the other of which is matter) 7!ace "rea's #ow$ i$to matter a$# #uratio$& "ut #uratio$ is #iffere$tiate# i$to co$tractio$ a$# ex!a$sio$& ex!a$sio$ "ei$g the !ri$ci!le of matter) Thus& if #ualism is sur!asse# i$ favor of mo$ism& mo$ism gives us a $ew #ualism& this time mastere#& #omi$ate#) >ecause the com!osite #oes $ot "rea' #ow$ i$ the same wa* that the sim!le is #iffere$tiate#) Therefore the metho# of i$tuitio$ has a fourth a$# fi$al characteristic2 it is $ot co$te$t to follow $atural articulatio$s whe$ carvi$g thi$gs u!6 it also follows u! 1li$es of fact&1 li$es of #iffere$tiatio$& i$ or#er to re#iscover the sim!le as a co$verge$ce of !ro"a"ilities6 it $ot o$l* carves u! 0decoupe1 "ut co$firms 0recoupe1%2 Differe$tiatio$ is the !ower of what is sim!le& i$#ivisi"le& of what !ersists) ;ere we see how #uratio$ itself is a$ e'an vita'% >ergso$ fi$#s i$ "iolog*& !articularl* i$

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the evolutio$ of s!ecies& the mar' of a certai$ !rocess esse$tial to life& !recisel* that of #iffere$tiatio$ as the !ro#uctio$ of real #iffere$ces& a !rocess whose co$ce!t a$# !hiloso!hical co$se?ue$ces he will !ursue) The a#mira"le !ages he wrote i$ &reative Evo'ution a$# i$ Two Sources show us such a life activit*& lea#i$g to !la$ts a$# a$imals& or to i$sti$ct a$# i$tellige$ce& or to #iverse forms of the same i$sti$ct) +t seems to >ergso$ that #iffere$tiatio$ is the mo#e of that which is reali e#& actuali e#& or ma#e& i$ other wor#s& that which gives rise to #iverge$t series& li$es of evolutio$& s!ecies) 1 The esse$ce of a te$#e$c* is to "e #evelo!e# i$ the form of a sheaf& creati$g through the sole fact of its growth #iverge$t #irectio$s)124 E'an vita' woul# therefore "e #uratio$ itself to the exte$t it is actuali e#& is #iffere$tiate#) E'an vita' is #iffere$ce to the exte$t that it !asses i$to act) ;e$ce #iffere$tiatio$ #oes $ot come sim!l* from matter0s resista$ce& "ut more !rofou$#l* from a force that #uratio$ carries i$ itself2 #ichotom* is the law of life) .$# >ergso$ critici es mecha$ism a$# fi$alism i$ "iolog*& as he #oes the #ialectic i$ !hiloso!h*& for alwa*s com!osi$g moveme$t from !oi$ts of view& as a relatio$ "etwee$ actual terms i$stea# of seei$g i$ it the actuali atio$ of somethi$g virtual) >ut if #iffere$tiatio$ is thus the origi$al a$# irre#uci"le mo#e through which a virtualir* is actuali e#& a$# if e'an vita' is #uratio$ #iffere$tiate#& the$ #uratio$ itself is virtualit*) &reative Evo'ution "ri$gs to Time and .ree /i'' a $ecessar* #ee!e$i$g as well as a $ecessar* exte$sio$) >ecause& si$ce Time and .ree /i'', #uratio$ was !rese$te# as the virtual or the su"/ective& "ecause it was less that which ca$$ot "e #ivi#e# tha$ that which cha$ges its $ature "* "ei$g #ivi#e#) 25 :e must u$#ersta$# that the virtual is $ot somethi$g actual "ut is for that $o less a mo#e of "ei$g& a$# is& moreover& i$ a wa*& "ei$g itself6 $either #uratio$& $or life& $or moveme$t is actual& "ut that i$ which all actualit*& all realit* is #isti$guishe# a$# com!rehe$#e# a$# ta'es root) To "e actuali e# is alwa*s the act of a whole that #oes $ot "ecome e$tirel* actual at the same time& i$ the same !lace& or i$ the same thi$g6 co$se?ue$tl*& it !ro#uces s!ecies that #iffer i$ $ature& a$# it is itself this #iffere$ce of $ature amo$g the s!ecies it has !ro#uce#) >ergso$ co$sta$tl* sai# that #uratio$ is a cha$ge of $ature& of ?ualit*) 1>etwee$ light a$# #ar'$ess& "etwee$ colors& "etwee$ $ua$ces& #iffere$ce is a"solute) The !assage from o$e to the other is itself also a$ a"solutel* real !he$ome$o$)1 26

:e therefore gras! #uratio$ a$# e'an vita', the virtual a$# its actuali atio$& as two extremes) 7till& it must "e sai# that #uratio$ is alrea#* e'an vita' "ecause it is the esse$ce of the virtual to "e actuali e#6 we therefore re?uire a thir# as!ect that shows it to us& o$e i$ some wa* i$terme#iar* to the two !rece#i$g) +t is !recisel* u$#er this thir# as!ect that #uratio$ is calle# memory% Through all of its characteristics& #uratio$ is i$#ee# a memor* "ecause it !rolo$gs the !ast i$ the !rese$t& 1whether the !rese$t #isti$ctl* e$closes the ever(growi$g image of the !ast or whether it rather "ears wit$ess& through its co$ti$ual cha$gi$g of ?ualit*& of the ever(weightier "ur#e$ o$e lea#s "ehi$# o$eself as o$e grows ol#er)127 4et us recall that memor* is alwa*s !rese$te# "* >ergso$ i$ two wa*s2 recollectio$(memor* a$# co$tractio$(memor*& a$# that the seco$# is the esse$tial o$e)21 :h* these two figures& which will give to memor* a$ e$tirel* $ew !hiloso!hical

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status@ The first retur$s us to somethi$g that has survive# from the !ast) >ut amo$g all the theses of >ergso$& !erha!s the most !rofou$# a$# least u$#erstoo# is the o$e accor#i$g to which the !ast survives i$ itself)29 >ecause this survival itself is #uratio$& #uratio$ is i$ itself memor*) >ergso$ shows us that recollectio$ is $ot the re!rese$tatio$ of somethi$g that was6 the !ast is that i$ which we !ut ourselves from the outset i$ or#er to recollect ourselves) 30 The !ast #oes $ot have to survive !s*chologicall*& $or !h*siologicall* i$ our "rai$s& "ecause it has $ot cease# to "e& it has o$l* cease# to "e useful3it is6 it survives i$ itself) .$# this "ei$g i$ itself of the !ast is "ut the imme#iate co$se?ue$ce of a goo# setting up of the !ro"lem2 "ecause if the !ast ha# to wait to "e $o more& if it were $ot imme#iatel* a$# he$ceforth !ast& 2past i$ ge$eral&1 it woul# $ever "e a"le to "ecome what it is& it woul# $ever "e t is !ast) The !ast is therefore the i$(itself& the u$co$scious or more !recisel*& as >ergso$ sa*s& the virtua'%2 >ut i$ what se$se is it virtual@ +t is here that we e$cou$ter the seco$# figure of memor*) The !ast is $ot co$stitute# after it has "ee$ !rese$t6 it coe!ists wit itse'f as present% +f we reflect u!o$ it& we see that i$#ee# the !hiloso!hical #ifficult* of the ver* $otio$ of the !ast comes from the fact that it is i$ some wa* stuc' "etwee$ two !rese$ts2 the !rese$t that it was a$# the curre$t !rese$t i$ relatio$ to which it is $ow !ast) The mista'e of !s*cholog*& which "a#l* sets u! the prob'em, is to have retai$e# the seco$# !rese$t a$# therefore to have sought the !ast starti$g from somethi$g curre$t& a$# fi$al l*& to have more or less situate# it i$ the "rai$) >ut i$ fact& 1memor* #oes $ot at all co$sist of a regressio$ from the !rese$t to the !ast)102 :hat >ergso$ shows us is that if the !ast is $ot !ast at the same time that it is !rese$t& $ot o$l* will it $ever "e a"le to "e co$stitute#& "ut it coul# also $ever thereafter "e reco$stitute# starti$g from a later !rese$t) This& the$& is the se$se i$ which the !ast coexists with itself as !rese$t2 #uratio$ is "ut this coexiste$ce itself& this coexiste$ce of itself with itself) Thus the !ast a$# the !rese$t must "e thought as two extreme #egrees coexisti$g i$ #uratio$& the o$e #isti$guishe# "* its state of relaxatio$& the other "* its state of co$tractio$) . famous meta!hor tells us that at each level of the co$e there is the whole of our !ast& "ut to #iffere$t #egrees2 the !rese$t is o$l* the most co$tracte# #egree of the !ast) 1The same !s*chic life woul# therefore "e re!eate# a$ i$#efi$ite $um"er of times& at successive stages of memor*& a$# the same me$tal act coul# "e !la*e# out o$ ma$* #iffere$t levels16 1ever*thi$g ha! !e$s as if our memories were re!eate# a$ i$#efi$ite $um"er of times i$ these thousa$#s a$# thousa$#s of !ossi"le re#uctio$s of our !ast life16 ever*thi$g is a cha$ge of e$erg*& of te$sio$& a$# $othi$g else)35 .t each #egree ever*thi$g is there& "ut ever*thi$g coexists with ever*thi$g& that is to sa* with the other #egrees) :e see therefore fi$all* w at is virtual2 the coexiste$t #egrees themselves a$# as such)04 +t is right to #efi$e #uratio$ as a successio$& "ut wro$g to i$sist o$ it6 it is& i$ effect& a real successio$ o$l* "ecause it is virtua' coe!istence% .s for i$tuitio$& >ergso$ writes2 18$l* the metho# of which we s!ea' allows us to go "e*o$# i#ealism as well as realism& to affirm the existe$ce of o"/ects i$ferior a$# su!erior to us& while at the same time i$ a certai$ se$se i$terior to us& to ma'e them coexist together without #ifficult*)1 35 .$# i$ fact if we !ursue the co$$ectio$s "etwee$ Matter and Memory a$# &reative Evo'ution, we see that coexiste$t #egrees are simulta$eousl* what ma'es #uratio$ somethi$g virtual a$# what ma'es it so that #uratio$ $o$etheless is actuali e# at ever* i$sta$t& "ecause the* #eli$eate so ma$* !la$es a$# levels that #etermi$e all the !ossi"le li$es of #iffere$tiatio$) +$ short& actuall* #iverge$t series give "irth to& i$ #uratio$& coexiste$t virtual #egrees) >etwee$ i$tellige$ce a$# i$sti$ct there is a #iffere$ce of $ature "ecause the* arise from two #iverge$t series6 "ut what #oes this #iffere$ce of $ature fi$all* ex!ress if $ot two #egrees that coexist i$ #uratio$& two #iffere$t #egrees of relaxatio$ or

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of co$tractio$@ +t is thus that each thi$g& each "ei$g is the whole& "ut the whole reali e# to a certai$ #egree or a$other) +$ >ergso$0s first wor's& #uratio$ coul# a!!ear a$ emi$e$tl* !s*chological realit*6 "ut what is !s*chological is o$l* our #uratio$& that is to sa*& a certai$ well( #etermi$e# #egree) 1+f& i$stea# of see'i$g to a$al* e #uratio$ ,that is& at "ottom& to s*$thesi e it with co$ce!ts-& o$e i$ha"its it i$itiall* through a$ effort of i$tuitio$& o$e has the feeli$g of a certai$ well( #etermi$e# tension, whose #etermi$atio$ itself a!!ears as a choice amo$g a$ i$fi$it* of !ossi"le #uratio$s) Thereafter& o$e !erceives as ma$* #uratio$s as o$e

li'es& all ver* #iffere$t from o$e a$other ) ) ))))))))))))))))This is wh* the secret of >ergso$(

ism is $o #ou"t i$ Matter and Memory- >ergso$ tells us& moreover& that his wor' co$siste# of reflecti$g o$ the fact that $ot ever*thi$g is give$) >ut what #oes such a realit* sig$if*@ 7imulta$eousl* that the give$ !resu!!oses a moveme$t that i$ve$ts it or creates it& a$# that this moveme$t must $ot "e co$ceive# i$ the image of the give$) 37 :hat >ergso$ criti?ues i$ the i#ea of the possib'e is that it !rese$ts us a sim!le co!* of the !ro#uct& !ro/ecte# or rather retro/ecte# o$to the moveme$t of !ro#uctio$& o$to i$ve$tio$) 31 >ut the virtual is $ot the same thi$g as the !ossi"le2 the realit* of time is fi$all* the affirmatio$ of a virtualit* that is actuali e#& for which to "e actuali e# is to i$ve$t) >ecause if ever*thi$g 0tout1 is $ot give$& it remai$s that the virtual is the whole 0'e tout1% 4et us recall that the e'an vita' is fi$ite2 the whole is what is reali e# i$ s!ecies& which are $ot i$ its image a$* more tha$ the* are the image of o$e a$other) =ach simulta$eousl* corres!o$#s to a certai$ #egree of the whole a$# #iffers i$ $ature from the others& such that the whole itself is !rese$te# at the same time as the #iffere$ce of $ature i$ realit*& a$# as the coexiste$ce of #egrees i$ the mi$#)

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+f the !ast coexists with itself as !rese$t& if the !rese$t is the most co$tracte# #egree of the coexiste$t !ast& the$ this same !rese$t& "ecause it is the !recise !oi$t at which the !ast is cast towar# the future& is #efi$e# as that which cha$ges $ature& the alwa*s $ew& the eter$it* of life) 39 +t is u$#ersta$#a"le that a l*ric theme ru$s through >ergso$0s wor'2 a verita"le h*m$ i$ !raise of the $ew& the u$foreseea"le& of i$ve$tio$& of li"ert*) Therei$ lies $ot a re$u$ciatio$ of !hiloso!h*& "ut a !rofou$# a$# origi$al attem!t to #iscover the !ro!er #omai$ of !hiloso!h*& to attai$ the thi$g itself "e*o$# the or#er of the !ossi"le& of causes a$# e$#s) %i$alit*& causalit*& !ossi"ilit* are alwa*s i$ relatio$ to the thi$g o$ce it is com!lete& a$# alwa*s !resu!!ose that 1ever*thi$g1 is give$) :he$ >ergso$ criti?ues these $otio$s& whe$ he s!ea's to us of i$#etermi$ac*& he #oes $ot i$vite us to a"a$#o$ reaso$ "ut to reco$$ect with the true reaso$ of the thi$g i$ the !rocess of "ei$g ma#e& the !hiloso!hical reaso$ that is $ot #etermi$atio$ "ut #iffere$ce) :e fi$# the whole moveme$t of >ergso$ia$ thought co$ce$trate# i$ Matter and Memory i$ the tri!le form of #iffere$ce of $ature& coexiste$t #egrees of #iffere$ce& a$# #iffere$tiatio$) >ergso$ first shows us that there is a #iffere$ce of $ature "etwee$ the !ast a$# the !rese$t& "etwee$ recollectio$ a$# !erce!tio$& "etwee$ #uratio$ a$# matter2 !s*chologists a$# !hiloso!hers have "ee$ wro$g "* "ei$g i$ ever* case comi$g from a "a#l* a$al* e# com!osite) ;e the$ shows us that it is still $ot e$ough to s!ea' of a #iffere$ce of $ature "etwee$ matter a$# #uratio$& "etwee$ the !rese$t a$# the !ast& "ecause the whole ?uestio$ is !recisel* to '$ow w at is a #iffere$ce of $ature2 he shows that #uratio$ itself is this #iffere$ce& such that it com!rehe$#s matter as its lowest& most relaxe# #egree& as a$ infinite'y di'ated past, a$# com!rehe$#s itself i$ co$tracti$g itself as an e!treme'y narrow, tensed present% %i$all*& he shows us that if #egrees coexist i$ #uratio$& #uratio$ is at each i$sta$t that which is #iffere$tiate#& that it is #iffere$tiate# i$to !ast a$# !rese$t& or& if *ou !refer& that the !rese$t is #ou"le# i$ two #irectio$s& o$e towar# the !ast& the other towar# the future) These three times corres!o$#& i$ the whole of the wor'& to the $otio$s of #uratio$& memor*& a$# e'an vita'% The !ro/ect we fi$# i$ >ergso$0s wor'& that of reco$$ecti$g thi$gs "* "rea'i$g with critical !hiloso!hies& was $ot a"solutel* $ew& eve$ i$ %ra$ce& "ecause it #efi$e# a ge$eral co$ce!tio$ of !hiloso!h*& a$# i$ ma$* of its as!ects !artici!ate# i$ =$glish em!iricism) >ut the metho# was !rofou$#l* $ew& as well as the three esse$tial co$ce!ts that gave it its mea$i$g) 1

9ergsor1s Con7eption o' 3i''eren7e;

The $otio$ of #iffere$ce !romises to throw light o$ the !hiloso!h* of >ergso$& a$# i$versel*& >ergso$ism !romises to ma'e a$ i$estima"le co$tri"utio$ to a !hiloso!h* of #iffere$ce) 7uch a !hiloso!h* is alwa*s at wor' o$ two #iffere$t !la$es2 the o$e metho#ological& a$# the other o$tological) 8$ the o$e ha$#& we must #etermi$e the #iffere$ces of $ature "etwee$ thi$gs2 o$l* i$ this wa* will we "e a"le 1to retur$1 to the thi$gs themselves& to accou$t for them without re#uci$g them to somethi$g other tha$ what the* are& to gras! them i$ their "ei$g) 8$ the other ha$#& if the "ei$g of thi$gs is somehow i$ their #iffere$ces of $ature& we ca$ ex!ect that #iffere$ce itself is somethi$g& that it has a $ature& that it will *iel# >ei$g) These two !ro"lems& metho#ological a$# o$tological& co$sta$tl* echo o$e a$other2 the !ro"lem of the #iffere$ces of $ature& the !ro"lem of the $ature of #iffere$ce) +$ >ergso$0s wor'& we e$cou$ter these two !ro"lems i$ their co$$ectio$& sur!risi$g them i$ their !assage "ac' a$# forth)

44

Essentia''y, 3ergson critici(es is predecessors for not aving seen true differences of nature% The co$sta$t !rese$ce of this criti?ue also sig$als the im!orta$ce of the theme i$ >ergso$0s wor'2 where there were #iffere$ces of $ature& others have fou$# merel* #iffere$ces of #egree) .$# certai$l* we fi$# the o!!osite criticism2 where there were o$l* #iffere$ces of #egree& others have i$tro#uce# #iffere$ces of $ature& for exam!le& "etwee$ the so(calle# !erce!tive facult* of the "rai$ a$# the reflexive fu$ctio$s of the me#ulla& or the !erce!tio$ of matter a$# matter itself) 2 This seco$# as!ect of the same criti?ue& however& has $either the fre?ue$c* $or the im!orta$ce of the first) To #eci#e which is more im!orta$t& we have to as' ourselves what is the aim of !hiloso!h*) +f !hiloso!h* has a !ositive a$# #irect relatio$ to thi$gs& it is o$l* i$sofar as !hiloso!h* claims to gras! the thi$g itself& accor#i$g to what it is& i$ its #iffere$ce from ever*thi$g it is $ot& i$ other wor#s& i$ its interna' difference% 7omeo$e will o"/ect that i$ter$al #iffere$ce ma'es $o se$se& such a $otio$ is a"sur#6 "ut the$ we woul# also have to #e$*

#iffere$ces of $ature "etwee$ thi$gs of the same 'i$#) +f #iffere$ces of $ature #o exist "etwee$ i$#ivi#uals of the same 'i$#& we must the$ recog$i e that #iffere$ce itself is $ot sim!l* s!atio( tem!oral& that it is $ot ge$eric or s!ecific3i$ a wor#& #iffere$ce is $ot exterior or su!erior to the thi$g) This is wh*& accor#i$g to >ergso$& it is im!orta$t to show that ge$eral i#eas& at least most of the time& !tese$t us with extremel* #iffere$t facts i$ a grou!i$g that is merel* utilitaria$2 17u!!ose o$ exami$i$g those states grou!e# u$#er the $ame of !leasure& we #iscover the* share $othi$g i$ commo$& exce!t "ei$g states that a !erso$ see's out2 huma$it* will have classifie# ver* #iffere$t thi$gs as the same i$ 'i$#& sim!l* "ecause huma$it* attri"ute# the same !ractical i$terest to each a$# acte# i$ the same wa* towar#s them)10 +$ this se$se& #iffere$ces of $ature are alrea#* the 'e*2 we must start from them& "ut first we must fi$# them) :ithout !re/u#gi$g the $ature of #iffere$ce as i$ter$al #iffere$ce& we alrea#* '$ow that i$ter$al #iffere$ce exists& given t at t ere e!ist differences of nature between t ings of t e same genus% Therefore& either !hiloso!h* !ro!oses for itself t is mea$s ,#iffere$ces of $ature- a$# t is e$# ,to arrive at i$ter$al #iffere$ce-& or else it will have merel* a $egative or ge$eric relatio$ to thi$gs a$# will e$# u! a !art of criticism a$# mere ge$eralities3i$ a$* case& it will ru$ the ris' of e$#i$g u! i$ a merel* exter$al state of reflectio$) 8!ti$g for the first alter$ative& >ergso$ !uts forwar# !hiloso!h*0s i#eal2 to tailor 1for the o"/ect a co$ce!t a!!ro!riate to that o"/ect alo$e& a co$ce!t that o$e ca$ har#l* still call a co$ce!t& si$ce it a!!lies o$l* to that o$e thi$g)1 4 This u$it* of the thi$g a$# the co$ce!t is i$ter$al #iffere$ce& which o$e reaches through #iffere$ces of $ature)

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+$tuitio$ is the /o* of #iffere$ce) >ut i$tuitio$ is $ot /ust e$/o*i$g the result of the metho#& it is the metho#) .s such& it is $ot a u$i?ue act) +t offers us a !luralit* of acts& a !luralit* of efforts a$# #irectio$s)5 +$tuitio$ i$ its first effort is the #etermi$atio$ of the #iffere$ces of $ature) .$# si$ce these #iffere$ces are "etwee$ thi$gs& we are #eali$g with a ge$ui$e #istri"utio$& a ge$ui$e !ro"lem of #istri"utio$) 8$e must carve u! realit* accor#i$g to its articulatio$s& 6 a$# >ergso$ willi$gl* cites <lato0s famous text o$ carvi$g a$# the goo# coo') >ut the #iffere$ce of $ature "etwee$ two thi$gs is still $ot the i$ter$al #iffere$ce of the thi$g itself) %rom t e articu'ations of t e rea' must "e #isti$guishe# factua' 'ines which #efi$e a$other effort of the i$tuitio$) 7 .$# while >ergso$ia$ !hiloso!h* seems ge$ui$el* 1em!irical1 where articulatio$s of the real are co$cer$e#& whe$ it comes to factual li$es it will seem 1!ositivist1 a$# eve$ !ro"a"ilistic) The articulatio$s of the real #istri"ute thi$gs accor#i$g to their #iffere$ces of $ature6 the* co$stitute #iffere$tiatio$) %actual li$es are #irectio$s to "e followe#& each to its e$#& co$vergi$g o$ o$e a$# the same thi$g6 the* #efi$e i$tegratio$& each formi$g a li$e of !ro"a"ilit*) +$ 4,Energie spiritue''e, >ergso$ shows us the $ature of co$scious$ess at the !oi$t where three factual li$es co$verge)8 +$ 4es #eu! sources, the immortalit* of the soul is situate# at the co$verge$ce of two factual li$es)9 +$tuitio$ i$ this se$se is $ot o!!ose# to the h*!othesis6 rather& i$tuitio$ e$com!asses it as h*!othesis) +$ short& the articulatio$s of the real corres!o$# to #issectio$ or cutti$g 0decoupage1, a$# factual li$es to i$tersectio$ or cross(chec'i$g 02recoupement21%56 The real is what at the same time ca$ "e #issecte# a$# cross(chec'e#) To "e sure& i$ "oth cases& the !athwa*s are the same6 what matters is the #irectio$ o$e ta'es them i$& towar# #iverge$ce or co$verge$ce) There are alwa*s two as!ects of #iffere$ce that we i$tuit2 the articulatio$s of the real give us #iffere$ces of $ature "etwee$ thi$gs6 factual li$es show us the thi$g itself i#e$tical to its #iffere$ce& i$ter$al #iffere$ce i#e$tical to somethi$g)

5eglecti$g #iffere$ces of $ature i$ favor of ge$res is li'e l*i$g to !hiloso!h*) The #iffere$ces of $ature have "ee$ lost) :e su##e$l* reali e that scie$ce has su"stitute# sim!le differences of degree i$ their !lace& a$# that meta!h*sics has !refere#& more !articularl*& sim!le differences of intensity% The first ?uestio$ #eals with scie$ce2 how #o we ma$age to see o$l* #iffere$ces of #egree@ 1:e #issolve ?ualitative #iffere$ces i$to the s!ace which u$#erlies them)11 .s we '$ow& >ergso$ is referri$g to the co$/ugate# o!eratio$s of $ee#& social life a$# la$guage& i$tellige$ce a$# s!ace& though s!ace is what the i$tellige$ce ma'es of the matter that le$#s itself to i$tellige$ce) +$ a wor#& we su"stitute merel* utilitaria$ mo#es of grou!i$g for articulatio$s of the real) ;owever& this is $ot the most im!orta$t !oi$t6 utilit* ca$$ot grou$# what ma'es it !ossi"le i$ the first !lace) Therefore& two other !oi$ts must "e em!hasi e#) %irst& #egrees #o have effects i$ realit*6 a$# in a non-spatia' form, the* are i$ some wa* alrea#* i$clu#e# i$ the #iffere$ces of $ature2 1"ehi$# our ?ualitative #isti$ctio$s1 are usuall* $um"ers) 12 8$e of >ergso$0s more curious i#eas is that #iffere$ce itself has a $um"er& a virtual $um"er& a $um"eri$g $um"er) Etilit*& the$& o$l* frees u! a$# s!rea#s out the #egrees alrea#* i$clu#e# i$

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#iffere$ce& u$til #iffere$ce is $othi$g more tha$ a #iffere$ce of #egree) 7eco$#& if #egrees ca$ "e free# u! i$ this wa* a$# o$ their ow$ form #iffere$ces& we must loo' for the cause i$ the state of ex!erie$ce) :hat s!ace !rese$ts to the u$#ersta$#i$g& a$# what u$#ersta$#i$g fi$#s i$ s!ace& are o$l* thi$gs& i)e) !ro#ucts or results) ;owever& "etwee$ thi$gs ,i$ the se$se of results- there are $ever& a$# ca$$ot ever "e& a$*thi$g "ut #iffere$ces of !ro!ortio$)13 +t is $ot thi$gs& $or the states of thi$gs& $or is it characteristics& that #iffer i$ $ature6 it is tendencies% This is wh* the co$ce!tio$ of s!ecies(s!ecific #iffere$ce is u$satisfactor*2 we must closel* follow $ot the !rese$ce of characteristics& "ut their te$#e$c* to #evelo!) 1The grou! will "e #efi$e# $o lo$ger "* the !ossessio$ of certai$ characteristics& "ut "* its te$#e$c* to acce$tuate them)1 14 Thus >ergso$ throughout his wor' shows that te$#e$c* is !rior $ot o$l* to its !ro#uct& "ut also to the !ro#uct0s causes i$ time& si$ce causes are alwa*s #erive# retroactivel* from the !ro#uct itself2 a thi$g i$ itself a$# i$ its true $ature is the ex!ressio$ of a te$#e$c* !rior to "ei$g the effect of a cause) +$ short& sim!le #iffere$ce of #egree will "e the correct status of thi$gs se!arate# from their te$#e$c* a$# gras!e# i$ their eleme$tar* causes) 9auses i$#ee# fall withi$ the sco!e of ?ua$tit*) The huma$ "rai$& for exam!le& accor#i$g to whether we gras! it i$ its !ro#uct or its te$#e$c*& will !rese$t i$ com!ariso$ to the a$imal "rai$ a sim!le #iffere$ce of #egree or a com!lete #iffere$ce of $ature)15 Thus >ergso$ tells us t at, from a certain point of view, #iffere$ces of $ature #isa!!ear or rather ca$$ot a!!ear) 8$ static versus #*$amic religio$& he writes2 1>* a#o!ti$g this !oi$t of view& o$e woul# !erceive a series of tra$sitio$s& somethi$g that loo's li'e #iffere$ces of #egree& where i$ fact there are ra#ical #iffere$ces of $ature)1 16 Thi$gs& !ro#ucts& results are alwa*s composite% 7!ace o$l* ever !rese$ts& a$# the i$tellige$ce o$l* ever #iscovers com!osites& e)g) the close# a$# the o!e$& geometric or#er a$# vital or#er& !erce!tio$ a$# affectio$& !erce!tio$ a$# recollectio$& etc) .$# o$e must u$#ersta$# that a com!osite is u$#ou"te#l* a "le$#i$g of te$#e$cies that #iffer i$ $ature& "ut as such is a state of thi$gs i$ which it is im!ossi"le to ma'e out a$* #iffere$ces of $ature) . com!osite is what o$e sees from that !oi$t of view where $othi$g #iffers i$ $ature from a$*thi$g else) The homoge$eous is "* #efi$itio$ com!osite& "ecause what is sim!le is alwa*s somethi$g that #iffers i$ $ature2 o$l* te$#e$cies are sim!le& !ure) That which reall* #iffers& therefore& ca$ "e fou$# o$l* "* re#iscoveri$g the te$#e$c* "e*o$# its !ro#uct) 7i$ce we have $othi$g else at our #is!osal& we have to use whatever such com!osites !rovi#e& #iffere$ces of #egree or !ro!ortio$& "ut o$l* as a mesure of te$#e$c*& to arrive at te$#e$c* as the sufficie$t reaso$ of !ro!ortio$) 1:herever this #iffere$ce of !ro!ortio$ is met will "e sufficie$t to #efi$e the grou!& if o$e ca$ esta"lish that such a #iffere$ce is $ot acci#e$tal a$# that the grou!& as it evolve#& te$#e# more a$# more to acce$tuate these !articular characteristics)1 17

Aeta!h*sics& for its !art& has retai$e# har#l* a$*thi$g exce!t #iffere$ces of i$te$sit*) >ergso$ shows us this view of i$te$sit* as it i$forms Gree' meta !h*sics2 "ecause this latter #efi$es s!ace a$# time as a sim!le relaxatio$& a lesse$i$g of "ei$g& it #iscovers amo$g "ei$gs

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themselves o$l* #iffere$ces of i$te$sit*& situati$g them somewhere "etwee$ the two extremes of !erfectio$ a$# $othi$g$ess)18 :e will have to exami$e how this illusio$ comes a"out& a$# what i$ tur$ grou$#s it i$ the #iffere$ces of $ature themselves) %or the mome$t& suffice it to sa* that such a$ illusio$ #e!e$#s less o$ com!osite i#eas tha$ o$ !seu#o(i#eas& such as #isor#er or $othi$g$ess) >ut these !seu#o(i#eas are themselves a 'i$# of com!osite i#ea&100 a$# the illusio$ of i$te$sit* at "ottom #e!e$#s o$ the illusio$ of s!ace) +$ the e$#& there is o$l* o$e 'i$# of false !ro"lem& !ro"lems whose !ro!ositio$s fail to res!ect #iffere$ces of $ature) 8$e of the roles i$tuitio$ !la*s is to critici e the ar"itrari$ess of such !ro!ositio$s)

To reach ge$ui$e #iffere$ces& we have to attai$ that !ers!ective from which whatever is com!osite ca$ "e #ivi#e#) Te$#e$cies that come i$ !aire# o!!osites #iffer i$ $ature) Te$#e$c* is the su"/ect here) . "ei$g is $ot the su"/ect& "ut the ex!ressio$ of te$#e$c*6 furthermore& a "ei$g is o$l* the ex!ressio$ of te$#e$c* i$ as much as o$e te$#e$c* is o!!ose# "* a$other te$#e$c*) Thus i$tuitio$ suggests itself as a metho# of #iffere$ce or #ivisio$2 to #ivi#e whatever is com!osite i$to two te$#e$cies) This metho# is somethi$g other tha$ a s!atial a$al*sis& more tha$ a #escri!tio$ of ex!erie$ce& a$# less ,so it seems- tha$ a tra$sce$#e$tal a$al*sis) +t reaches the co$#itio$s of the give$& "ut these co$#itio$s are te$#e$c*(su"/ects& which are themselves give$ i$ a certai$ wa*2 the* are live#) :hat is more& the* are at o$ce the !ure a$# the live#& the livi$g a$# the live#& the a"solute a$# the live#) :hat is esse$tial here is that this grou$# is e!perienced, a$# we '$ow how much >ergso$ i$siste# o$ the em!irical character of the e'an vita'% Thus it is $ot the co$#itio$s of all !ossi"le ex!erie$ce that must "e reache#& "ut the co$#itio$s of real ex!erie$ce) 7chelli$g ha# alrea#* !ro!ose# this aim a$# #efi$e# !hiloso!h* as a su!erior em!iricism2 this formulatio$ also a!!lies to >ergso$ism) These co$#itio$s ca$ a$# must "e gras!e# i$ a$ i$tuitio$ !recisel* "ecause the* are the co$#itio$s of real ex!erie$ce& "ecause the* are $ot "roa#er tha$ what is co$#itio$e#& "ecause the co$ce!t the* form is i#e$tical to its o"/ect) +t will come as $o sur!rise& the$& that a 'i$# of !ri$ci!le of sufficie$t reaso$& as well as i$#iscer$i"les& ca$ "e fou$# i$ >ergso$0s wor') :hat he re/ects is a #istri"utio$ that locates cause or reaso$ i$ the ge$us a$# the categor* a$# a"a$#o$s the i$#ivi#ual to co$ti$ge$c*& stra$#i$g him i$ s!ace) Beaso$ must reach all the wa* to the i$#ivi#ual& the ge$ui$e co$ce!t all the wa* to the thi$g& a$# com!rehe$sio$ all the wa* to 1this)1 >ergso$ alwa*s as's of #iffere$ce2 wh* 1this1 rather tha$ 1that1@ :h* will a !erce!tio$ call u! o$e recollectio$ rather tha$ a$other@ 20 :h* will !erce!tio$ 1gather1 s!ecific fre?ue$cies@ :h* these rather tha$ others@ 21 :h* #oes #uratio$ exhi"it such a te$sio$@ 22 +$ fact& the reaso$ must "e what >ergso$ calls nuance% There are $o acci#e$ts i$ the life of the !s*che2 25 its esse$ce is $ua$ce) .s lo$g as the co$ce!t that fits o$l* the o"/ect itself has $ot "ee$ fou$#& 1the u$i?ue co$ce!t&1 we are satisfie# with ex!lai$i$g the o"/ect "* several co$ce!ts& ge$eral i#eas 1of which the o"/ect is su!!ose# to !arta'e)1 24 :hat esca!es the$ is that the o"/ect is t is o"/ect rather tha$ a$other of the same 'i$#& a$# that the o"/ect i$ this ge$us has t ese !ro!ortio$s rather tha$ some other !ro!ortio$s) 8$l* te$#e$c* is

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the u$it* of the co$ce!t a$# its o"/ect& such that the o"/ect is $o lo$ger co$ti$ge$t& a$# the co$ce!t $o lo$ger ge$eral) These metho#ological clarificatio$s& however& #o $ot seem to avert the im!asse where the metho# a!!ears to "e hea#e#) :hatever is com!osite must "e #ivi#e# i$to two te$#e$cies& "ut the #iffere$ces of !ro!ortio$ i$ the mixture itself #o $ot tell us how to fi$# these te$#e$cies& $or what is the rule of #ivisio$) Aore im!orta$tl*& give$ two te$#e$cies& which is the right o$e@ The two are $ot e?uivale$t& the* have #iffere$t values2 o$e te$#e$c* alwa*s !re#omi$ates) 8$l* the #omi$a$t te$#e$c* #efi$es the true $ature of whatever is com!osite6 o$l* the #omi$a$t te$#e$c* is the u$i?ue co$ce!t& it alo$e is !ure& si$ce it is the !urit* of the corres!o$#i$g thi$g6 the other te$#e$c* is the im!urit* that com!romises the first a$# o!!oses it) 7o& a$imal "ehavior exhi"its i$sti$ct as the #omi$a$t te$#e$c*& whereas i$ huma$ "ehavior it is i$tellige$ce) +$ the com!osite of !erce!tio$ a$# affectio$& it is affectio$ that !la*s the im!ure role a$# com!romises !ure !erce!tio$) 25 +$ other wor#s& there is a left(half to #ivi#e from a right( half) :hat rule or measure #o we use to #etermi$e this@ ;ere we re#iscover a #iffi cult* which <lato also e$cou$tere#2 how #oes o$e res!o$# to .ristotle0s remar' that <lato0s metho# of #iffere$ce is /ust a fee"le s*llogism& u$a"le to #eci#e co$clusivel* i$ which half of the #ivi#e# ge$us resi#es the +#ea "ei$g sought after& si$ce the mi##le term is missi$g@ .$# <lato seems "etter off tha$ >ergso$& "ecause the +#ea of a tra$sce$#e$t Goo# ca$ effectivel* gui#e the choice of the right half) +$ ge$eral& however& >ergso$ refuses hel! from fi$alit*& as though he wa$te# the metho# of #iffere$ce to "e self(sufficie$t)

This #ifficult* ma* "e illusor*) :e '$ow that the articulatio$s of the real #o $ot #efi$e the esse$ce a$# the aim of the metho#) 9ertai$l*& the #iffere$ce of $ature between two te$#e$cies is a$ im!roveme$t over the #iffere$ce of #egree "etwee$ thi$gs& as well as the #iffere$ce of i$te$sit* "etwee$ "ei$gs2 a$# *et this #iffere$ce remai$s exter$al6 it is still a$ exter$al #iffere$ce) .t this !oi$t& >ergso$ia$ i$tuitio$& to "e com!lete& #oes $ot lac' a$ exter$al term which coul# serve as a rule6 if a$*thi$g& >ergso$ia$ i$tuitio$ still loo's too exter$al) 4et0s ta'e a$ exam!le2 >ergso$ shows that a"stract time is a com!osite of s!ace a$# #uratio$& a$# more !rofou$#l*& that s!ace itself is a com!osite of matter a$# #uratio$& matter a$# memor*) 7o we see the com!osite #ivi#e# i$to two te$#e$cies2 matter is a te$#e$c*& si$ce it is #efi$e# as a relaxatio$6 a$# #uratio$ is a te$#e$c*& si$ce it is a co$tractio$) ;owever& if we exami$e all the #efi$itio$s& #escri!tio$s& a$# characteristics of #uratio$ i$ >ergso$0s wor'& we will $otice that the #iffere$ce of $ature& i$ the e$#& is $ot between these two te$#e$cies) +$ the e$#& the #iffere$ce of $ature is itself one of these te$#e$cies& a$# o!!oses the other) 7o& the$& what is #uratio$@ =ver*thi$g >ergso$ has to sa* a"out it comes #ow$ to this2 #uratio$ is w at differs from itse'f% Aatter& o$ the other ha$#& is what #oes $ot #iffer from itself6 it is what re!eats itself) +$ #onnees immediates, >ergso$ shows $ot o$l* that i$te$sit* is a com!osite #ivi#e# i$to two te$#e$cies& "ut more im!orta$tl*& that i$te$sit* is $ot a !ro!ert* of se$satio$6 se$satio$ is a !ure ?ualit*& a$# a !ure ?ualit* or se$satio$ #iffers i$ $ature from itself) 7e$satio$ is what cha$ges i$

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$ature a$# $ot i$ mag$itu#e) 26 The life of the !s*che is therefore #iffere$ce of $ature itself2 i$ the life of the !s*che& there is alwa*s ot erness without there "ei$g number or severa'75 >ergso$ #isti$guishes three sorts of moveme$t2 ?ualitative& evolutive& a$# exte$sive) >ut the esse$ce of this moveme$t& eve$ !ure tra$sit li'e the race of .chilles& is alteratio$) Aoveme$t is ?ualitative cha$ge& a$# ?ualitative cha$ge is moveme$t) 28 +$ a wor#& #uratio$ is what #iffers& a$# this is $o lo$ger what #iffers from other thi$gs& "ut what #iffers from itself) :hat #iffers has itself "ecome a thi$g& a substance% >ergso$0s thesis coul# "e summe# u! i$ this wa*2 real time is alteratio$& a$# alteratio$ is su"sta$ce) Differe$ce of $ature is therefore $o lo$ger "etwee$ two thi$gs or rather two te$#e$cies6 #iffere$ce of $ature is itself a thi$g& a te$#e$c* o!!ose# to some other te$#e$c*) The #ecom!ositio$ of the com!osite #oes $ot /ust give us two te$#e$cies that #iffer i$ $ature6 it gives us #iffere$ce of $ature as o$e of the two te$#e$cies) .$# /ust as #iffere$ce has "ecome a su"sta$ce& so moveme$t is $o lo$ger the characteristic of somethi$g& "ut has itself ac?uire# a su"sta$tial character) +t !resu!!oses $othi$g else& $o "o#* i$ motio$) 29 Duratio$ or te$#e$c* is the #iffere$ce of self with itself6 a$# what #iffers from itself is& i$ a$ unmediatedway, the u$it* of su"sta$ce a$# su"/ect)

5ow we '$ow "oth how to #ivi#e the com!osite a$# how to choose the right te$#e$c*& si$ce what #iffers from itself& $amel* #uratio$& is alwa*s o$ the right si#e6 #uratio$ is i$ each case reveale# to us u$#er a$ as!ect& o$e of its 1$ua$ces)1 8$e ca$$ot hel! $otice& however& that i$ the case of what is com!osite& the same term ca$ sometimes "e o$ the right si#e& a$# sometimes o$ the left si#e) The #ivisio$ of a$imal "ehavior !laces i$tellige$ce o$ the left si#e "ecause #uratio$& the e'an vita', is ex!resse# as i$sti$cts through such "ehavior& whereas i$tellige$ce is o$ the right si#e for the a$al*sis of huma$ "ehavior) >ut i$tellige$ce ca$$ot cha$ge si#es without i$ tur$ reveali$g itself as a$ ex!ressio$ of #uratio$& though i$ huma$it* $ow2 if i$tellige$ce ta'es the form of matter& it has the se$se of #uratio$ "ecause i$tellige$ce is the orga$ that #omi$ates matter2 a se$se u$i?uel* !rese$t i$ huma$it*) 30 +t shoul# come as $o sur!rise that #uratio$ thus exhi"its several as!ects which are its $ua$ces& si$ce #uratio$ is what #iffers from itself) .$# to see a fi$al $ua$ce of #uratio$ i$ matter& o$e has o$l* to go farther& to go all the wa*) >ut to u$#ersta$# this crucial !oi$t& we must 'ee! i$ mi$# what #iffere$ce has "ecome) Differe$ce is $o lo$ger "etwee$ two te$#e$cies6 #iffere$ce is itself o$e of the te$#e$cies a$# is alwa*s o$ the right si#e) =xter$al #iffere$ce has "ecome i$ter$al #iffere$ce) #ifference of nature as itse'f become a nature% Aore tha$ that& it was so from the "egi$$i$g) Thus it was that the articulatio$s of the real a$# facutal li$es were rela*e# "ac' a$# forth2 the articulatio$s of the real s'etche# factual li$es which at least reveale# i$ter$al #iffere$ce as the limit of their co$verge$ce& a$# co$versel*& factual li$es gave us articulatio$s of the real& e)g) the co$verge$ce of the three #iverse li$es& i$ Matter and Memory, lea#i$g to the true #istri"utio$ of what "elo$gs to the su"/ect a$# what "elo$gs to the o"/ect)1 Differe$ce of $ature was exter$al o$l* i$ a!!eara$ce) +$ this ver* a!!eara$ce& #iffere$ce of $ature was alrea#* #isti$guishe# from the #iffere$ce of

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#egree& the #iffere$ce of i$te$sit*& a$# s!ecies(s!ecific #iffere$ce) ;owever& there are $ow other #isti$ctio$s to "e ma#e i$ the state of i$ter$al #iffere$ce2 Duratio$ ca$ "e !rese$te# as su"sta$ce itself i$ so far as #uratio$ is sim!le& i$#ivisi"le) .lteratio$ must therefore mai$tai$ itself a$# achieve its status without allowi$g itself to "e re#uce# to !luralit*& to co$tra#ic tio$& or eve$ to alterit*) +$ter$al #iffere$ce will have to #isti$guish itself from contradiction, a'terity, a$# negation% This is !recisel* where >ergso$0s metho# a$# theor* of #iffere$ce are o!!ose# to the other theor*& the other metho# of #iffere$ce calle# #ialectic& whether it0s <lato0s #ialectic of alterit* or ;egel0s #ialectic of co$tra#ictio$& each of which im!l* the !rese$ce a$# the !ower of the $egative)

The origi$alit* of >ergso$0s co$ce!tio$ resi#es i$ showi$g that i$ter$al #iffere$ce #oes $ot go& a$# is $ot re?uire# to go as far as co$tra#ictio$& alterit*& a$# $egativit*& "ecause these three $otio$s are i$ fact less !rofou$# tha$ itself& or the* are view!oi$ts o$l* from the outsi#e) The real se$se of >ergso$0s e$#eavor is thi$'i$g i$ter$al #iffere$ce as such& as !ure i$ter$al #iffere$ce& a$# raisi$g #iffere$ce u! to the a"solute)

Duratio$ is o$l* o$e of two te$#e$cies& o$e of two halves) 7o& if we acce!t that it #iffers from itself i$ all its "ei$g& #oes it $ot co$tai$ the secret of the other half@ ;ow coul# it still leave exter$al to itself t at from w ic it #iffers& $amel* the other te$#e$c*@ +f #uratio$ #iffers from itself& that from which it #iffers is still #uratio$ i$ a certai$ se$se) +t is $ot a ?uestio$ of #ivi#i$g #uratio$ i$ the same wa* we #ivi#e# what is com!osite2 #uratio$ is sim!le& i$#ivisi"le& !ure) The sim!le is $ot #ivi#e#& it differentiates itse'f% This is the esse$ce of the sim!le& or the moveme$t of #iffere$ce) 7o& the com!osite #ivi#es i$to two te$#e$cies& o$e of which is the i$#ivisi"le& "ut the i$#ivisi"le #iffere$tiates itself i$to two te$#e$cies& the other of which is the !ri$ci!le of the #ivisi"le) 7!ace is "ro'e$ u! i$to matter a$# #uratio$& "ut #uratio$ #iffere$tiates itself i$to co$tractio$ a$# relaxatio$6 a$# relaxatio$ is the !ri$ci!le of matter) 8rga$ic form is "ro'e$ u! i$to matter a$# e'an vita', "ut the e'an vita' #iffere$tiates itself i$to i$sti$ct a$# i$tellige$ce6 a$# i$tellige$ce is the !ri$ci!le of the tra$sformatio$ of matter i$to s!ace) 9learl*& the com!osite is $ot "ro'e$ u! i$ the same wa* that the sim!le #iffere$tiates itself2 the metho# of #iffere$ce ta'es "oth these two moveme$ts together) >ut $ow this !ower of #iffere$tiatio$ must "e exami$e#) +t is this !ower which will lea# us to the !ure co$ce!t of i$ter$al #iffere$ce) To #etermi$e such a

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co$ce!t& we will have to show in w at way that which #iffers from #uratio$& i)e) the other half& ca$ still "e #uratio$)

+$ #uration and Simu'taneity, >ergso$ attri"utes to #uratio$ a stra$ge !ower& the a"ilit* to e$glo"e itself& eve$ while it s!lits itself u! i$to fluxes a$# co$ce$trates itself i$ a si$gle curre$t& accor#i$g to the $ature of atte$tio$ we !a* to it) 32 +$ #onnees immediates, we fi$# the fu$#ame$tal i#ea of virtua'ity, which will su"se?ue$tl* "e ta'e$ u! a$# #evelo!e# i$ Matter and Memory8 #uratio$& the i$#ivisi"le is $ot exactl* that which #oes $ot allow itself to "e #ivi#e#6 it is what cha$ges its $ature whe$ it #ivi#es& a$# what cha$ges its $ature #efi$es the vir tual or the su"/ective) >ut the $ecessar* clarificatio$s are to "e fou$# i$ &reative Evo'ution% >iolog* shows us the !rocess of #iffere$tiatio$ at wor') :e are loo'i$g for a co$ce!t of #iffere$ce that #oes $ot allow itself to "e re#uce# to #egree or i$te$sit*& to alterit* or co$tra#ictio$2 such a #iffere$ce is vital& eve$ if the co$ce!t itself is $ot "iological) Tife is the !rocess of #iffere$ce) +$ this i$sta$ce& >ergso$ is thi$'i$g less of em"r*ological #iffere$tiatio$ tha$ the #iffere$tiatio$ of s!ecies& i)e) evolutio$) +$ his i#ea of evolutio$& Darwi$ hel!e# associate the !ro"lem of #iffere$ce with life& eve$ though Darwi$ himself ha# a false co$ce!tio$ of vital #iffere$ce) 8!!osi$g a !articular mecha$ism& >ergso$ shows that vital #iffere$ce is a$ interna' #iffere$ce) %urthermore& he shows that i$ter$al #iffere$ce ca$$ot "e co$ceive# as a sim!le determination8 a #etermi$atio$ ca$ "e acci#e$tal& i$ a$* case it ca$ get its "ei$g o$l* from a cause& a$ e$#& or a coi$ ci#e$ce6 a$# this im!lies a su"sisti$g exteriorit*6 $ot to me$tio$ that the relatio$ of several #etermi$atio$s is o$l* o$e of associatio$ or a##itio$)0 3 5ot o$l* is vital #iffere$ce $ot a #etermi$atio$& "ut it is ver* much the o!!osite2 it is i$#etermi$atio$ itself) >ergso$ alwa*s em!hasi es the u$foreseea"le character of livi$g forms2 1the* are i$#etermi$ate& "* which + mea$ u$foreseea"le)1 34 .$# i$ >erg( so$0s wor'& the u$foreseea"le& the i$#etermi$ate& is $ot acci#e$tal6 o$ the co$trar*& it is esse$tial& the $egatio$ of acci#e$t) >* ma'i$g #iffere$ce a sim!le #etermi$atio$& either it is surre$#ere# to cha$ce& or it "ecomes $ecessar* with res!ect to somethi$g "ut o$l* "* ma'i$g it acci#e$tal with res!ect to life) :here life is co$cer$e#& however& the te$#e$c* to cha$ge is $ot acci#e$tal)05=ve$ more to the !oi$t& the cha$ges themselves are $ot acci#e$tal& the e'an vita' 1is the root cause of variatio$s)1 36 This is ta$tamou$t to sa*i$g that #iffere$ce is $ot a #etermi$atio$ "ut& i$ its esse$tial relatio$ to life& a #iffere$tiatio$) Differe$tiatio$ certai$l* comes from the resiste$ce life e$cou$ters from matter& "ut it comes first a$# foremost from the ex!losive i$ter$al force which life carries withi$ itself) 1The esse$ce of a vital te$#e$c* is to #evelo! itself i$ the form of a s!ra*& creati$g "* the sole !ower of its growth& the #iverge$t #irectio$s its e'an will !ursue)137 Hirtualit* exists i$ such a wa* that it actuali es itself as it #issociates itself6 it must #issociate itself to actuali e itself) Differe$tiatio$ is the moveme$t of a virtualit* actuali i$g itself) 4ife #iffers from itself& so we are co$fro$te# "* #iverge$t li$es of evolutio$ a$#& o$ each li$e& orig$al !rocesses) 7till& it is o$l* with itself that life #iffers6 co$se?ue$tl*& also o$ each li$e& we are co$fro$te# "* !articular a!!aratuses& !articular orga$ structures that are i#e$tical though

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o"tai$e# "* #iffere$t mea$s) 38 Diverge$ce of series& i#e$tit* of !articular a!!aratuses2 this is the #ou"le moveme$t of life as a whole) The $otio$ of #iffere$tiatio$ !osits at o$ce the simp'icity of a virtual& the divergence of the series i$ which this virtual actuali es itself& a$# the resemb'ence of certai$ fu$#ame$tal results !ro#uce# i$ these series) >ergso$ ex!lai$s /ust how im!orta$t resem"( le$ce is as a "iological categor*2 39 it is the i#e$tit* of that which #iffers from itself6 it !roves that the same virtualit* actuali es itself i$ the #iverge$ce of series6 a$# it shows the essence su"sisti$g i$ cha$ge& /ust as #iverge$ce shows the cha$ge itself at wor' i$ the esse$ce) 1:hat are the cha$ces that two totall* #iffere$t evolutio$s& through two totall* #iffere$t series of acci#e$ts a##e# together& e$# u! with similar results@1 40

+$ 4es #eu! sources, >ergso$ comes "ac' to this !rocess of #iffere$tiatio$2 #ichotom* is the law of lifeD01 >ut somethi$g $ew a!!ears2 alo$gsi#e "iological #iffere$tiatio$& there $ow a!!ears a !ro!erl* historical #iffere$tiatio$) >iological #iffere$tiatio$ certai$l* has its !ri$ci!le i$ life itself& "ut it is $o$e the less "ou$# u! with matter& such that its !ro#ucts remai$ se!arate& exter$al to o$e a$other)

1The materialit* which the* Ithe s!eciesJ have give$ themselves& !reve$ts them from fusi$g "ac' together so as to rei$tro#uce the origi$al te$#e$c*& "ut stro$ger& more com!lex& a$# more evolve#)142 8$ the level of histor*& however& the te$#e$cies co$stitute# "* #issociatio$ evolve i$ the same i$#ivi#ual or i$ the same societ*) %rom the$ o$& these te$#e$cies evolve successivel* "ut i$ the same "ei$g2 huma$it* will go as far as it ca$ i$ o$e #irectio$& the$ tur$ arou$# a$# go i$ the other #irectio$)1 This text is all the more im!orta$t si$ce it is o$e of the few i$ which >ergso$ accor#s a s!ecificit* to the historical with res!ect to the vital) :hat #oes this mea$@ +t mea$s that #iffere$ce "ecomes co$scious a$# achieves self(co$scious$ess i$ huma$it* a$# o$l* i$ huma$it*) +f #iffere$ce itself is "iological& the co$scious$ess of #iffere$ce is historical) True& the fu$ctio$ of this historical co$scious$ess of #iffere$ce shoul# $ot "e exaggerate#) .ccor#i$g to >ergso$& more tha$ !rovi#i$g somethi$g $ew& it li"erates what is alrea#* there) 9o$scious$ess was alrea#* there& with a$# i$ #iffere$ce) Duratio$ is all "* itself co$scious$ess& life all "* itself is co$scious$ess3"ut it is so by rig ts%9,5 +f histor* is what rea$imates co$scious$ess& or is the !lace where co$scious$ess is rea$imate# a$# !osite# i$ fact& it is o$l* "ecause this co$scious$ess i#e$tical to life ha# falle$ aslee!& ha# grow$ $um" i$ matter3a voi#e# co$scious$ess& $ot a$ a"se$ce of co$scious$ess)45 9o$scious$ess is $ot the least "it historical i$ >ergso$0s wor'6

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histor* is sim!l* that !oi$t where co$scious$ess !o!s u! agai$& o$ce it has traverse# matter) 9o$se?ue$tl*& there exists "* rights a$ i#e$tit* "etwee$ #iffere$ce itself a$# the co$scious$ess of #iffere$ce2 histor* is $ever a$*thi$g other tha$ a matter of fact) This i#e$tit* "* rights "etwee$ #iffere$ce a$# the co$scious$ess of #iffere$ce is memory- a$# it is memor* that will give us the $ature of the !ure co$ce!t)

5evertheless& "efore we get there& we must exami$e how the !rocess of #if fere$tiatio$ is sufficie$t to #isti$guish >ergso$0s metho# from #ialectic) The ma/or similarit* "etwee$ <lato a$# >ergso$ is that the* each create# a !hiloso!h* of #iffere$ce i$ which #iffere$ce is thought as such6 it is $ot re#uce# to co$tra#ictio$ a$# does not go as far as co$tra#ictio$) 46 >ut the !oi$t where the* !art com!a$* ,$ot the o$l* !oi$t& "ut the most im!orta$t- seems to "e the $ec essar* !rese$ce of a !ri$ci!le of fi$alit* i$ <lato2 o$l* the Goo# ex!lai$s the #iffere$ce of the thi$g a$# allows us to u$#ersta$# the thi$g i$ itself& as i$ the cele"rate# exam!le of 7ocrates sitti$g i$ his !riso$ cell) Therefore& i$ his #ichotom*& <lato $ee#s the Goo# as the rule to gover$ choice) There is $o i$tuitio$ i$ <lato& "ut there is i$s!iratio$ "* the Goo#) +$ this se$se& at least o$e of >ergso$0s texts is <lato$ic2 i$ 4es #eu! sources, he shows that o$e must exami$e fu$ctio$s if o$e ho!es to u$cover ge$ui$e articulatio$s of the real) :hat is the fu$ctio$ of each facult*@ %or exam!le& what is the fu$ctio$ of stor*telli$g@ 47 The thi$g gets its #iffere$ce i$ this case from its use& its e$#& its !ur!ose3from the Goo#) >ut we '$ow that carvi$g u! realit*& or the articulatio$s of the real& is o$l* a !relimi$ar* ex!ressio$ of the metho#) :hat gover$s the #issectio$ of thi$gs is i$#ee# their fu$ctio$& their e$#& such that the* seem at this !oi$t to receive their ver* #iffere$ce from outsi#e themselves) <recisel*& however& this is wh* >ergso$ "oth critici es fi$alit* a$# #oes $ot restrict himself to the articulatio$s of the real2 the thi$g itself a$# its corres!o$#i$g e$# are i$ fact o$e a$# the same thi$g& which o$ the o$e ha$# is see$ as the com!osite it forms i$ s!ace& a$# o$ the other& as #iffere$ce a$# the sim!licit* of !ure #uratio$) 48 There is $o lo$ger a$* "asis for s!ea'i$g of fi$alit*2 whe$ #iffere$ce has "ecome the thi$g itself& there is $o lo$ger a$* "asis for sa*i$g that the thi$g receives its #iffere$ce from a$ e$#) Thus >ergso$0s co$ce!tio$ of #iffere$ce of $ature allows him& u$li'e <lato& to avert a$* ge$ui$e recourse to fi$alit*) 7imilarl*& usi$g certai$ texts "* >ergso$& we ca$ imagi$e the o"/ectio$s he woul# have ha# to a ;egelia$(i$s!ire# #ialectics& from which he is eve$ more remove# tha$ <lato$ic #ialectics) +$ >ergso$& tha$'s to the $otio$ of the virtual& the thi$g #iffers from itself first, immediate'y% .ccor#i$g to ;egel& the thi$g #iffers from itself "ecause it #iffers first from ever*thi$g it is $ot& a$# thus #iffere$ce goes as far as co$tra#ictio$) The #isti$ctio$ "etwee$ o!!osite a$# co$tra#ictio$ matter little i$ this co$text& si$ce co$tra#ictio$& li'e the o!!osite& is o$l* the !rese$tatio$ of a whole) +$ "oth cases& #iffere$ce has "ee$ re!lace# "* the !la* of #etermi$atio$) 1There is har#l* a$* co$crete realit* o$ which o$e ca$$ot hol# two o!!osi$g views simulta$eousl*6 this realit*& therefore& is su"sume# u$#er two a$tago$istic co$( ce!ts)1 49 The o"/ect is the$ reco$stitute# usi$g these two !oi$ts of view& or so it is claime#) %or exam!le&

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#uratio$ is su!!ose#l* the s*$thesis of u$it* a$# multi!licit*) ;owever& if >ergso$ coul# o"/ect that <lato$ism goes $o farther tha$ a co$ce!tio$ of difference as sti'' e!terna', the o"/ectio$ he woul# a##ress to a #ialectic of co$tra#ictio$ is that it gets $o farther tha$ a co$ce!tio$ of difference as on'y abstract% 1This com"i$atio$ Iof two co$tra#ictor* co$ce!tsJ ca$$ot !rese$t either a #iversit* of #egrees or a variet* of forms2 it is& or it is $ot)1 50 :hatever e$tails $either #egree $or $ua$ce is a$ a"stractio$) Thus the #ialectic of co$tra#ictio$ falls short of #iffere$ce itself& which is the cause or reaso$ of $ua$ce) .$# i$ the e$#& co$tra#ictio$ is o$l* o$e of the $umerous retros!ective illusio$s that >ergso$ #e$ou$ces) :hat is #iffere$tiati$g itself i$ two #iverge$t te$#e$cies is a virtualit*& a$# as such it is somethi$g a"solutel* sim!le that actuali es itself) :e treat it as a real thi$g "* com!osi$g it with the characteristic eleme$ts of two te$#e$cies which& however& were create# o$l* i$ its ver* #evelo!me$t) :e t in: #uratio$ #iffers from itself "ecause it is first the !ro#uct of two co$trar* #etermi$atio$s& "ut we forget that it #iffere$tiate# itself "ecause it is first that which #iffers from itself) =ver*thi$g comes "ac' to >ergso$0s criti?ue of the $egative2 his whole effort is aime# at a co$ce!tio$ of #iffere$ce without $egatio$& a co$ce!tio$ of #iffere$ce that #oes $ot co$tai$ the $egative) +$ his criti?ue of #isor#er& as well as his criti?ue of $othi$g$ess or co$tra#ictio$& >ergso$ tries to show that the $egatio$ of o$e real term "* the other is o$l* the !ositive actuali atio$ of a virtualit* that co$tai$s "oth terms at o$ce) 17truggle& i$ this i$sta$ce& is o$l* the su!erficial as!ect of !rogress)1 51 +t is our ig$ora$ce of the virtual that ma'es us "elieve i$ co$tra#ictio$ a$# $egatio$) The o!!ositio$ of two terms is o$l* the actuali atio$ of a virtualit* that co$tai$e# them "oth2 this is ta$tamou$t to sa*i$g that #iffere$ce is more !rofou$# tha$ $egatio$ or co$tra#ictio$)

:hatever the im!orta$ce of #iffere$tiatio$& it is $ot what is most !rofou$#) +f it were& there woul# "e $o reaso$ to s!ea' of a co$ce!t of #iffere$ce2 #iffere$tiatio$ is a$ actio$& a$ actuali atio$) :hat #iffere$tiates itself is first that which #iffers from itself& i$ other wor#s& the virtual) Differe$tiatio$ is $ot the co$ce!t& "ut the !ro#uctio$ of o"/ects that fi$#s its cause or reaso$ i$ the co$ce!t) 8$l*& if we acce!t that what #iffers from itself must "e such a co$ce!t& the$ the virtual must have a co$sista$c*& a$ o"/ective co$sista$c* that e$a"les it to #iffere$tiate itself& to !ro#uce such o"/ects) +$ those crucial !ages #evote# to Bavaisso$& >ergso$ ex!lai$s that there are two wa*s of #etermi$i$g what colors have i$ commo$) 52 Eit er we extract the a"stract a$# ge$eral i#ea of color& a$# we #o so "* 1effaci$g from re# what ma'es it re#& from "lue what ma'es it "lue& a$# from gree$ what ma'es it gree$12 the$ we are left with a co$ce!t which is a ge$re& a$# ma$* o"/ects for o$e co$ce!t) The co$ce!t a$# the o"/ect are two thi$gs& a$# the relatio$ of the o"/ect to the co$ce!t is o$e of su"sum!tio$) Thus we get $o farther tha$ s!atial #isti$ctio$s& a state of #iffere$ce that is exter$al to the thi$g) Or we se$# the colors through a co$verge$t le$se that co$ce$trates them o$ the same !oi$t2 what we have the$ is 1!ure white light&1 the ver* light that 1ma'es the #iffere$ces come out "etwee$ the sha#es)1 7o& the #iffere$t colors are $o lo$ger o"/ects under a co$ce!t& "ut $ua$ces or #egrees of the co$ce!t

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itself) Degrees of #iffere$ce itself& a$# $ot #iffere$ces of #egree) The relatio$ is $o lo$ger o$e of su"sum!tio$& "ut o$e of !artici!atio$) :hite light is still a u$iversal& "ut a co$crete u$iversal& which gives us a$ u$#ersta$#i$g of the !articular "ecause it is the far e$# of the !articular) >ecause thi$gs have "ecome $ua$ces or #egrees of the co$ce!t& the co$ce!t itself has "ecome a thi$g) +t is a u$iversal thi$g& if *ou li'e& si$ce the o"/ects loo' li'e so ma$* #egrees& "ut a co$crete thi$g& $ot a ge$us or a ge$eralit*) <ro!erl* s!ea'i$g& there is $o lo$ger ma$* o"/ects for o$e co$ce!t6 the co$ce!t is i#e$tical to the thi$g itself) >ut it is $ot the resem"la$ce of o"/ects6 the co$ce!t is the #iffere$ce "etwee$ them& to which the* are relate#) This is i$ter$al #iffere$ce2 the co$ce!t which has "ecome a co$ce!t of #iffere$ce) To achieve this su!erior !hiloso!hical goal& what was re?uire#@ :e ha# to give u! thi$'i$g i$ terms of s!ace2 the s!atial #isti$ctio$ 1#oes $ot e$tail #egrees)153 7!atial #iffere$ces ha# to "e re!lace# "* tem!oral #iffere$ces) .$# what !ro!erl* "elo$gs to i$ter$al #iffere$ce is this2 it ma'es the co$ce!t a co$crete thi$g& "ecause thi$gs are /ust $ua$ces or #egrees !rese$t withi$ the co$ce!t) +t is i$ this se$se that >ergso$ism has !ut #iffere$ce& a$# the co$ce!t alo$g with it& i$to time) 1+f the mi$# has a mo#est role to !la* "* co$$ecti$g the successive mome$ts of the thi$g& a$# if the mi$# through this o!eratio$ ma'es co$tact with matter& a$# if it is through matter that it is first #isti$guishe#& the$ a$ i$fi$it* of #egrees "etwee$ matter a$# a full* #evelo!e# mi$# ca$ "e co$( ceive#)010 4 The #isti$ctio$s "etwee$ su"/ect a$# o"/ect& "o#* a$# mi$#& are tem!oral a$# so a matter of #egree3 "ut the* are $ot sim!le #iffere$ces of #egree) 55 5ow we see how the virtual "ecomes the !ure co$ce!t of #iffere$ce& a$# what such a co$ce!t e$tails2 it is t e possib'e coe!istence of degrees or nuances% +f i$ s!ite of this a!!are$t !ara#ox& we la"el this !ossi"le coexiste$ce memory, as >ergso$ himself #oes& we must co$clu#e that the e'an vita' is less !rofou$# tha$ #uratio$) #uration, memory, and e'an vita' are t e t ree aspects of t e concept t at can be distinguis ed wit precision% Duratio$ is #iffere$ce from itself6 memor* is the coexiste$ce of #egrees of #iffere$ce6 the e'an vita' ;s the #iffere$tiatio$ of #iffere$ce) These three stages #efi$e a schemati ism i$ >ergso$0s !hiloso!h*) The role of memor* is to give the virtualit* of #uratio$ itself a$ o"/ective co$siste$c* which ma'es it a co$crete u$iversal& a$# e$a"le it to actuali e itself) :he$ virtualit* actuali es itself& that is to sa*& #iffere$tiates itself& it is through life a$# i$ a vital form) +$ this se$se& it is true that #iffere$ce is vital) >ut virtualit* was a"le to #iffere$tiate itself usi$g o$l* the #egrees that coexist withi$ it) Differe$tiatio$ is o$l* the se!aratio$ of what coexiste# i$ #uratio$) The #iffere$tiatio$s of the e'an vita' arc, i$ a more !rofou$# wa*& the #egrees of #iffere$ce itself) .$# the !ro#ucts of #iffere$tiatio$ are o"/ects i$ a"solute co$formit* with the o"/ect& at least i$ their !urit*& "ecause the* are i$ fact $othi$g other tha$ the com!li( me$tar* !ositio$ of the #iffere$t #egrees of the co$ce!t itself) +t is i$ this se$se agai$ that the theor* of #iffere$tiatio$ is less !rofou$# tha$ the theor* of $ua$ces or #egrees)

The virtual $ow #efi$es a$ a"solutel* !ositive mo#e of existe$ce) Duratio$ is the virtual6 this #egree of #uratio$ is real& to the exte$t that this #egree #iffere$tiates itself) %or exam!le&

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#uratio$ is $ot i$ itself !s*chological& "ut the !s*chological re!rese$ts a !articular #egree of #uratio$ that is actuali e# "etwee$ other #egrees as well as amo$g them) 56 9ertai$l*& the virtual is the mo#e of that which #oes $ot act& si$ce it will act o$l* "* #iffere$tiati$g itself& "* ceasi$g to "e i$ itself& eve$ as it 'ee!s somethi$g of its origi$) <recisel*& however& it follows that the virtual is the mo#e of w at is% This thesis of >ergso$0s is !articularl* famous2 the virtual is a !ure recollectio$& a$# !ure recollectio$ is #iffere$ce) <ure recollectio$ is virtual "ecause it woul# "e a"sur# to loo' for a mar' of the !ast i$ somethi$g actual a$# alrea#* actuali e#) 57 Becollectio$ is $ot the re!rese$tatio$ of somethi$g& it #oes$0t re!rese$t3it sim!l* is% 8r if we must s!ea' of re!rese$tatio$& a recollectio$ 1#oes $ot re!rese$t somethi$g which has "ee$& "ut sim!l* somethi$g that is)) )it is a reco''ection of t e present%2< . recollectio$ is $ot waiti$g to come a"out6 it is $ot waiti$g to "e forme#6 it is $ot waiti$g for the !erce!tio$ to #isa!!ear) Becollectio$ is $ot !osterior to !erce!tio$) T e coe!istence of t e past wit t e present w ic as been is an essentia' t eme of3ergsonism% .ccor#i$g to these characteristics& however& whe$ we sa* that recollectio$ thus #efi$e# is #iffere$ce itself& we are sa*i$g two thi$gs at o$ce) 8$ the o$e ha$#& !ure recollectio$ is #iffere$ce "ecause $o memor* resem"les a$* other memor*& "ecause each memor* is imme#iatel* !erfect& "ecause it is all at o$ce what it will alwa*s "e2 #iffere$ce is the o"/ect of recollectio$& /ust as resem"la$ce is the o"/ect of !erce!tio$) w +t is e$ough to #ream to gai$ access to this worl# where $othi$g resem"les a$*thi$g else6 a !ure #reamer woul# $ever leave the !articular& he woul# gras! o$l* #iffere$ces) 8$ the other ha$#& recollectio$ is #iffere$ce i$ still a$other se$se2 it contributes #iffere$ce6 "ecause if it is true that the #ema$#s of the !rese$t i$tro#uce some resem"la$ce "etwee$ our recollectio$s& it is also true that recollectio$ i$tro#uces #iffere$ce i$to the !rese$t& i$ the se$se that recol lectio$ co$stitutes& each su"se?ue$t mome$t& somethi$g $ew) <recisel* "ecause the !ast is !reserve#& 1the su"se?ue$t mome$t alwa*s co$tai$s& i$ a##itio$ to the !revious mome$t& the recollectio$ which this !revious mome$t has left

"ehi$#))))))))))+$ter$al #uratio$ is the co$ti$ue# life of memor* !rolo$gi$g the

!ast i$ the !rese$t& whether the !rese$t #irectl* co$tai$s the ceaselessl* growi$g image of the !ast& or whether "* virtue of its co$ti$ual cha$ge i$ ?ualit*& the !rese$t "ears wit$ess to the i$creasi$gl* heav* "aggage o$e #rags alo$g as o$e grows ol#er)1 61 +$ a #iffere$t wa* tha$ %reu#& though /ust as !rofou$#& >ergso$ saw that memor* was a fu$ctio$ of the future& that memor* a$#

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will were the same fu$ctio$& that o$l* a "ei$g ca!a"le of memor* coul# tur$ awa* from its !ast& free itself from the !ast& $ot re!eat it& a$# #o somethi$g $ew) Thus the wor# 1#iffere$ce1 at o$ce #esig$ates t e particu'ar t at is a$# t e new t at is coming about% Becollectio$ is #efi$e# "oth i$ relatio$ to the !erce!tio$ with which it is co$tem!ora$eous& a$# i$ relatio$ to the su"se?ue$t mome$t i$ which it is !rolo$ge#) :he$ we u$ite the two mea$i$gs& we get a stra$ge im!ressio$2 that of acti$g a$# "ei$g acte# o$ at the same time) 62 >ut how ca$ we avoi# u$iti$g them& si$ce m* !erce!tio$ is alrea#* the su"se?ue$t mome$t@

4et0s "egi$ with the seco$# mea$i$g) :e '$ow the im!orta$ce >ergso$ attri"utes to this i#ea of newness, i$ his theor* of the future a$# his theor* of free#om) >ut we have to exami$e this $otio$ more !recisel*& at the mome$t of its formatio$ i$ the seco$# cha!ter of the Essai% 7a*i$g that the !ast is !reserve# i$ itself a$# that it is !rolo$ge# i$ the !rese$t is ta$tamou$t to sa*i$g that the su"se?ue$t mome$t a!!ears without the #isa!!are$ce of the !revious mome$t) This !resu!!oses a contraction, a$# co$tractio$ #efi$es #uratio$) 63 :hat is o!!ose# to co$tractio$ is !ure re!etitio$ or matter2 re!etitio$ is the mo#e of a !rese$t that a!!ears o$l* whe$ the other !rese$t has #isa!!eare#3the !rese$t itself& or exteriorit*& vi"ratio$& relaxatio$) 9o$tractio$& o$ the other ha$#& #esig$ates #iffere$ce "ecause #iffere$ce i$ its esse$ce ma'es a re!etitio$ im!ossi"le& "ecause it #estro*s the ver* co$#itio$ of a$* !ossi"le re!etitio$) +$ this se$se& #iffere$ce is the $ew& $ew$ess itself) >ut how #oes o$e #efi$e the a!!eara$ce of somethi$g $ew in genera'=% +t is i$ the seco$# cha!ter of the Essai that >ergso$ ta'es u! this !ro"lem& which is most famousl* associate# with ;ume) ;ume !ose# the !ro"lem of causalit* "* as'i$g how a !ure re!etitio$& a re!etitio$ of similar cases which !ro#uce $othi$g $ew& ca$ $evertheless !ro#uce somethi$g $ew i$ the mi$# loo'i$g o$) This 1somethi$g $ew1 is the ex!ectatio$ the thousa$#th time arou$#3there *ou have difference% ;ume0s res!o$se was that if re!etitio$ !ro#uces a #iffere$ce i$ the the mi$# loo'i$g o$& it is "* virtue of the !ri$ci!les of huma$ $ature a$# es!eciall* the !ri$ci!le of ha"it) :he$ >ergso$ a$al* es the exam!le of tic's of the cloc's or the sou$#s of a hammer stri'i$g& he !oses the !ro"lem i$ the same wa* as ;ume& a$# resolves it similarl*2 a$*thi$g $ew !ro#uce# is $ot i$ the o"/ects& "ut i$ the mi$#2 it is a 1fusio$&1 a$ 1i$ter!e$etratio$&1 a$ 1orga$i atio$&1 a !reservatio$ of the !rece#e$t& which has $ot #isa!!eare# whe$ the su"se?ue$t a!!ears) +$ a wor#& it is a co$tractio$ that occurs i$ the mi$#) The similarit* "etwee$ ;ume a$# >ergso$ goes eve$ farther2 /ust as i$ ;ume similar cases "le$# together i$ the imagi$atio$ *et at the same time remai$ #isti$ct i$ the u$#ersta$#i$g& so i$ >ergso$ states "le$# together i$ #uratio$ *et at the same time !reserve somethi$g of the exteriorit* from which the* come6 it is with this last !oi$t that >ergso$ ex!lai$s the co$structio$ of s!ace) 7o& co$tractio$ i$itiall* ha!!e$s in the mi$#& as it were6 co$tractio$ is the origi$ of the mi$#6 it gives "irth to #iffere$ce) .fterwar#s& "ut o$l* afterwar#s& the mi$# a!!ro!riates it for its ow$ use6 the mi$# co$tracts a$# is co$tracte#& as we see i$ >ergso$0s theor* of free#om) 60 >ut it is e$ough for us to have gras!e# the $otio$ i$ its origi$)

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5ot o$l* #o #uratio$ a$# matter #iffer i$ $ature& "ut what #iffers i$ this wa* is #iffere$ce as well as re!etitio$) :e agai$ e$cou$ter a$ ol# #ifficult*2 at o$e a$# the same time& #iffere$ce of $ature was "etwee$ two te$#e$cies a$#& more !rofou$#l*& was o$e of the two te$#e$cies) .$# these were $ot the o$l* states of #iffere$ce& there were still two others2 the !rivilege# te$#e$c*& the te$#e$c* o$ the right si#e was #iffere$tiate# i$ two& a$# it was a"le to #iffere$tiate itself "ecause& more !rofou$#l*& there are #egrees i$ #iffere$ce) :hat we must #o $ow is regrou! these four states2 1- difference of nature, 2- interna' difference, 3- differentiation, a$# 4- degress of difference% The commo$ threa# is that ,i$ter$al- #iffere$ce #iffers ,i$ $ature- from re!etitio$) 9learl*& however& this #oes $ot a## u!2 #iffere$ce is sai# "oth to "e i$ter$al a$# to #iffer exter$all*) >ut if we are a"le to glim!se the outli$es of a solutio$& it is o$l* "ecause >ergso$ is i$te$t o$ showi$g us that #iffere$ce is still a re!etitio$& a$# re!etitio$ is alrea#* a #iffere$ce) Be!etitio$& or matter& is i$#ee# a #iffere$ce6 the oscillatio$s are clearl* #isti$ct i$ as much as 1o$e #isa!!ears whe$ the other a!!ears)1 >ergso$ #oes $ot #e$* that scie$ce tries to attai$ #iffere$ce itself a$# is a"le to succee#6 he sees such a$ e$#eavor i$ i$fi$itesimal a$al*sis2 a ge$ui$e scie$ce of #iffere$ce) 65 Aore tha$ that& whe$ >ergso$ shows us the #reamer so immerse# i$ the !articular that he gras!s o$l* !ure #iffere$ces& he tells us that this regio$ of the mi$# re/oi$s matter& that to #ream is to "e i$#iffere$t& to #isi$terest o$self) +t woul# thus "e a mista'e to co$fuse re!etitio$ with ge$eralit*& "ecause ge$eralit* !resu!!oses the co$tractio$ of the mi$#) Be!etitio$ creates $othi$g i$ the o"/ect6 it lets the o"/ect !ersist& a$# eve$ mai$tai$s it i$ its !articularit*) Be!etitio$ #oes i$#ee# form o"/ective ge$uses& "ut these ge$uses are $ot i$ themselves ge$eral i#eas "ecause the* #o $ot e$glo"e a !luralit* of o"/ects that resem"le o$e a$other6 the* !rese$t to us o$l* the !articularit* of a$ o"/ect that re!eats itself i#e$tical to itself)600 Be!etitio$ is thus a 'i$# of #iffere$ce6 o$l*& it0s a #iffere$ce alwa*s outsi#e itself& a #iffere$ce i$#iffere$t to itself) 9o$versel*& difference is in turn a repetition% +$#ee# we saw that #iffere$ce& i$ its ver* origi$ a$# i$ the act of this origi$& was a co$tractio$) >ut what is the effect of this co$tractio$@ +t raises i$to coexiste$ce what was elsewhere re!eate#) The mi$#& i$ its origi$& is o$l* the co$tractio$ of i#e$tical eleme$ts& a$# "* virtue of this& it is memor*) :he$ever >ergso$ #iscusses memor*& he !rese$ts two as!ects of it& the seco$# of which is the more !rofou$#2 memor*(recollectio$ a$# memor*(co$tractio$) 67 >* co$tracti$g itself& the eleme$t of re!etitio$ coexists with itself3o$e might sa*& multi!lies itself a$# mai$tai$s itself) Thus the #egrees of co$tractio$ are #efi$e#& each of which !rese$ts at its level the coexiste$ce with itself of the eleme$t itself& i$ other wor#s& the whole) There is $o !ara#ox i$ #efi$i$g memor* as coexiste$ce itself& si$ce all !ossi"le #egrees of coexiste$ce i$ tur$ coexist a$# co$stitute memor*) The i#e$tical eleme$ts of material re!etitio$ "le$# together i$ a co$tractio$6 this co$tractio$ !rese$ts "oth somethi$g $ew& i)e) #iffere$ce& a$# #egrees which are the #egrees of this #iffere$ce itself) +t is i$ this se$se that #iffere$ce is still a re!etitio$) >ergso$ co$sta$tl* comes "ac' to this theme2 1The same !s*chological life woul# thus "e re!eate# a$ i$#efi$ite $um"er of times& i$ the sucessive stages of memor*& a$# the same act of the mi$# coul# "e !la*e# out at ma$* #iffere$t levels16 68 the sectio$s of the co$e are 1/ust so ma$* re!etitio$s of our whole !ast life1669 1it is almost as if our memories were re!eate# a$ i$#efi$ite $um"er of times i$ the thousa$#s a$# thousa$#s of !ossi"le re#uctio$s of our !ast life)1 70 8$e sees the #isti$ctio$ left to "e ma#e "etwee$ !s*chic re!etitio$ a$# material re!etitio$2 it is at the same mome$t that all our !ast life is i$#efi$itel* re!eate#6 the re!etitio$ is virtual) :hat is more& the virtualit* has $o other co$sista$c* tha$ what it receives from this origi$al re!etitio$) 1These

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!la$es are $ot !rese$te#)))as rea#*(ma#e thi$gs& su!erim!ose# o$ o$e a$other) Bather& the* exist i$ a virtual wa*& havi$g that existe$ce !ro!er to thi$gs of the mi$#)11 1 .t this !oi$t& we coul# almost sa* that for >ergso$& matter is successio$ a$# #uratio$ is coexiste$ce2 1. sufficie$tl* !owerful atte$tio$ to life& a$# sufficie$tl* remove# from a$* !ractical !ur!ose& coul# em"race the e$tire !ast histor* of the co$scious !erso$ i$ a$ u$#ivi#e# !rese$t)1 72 >ut #uratio$ is a coexiste$ce of a whole other 'i$#2 it is real coexiste$ce& simulta$eit*) This is wh* the virtual coexiste$ce that #efi$es #uratio$ is at the same time a real successio$& whereas matter i$ the e$# !rese$ts us less with a successio$ tha$ the sim!le material of a simulta$eit*2 real coexiste$ce& /uxta!ositio$) +$ a wor#& !s*chic #egrees are /ust so ma$* virtual !la$es of co$tractio$ or levels of te$sio$) >ergso$0s !hiloso!h* comes to com!letio$ i$ a cosmolog* where ever*thi$g is cha$ges i$ te$sio$& cha$ges i$ e$erg*& a$# $othi$g else) 71 Duratio$ as it is give$ to i$tuitio$ shows itself ca!a"le of thousa$#s of !ossi"le te$sio$s& a$ i$fi$ite #iversit* of relaxatio$s a$# co$tractio$s) >ergso$ critici e# the com"i$atio$ of a$tago$istic co$ce!ts for "ei$g a"le to give us a thi$g o$l* i$ a mo$olithic as!ect& without #egrees or $ua$ces) +$tuitio$& o$ the other ha$#& gives us 1a choice amo$g a$ i$fi$it* of !ossi"le #uratio$s&1 71 1a co$ti$uit* of #uratio$s that we must tr* to follow all the wa* to the "ottom& or all the wa* to the to!)1 70

;ave the two se$ses of #iffere$ce "ee$ re/oi$e#2 #iffere$ce as !articularit* that is& a$# #iffere$ce as !erso$alit*& i$#etermi$atio$& $ew$ess that creates itself@ <articularit* is give$ as maximum relaxatio$& a s!rea#i$g out& a$ ex!a$sio$6 i$ the sectio$s of the co$e& it0s the "ase that carries memories i$ their i$#ivi#ual form) 1Aemories ta'e a more "a$al form whe$ memor* co$tracts& a$# the* ta'e a more !erso$al form whe$ memor* ex!a$#s)1 76 The more the co$tractio$ relaxes& the more i$#ivi#ual are the memories6 the* are more #is ti$ct from each other& too& a$# more locali e#)11 The !articular is locate# at the limit of relaxatio$ or co$tractio$& a$# its moveme$t will "e !rolo$ge# "* the matter which it !re!ares) Aatter a$# #uratio$ are the two extreme levels of relaxatio$ a$# co$tractio$& /ust as i$ #uratio$ itself& two extreme levels of relaxatio$ a$# co$tractio$ are the !ure !ast a$# the !ure !rese$t& memor* a$# !erce!tio$) :e see& the$& the !rese$t is #efi$e# i$ its o!!ositio$ to !articularit*& as resem"la$ce or eve$ u$iversalit*) . "ei$g that live# i$ the !ure !rese$t woul# evolve i$ the u$iversal& 1with ha"it "ei$g to actio$ what ge$eralit* is to thought)1 78 >ut the two terms o!!ose# i$ this wa* are o$l* two extreme #egrees that coexist) 8!!ositio$ is alwa*s $othi$g "ut the virtual coexiste$ce of two extreme #egrees2 a recollectio$ coexists with that which it recalls& with its corre s!o$#i$g !erce!tio$6 the !rese$t is o$l* the most co$tracte# #egree of memor*& a$ immediate past%>2 >etwee$ these extremes& the$& we will fi$# all the i$terme#iate #egrees& which are the #egrees of ge$eralit*& or rather that which co$stitute the ge$eral i#ea) 5ow we see to what exte$t matter was $ot ge$eralit*2 true ge$eralit* !resu!!oses a !erce!tio$ of resem"la$ces& a co$tractio$) The ge$eral i#ea is a #*$amic whole& a$ oscillatio$6 1the esse$ce of the ge$eral i#ea is to move co$sta$tl* from the s!here of actio$ to the s!here of !ure memor*&1 1it is the twofol# curre$t

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!assi$g "ac' a$# forth)181 ;owever& we '$ow that the i$terme#iate #egrees "etwee$ extremes are ca!a"le of recreati$g these extremes as the ver* !ro#ucts of a #iffere$tiatio$) :e '$ow that a theor* of #egrees is the "asis for a theor* of #iffere$tiatio$2 i$ memor*& two #egrees o$l* have to "e o!!ose# to o$e a$other for them to "ecome at the same time the #iffere$tiatio$ of a$ i$terme#iar* i$to two te$#e$cies or moveme$ts that are #isti$ct i$ $ature) >ecause the !rese$t a$# the !ast are two i$verse #egrees& the* are #isti$ct i$ $ature6 the* are the #iffere$tiatio$& the "ifurcatio$ of the whole) =ver* mome$t #uratio$ s!lits i$to two s*mmetrical streams& 1o$e of which falls "ac' towar# the !ast& while the other is !ro/ecte# towar# the future)1 81 7a*i$g that the !rese$t is the most co$tracte# #egree of the !ast is ta$tamou$t to sa*i$g that the !rese$t is i$ $ature o!!ose# to the !ast& that the !rese$t is a$ imminent future% ;ere is the seco$# mea$i$g of #iffere$ce2 somethi$g $ew) >ut what exactl* is $ew here@ The ge$eral i#ea is the whole which #iffere$tiates itself i$ !articular images a$# "o#il* attitu#e& "ut this ver* #iffere$tiatio$ is still the whole of the #egrees goi$g from o$e extreme to the $ext& i$serti$g the o$e i$ the other) 82 The ge$eral i#ea !laces the recollectio$ i$ the actio$& orga$i es recollectio$s with acts& tra$sforms recollectio$ i$to !erce!tio$3a$# more !recisel*& it ma'es the images which have issue# from the !ast itself& 1i$creasi$gl* ca!a"le of "ei$g i$serte# i$to the #rivi$g schema)1 80 The fu$ctio$ of the ge$eral i#ea is this2 to !ut the !articular i$ the u$iversal) :hat is $ew here& the $ew$ess& is !recisel* that the !articular is i$ the u$iversal) The $ew is clearl* $ot the !ure !rese$t2 the !ure !rese$t& as well as the !articular memor*& te$# towar# the state of matter& $ot "* virtue of its s!rea#i$g out& "ut its i$sta$ta$eit*) >ut whe$ the !articular #esce$#s i$to the u$iversal& or recollectio$ i$to moveme$t& the automatic act leaves room for volu$tar* a$# free actio$) This $ew "elo$gs to a "ei$g that& simulta$eousl*& comes a$# goes from the u$iversal to the !articular& o!!oses them& a$# !uts the !articular i$ the u$iversal) 7uch a "ei$g simulta$eousl* thi$'s& #esires& recollects) +$ short& it is the #egrees of ge$eralit* that u$ite a$# reu$ite the two mea$i$gs of #iffere$ce)

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D=7=BT +74.5D7 .5D 8T;=B T=KT7

>ergso$ ca$ leave ma$* rea#ers with a certai$ im!ressio$ of vague$ess a$# i$cohere$ce2 vague$ess& "ecause we lear$ i$ the e$# that #iffere$ce is the u$foreseea"le& i$#etermi$atio$ itself6 a$# i$cohere$ce& "ecause he seems to rec*cle for his ow$ !ur!oses the same $otio$s he /ust fi$ishe# critici i$g) :e see him attac'i$g #egrees& a$# here the* come fro$t a$# ce$ter i$ #uratio$ itself& to the !oi$t that >ergso$ism seems a !hiloso!h* of #egrees2 18$e moves "* im!erce!ti"le #egrees from recollectio$s #e!osite# throughout time to moveme$ts that outli$e $asce$t or !ossi"le actio$ i$ s!ace&1 84 1recollectio$ is thus gra#uall* tra$sforme# i$to !erce!tio$16 85 1similarl*& there are #egrees of li"ert*)1800 >erso$ es!eciall* attac's i$te$sit*& a$# *et relaxatio$ a$# co$tractio$ are i$vo'e# as fu$#ame$tal !ri$ci!les of ex!la$atio$6 1"etwee$ "rute matter a$# the most reflective mi$#& are all the !ossi"le i$te$sities of memor* or& what amou$ts to the same thi$g& all the #egrees of li"ert*)187 %i$all*& >ergso$ attac's the $egative a$# o!!ositio$& "ut the* sli! i$ the "ac'#oor with i$versio$2 geometrical or#er !arta'es of the $egative& it comes from 1the i$versio$ of ge$uive !ositivit*&1 1from a$ i$terru!tio$1688 a$# if we com!are scie$ce a$# !hiloso!h*& we see that scie$ce is $ot relative& "ut 1is a"out a realit* of a$ i$verse or#er)189This im!ressio$ of i$cohere$ce& however& + "elieve is u$/ustifie#) +t is true that >ergso$ #oes come "ac' to #egrees& "ut $ot to #iffere$ces of #egree) ;is i#ea is this2 there are $o #iffere$ces of #egree i$ $ature& o$l* degrees of difference itse'f% Theories that rel* o$ #iffere$ces of #egree mix ever*thi$g u!& "ecause the* fail to see #iffere$ces of $ature6 the* lose themselves i$ s!ace a$# i$ the com!osites which s!ace gives us) %urthermore& that which #iffers i$ $ature is i$ the e$# that which #iffers i$ $ature from itse'f, co$se?ue$tl*& that from which it #iffers is o$l* its lowest degree- this is #uratio$& #efi$e# as #iffere$ce of $ature itself) :he$ the #iffere$ce of $ature "etwee$ two thi$gs has "ecome o$e of the two thi$gs& the other of the two is o$l* the 'ast #egree of the first) 7o it is that #iffere$ce of $ature& whe$ it a!!ears i$ !erso$& is exactl* the virtual coexiste$ce of two e!treme #egrees) 7i$ce the* are extremes& the twofol# curre$t !assi$g "etwee$ them forms i$terme#iate #egrees) These co$stitute the !ri$ci!le of com!osites a$# ma'e us "elieve i$ #iffere$ces of #egree& "ut o$l* if we exami$e them for themselves& forgetti$g that the extremities which the* u$ite are two thi$gs that #iffer i$ $ature) +$ fact& the extremities are #egrees of #iffere$ce itself) Therefore& that which #iffers is relaxatio$ a$# co$tractio$& matter a$# #uratio$ as the #egrees& the i$te$sities of #iffere$ce) .$# i$ ge$eral& if >ergso$ #oes $ot thus sim!l* fall "ac' o$ #iffere$ces of #egree& $either #oes he come "ac' to #iffere$ces of i$te$sit* i$ !articular) Belaxatio$ a$# co$tractio$ are the #egrees of #iffere$ce itself o$l* "ecause the* are o!!ose#& i$ as much as the* are o!!ose#) .s extremes& the* are the inverse of each other) >ergso$ critici es meta!h*sics for $ot havi$g see$ that relaxatio$ a$# co$tractio$ are the i$verse of each other6 meta!h*sics "elieve# the* were o$l* two more or less i$te$se #egrees i$ the #egra#atio$ of the same immo"ile& sta"le& eter$al >ei$g)L +$ fact& /ust as #egrees are ex!lai$e# "* #iffere$ce a$# $ot the reverse& so i$te$sities are ex!lai$e# "* i$versio$ a$# !resu!!ose it) There is $o immo"ile a$# sta"le >ei$g as !ri$ci!le6 t e point of departure is co$tractio$ itself6 it is #uratio$& whose relaxatio$ is i$versio$) >ergso$0s co$cer$ with fi$#i$g a ge$ui$e "egi$$i$g& a ge$ui$e !oi$t of #e!arture& shows u! agai$ a$# agai$& e)g) !erce!tio$ a$# affectio$2 1we will "egi$ with actio$ i$stea# of affectio$ "ecause $othi$g ca$ "e sai# of affectio$& si$ce there is $o reaso$ for it to "e what it is rather tha$ somethi$g else)1 91 >ut wh* is relaxatio$ the i$verse of co$tractio$& a$# $ot co$tractio$ the i$verse of relaxatio$@ >ecause p i'osop y precise'y begins wit difference, a$# "ecause #iffere$ce of $ature is that #uratio$ of which matter is o$l* the lowest #egree) Differe$ce is the ge$ui$e "egi$$i$g6 it is i$ this res!ect that >ergso$ most #iverges from 7chelli$g& at least i$ a!!eara$ce) >* "egi$$i$g with somethi$g else& o$ the other ha$#& some immo"ile a$# sta"le >ei$g& i$#iffere$ce "ecomes !osite# as first !ri$ci!le& less is mista'e$ for more& a$# a sim!le view of i$te$sities "ecomes i$evita"le) ;owever& whe$ >ergso$ ma'es i$versio$ the "asis for i$te$sit*& he seems to esca!e this view o$l* to come "ac' to $egativit*& to o!!ositio$) .gai$& i$ this i$sta$ce& such a$ o"/ectio$ is $ot e$tirel* exact) Eltimatel*& the o!!ositio$ of the two terms that #iffer i$ $ature is o$l* the !ositive actuali atio$ of a virtualit* that co$tai$e# them "oth) The role of the i$terme#iate #egrees resi#es !recisel* i$ this actuali atio$2 the* i$sert o$e i$ the other& the recollecrio$ i$ the moveme$t) 7o& i$ m* view& there is $o i$cohere$ce i$ >ergso$0s !hiloso!h*& "ut there is a !rofou$# reco$si#eratio$ of the co$ce!t of #iffere$ce) 5or #o + "elieve that i$#etermi$atio$ is a vague co$ce!t) +$#etermi$atio$& the u$foreseea"le& co$ti$ge$c*& free#om3 these all sig$if* a certai$ i$#e!e$#e$ce with res!ect to causes2 i$ this se$se& >ergso$ ho$ors the e'an vita' with ma$* co$ti$ge$cies)01 :hat he mea$s is that the thi$g is i$ a certai$ wa* prior to causes6 we must "egi$ with the thi$g "ecause the causes come after) +$#etermi$atio$& however& alwa*s o$l* mea$s that the thi$g or the actio$ coul# have "ee$ otherwise) 19oul# the act have "ee$ other@1 That is a mea$i$gless ?uestio$) :hat >ergso$ #ema$#s of himself is to ma'e us u$#ersta$# wh* a thi$g is itself rather tha$ somethi$g else) :hat ex!lai$s the thi$g itself is #iffere$ce& $ot the causes of the thi$g) 1%ree#om must "e sought i$ a !articular $ua$ce or ?ualit* of the actio$ itself a$# $ot i$ a relatio$ of this act with what it is $ot or what it coul# have "ee$)1 93 >ergso$ism is a !hiloso!h* of #iffere$ce& a !hiloso!h* of the actuali atio$ of #iffere$ce2 i$ it we meet #iffere$ce i$ !erso$& which actuali es itself as the $ew)

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D=7=BT +74.5D7 .5D 8T;=B T=KT7

:ean-:a7?-es Bo-ssea-8 +re7-rsor o' >a'2a) Ce"ine) and +onge;

There are two wa*s we ris' mis/u#gi$g a great writer2 1- "* faili$g to recog$i e the !rofou$# logic or the s*stematic character of his wor' ,we the$ tal' of his 1i$cohere$cies1 as though the* gave us su!erior !leasure-6 a$# 2-& "* faili$g to recog$i e his comic ge$ius a$# !ower& from which the wor' ge$erall* #raws the greater !art of its a$ti(co$formist efficac* ,we !refer to s!ea' of his a$guish a$# tragic as!ect-) +$ fact& whoever #oes $ot laugh out lou# while rea#i$g Faf'a #oes $ot trul* a#mire Faf'a) These two rules of thum" are es!eciall* i$valua"le for Bousseau) +$ o$e of his most famous theses& Bousseau ex!lai$s that huma$it* i$ the state of $ature is goo#& or at least $ot mea$) 7uch a !ro!ositio$ is $either from the heart $or a ma$ifestatio$ of o!timism6 it is a logical ma$ifesto at its most !recise) :hat Bousseau mea$s is this2 huma$it*& as su!!ose# i$ a state of $ature& ca$$ot "e mea$& si$ce the o"/ective co$#itio$s that ma'e huma$ mea$$ess a$# its exercise !ossi"le #o $ot exist i$ $ature itself) The state of $ature is a state i$ which huma$it* has a relatio$shi! with thi$gs& $ot with o$e a$other ,or o$l* fleeti$gl*-) 1Ae$& if *ou will& woul# attac' o$e a$other i$ their e$cou$ters& "ut the* e$cou$tere# o$e a$other i$fre?ue$tl*) There !revaile# ever*where a state of war& a$# all the earth was at !eace)12 The state of $ature is $ot o$l* a state of i$#e!e$#e$ce& "ut a state of isolatio$) 8$e of Bousseau0s co$sta$t themes is that $ee# is $ot a factor which "ri$gs !eo!le together2 it #oes $ot u$ite& it isolates each of us) >ei$g limite#& our $ee#s i$ a state of $ature $ecessaril* reach a 'i$# of e?uili"rium with our !owers a$# ac?uire a 'i$# of self(sufficie$c*) =ve$ sexualit* i$ a state of $ature e$ge$#ers o$l* fleeti$g e$cou$ters or leaves us i$ solitu#e) ,Bousseau has much to sa* a$# sa*s a great #eal o$ this !oi$t& which is li'e the humorous fli!(si#e of a !rofou$# theor*)

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-;ow coul# !eo!le "e mea$ whe$ the co$#itio$s are a"se$t@ The co$#itio$s which ma'e mea$$ess !ossi"le are those of a$* #etermi$e# social state) There is $o such thi$g as #isi$tereste# mea$$ess& #es!ite what im"eciles a$# mea$ !eo!le sometimes sa*) .ll mea$$ess is !rofit or com!e$satio$) There is $o huma$ mea$$ess that is $ot i$scri"e# withi$ relatio$shi!s of o!!ressio$& i$ accor#a$ce with com!lex social i$terests) Bousseau is o$e of those writers who '$ew how to a$al* e the relatio$s of o!!ressio$ a$# the social structures the* !resu!!ose) :e will have to wait for =$gels to come alo$g "efore this !ri$ci!le of a$ extreme logic will "e calle# u!o$ a$# re$ewe#2 vi )& that viole$ce or o!!ressio$ #oes $ot co$stitute a !rimor#ial fact& "ut su!!oses a civil state& social situatio$s& a$# eco$omic #etermi$atio$s) +f Bo"i$so$ e$slaves %ri#a*& it is $ot #ue to Bo"i$so$0s $atural #is!ositio$& a$# it is $ot "* the !ower of his fist6 he #oes it with a small ca!ital a$# the mea$s of !ro#uctio$ which he save# from the #e!ths& a$# he #oes it to su"/ugate %ri#a* to social tas's& the i#eas of which Bo"i$so$ has $ot lost i$ his shi!wrec')

7ociet* co$sta$tl* !uts us i$ situatio$s where it is i$ our i$terest to "e mea$) 8ur va$it* woul# have us "elieve that we are $aturall* mea$) >ut the truth is much worse2 we "ecome mea$ without '$owi$g it& without eve$ reali i$g it) +t is #ifficult to "e someo$e0s heir without u$co$sciousl* wishi$g for their #eath $ow a$# the$) 1+$ such situatio$s& however si$cere a love of virtue we "ri$g to them& we wea'e$ soo$er or later without $otici$g it& a$# we "ecome u$/ust a$# mea$ i$ fact& without havi$g cease# to "e goo# a$# /ust i$ soul)1 3 +t seems& however& that the "eautiful soul is stra$gel* #esti$e# to "e throw$ agai$ a$# agai$ i$to the most am"iguous situatio$s& from which it extir!ates itself o$l* with great !ai$) :e see the "eautiful soul !la* o$ its ow$ te$#er$ess a$# timi#it* to extract from the worst situatio$s those eleme$ts that allow it $evertheless to 'ee! its virtue i$tact) 1%rom this co$ti$ual o!!ositio$ "etwee$ m* situatio$ a$# m* i$cli$atio$s& we will wit$ess the "irth of e$ormous faults& u$hear# of misfor tu$es& a$# ever* virtue exce!t !ower& that ca$ "e a cre#it to a#versit*)10 To fi$# o$eself i$ im!ossi"le situatio$s is the #esti$* of the "eautiful soul) This extraor#i$ar* come#* of situatio$s is the source of all Bousseau0s gusto) +f Bousseau0s &onfessions e$# u! "ei$g a tragic a$# halluci$ator* "oo'& the* "egi$ as o$e of the most /o*ful "oo's i$ literature) =ve$ his vices ma$age to !reserve Bousseau from the mea$$ess i$to which the* coul# have le# him6 a$# Bousseau excels at the a$al*sis of these am"ivale$t a$# salutar* mecha$isms)

The "eautiful soul is $ot co$te$t with the state of $ature6 it affectio$atel* #reams of huma$ relatio$shi!s) These relatio$shi!s& however& are reali a"le o$l* i$ the most #elicate situatio$s) :e '$ow that Bousseau0s love(#ream is to #iscover the figures of a lost Tri$it*2 either the woma$ whom he loves loves a$other ma$& who will "e li'e a father or "rother6 or there are two wome$ whom he loves& o$e of them a strict mother ?uic' to !u$ish& a$# the other a ge$tle mother who "ri$gs a"out re"irth) ,Bousseau alrea#* !ursues this ?uest for two mothers i$ o$e of his chil#hoo# loves)>ut the actual situatio$s that i$car$ate this rever* are alwa*s am"iguous) The* tur$ out "a#l*2 either we "ehave !oorl*& or we e$# u! the o## ma$ out& or "oth) Bousseau will $ot recog$i e this affectio$ate rever* i$ Theresa a$# Theresas mother& a gree#* a$# #isagreea"le woma$ rather tha$ a strict mother) 5or will he recog$i e it whe$ Ame) #e :are$s wa$ts Bousseau himself to !la* the role of "ig "rother to her latest i$fatuatio$)

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Bousseau ofte$& a$# /o*full*& ex!lai$s that his i#eas are slow a$# his feeli$gs ?uic') >ut his slow(formi$g i#eas emerge all of the su##e$ i$ his life& give him $ew #irectio$s& a$# i$s!ire him to i$ve$t stra$ge thi$gs) :ith !oets a$# !hiloso!hers& we must love eve$ those ma$ias a$# "i arre "ehaviors which "ear wit$ess to com"i$atio$s of i#ea a$# feeli$g) Thomas #e Gui$ce* #evelo!e# a metho# mea$t to i$s!ire us with love for great writers) +$ a$ article o$ Fa$t ,1The 4ast Da*s of =mma$uel Fa$t&1 tra$slate# "* 7chwo"-&0 Gui$ce* #escri"es the extremel* com!lex #evice that Fa$t ha# i$ve$te# to serve as a shoe(hol#er) The same goes for Bousseau0s .rme$ia$ outfit whe$ he use# to live i$ Aotiers a$# weave 1"rai#s1 o$ his stoo! while chatti$g with the wome$) 3:hat we see i$ these exam!les are real wa*s of life6 the* are thi$'ers0 a$ec#otes)

;ow #o we avoi# those situatio$s i$ which it is i$ our i$terest to "e mea$@ 9ertai$l*& "* a$ act of will& a stro$g soul ca$ affect the situatio$ itself a$# mo#if* it) %or exam!le& a legal heir ca$ re$ou$ce his rights so as $ot to wish the #eath of his relative) 7imilarl*& m ?u'ie, or t e New +e'oise, Culie acce!ts the commitme$t $ot to marr* 7ai$t(<reux& eve$ if her hus"a$# ha!!e$s to #ie2 this is how 1she tra$sforms the secret i$terest she ha# i$ her hus"a$#0s #emise i$to a$ i$terest i$ his !reservatio$)1 6 >ut Bousseau& "* his ow$ a#missio$& is $ot a stro$g soul) ;e loves virtue more tha$ he is virtuous) =xce!t for matters of i$herita$ce& he has too much imagi$atio$ to em"race re$u$ciatio$ willi$gl* i$ a#va$ce) ;e will therefore re?uire su"tle #evices of a$other 'i$# to avoi# tem!ti$g situatio$s or to get himself out of them) ;e !la*s o$ ever*thi$g& i$clu#i$g his "a# health& to 'ee! his virtuous as!iratio$s i$tact) ;e himself ex!lai$s how his "la##er trou"les were a$ esse$tial factor i$ his great moral reform2 feari$g that he might $ot "e a"le to co$tai$ himself i$ the !rese$ce of the 'i$g& he !refers i$stea# to re$ou$ce his !e$sio$) +ll$ess i$s!ires him& li'e a se$se of humor ,Bousseau tells of his ear trou"le with a gusto similar to 9eli$e0s much later-) >ut humor is the fli!(si#e of moralit*2 he woul# soo$er "e a music(co!*ist tha$ a !e$sio$er of the 'i$g)

+$ ?u'ie, or t e New +e'oise, Bousseau ela"orates a !rofou$# metho#& !erfect for averti$g #a$gerous situatio$s) . situatio$ #oes $ot tem!t us u$i?uel* of itself& "ut tha$'s to the full weight of a !ast that i$forms it) +t is the search for the !ast i$ !rese$t situatio$s& the re!etitio$ of the !ast that i$s!ires our most viole$t !assio$s a$# tem!tatio$s) :e alwa*s love i$ the !ast& a$# !assio$s are first a$# foremost a$ ill$ess !ro!er to memor*) To cure 7ai$t(<reux a$# lea# him "ac' to virtue& A) #e :olmar uses a metho# "* which he war#s off the !restige of the !ast) ;e forces Culie a$# 7ai$t(<reux to em"race i$ the same grove which wit$esse# their first mome$ts of love2 1Culie& there is $o more reaso$ to fear this sa$ctuar*& it has /ust "ee$ !rofa$e#)1 7 +t is 7ai$t(<reux0s !rese$t i$terest that he wa$ts to ma'e virtuous2 1it0s $ot Culie #e :olmar that he loves& it0s Culie #0=ta$ge6

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he #oes$0t hate me as the !ossessor of the woma$ he loves& "ut as the se#ucer of the woma$ he love#))) ;e loves her i$ the !ast6 there *ou have the 'e* to the !u le2 ta'e awa* his memor*& a$# he will love $o more)1 8 +t is i$ relatio$ to o"/ects& to !laces& e)g) a grove& that we lear$ the !assi$g of time& a$# that we eve$tuall* '$ow how to wa$t i$ the future& i$stea# of "ei$g !assio$ate i$ the !rese$t)

The two !oles of Bousseau0s !hiloso!hical wor' are Emi'e a$# the Socia' &ontract% The root of evil i$ mo#er$ societ* is that we are $o lo$ger either !rivate i$#ivi#uals or !u"lic citi e$s2 each of us has "ecome 2 omo oeconomicus2 i$ other wor#s& 1"ourgeois&1 motivate# "* !rofit) Those situatio$s which give us a sta'e i$ "ei$g mea$ alwa*s im!l* relatio$shi!s of o!!ressio$& where o$e e$ters i$to a relatio$shi! with a$other2 to comma$# or to o"e*& master or slave) Emi'e is the reco$stitutio$ of the !rivate i$#ivi#ual6 the Socia' &ontract, that of the citi e$) Bousseau0s first !e#agogical rule is the followi$g2 "* restori$g our $atural relatio$shi! with thi$gs& we will ma$age to ree#ucate ourselves as !rivate i$#ivi#uals& thus !reservi$g us from those all too huma$& artificial relatio$shi!s which from earl* chil#hoo# i$culcate i$ us a #a$gerous te$#e$c* to comma$#) ,.$# the same te$#e$c* that ma'es us t*ra$ts ma'es us slaves)- 19hil#re$& whe$ the* ma'e it their right to "e o"e*e#& leave "ehi$# the state of $ature almost at "irth)1 9 True !e#agogical rectificatio$ co$sists i$ su"or#i$ati$g huma$ relatio$s to the relatio$ of huma$ "ei$gs to thi$gs) The taste for thi$gs is a co$sta$t i$ Bousseau0s wor' ,%ra$cis <o$ge0s stu#ies have somethi$g Bousseau(li'e a"out them-) Thus we have the famous rule from Emi'e, which #ema$#s o$l* muscle2 5ever "ri$g thi$gs to the chil#& "ri$g the chil# to the thi$gs) The !rivate i$#ivi#ual& "* virtue of his relatio$ to thi$gs& has alrea#* war#e# off the i$fa$tile situatio$ that gives him a sta'e i$ "ei$g mea$) >ut the citi e$ is o$e who e$ters i$to relatio$shi!s with others& such that it is !recisel* i$ his i$terest to "e virtuous) To create a$ o"/ective& actual situatio$ wherei$ /ustice a$# self(i$terest are reco$cile# is for Bousseau the !ro!er tas' of !olitics) .$# virtue here agai$ retur$s to its #ee!est mea$i$g& which har's "ac' to the !u"lic #etermi$atio$ of the citi e$) The Socia' &ontract is surel* o$e of the great "oo's of !olitical !hiloso!h*) Bousseau0s "irth#a* is "ut a$ occasio$ to rea# or rerea# it) +$ it the citi e$ lear$s a"out the m*stificatio$ of the se!aratio$ of !owers& a$# how the Be!u"lic is #efi$e# "* the existe$ce of a sole !ower& the legislative) .s it a!!ears i$ Bousseau& the a$al*sis of the co$ce!t of law will #omi$ate !hiloso!hical reflectio$ for a lo$g time to come& a$# #omi$ates it still

66

)1

The 5dea o' <enesis in >ant;s 6stheti7s;

The #ifficulties of Fa$tia$ esthetics i$ the first !art of the &riti@ue of ?udgment have to #o with the #iversit* of !oi$ts of view) 8$ the o$e ha$#& Fa$t !ro!oses a$ esthetics of the s!ectator& as i$ the theor* of the /u#gme$t of taste6 o$ the other& a$ esthetics or meta(esthetics of the creator& as i$ the theor* of ge$ius) The$ agai$& he !ro!oses a$ esthetics of the "eautiful i$ $ature& "ut also a$ esthetics of the "eautiful i$ art) 7ometimes it0s a 1classicall*1 i$s!ire# esthetics of form& a$# sometimes a meta(esthetics of matter a$# +#ea& which is closer to roma$ticism) The s*stematic u$it* of the &riti@ue of ?udgment ca$ "e esta"lishe# o$l* "* e$com!assi$g these various !oi$ts of view a$# u$#ersta$#i$g the $ecessar* tra$sitio$s "etwee$ them) 7uch a com!rehe$sio$ must ex!lai$ the a!!are$t orga$i atio$al #ifficulties& i$ other wor#s& "oth the !lace of the .$al*tic of the 7u"lime ,sa$#wiche# "etwee$ the .$al*tic of the >eautiful a$# the #e#uctio$ of the /u#gme$ts of taste-& a$# the !lace of the theor* of art a$# ge$ius ,at the e$# of the #e#uctio$-)

The /u#gme$t of taste31this is "eautiful13ex!resses a$ agreeme$t of two faculties i$ the s!ectator2 the imagi$atio$ a$# the u$#ersta$#i$g) The /u#gme$t of taste ca$ "e #isti$guishe# from the /u#gme$t of !refere$ce "ecause the /u#gme$t of taste la*s claim to a certai$ $ecessit*& a certai$ a priori u$iversalit*) +t thus "orrows u$#ersta$#i$g0s legalit*) +$ this i$sta$ce& however& the legalit* #oes $ot a!!ear u$#er #etermi$ate co$ce!ts) The u$iversalit* of the /u#gme$t of taste is o$e of !leasure6 the "eautiful thi$g is si$gular a$# remai$s without co$ce!t) The u$#ersta$#i$g i$terce#es as the facult* of co$ce!ts i$ ge$eral& though a$* #etermi$ate co$ce!t has here "ee$ set asi#e) The imagi$atio$& o$ its si#e& has free reig$ si$ce it is $o lo$ger co$strai$e# "* a$* !articular co$ce!t) :he$ the imagi$atio$ agrees with u$#ersta$#i$g i$ the /u#gme$t of taste& it mea$s that a free imagi$atio$ agrees with a$ indeterminate u$#ersta$#i$g) This ex!ressio$ of agreeme$t& which is itself free a$# u$#etermi$e#& "etwee$ the imagi$atio$ a$# the u$#ersta$#i$g& !ro!erl* "elo$gs to the /u#gme$t of taste) 9o$se?ue$tl*& esthetic !leasure is far from "ei$g !rior to /u#gme$t6 o$ the co$trar*& esthetic !leasure #e!e$#s o$ /u#gme$t2 the !leasure is the agreeme$t of the faculties themselves& i$ as much as this agreeme$t is achieve#

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without co$ce!ts a$# so ca$ o$l* "e felt) +t ca$ "e sai# that the /u#gme$t of taste "egi$s o$l* with !leasure& "ut #oes $ot #erive from it)

:e have to co$si#er this first !oi$t carefull*2 the theme of a$ agreeme$t amo$g several faculties) The i#ea of such a$ agreeme$t is a co$sta$t of the Fa$tia$ 9riti?ue) 8ur faculties #iffer i$ $ature a$# *et fu$ctio$ harmo$iousl*) +$ the &riti@ue of )ure Reason, u$#ersta$#i$g& imagi$atio$ a$# reaso$ e$ter i$to a harmo$ious relatio$shi!& i$ accor#a$ce with a s!eculative !ur!ose) 7imilarl*& i$ the &riti@ue of )ractica' Reason, reaso$ a$# u$#ersta$#i$g e$ter i$to a harmo$ious relatio$shi! ,+ will leave asi#e exami$i$g the !ossi"le role of imagi$atio$ for a !ractical aim-) 7till& i$ these cases& o$e of the faculties alwa*s !re#omi$ates) 1<re #omi$a$t1 i$ this co$text mea$s three thi$gs2 1- #etermi$ate with res!ect to a$ aim6 2- #etermi$ative with res!ect to o"/ects6 3- #etermi$ative with res!ect to the other faculties) 40 7o& i$ the &riti@ue of )ure Reason, the u$#ersta$#i$g #is!oses com!letel* #etermi$ate a priori co$ce!ts for a s!eculative !ur!ose6 it a!!lies its co$ce!ts to o"/ects ,!he$ome$a- which are $ecessaril* su"/ect to it6 a$# it i$#uces the other faculties ,imagi$atio$ a$# reaso$- to carr* out this or that fu$ctio$& with the aim of u$#ersta$#i$g& a$# i$ relatio$ to the o"/ects of u$#ersta$#i$g) +$ the &riti@ue of )ractica' Reason, the +#eas of reaso$& a$# !articularl* the +#ea of free#om& are #etermi$e# "* the moral law6 with this law as i$terme#iar*& reaso$ #etermi$es su!rase$si"le o"/ects which are $ecessaril* su"/ect to it6 a$# fi$all*& reaso$ i$#uces the u$#ersta$#i$g to a !articualr fu$ctio$& i$ accor#a$ce with a !ractical !ur!ose) +$ the first two 9riti?ues& therefore& we ca$$ot esca!e the !ri$ci!le of a$ agreeme$t of the faculties amo$g themselves) 3ut t is agreement is a'ways proportioned, constrained, and determinate8 there is alwa*s a #etermi$ative facult* that legislates& either the u$#ersta$#i$g for a s!eculative !ur!ose& or reaso$ for a !ractical !ur!ose)

4et0s come "ac' to the exam!le of the &riti@ue of )ure Reason% +t is wi#el* ac'$owle#ge# that schemati i$g is a$ origi$al a$# irre#uci"le act of the imagi$atio$2 o$l* the imagi$atio$ ca$ a$# '$ows how to schemati e) 5evertheless& the imagi$atio$ #oes $ot schemati e of its ow$ accor#& sim!l* "ecause it is free to #o so) +t schemati es o$l* to the exte$t that the u$#ersta$#i$g #etermi$es it& i$#uces it to #o so) +t schemati es o$l* for a s!eculative !ur!ose& i$ accor#a$ce with the #etermi$ate co$ce!ts of the u$#ersta$#i$g& whe$ the u$#ersta$#i$g itself

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!la*s the role of legislator) This is wh* it woul# "e misgui#e# to search the m*ster* of schemati i$g for the last wor# o$ the imagi$atio$ i$ its esse$ce or i$ its free s!o$ta$eit*) 7chemati i$g is i$#ee# a secret& "ut $ot the #ee!est secret of the imagi$atio$) 4eft to its ow$ #evices& the imagi$atio$ woul# #o somethi$g else e$tirel* tha$ schemati e) The same hol#s for reaso$2 reaso$i$g is a$ origi$al act of reaso$& "ut reaso$ reaso$s o$l* for a s!eculative !ur!ose& i$ so far as the u$#ersta$#i$g #etermi$es it to #o so& that is& i$#uces it to loo' for a mi##le term so it ma* attri"ute o$e of its co$ce!ts to the o"/ects gover$e# "* the u$#er sta$#i$g) 8$ its ow$& reaso$ woul# #o a$*thi$g "ut reaso$6 this is what we see i$ the &riti@ue of )ractica' Reason%

%or !ractical !ur!ose& reaso$ "ecomes the legislator) Beaso$& the$& i$ tur$ #etermi$es the u$#ersta$#i$g i$ a$ origi$al fu$ctio$ for a $ew !ur!ose) The u$#ersta$#i$g extracts& from the se$si"le $atural law& a 1t*!e1 for a su!rase$si"le $ature2 the u$#ersta$#i$g alo$e ca$ !erform this tas'& "ut it coul# $ot without "ei$g #etermi$e# to #o so "* reaso$ for a !ractical !ur!ose) 7o it is that the faculties e$ter i$to harmo$ious relatio$s or !ro!ortio$s accor#i$g to the facult* that legislates for this or that !ur!ose) #iverse proportions, or permutations in t e re'ations of facu'ties, are t erefore conceivab'e% The u$#ersta$#i$g legislates for a s!eculative !ur!ose6 reaso$& for a !ractical !ur!ose) +$ each case& a$ agreeme$t o"tai$s amo$g the faculties& "ut this agreeme$t is #etermi$e# "* the facult* that ha!!e$s to "e the legislator) 7uch a theor* of !ermutatio$s& however& shoul# lea# Fa$t to a$ ultimate !ro"lem) The faculties woul# $ever e$ter i$to a$ agreeme$t that is fixe# or #etermi$e# "* o$e of themselves if& to "egi$ with& the* were $ot i$ themselves a$# s!o$ta$eousl* ca!a"le of a$ i$#etermi$ate agreeme$t& a free harmo$*& without a$* fixe# !ro!ortio$)2 +t is useless to a!!eal to the su!eriorit* of the !ractical over the s!eculative i$ this i$sta$ce6 the !ro"lem woul# $ot "e resolve# "* that& it woul# o$l* "e !ut off a$# exacer"ate#) ;ow coul# a$* facult*& which is legislative for a !articular !ur!ose& i$#uce the other faculties to !erform com!leme$tar*& i$#is!e$sa"le tas's& if all the faculties together were $ot& to "egi$ with& ca!a"le of a free s!o$ta$eous agreeme$t& without legislatio$& without !ur!ose& without !re#omi$a$ce@

This is ta$tamou$t to sa*i$g that the &riti@ue of ?udgment, i$ its esthetic !art& #oes $ot sim!l* exist to com!lete the other two 9riti?ues2 i$ fact& it !rovi#es them with a grou$#) The &riti@ue of ?udgment u$covers the ground !resu!!ose# "* the other two 9riti?ues2 a free

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agreeme$t of the faculties) =ver* #etermi$ate agreeme$t ca$ "e trace# "ac' to the free i$#etermi$ate agreeme$t which ma'es the others !ossi"le i$ ge$eral) >ut wh* !recisel* is it the esthetic /u#gme$t that reveals this grou$#& which was hi##e$ i$ the !revious 9riti?ues@ +$ the esthetic /u#gme$t& the imagi$atio$ is li"erate# from "oth the #omi$atio$ of u$#ersta$#i$g a$# reaso$) =sthetic !leasure is itself #isi$tereste# !leasure2 it is $ot o$l* i$#e!e$#e$t of a$* em!irical !ur!ose& "ut also a$* s!eculative or !ractical !ur!ose) +t follows that esthetic /u#gme$t #oes $ot legislate6 it #oes $ot im!l* a$* facult* that legislates o"/ects) +$#ee# how coul# it "e otherwise& si$ce there are o$l* two sorts of o"/ects& !he$ome$a a$# thi$gs(i$( themselves2 the first are gover$e# "* the legislatio$ of the u$#ersta$#i$g for a s!eculative !ur!ose6 a$# the seco$#& "* the legislatio$ of reaso$ for a !ractical !ur!ose@ Thus Fa$t has ever* right to sa* that the &riti@ue of ?udgment, co$trar* to the other two& has $o 1#omai$1 !ro!er to it6 the /u#gme$t is $ot legislative or auto$omous& "ut o$l* heautomous ,it legislates o$l* itself-)0 The first two 9riti?ues #evelo!e# this commo$ theme2 the i#ea of a $ecessar* su"missio$ to certai$ t*!es of o"/ects i$ relatio$ to a #omi$a$t or #etermi$ative facult*) >ut there are $o o"/ects that are $ecessaril* su"/ect to esthetic /u#gme$t& $or to a$* facult* i$ the esthetic /u#gme$t) >eautiful thi$gs i$ 5ature agree o$l* i$ a co$ti$ge$t ma$$er with our /u#gme$t& that is& with the faculties that fu$ctio$ together i$ the esthetic /u#gme$t as such) 5ow we see what a mista'e it woul# "e to thi$' of the &riti@ue of ?udgment as com!leti$g the other two 9riti?ues) +$ esthetic /u#gme$t& the imagi$atio$ ca$$ot attai$ a role com!ara"le to that !la*e# "* the u$#ersta$#i$g i$ s!eculative /u#gme$t& or that !la*e# "* reaso$ i$ !ractical /u#gme$t) The imagi$atio$ is li"erate# from the su!ervisio$ of the u$#ersta$#i$g a$# reaso$) >ut it #oes $ot "ecome a legislator i$ tur$2 o$ a #ee!er level& the sig$al it gives the other faculties is that each must "ecome ca!a"le of free !la* o$ its ow$) +$ two res!ects& the$& the &riti@ue of ?udgment releases us i$ a $ew eleme$t& which is somethi$g li'e a fu$#ame$tal eleme$t2 1- a co$tige$t agreeme$t of se$si"le o"/ects with all our faculties together& i$stea# of a $ecessar* su"missio$ to o$e of the faculties6 2- a free i$#etermi$ate harmo$* of the faculties amo$g themselves& i$stea# of a #etermi$ate harmo$* !resi#e# over "* o$e of the faculties)

Fa$t also sa*s that imagi$atio$& i$ esthetic /u#gme$t& 1schemati es without co$ce!ts)1 4 This is a "rillia$t formulatio$& though $ot ?uite exact) 7chemati i$g is i$#ee# a$ origi$al act of the imagi$atio$& "ut alwa*s i$ res!ect to a #etermi$ate co$ce!t of the imagi$atio$) :ithout a co$ce!t from the u$#ersta$#i$g& the imagi$atio$ #oes somethi$g else tha$ schemati e2 it ref'ects% This is the true role of the imagi$atio$ i$ esthetic /u#gme$t) +t reflects the form of the o"/ect) >* form, here& we shoul# $ot u$#ersta$# form of i$tuitio$ ,se$si"ilit*-& "ecause forms of i$tuitio$ still refer to existi$g o"/ects that i$ themselves co$stitute se$si"le matter6 the* "elo$g to the '$owle#ge of o"/ects) =sthetic form& however& merges with the reflectio$ of the o"/ect i$

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the imagi$atio$) +t is i$#iffere$t to the existe$ce of the reflecte# o"/ect6 this is wh* esthetic !leasure is #isi$tereste#) 5or is it less i$#iffere$t to the se$si"le matter of the o"/ect6 a$# Fa$t goes so far as to sa* that a color or a sou$# ca$$ot "e "eautiful i$ itself& si$ce the* are too material& too #ee!l* roote# i$ our se$ses to "e freel* reflecte# i$ the imagi$atio$) 8$l* the #esig$& the com!ositio$ matter) These are the co$situtive eleme$ts of esthetic form& while colors a$# sou$#s are o$l* a#/u$cts) 5 +$ ever* res!ect& the$& we must #isti$guish the i$tuitive form of se$si"ilit* from the reflecte# form of the imagi$atio$)

=ver* agreeme$t of the faculties #efi$es what Fa$t calls common sense% Fa$t critici es em!iricism for co$ceivi$g commo$ se$se as merel* a !articular em!irical facult*& whereas it is the ma$ifestatio$ of a$ apiori agreeme$t of the faculties together) 6 Thus the &riti@ue of )ure Reason i$vo'es a logical commo$ se$se& 2sen- sus communis 'ogicus,2 without which '$owle#ge woul# "* rights "e i$commu$ica"le) 7imilarl*& the &riti@ue of )ractica' Reason fre?ue$tl* i$vo'es a !ro!erl* moral commo$ se$se& which ex!resses the agreeme$t of the faculties u$#er the legislatio$ of reaso$) >ut free harmo$* shoul# lea# Fa$t to recog$i e a thir# commo$ se$se& 2sensus communis aest eticus,2 which !osits "* rights the commu$ica"ilit* of feeli$g or the u$iversalit* of esthetic !leasure) 7 1This commo$ se$se ca$$ot "e grou$#e# i$ ex!erie$ce& si$ce it claims to authori e /u#gme$ts that co$tai$ a$ o"ligatio$6 it #oes $ot sa* that ever*o$e will acce!t our /u#gme$t& "ut that ever*o$e must acce!t it)1 s :e #o$0t hol# it agai$st someo$e for sa*i$g2 + #o$0t li'e lemo$a#e& + #o$0t li'e cheese) >ut we harshl* /u#ge someo$e who sa*s2 + #o$0t li'e >ach& + !refer Aasse$et to Ao art) Thus esthetic /u#gme$t la*s claim to a u$iversalit* a$# a $ecessit* "* rights& a$# these are re!rese$te# i$ commo$ se$se) This is where the real #ifficult* of the &riti@ue of ?udgment "egi$s2 what is the $ature of this esthetic commo$ se$se@

This commo$ se$se ca$$ot "e affirme# "* the categories) 7uch a$ affirmatio$ woul# im!l* #etermi$ate co$ce!ts of the u$#ersta$#i$g& a$# the* ca$ e$ter the !icture o$l* i$ a logical se$se) 5or #o we fare a$* "etter if we postu'ate it2 !ostulates im!l* '$owle#ge that a#mits of "ei$g #etermi$e# !racticall*) +t therefore seems that a !urel* esthetic commo$ se$se ca$ o$l* "e presumed, presupposed= >ut we see how u$satisfactor* such a solutio$ is) The free i$#eter( mi$ate agreeme$t of the faculties is the grou$#& the co$#itio$ of ever* other agreeme$t6 esthetic

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commo$ se$se is the grou$#& the co$#itio$ of ever* other commo$ se$se) ;ow coul# we "e satisfie# with su!!osi$g it& with givi$g it a merel* h*!othetical existe$ce& if it must i$#ee# serve as the fou$#atio$ for all the other #etermi$ate relatio$s amo$g the faculties@ ;ow #oes o$e ex!lai$ that while our faculties are #iffere$t i$ $ature& the* still s!o$ta$eousl* e$ter i$to a harmo$ious relatio$@ :e ca$$ot settle for !resumi$g such a$ agreeme$t) :e must e$ge$#er it i$ the soul) This is the o$l* solutio$2 to trace the ge$esis of the esthetic commo$ se$se& to show how the free agreeme$t of the faculties is $ecessaril* e$ge$#ere#)

+f this i$ter!retatio$ is o$ target& the e$tire a$al*tic of the "eautiful has a !recise o"/ective2 "* a$al* i$g the esthetic /u#gme$t of the s!ectator& Fa$t u$covers the free agreeme$t of the imagi$atio$ a$# the u$#ersta$#i$g as a grou$# of the soul& a grou$# which the other two 9riti?ues !resu!!ose) This grou$# of the soul shows u! i$ the i#ea of a commo$ se$se that is more !rofou$# tha$ a$* other) >ut is it e$ough to !resume this grou$#& sim!l* to 1!resu!!ose1 it@ The .$al*tic of the >eautiful ca$ go $o further) +t ca$ o$l* e$# "* ma'i$g us feel how $ecessar* is a ge$esis of the se$se of the "eautiful2 is there a !ri$ci!le to give us a rule to produce i$ ourselves esthetic commo$ se$se@ 1+s taste a $atural a$# !rimor#ial facult*& or o$l* the i#ea of a facult* we must ac?uire@110 . ge$esis of the se$se of the "eautiful ca$$ot "elo$g to the ex!ositio$ of the .$al*tic ,1it is e$ough for $ow to resolve the facult* of taste i$ its !arts a$# to reu$ite them i$ the i#ea of commo$ se$se1-) The ge$esis ca$ o$l* "e the o"/ect of a #e#uctio$2 t e deduction of est etic judgments% +$ the &riti@ue of )ure Reason, the #e#uctio$ !ro!oses to show us how o"/ects are $ecessaril* su"/ect to a s!eculative !ur!ose& a$# su"/ect to the u$#ersta$#i$g which !resi#es over this e$#eavor) +$ the /u#gme$t of taste& however& this $ecessar* su"/ectio$ is $o lo$ger the !ro"lem) +$stea#& the !ro"lem is $ow o$e of #e#uci$g the ge$esis of the agreeme$t amo$g faculties2 this !ro"lem coul# $ot ma'e its a!!eara$ce as lo$g as o$e of the faculties was co$si#ere# legislative with res!ect to the others& "i$#i$g them i$ a #etermi$ate relatio$)

<ost(Fa$tia$s& es!eciall* Aaimo$ a$# %ichte& raise# this fu$#ame$tal o"/ectio$2 Fa$t $eglecte# the #ema$#s of a ge$etic metho#) This o"/ectio$ has a su"/ective a$# a$ o"/ective as!ect2 o$ the o$e ha$#& Fa$t relies o$ facts a$# is see'i$g o$l* their co$#itio$s6 o$ the other ha$#& Fa$t a!!eals to faculties that are rea#*(ma#e& whose relatio$ or !ro!ortio$ he see's to

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#etermi$e& alrea#* su!!osi$g such faculties are ca!a"le of some harmo$*) +f we recall that Aai0mo$0s Transcendenta') i'osop y #ates from 1790& we must a#mit that Fa$t a$tici!ate#& at least i$ !art& the o"/ectio$s of his #isci!les) The first two 9riti?ues i$#ee# i$vo'e facts& see' out the co$#itio$s for these facts& a$# fi$# them i$ rea#*(ma#e faculties) +t follows that the first two 9riti?ues !oi$t to a ge$esis which the* are i$ca!a"le of securi$g o$ their ow$) >ut i$ the esthetic &riti@ue of ?udgment, Fa$t !oses the !ro"lem of a ge$esis of the faculties i$ their origi$al free agreeme$t) Thus he u$covers the ultimate grou$# still lac'i$g i$ the other two 9riti?ues) Fa$t0s 9riti?ue i$ ge$eral ceases to "e a sim!le conditioning to "ecome a tra$sce$#e$tal =#ucatio$& a tra$sce$#e$tal 9ulture& a tra$sce$#e$tal Ge$esis)

The .$al*tic of the >eautiful left us with this ?uestio$2 whe$ce origi$ates the free i$#etermi$ate agreeme$t amo$g the faculties@ :hat is the ge$esis of the faculties i$ this agreeme$t@ <recisel*& the .$al*tic of the >eautiful sto!s "ecause it #oes $ot have the mea$s to a$swer the ?uestio$6 o$e $otices& moreover& that the /u#gme$t31this is "eautiful13"ri$gs i$to !la* o$l* the u$#ersta$#i$g a$# the imagi$atio$ ,there is $o !lace for reaso$-) %ollowi$g the .$al*tic of the >eautiful& the .$al*tic of the 7u"lime calls o$ reaso$) >ut what #oes Fa$t ex!ect from this@ ;ow will this solve the ge$etic !ro"lem relate# to the "eautiful@

The /u#gme$t31this is su"lime13$o lo$ger ex!resses a$ agreeme$t "etwee$ the imagi$atio$ a$# the u$#ersta$#i$g& "ut "etwee$ the imagi$atio$ a$# reaso$) >ut this harmo$* of the su"lime is trul* !ara#oxical) Beaso$ a$# imagi$atio$ agree or harmo$i e o$l* from withi$ a te$sio$& a co$tra#ictio$& a !ai$ful re$#i$g) There is agreeme$t& "ut it is a #iscor#a$t co$cor#& a harmo$* i$ !ai$) .$# it is o$l* !ai$ that ma'es !leasure !ossi"le here) Fa$t em!hasi es this !oi$t2 the imagi$atio$ u$#ergoes viole$ce6 it seems eve$ to lose its free#om) :he$ the feeli$g of the su"lime is ex!erie$ce# "efore the formless or the #eforme# i$ 5ature ,imme$sit* or !ower-& the imagi$atio$ ca$ $o lo$ger reflect the form of a$ o"/ect) %ar from #iscoveri$g a$other activit*& however& the imagi$atio$ reali es its ver* <assio$) The imagi$atio$ has two esse$tial #ime$sio$s2 successive a!!rehe$sio$& a$# simulta$eous com!rehe$sio$) +f a!!rehe$sio$ ca$ reach i$fi$it* without trou"le& com!rehesio$ ,a$ esthetic com!rehe$sio$ i$#e!e$#e$t of a$* $umerical co$ce!t- alwa*s has a maximum) 7o it is that the su"lime co$fro$ts the imagi$atio$ with this maximum& forces it to reach its limit& a$# come to gri!s with its "ou$#aries) The

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imagi$atio$ is !ushe# to t e 'imits of its power%2 >ut what !ushes a$# co$strai$s the imagi$atio$ i$ this wa*@ +t is o$l* i$ a!!eara$ce& or "* !ro/ectio$& that the su"lime relates to se$si"le $ature) +$ realit*& reaso$ alo$e o"liges us to u$ite the i$fi$it* of the se$si"le worl# i$ a whole6 reaso$ alo$e forces the imagi$atio$ to co$fro$t its limit) The imagi$atio$ thus #iscovers the #is!ro!ortio$ of reaso$& a$# it is force# to a#mit that its !ower is $othi$g com!are# to a ratio$al +#ea)1(

.$# *et a$ agreeme$t is born at the heart of this #iscor#) 5ever was Fa$t closer to a #ialectical co$ce!tio$ of the faculties) Beaso$ co$fro$ts the imagi$atio$ with its ow$ limits i$ the se$si"le worl#6 co$versel* however& the imagi$atio$ awa'e$s reaso$ as the facult* a"le to co$ceive a su!erse$si"le su"stratum for the i$fi$it* of this se$si"le worl#) .s it u$#ergoes viole$ce& the imagi$atio$ seems to lose its free#om6 "ut at the same time& the imagi$atio$ is raise# to a tra$sce$#e$tal fu$ctio$& ta'i$g its ow$ limit as o"/ect) 7ur!asse# o$ ever* si#e& the imagi$atio$ itself sur!asses its limits3true& i$ a $egative fashio$ o$l*& "* re!rese$ti$g to itself the i$accessi"ilit* of the ratio$al +#ea& a$# "* ma'i$g this i$accessi"ilit* somethi$g !rese$t i$ se$si"le $ature) 1The imagi$atio$& with $o !lace to ta'e hol# "e*o$# the se$si"le& feels $o$etheless u$limite# tha$'s to the #isa!!eara$ce of its limits6 a$# this a"stractio$ is a !rese$tatio$ of the i$fi$ite which& for that ver* reaso$& ca$ o$l* "e $egative& "ut which still ex!a$#s the soul)113 Bight whe$ the imagi$atio$& sufferi$g the viole$ce of reaso$& thought it was losi$g its free#om& it frees itself from the co$strai$ts of the u$#ersta$#i$g a$# e$ters i$to a$ agreeme$t with reaso$ to #iscover what the u$#ersta$#i$g ha# 'e!t hi##e$& $amel* the su!rase$si"le #esti$atio$ of imagi$atio$& which is also li'e a tra$sce$#e$tal origi$) +$ its ver* <assio$& the imagi$atio$ #iscovers the origi$ a$# the #esti$atio$ of all its activities) This is the lesso$ of the .$al*tic of the 7u"lime2 eve$ the imagi$atio$ has a su!rase$si"le #esti$atio$)14 The agreeme$t of the imagi$atio$ a$# reaso$ is e$ge$#ere# i$ #iscor#) <leasure is e$ge$#ere# i$ !ai$) :hat is more& the two faculties seem to e$rich each other& #iscoveri$g the !ri$ci!le of their ge$esis6 the imagi$atio$ #iscovers it i$ !roximit* to its limit6 a$# reaso$& "e*o$# the se$si"le3 a$# together the* #iscover it i$ a 1!oi$t of co$ce$tratio$1 that #efi$es what is most !rofou$# i$ the soul2 the su!rase$si"le u$it* of all the faculties)

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The .$al*tic of the 7u"lime gives us a result that the .$al*tic of the >eau tiful coul# $ot eve$ co$ceive2 i$ the case of the su"lime& the agreeme$t of the co$cer$e# faculties is the o"/ect of a ge$ui$e ge$esis) This ex!lai$s wh* Fa$t recog$i es that the se$se of the su"lime& co$trar* to the se$se of the "eautiful& is i$se!ara"le from a culture# view!oi$t2 1i$ the trials of the forces of $ature& i$ its #evestatio$)))the vulgar ma$ sees o$l* !ai$& #a$ger& a$# miser*)1 15 The vulgar ma$ remai$s i$ 1#iscor#)1 5ot that the su"lime i$volves some em!irical a$# co$ve$tio$al culture6 "ut the faculties which the su"lime !uts i$ !la* !oi$t to a ge$esis of their agreeme$t withi$ imme#iate #iscor#) This is a tra$sce$#e$tal ge$esis& a$# $ot a$ em!irical culture) %rom this !oi$t o$& the .$al*tic of the 7u"lime has a twofol# sig$ifica$ce) +t sta$#s o$ its ow$ from the !oi$t of view of reaso$ a$# imagi$atio$) >ut also it has value as a mo#el2 how ca$ this #is( cover* relate# to the su"lime "e exte$#e# or a#a!te# to the se$se of the "eautiful@ +$ other wor#s& must $ot the agreeme$t "etwee$ the imagi$atio$ a$# the u$#ersta$#i$g& which #efi$es the "eautiful& also "e the o"/ect of a ge$esis& whose exam!le was give$ "* the .$a*tic of the 7u"lime@

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The !ro"lem of a tra$sce$#e$tal #e#uctio$ is alwa*s o"/ective) %or exam!le& i$ the &riti@ue of )ure Reason, o$ce Fa$t has show$ that the categories are a priori re!rese$tatio$s of the u$#ersta$#i$g& he as's how a$# wh* o"/ects are $ecessaril* su"/ect to the categories& that is& su"/ect to the u$#ersta$#i$g as legislator& or a s!eculative !ur!ose) >ut whe$ we exami$e the /u#gme$t of the su"lime& we see $o o"/ective !ro"lem of #e#uctio$ has "ee$ !ose# i$ this case) The su"lime i$#ee# relates to o"/ects& "ut o$l* "* !ro/ecti$g our moo#s6 a$# this !ro/ectio$ is imme#iatel* !ossi"le& "ecause whatever is formless or #eforme# i$ the o"/ect receives the !ro/ectio$) 16 ;owever& at first "lush& the same seems to "e true of the /u#gme$t of taste or "eaut*2 our !leasure is #isi$tereste#& we #isregar# the existe$ce or eve$ the matter of the o"/ect) There is $o legislative facult*6 there is $o o"/ect $ecessaril* su"/ect to the /u#gme$t of taste) This is wh* Fa$t suggests that the !ro"lem of the /u#gme$t of taste is o$l* su"/ective) 17.$# *et the ma/or #iffere$ce "etwee$ the su"lime a$# the "eautiful is that the !leasure of the "eautiful results from the form of a$ o"/ect2 Fa$t sa*s this characteristic is e$ough to grou$# the $ecessit* of a 1#e#uctio$1 of the /u#gme$t of taste) 18 ;owever i$#iffere$t we are to the D=7=BT +74.5D7 .5D 8T;=B T=KT7existe$ce of the o"/ect& there is $o$etheless a$ o"/ect concerning which& in t e occurence of which we ex!erie$ce the free harmo$* of our u$#ersta$#i$g a$# our imagi$atio$) +$ other wor#s& $ature has a$ a!titu#e for !ro#uci$g o"/ects that are reflecte# formall* i$ the imagi$atio$2 co$trar* to what occurs i$ the su"lime& $ature ma$ifests i$ this case a !ositive !ro!ert* 1which !rovi#es us with the occasio$ to gras! the i$ter$al fi$alit* of the relatio$ of our me$tal faculties "* mea$s of the /u#gme$t "rought to "ear o$ certai$ exam!les of its !ro#uctio$s)119 7o it is that the i$ter$al agreeme$t of our faculties amo$g themselves im!lies a$ exter$al agreeme$t "etwee$ $ature a$# these same faculties) This seco$# agreeme$t is ?uite s!ecial) +t must $ot "e co$fuse# with a $ecessar* su"/ectio$ of the o"/ects of $ature6 "ut it must $ot "e ta'e$ as a fi$al or teleological agreeme$t either) +f there were a $ecessar* su"/ectio$& the$ the /u#gme$t of taste woul# "e auto$omous a$# legislative6 if there were a real o"/ective fi$alit*& the$ the /u#gme$t of taste woul# $o loger "e heauto$omous ,1we woul# have to lear$ from $ature what we shoul# fi$# "eautiful& i$ which case /u#gme$t woul# "e su"/ect to em!irical !ri$ci!les1-)21 The agreeme$t thus has $o goal2 $ature is o$l* o"e*i$g its mecha$ical laws& while our faculties are o"e*i$g their ow$ s!ecific laws) 2An agreement t at presents itse'f wit out a goa', of itse'f, accidenta''y appropriated, as t e judgment re@uires, wit respect to nature and its forms%2A, .s Fa$t sa*s& $ature is$0t #oi$g us a$* favors6 rather& we are orga$i e# i$ such a wa* that we ca$ favora"l* receive $ature)

4et0s "ac' u!) The se$se of the "eautiful& as commo$ se$se& is #efi$e# "* the su!!ose# u$iversalit* of esthetic !leasure) =sthetic !leasure itself results from the free agreeme$t of the imagi$atio$ a$# the u$#ersta$#i$g& a$# this free agreeme$t ca$ o$l* "e felt) >ut it is $ot sufficie$t to su!!ose i$ tur$ the u$iversalit* a$# the $ecessit* of the agreeme$t& which must "e e$ge$#ere# a priori i$ such a wa* that its claim is grou$#e#) ;ere "egi$s the real !ro"lem of the #e#uctio$2 we must ex!lai$ 1wh* feeli$g i$ the /u#gme$t of taste is attri"ute# to ever*o$e& much li'e a #ut*)1 22 >ut the /u#gme$t of taste& so it seeme#& was co$$ecte# to a$ o"/ective #etermi$atio$) :hat we wa$t to '$ow is whether we ca$$ot #iscover& on t e side of t e determination, a !ri$ci!le for the ge$esis of the agreeme$t of the faculties i$ the /u#gme$t itself) 7uch a va$tage !oi$t woul# have the a#va$tage of ex!lai$i$g Fa$t0s or#er of i#eas2 1the .$al*tic of the >eautiful u$covers a free agreeme$t of the u$#ersta$#i$g a$# the imagi$atio$& "ut ca$ !osit it o$l* as !resu!!ose#6 2- the .$al*tic of the 7u"lime u$covers a free agreeme$t of the imagi$atio$ a$# reaso$& "ut u$#er i$ter$al co$#itio$s that also s'etch their ge$esis6 3- the #e#uctio$ of the /u#gme$t of taste u$covers a$ exter$al !ri$ci!le accor#i$g to which the u$#ersta$#i$g(imagi$atio$ agreeme$t is i$ tur$ e$ge$#ere# a priori- it thus uses the mo#el fur$ishe# "* the su"lime& "ut with origi$al mea$s& si$ce the su"lime for its !art #oes $ot re?uire a #e#uctio$)

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T;= +D=. 8% G=5=7+7 +5 F.5T07 =7T;=T+97

;ow #oes this ge$esis of the se$se of the "eautiful sha!e u!@ The idea of the agreeme$t without goal "etwee$ $ature a$# our faculties #efi$es a purpose for reaso$& a ratio$al !ur!ose co$$ecte# with the "eautiful) 9learl*& this !ur!ose is $ot a !ur!ose for the "eautiful as such& a$# clearl*& it is ver* #iffere$t from esthetic /u#gme$t) 8therwise& the e$tire &riti@ue of ?udgment wou'd "e co$tra#ictor*) +$ fact& the !leasure of the "eautiful is totall* #isi$tereste#& a$# esthetic /u#gme$t ex!resses the agreeme$t of the imagi$atio$ a$# the u$#ersta$#i$g without the i$terve$tio$ of reaso$) The !ur!ose i$ ?uestio$ is s*$theticall* co$$ecte# to /u#gme$t) +t has $o "eari$g o$ the "eautiful as such& "ut o$ the a!titu#e of $ature to !ro#uce "eautiful thi$gs) +t has to #o with $ature& i$ so far as $ature !rese$ts a$ agreeme$t with our faculties& "ut a$ agreeme$t without a goal) <recisel*& however& si$ce this agreeme$t is exter$al to the agreeme$t of the faculties amo$g themselves& a$# si$ce it #efi$es o$l* the occasio$ whe$ our fac ulties #o agree& the !ur!ose co$$ecte# with the "eautiful is $ot !art of esthetic /u#gme$t) %rom that !oi$t o$& this agreeme$t without goal ca$ serve& without ris'i$g co$tra#ictio$& as a ge$etic !ri$ci!le for the a priori agreeme$t of the faculties i$ this /u#gme$t) +$ other wor#s& est etic p'easure is disinterested, but we fee' a rationa' purpose w en t e productions of nature agree wit our disinterested p'easure% 1>ecause it is i$ the i$terest of reaso$ that +#eas have a$ o"/ective realit*)))& that is to sa*& that $ature at least i$#icates "* a trace or a sig$ that it co$tai$s a !ri$ci!le allowi$g a legitimate agreeme$t "etwee$ its !ro#uctio$s a$# our satisfactio$& independent of any purpose%%%, reaso$ is $ecessaril* i$tereste# i$ a$* $atural ma$ifestatio$ of such a$ agreeme$t)1 23 +t will come as $o sur!rise& the$& that the !ur!ose co$$ecte# with the "eautiful has to #o with #etermi$atio$s for which the se$se of the "eautiful remai$s i$#iffere$t) +$ the se$se of the #isi$tereste# "eautiful& the imagi$atio$ reflects the form) :hatever has trou"le "ei$g reflecte#3colors& sou$#s& matter 3esca!es it) 8$ the other ha$#& the !ur!ose co$$ecte# with the "eautiful has to #o with sou$#s a$# colors& the color of flowers or the sou$#s of "ir#s)24 .gai$& there is $o co$tra#ictio$ here) <ur!ose has to #o with matter& "ecause it is with matter that $ature& i$ co$formit* with its mecha$ical laws& !ro#uces o"/ects that ha!!e$ to "e a!t for formal reflectio$) Fa$t eve$ #efi$es !rimal matter as it !artici!ates i$ the !ro#uctio$ of the "eau tiful2 a flui# matter& !art of which is se!arate# out or eva!orates& a$# the rest of which su##e$l* soli#ifies ,cr*stal formatio$-) 25

This !ur!ose co$$ecte# with the "eautiful& or the /u#gme$t of "eaut*& is #escri"e# as meta(esthetic) ;ow #oes this !ur!ose of reaso$ e$sure the ge$esis of the u$#ersta$#i$g(imagi$atio$ agreeme$t i$ the /u#gme$t of "eaut* itself@ Beaso$ #iscovers the ma$* !rese$tatio$s of its +#eas i$ sou$#& color& a$# free matter) %or exam!le& we are $ot satisfie# with su"sumi$g color u$#er a co$ce!t of the u$#ersta$#i$g6 we relate it still to a whole other co$ce!t ,a$ +#ea of rea ( so$- which& for its !art& has $o o"/ect of i$tuitio$& "ut #oes #etermi$e its o"/ect "* a$alog* with the o"/ect of i$tuitio$ that corres!o$#s to the first co$ce!t) +$ this wa*& we tra$s!ose 1the reflectio$ o$ a$ o"/ect of i$tuitio$ to a whole other co$ce!t to which& !erha!s& a$ i$tuitio$ ma* $ever #irectl* corres!o$#)1 26 The white lill* is $o lo$ger sim!l* relate# to co$ce!ts of color a$# flower& "ut awa'e$s the +#ea of !ure i$$oce$ce& whose o"/ect& which is $ever give$& is a reflexive a$alogue of white i$ the fleur(#e(lis) 27 +$ this case& however& the meta(esthetic !ur!ose of reaso$ has two co$se?ue$ces2 o$ the o$e ha$#& the co$ce!ts of the u$#ersta$#i$g are i$fi$itel* exte$#e#& i$ a$ u$limite# wa*6 o$ the other ha$#& the imagi$atio$ is free# from the co$strai$t of the #etermi$e# co$ce!ts of the u$#ersta$#i$g& to which it was still su"/ect i$ schemati atio$) :hat the .$al*tic of the >eautiful i$ its ex!ositio$ allowe# us to sa* is o$l* this2 i$ the esthetic /u#gme$t& the imagi$atio$ "ecomes free at the same time that the u$#ersta$#i$g "ecomes i$#etermi$ate) >ut how #oes the imagi$atio$ "ecome free@ ;ow #oes the u$#ersta$#i$g "ecome i$#etermi$ate@ Beaso$ tell us& a$# thus secures the ge$esis of the free i$#etermi$ate agreeme$t of the two faculties i$ /u#gme$t) The se#uctio$ of esthetic /u#gme$t ex!lai$s what the .$al*tic of the >eautiful coul# $ot2 it #iscovers i$ reaso$ the !ri$ci!le of a tra$sce$#e$tal ge$esis) >ut first it was $ecessar* to go through the ge$etic mo#el of the 7u"lime)

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The theme of a !rese$tatio$ of +#eas i$ se$si"le $ature is a fu$#ame$tal theme i$ Fa$t0s wor') This is "ecause there are several mo#es of !rese$tatio$) The 7u"lime is the first mo#e2 a #irect !rese$tatio$ accom!lishe# "* projection, "ut it remai$s $egative& havi$g to #o with the i$accessi"ilit* of the +#ea) The seco$# mo#e is #efi$e# "* the ratio$al !ur!ose co$$ecte# with the "eautiful2 this is a$ i$#irect "ut !ositive !rese$tatio$& which is achieve# through symbo'% The thir# mo#e a!!ears i$ Ge$ius2 a !ositive !rese$tatio$& "ut it is seco$#ar*& accom!lishe# through the creation of a$ 1other1 $ature) %i$all*& the fourth mo#e is teleological2 a !ositive !rese$tatio$& !rimar* as well as #irect& which is achieve# i$ the co$ce!ts of e$# a$# fi$al agreeme$t) This last mo#e #oes $ot co$cer$ us here) 8$ the other ha$#& the mo#e of Ge$ius #oes !ose a$ esse$tial !ro"lem i$ Fa$t0s esthetics from the !ers!ective #evelo!e# i$ these !ages)
D=7=BT +74.5D7 .5D 8T;=B T=KT7

The 'e* to a ge$esis of a$ a priori agreeme$t of faculties i$ the /u#gme$t of taste is ratio$al !ur!ose3"ut o$ what co$#itio$@ 8$ co$#itio$ that we /oi$ to the !articular ex!erie$ce of the "eautiful& 1the thought that $ature !ro#uce# this "eaut*)128 +$ o$e res!ect& the$& a #is/u$ctio$ a!!ears2 "etwee$ the "eautiful i$ $ature a$# the "eautiful i$ art) Not ing in t e e!position of t e Ana'ytic of t e 3eautifu' aut ori(ed suc a distinction8 the #e#uctio$ i$tro#uces this #isti$ctio$& i)e) the meta(esthetic va$tage !oi$t of the !ur!ose co$$ecte# with the "eautiful) This !ur!ose co$cer$s exclusivel* $atural "eaut*6 the ge$esis thus co$cer$s the agreeme$t "etwee$ the imagi$atio$ a$# the u$#ersta$#i$g& "ut o$l* i$ as much as the agreeme$t is !ro#uce# i$ the soul of the s!ectator "efore $ature) The agreeme$t of the faculties "efore a wor' of art remai$s grou$#less& without a !ri$ci!le)

The fi$al tas' of Fa$tia$ esthetics is to #iscover for art a !ri$ci!le a$alogous to the !ri$ci!le of the "eautiful i$ $ature) This !ri$ci!le is Ge$ius) Cust as ratio$al !ur!ose is the authorit* "* which $ature !rovi#es /u#gme$t with a rule& so ge$ius is the su"/ective #is!ositio$ "* which $ature !rovi#es art with rules ,i$ this se$se& it is a 1gift of $ature1 -)29 Cust as ratio$al !ur!ose co$cer$s the materials with which $ature !ro#uces "eautiful thi$gs& so Ge$ius !rovi#es the materials with which the su"/ect it i$s!ires !ro#uces "eautiful wor's of art2 1ge$ius esse$tiall* !rovi#es the fi$e arts with rich materials)1 30 Ge$ius is a meta( esthetic !ri$ci!le the same as ratio$al !ur!ose) That is& ge$ius is #efi$e# as a !rese$tatio$ of +#eas) 8f course& i$ this case& Fa$t is tal'i$g a"out esthetic +#eas& which he #isti$guishes from the +#eas of reaso$2 +#eas of reaso$ are co$ce!ts without i$tuitio$s& whereas esthetic +#eas are i$tuitio$s without co$ce!ts) >ut this is a false o!!ositio$6 there are $ot two sorts of +#eas) The esthetic +#ea goes "e*o$# ever* co$ce!t "ecause it !ro#uces the i$tuitio$ of a$ ot er nature tha$ the $ature give$ to us2 it creates a $ature i$ which the !he$ome$a are eve$ts of the s!irit& i$ a$ u$me#iate# wa*& a$# the eve$ts of the s!irit are !he$ome$a of $ature) Thus i$visi"le "ei$gs& the 'i$g#om of the "lesse#& hell ac?uire a "o#*6 a$# love& #eath& ac?uire a #ime$sio$ to ma'e them a#e?uate to their s!iritual se$se)1 5ow it occurs to o$e that the i$tuitio$ of ge$ius is the i$tuitio$ which the +#eas of reaso$ were lac'i$g) The intuition wit out concept is !recisel* that which the concept wi out intuition was lac'i$g) 7o& i$ the first formulatio$& it is the co$ce!ts of the u$#ersta$#i$g that are sur!asse# a$# #is?ualifie#6 a$# i$ the seco$#& the i$tuitio$s of se$si"ilit*) +$ ge$ius& however& the creative i$tuitio$ as i$tuitio$ of a$ other $ature& a$# the co$ce!ts of reaso$ as

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T;= +D=. 8% G=5=7+7 +5 F.5T07 =7T;=T+97

ratio$al +#eas& are a#e?uatel* u$ifie#)32 The ratio$al +#ea co$tai$s somethi$g i$ex!ressi"le6 "ut the esthetic +#ea ex!resses the i$ex!ressi"le& through the creatio$ of a$ other $ature) Therefore& the esthetic +#ea is trul* a mo#e of the !rese$tatio$ of +#eas& much li'e s*m"olism& though o!erati$g #iffere$tl*) .$# the esthetic +#ea has a$ a$al ogous effect2 it 1ma'es us thi$'&1 it exte$#s the co$ce!ts of the u$#ersta$#i$g i$ a$ u$limite# wa*& a$# it frees the imagi$atio$ from the co$strai$ts of the u$#ersta$#i$g) Ge$ius 1vitali es)1 +t 1gives life)1 .s a meta(esthetic !ri$ci!le& it ma'es !ossi"le& it e$ge$#ers the esthetic agreeme$t "etwee$ the imagi$atio$ a$# the u$#ersta$#i$g) +t e$ge$#ers each facult* i$ this agreeme$t2 the imagi$atio$ as free& a$# the u$#ersta$#i$g as u$limite#) The theor* of Ge$ius thus ma$ages to "ri#ge the ga! that ha# o!e$e# u! "etwee$ the "eautiful i$ $ature a$# the "eautiful i$ art& from a meta( esthetic !oi$t of view) Ge$ius !rovi#es a ge$etic !ri$ci!le to the faculties i$ relatio$ to a wor' of art) 7o& after !aragra!h 42 i$ the &riti@ue of ?udgment has se!arate# out two 'i$#s of the "eautiful& !aragra!hs 58 a$# 59 restore their u$it*& through the i#ea of a ge$esis of the faculties which the two 'i$#s have i$ commo$)

5evertheless& the !arallel "etwee$ the !ur!ose co$$ecte# with the "eautiful i$ $ature& a$# ge$ius as it relates to the "eautiful& shoul# $ot "e !ushe# too far) >ecause ge$ius e$tails a far more com!lex ge$esis) +$ the case of ge$ius& we $ee#e# to e$ge$#er the agreeme$t of the imagi$atio$ a$# the u$#ersta$#i$g& so we ha# to leave "ehi$# the s!ectator0s !oi$t of view) Ge$ius is the gift of the artistic creator) The imagi$atio$ is li"erate#& a$# the u$#ersta$#i$g exte$#e#& first in t e artist% :e are face# with this #ifficult*2 how ca$ such a ge$esis have a u$i versal im!licatio$ if it is gover$e# "* the si$gularit* of ge$ius@ +t seems that we #iscover i$ ge$ius $ot a u$iversal su"/ectivit*& "ut at most a$ exce!tio$al i$ter( su"/ectivit*) Ge$ius is alwa*s a calli$g out for other ge$iuses to "e "or$) >ut vast #eserts o!e$ u! #uri$g which the call of ge$ius goes u$a$swere#) 1Ge$ius is the exem!lar* origi$alit* of a su"/ect0s $atural gifts i$ the free use of the cog$itive faculties) Thus the wor' of ge$ius is a$ exam!le& $ot to "e imitate#& "ut to "ri$g a"out the "irth of a$other ge$ius i$ its wa'e& "* awa'e$i$g the se$se of its ow$ origi$alit*& a$# "* s!urri$g a$ exercise of its art i$#e!e$#e$t of a$* a$# all rules))) The ge$ius is the #arli$g of $ature6 its existe$ce is rare)1 33 ;owever& this #ifficult* ca$ "e resolve# if we co$si#er the two activities of the ge$ius) 8$ the o$e ha$#& ge$ius creates) That is to sa*& ge$ius !ro#uces the matter of its art6 "* i$ve$ti$g a$ other $ature a#e?uate to +#eas& ge$ius reali es the free creative fu$c tio$ of the imagi$atio$) 8$ the other ha$#& the artist gives form8 "* a#/usti$g a$ imagi$atio$ li"erate# from the i$#etermi$ate u$#ersta$#i$g& the artist gives to the wor' of art the form of a$ o"/ect of taste ,1taste is sufficie$t to give this form to the wor' of art1-) 34 <recisel*& what is i$imita"le i$ ge$ius is the first as!ect2 the e$ormit* of the +#ea& the asto$ishi$g matter& the #ifformit* of ge$ius) >ut i$ its seco$# as!ect& the wor' of ge$ius !rovi#es a$ exam!le for ever*o$e2 it i$s!ires imitators& gives rise to s!ectators& a$# e$ge$#ers everyw ere the free agreeme$t of the imagi$atio$ a$# the u$#ersta$#i$g& which agreeme$t co$stitutes taste) 7o& we are $ot sim!l* i$ the #esert while the call of ge$ius goes u$a$swere# "* a$other ge$ius2 me$ a$# wome$ of taste& stu#e$ts& a$# aficio$a#os fill u! the s!ace "etwee$ two ge$iuses& a$# hel! !ass the time) 300 9o$se?ue$tl*& the ge$esis that origi$ates i$ ge$ius effectivel* ac?uires a u$iversal value ,the ge$ius of the creator e$ge$#ers the agreeme$t of the faculties i$ the s!ectator-2 1Taste& li'e /u#gme$t i$ ge$eral& is the #isci!li$e of ge$ius)))Taste "ri$gs clarit* a$# or#er to the mass of thoughts a$# gives +#eas their co$sista$c*& a$# therefore o!e$s them u! to a 'asting and universa' success& as exam!les for others& a#a!ti$g themselves to a culture alwa*s i$ !rocess)136

79

:e thus have three !arallel ge$eses i$ Fa$t0s esthetics2 the su"lime& or a ge$esis of the reaso$(imagi$atio$ agreeme$t6 !ur!ose co$$ecte# with the "eautiful& or a ge$esis of the u$#ersta$#i$g(imagi$atio$ agreeme$t accor#i$g to the "eautiful i$ $ature6 a$# ge$ius& or a ge$esis of the u$#ersta$#i$g(imagi$atio$ agreeme$t accor#i$g to the "eautiful i$ art) :hat is more is that& for each case& the faculties are e$ge$#ere# i$ their origi$al free state a$# i$ reci!rocal agreeme$t) Thus the &riti@ue of ?udgment reveals a whole other #omai$ from that of the other two 9riti?ues) The !revious two 9riti?ues "egi$ with rea#*(ma#e fac

D=7=BT +74.5D7 .5D 8T;=B T=KT7

80

T;= +D=. 8% G=5=7+7 +5 F.5T07 =7T;=T+97 a,u$#er the #irectio$ of o$e legislative ulties& a$# these e$ter #etermi$ate relatio$s a$# ta'e o$ orga$i e# tas's facult*) The u$#ersta$#i$g legislates for a ratio$al s!eculative !ur!ose& a$# reaso$ legislates for its ow$ !ractical !ur!ose) :he$ Fa$t tries to articulate the origi$alit* of the &riti@ue of ?udgment, this is what he sa*s2 it e$sures "oth the passage from a s!eculative to a !ractical !ur!ose a$# the su"or#i$atio$ of the first to the seco$#) 37 %or exam!le& the su"lime alrea#* shows how the su!rase$si"le #esti$atio$ of our faculties ca$ "e ex!lai$e# o$l* as the #esti$* of a moral "ei$g6 the !ur!ose co$$ecte# with the "eautiful i$ $ature evi#e$ces a soul !re#esti$e# to moralit*6 a$# ge$ius itself allows the artistic "eautiful a$# the worl# of moralit* to "e i$tegrate#& a$# thus to overcome the #is/u$ctio$ of the two 'i$#s of the "eautiful ,the "eautiful i$ art& $o less tha$ the "eautiful i$ $ature& is i$ the e$# #eclare# a 1s*m"ol of moralit*1-)38

>ut if the &riti@ue of ?udgment o!e$s u! a passage, it is first a$# foremost "ecause it u$veils a% ground t at ha# remai$e# hi##e$ i$ the other two 9riti?ues) :ere this i#ea of a !assage to "e ta'e$ literall*& the &riti@ue of ?udgment woul# "e $o more tha$ a com!lime$t& a$ a#/ustme$t2 i$ fact& it co$stitutes the origi$al grou$# from which #erive the other two 9riti?ues) 9ertai$l*& the &riti@ue of ?udgment #oes show how s!eculative !ur!ose ca$ "e su"or#i$ate# to !ractical !ur!ose& how 5ature ca$ "e i$ agreeme$t with li"ert*& a$# how our #esti$atio$ is a moral #esti$*) >ut it #oes so o$l* "* attri"uti$g /u#gme$t& i$ the su"/ect a$# "e*o$# the su"/ect& 1to somethi$g which is neit er nature nor 'iberty%'ByC .$# the !ur!ose co$$ecte# with the "eautiful is i$ itself $either moral $or s!eculative) .$# if we have the #esti$* of a moral "ei$g& it is "ecause this #esti$* #evelo!s& ex!lai$s a su!ra(se$si"le #esti$atio$ of our faculties6 this #esti$atio$ remai$s $o$e the less e$velo!e# as the real heart of our "ei$g& as a !ri$ci!le more !ro fou$# tha$ a$* formal #esti$*) This is i$#ee# the se$se of the &riti@ue of ?udgment, "e$eath the #etermi$ate a$# co$#itio$e# relatio$s of the faculties& it #iscovers free agreeme$t& i$#etermi$ate a$# u$co$#itio$al) 5o #etermi$ate relatio$ of the faculties& a relatio$ co$#itio$e# "* o$e of them& woul# ever "e !ossi"le if it were $ot first made !ossi"le "* this free u$co$#itio$e# agreeme$t) %urthermore& the &riti@ue of ?udgment #oes $ot restrict itself to the !ers!ective of co$#itio$s as it a!!eare# i$ the other two 9riti?ues2 with the &riti@ue of ?udgment, we ste! i$to Ge$esis) The three ge$eses of the &riti@ue of ?udgment are $ot o$l* !arallel& the* co$verge o$ the same #iscover*2 what Fa$t calls the 7oul& that is& the su!rase$si"le u$it* of our faculties& 1the !oi$t of co$ce$tratio$&1 the life( givi$g !ri$ci!le that 1a$imates1 each facult*& e$ge$#eri$g "oth its free exercise a$# its free agreeme$t with the other faculties) 40 . !rimeval free imagi$atio$ that ca$$ot "e satisfie# with schemati i$g u$#er the co$strai$ts of the u$#ersta$# i$g6 a !rimeval u$limite# u$#ersta$#i$g that #oes $ot *et "e$# u$#er the s!eculative weight of its #etermi$ate co$ce!ts& $o more so tha$ it is $ot alrea#* su"/ecte# to the e$#s of !ractical reaso$6 a !rimeval reaso$ that has $ot *et #evel

81

o!e# a taste for comma$#i$g& "ut which frees itself whe$ it frees u! the other faculties3these are the extreme #iscoveries of the &riti@ue of ?udgment, each facult* re#iscovers the !ri$ci!le of its ge$esis as each co$verges o$ this focal !oi$t& 1a !oi$t of co$ce$tratio$ i$ the su!ra(se$si"le&1 whe$ce our faculties #erive "oth their force a$# their life)

8ur D=7=BT +74.5D7 .5D 8T;=B T=KT7!ro"lem was twofol#) ;ow #oes o$e ex!lai$ that the a$al*sis of the su"lime i$terru!ts the li$' "etwee$ the ex!ositio$ a$# the #e#uctio$ of the /u#gme$t of "eaut*& whe$ the su"lime has $o corres!o$#i$g #e#uctio$@ .$# how #oes o$e ex!lai$ that the #e#uctio$ of the /u#gme$t of "eaut* is exte$#e# to theories of !ur!ose& art& a$# ge$ius& which seem to a##ress ver* #iffere$t !reoccu!atio$s@ + "elieve the s*stem of the &riti@ue of ?udgment, i$ its first !art& ca$ "e reco$stitute# i$ the followi$g ma$$er2

1- The .$al*tic of the >eautiful& ex!ositio$2 t is is t e forma' est etics of t e beautifu' in genera' from t e spectators point of view% The #iffere$t mome$ts of this .$al*tic show that the u$#ersta$#i$g a$# the imagi$atio$ e$ter a free agreeme$t& a$# that this free agreeme$t is co$stitutive of the /u#gme$t of taste) This #efi$es a s!ectator0s esthetic !oi$t of view of the "eautiful i$ ge$eral) 7uch a !oi$t of view is formal& si$ce the s!ectator reflects the form of the o"/ect) >ut the last mome$t of the .$al*tic& i)e) mo#alit*& !oses a$ esse$tial !ro"lem) %ree i$#e termi$ate agreeme$t must "e a priori% Aoreover& it is what is most !rofou$# i$ the soul6 ever* #etermi$ate !ro!ortio$ of the faculties !resu!!oses the !ossi"ilit* of their free a$# s!o$ta$eous harmo$*) +$ this se$se& the &riti@ue of ?udgment must "e the ge$ui$e grou$# of the other two 9riti?ues) 9learl*& the$& we ca$$ot "e satisfie# with !resumi$g the a priori agreeme$t of the u$#ersta$#i$g a$# the imagi$atio$ i$ the /u#gme$t of taste) This agreeme$t must "e the o"/ect of a tra$sce$#e$tal ge$esis) >ut the .$al*tic of the >eautiful is u$a"le to secure such a ge$esis2 it !oi$ts to the $ecessit*& "ut it ca$$ot o$ its ow$ go "e*o$# mere 1!resum!tio$)1

2- The .$al*tic of the 7u"lime& ex!ositio$ a$# #e#uctio$2 t is is t e form'ess est etics of t e sub'ime from t e spectators point of view% Taste #i# $ot call reaso$ i$to !la*) The su"lime& however& is ex!lai$e# "* the free agreeme$t of reaso$ a$# the imagi$atio$) >ut this $ew 1s!o$ta$eous1 agreeme$t occurs u$#er ver* s!ecial co$#itio$s2 !ai$& o!!ositio$& co$strai$t& a$# #iscor#) +$ the case of the su"lime& free#om or s!o$ta$eit* is ex!erie$ce# i$ "ou$#ar*( areas& whe$ face# with the formless or the #eforme#) +$ this wa*& however& the .$al*tic of the 7u"lime gives us a ge$etic !ri$ci!le for the agreeme$t of the faculties& a$ agreeme$t which the .$al*tic !uts i$ !la* +t follows that it goes much farther tha$ the .$al*tic of the >eautiful)

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T;= +D=. 8% G=5=7+7 +5 F.5T07 =7T;=T+97

D$ The .$al*tic of the >eautiful& #e#uctio$2 t is is t e materia' meta-est etic of t e beautifu' in nature, from t e spectator,s point of view% The /u#gme$t of taste #ema$#s a !articular #e#uctio$ "ecause it relates i$ the ver* least to the form of the o"/ect2 furthermore& the /u#gme$t of taste i$ tur$ re?uires a ge$etic !ri$ci!le for the agreeme$t of the faculties which it ex!resses& $amel* u$#ersta$#i$g a$# imagi$atio$) The 7u"lime fur$ishes us with a ge$etic mo#el6 the e?uivale$t must "e fou$# for the "eautiful& usi$g other mea$s) :e are loo'i$g for a rule accor#i$g to which we ma* "* rights su!!ose the u$iversalit* of esthetic !leasure) .s lo$g as we are satisfie# to !resume the agreeme$t "etwee$ the u$#ersta$#i$g a$# the imagi$atio$& the #e#uctio$ is sim!le) :hat is more #ifficult is ma'i$g the ge$esis of theis agreeme$t a priori% ;owever& !recisel* "ecause reaso$ #oes $ot i$terve$e i$ the /u#gme$t of taste& it ca$ fur$ish us with a !ri$ci!le accor#i$g to which the agreeme$t of the faculties i$ this /u#gme$t is e$ge$#ere#) There exists a ratio$al !ur!ose co$$ecte# with the "eautiful2 this meta(esthetic !ur!ose co$cer$s the a!titu#e of $ature for !ro#uci$g "eautiful thi$gs& as well as the materials which $ature uses for such 1formatio$s)1 Tha$'s to this !ur!ose which is $either !ractical $or s!eculative& reaso$ gives "irth to itself& ex!a$#s the u$#ersta$#i$g& a$# li"erates the imagi$atio$) Beaso$ secures the ge$esis of a free i$#etermi$ate agreeme$t "etwee$ the imagi$atio$ a$# the u$#ersta$#i$g) The two as!ects of the #e#uctio$ are $ow /oi$e#2 the o"/ective refere$ce to a $ature ca!a"le of !ro#uci$g "eautiful thi$gs& a$# the su"/ective refere$ce to a !ri$ci!le ca!a"le of e$ge$#eri$g the agreeme$t of faculties) 4- %ollow(u! to the #e#uctio$ i$ the theor* of Ge$ius2 t is is an idea' meta- est etic of t e beautifu' in art from t e point of view of t e creative artist% The !ur!ose co$$ecte# with the "eautiful secures a ge$esis o$l* "* exclu#i$g the case of the artistic "eautiful) Ge$ius thus i$terve$es as the meta(esthetic !ri$ci!le !ro!er to the faculties "ei$g exercise# i$ art) Ge$ius has !ro!erties a$alogous to those of !ur!ose2 it fur$ishes a matter& it i$car$ates +#eas& it causes reaso$ to give "irth to itself& a$# it li"erates the imagi$atio$ a$# ex!a$#s the u$#ersta$#i$g) >ut ge$ius exercises all these faculties first a$# foremost from the va$tage !oi$t of the creatio$ of a wor' of art) %i$all*& without losi$g a$* of its si$gular a$# exce!tio$al character& ge$ius must give a u$iversal value to the agreeme$t which it e$ge$#ers& a$# it must commu$icate to the faculties of the s!ectator somethi$g of its ow$ life a$# force6 thus Fa$t0s esthetics forms a s*stematic whole& i$ which the three ge$eses are u$ifie#

83

Baymond Bo-sse") or the !.horrent Ea7--m


)

The wor' of Ba*mo$# Boussel& which <auverr has !u"lishe# i$ $ew e#itio$s& i$clu#es two sorts of "oo's2 !oem("oo's that #escri"e mi$iature o"/ects i$ #etail ,for exam!le& a com!lete s!ectacle o$ the la"el of a$ =via$ water "ottle- or o"/ects that have #ou"les ,actors& machi$es a$# 9ar$ival mas's-6 a$# those "oo's '$ow$ as 1formula1 "oo's2 starti$g ex!licitl* or im!licitl* from a catal*tic !hrase ,e)g) 1the white letters o$ the legs of the ol# !ool ta"le1-& the rea#er e$#s u! re#iscoveri$g the same !hrase& or almost ,1the white fetters o$ the eggs of the ol# fool ."le1-6 i$ the ga! "etwee$ them& however& a whole worl# of #escri!tio$s a$# catalogues have arise$& where the same wor#s ta'e$ to mea$ #iffere$t thi$gs lea# two ver* #iffere$t lives& or else the* are #islocate# to ma'e wa* for other wor#s ,1+ have some goo# to"acco1 M 1wave slum /u#e wac'o1-)

This author who ha# a co$si#era"le i$flue$ce o$ the 7urrealists& a$# to#a* o$ Bo""e( Grillet& remai$s relativel* u$'$ow$) >ut rece$tl* Aichel %oucault has !u"lishe# a comme$tar* of great !oetic a$# !hiloso!hical !ower o$ the wor' of Boussel& a$# fi$#s the 'e*s to this wor' i$ a$ e$tirel* #iffere$t #irectio$ from what the 7urrealists ha# i$#icate#) +t seems vital& moreover& to co$$ect the rea#i$g of %ou( cault0s "oo' with that of Boussel himself) ;ow #oes o$e ex!lai$ the 1formula1@ .ccor#i$g to Aichel %oucault& there exists i$ la$guage a 'i$# of esse$tial #ista$ce& a 'i$# of #is!laceme$t& #islocatio$& or "reach) This is "ecause wor#s are less $umerous tha$ thi$gs& a$# so each wor# has several mea$i$gs) The literature of the a"sur# "elieve# that mea$i$g was #eficie$t& "ut i$ fact there is a #eficie$c* of sig$s)

;e$ce i$ a wor# a vacuum o!e$s u!2 the re!etitio$ of a wor# leaves the #iffere$ce of its mea$i$gs ga!i$g) +s this the !roof of a$ im!ossi"ilit* of re!etitio$@ 5o& this is where Boussel0s

84

B.NA85D B8E77=4& 8B T;= .>;8BB=5T H.9EEA

e$ter!rise comes i$to view2 he tries to wi#e$ this ga! to its maximum a$# thus #etermi$e a$# measure it& alrea#* filli$g it with a whole machi$er*& a whole !ha$tasmagoria that "i$#s the #iffere$ces to& a$# i$tegrates them with& re!etitio$)

%or exam!le& the wor#s 1#emoiselle a !rete$#a$t D galla$t *ou$g woma$1 i$#uces 1#emoiselle ,hie- a reitre e$ #e$ts D a /ac'hammer with rough($ec' teeth1 a$# the !ro"lem& as a$ e?uatio$& "ecomes that of a /ac'hammer !utti$g together a mosaic) The re!etitio$ must "ecome !ara#oxical& !oetic& a$# com!rehe$sive) The re!etitio$ must e$com!ass i$ itself #iffere$ce i$stea# of re#uci$g it) The !overt* of la$guage must "ecome its ver* source of wealth) %oucault writes2 15ot the lateral re!etitio$ of thi$gs we re!eat& "ut the ra#ical re!etitio$ that has !asse# over a$# "e*o$# $o$(la$guage a$# that owes its !oetr* to the ga! that has "ee$ crosse#)1

>* what will the vacuum "e fille# a$# crosse#@ >* extraor#i$ar* machi$es& "* stra$ge artisa$(actors) Thi$gs a$# "ei$gs $ow follow la$guage) =ver*thi$g i$ the mecha$isms a$# "ehaviors is imitatio$& re!ro#uctio$& recitatio$) >ut the recitatio$ of somethi$g si$gular& a$ u$"elieva"le eve$t& which is a"solutel* #iffere$t from the recitatio$) .s if Boussel0s machi$es ha# grafte# o$ themselves the tech$i?ue of the formula2 li'e the 1/o" of #a*"rea'&1 which itself se$#s us "ac' to a !rofessio$ that forces us to wa'e u! earl*) 8r the verse(worm that !la*s the ither "* !ro/ecti$g #ro!s of water alo$g each stri$g) Boussel ela"orates multi!le series of re!etitio$s with the !ower to li"erate2 !riso$ers save their ow$ lives through re!etitio$ a$# recitatio$& i$ the i$ve$tio$ of corres!o$#i$g machi$es)

These li"erati$g re!etitio$s are !oetic !recisel* "ecause the* #o $ot su!!ress #iffere$ce6 o$ the co$trar*& the* ex!erie$ce #iffere$ce a$# authe$ticate it "* i$ter$ali i$g the 7i$gular) .s for those $o$(formula wor's& the* ca$ "e ex!lai$e# i$ a similar fashio$) +$ this case& thi$gs themselves are o!e$e# u! tha$'s to a mi$iaturi atio$& tha$'s to a #ou"li$g& a mas') .$# the vacuum is $ow crosse# "* la$guage& which gives "irth to a whole worl# i$ the i$terstice of these

85

mas's a$# #ou"li$gs) 9o$se?ue$tl*& the $o$(formula wor's are li'e the fli!(si#e of the formula itself) +$ "oth cases& the !ro"lem is to tell a$# show at the same time& to s!ea' a$# set "efore the e*es)

This !oorl* states the wealth a$# #e!th of %oucault0s "oo') This i$tertwi$i$g of #iffere$ce a$# re!etitio$ is also a"out life& #eath& a$# ma#$ess) %or it a!!ears that the vacuum i$si#e thi$gs a$# wor#s are a sig$ of #eath& a$# what fills it is ma# !rese$ce)

;owever& it is $ot the case that the !erso$al ma#$ess of Ba*mo$# Boussel a$# his wor' have a$ eleme$t i$ commo$& !ositivel* s!ea'i$g) 8$ the co$trar*& we woul# have to s!ea' of a$ eleme$t accor#i$g to which the wor' a$# his ma#$ess mutuall* exclu#e o$e a$other) That eleme$t is commo$ i$ o$e se$se o$l*6 it is la$guage) ;is !erso$al ma#$ess a$# the !oetic wor'& the #elirium a$# the !oem& re!rese$t two i$vestme$ts of la$guage& o$ #iffere$t levels& that are mutuall* exclusive)

%rom this !oi$t of view& %oucault i$ his last cha!ter s'etches a whole i$ter!retatio$ of the wor'Dma#$ess relatio$shi!& which woul# a!!l* a$# which he !erha!s will a!!l* to other !oets ,.rtau#@-) Aichel %oucault0s "oo' is $ot o$l* #ecisive with res!ect to Boussel6 it also mar's a$ im!orta$t stage i$ its author0s !erso$al research o$ the relatio$s of la$guage& the ga e& #eath& a$# ma#$ess)

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,o* :arry;s +ataphysi7s Opened the %ay 'or +henomeno"ogy

Aa/or mo#er$ authors ofte$ sur!rise us with a thought that seems "oth a remar' a$# a !ro!hes*2 meta!h*sics is a$# must "e sur!asse#) +$ so far as its fate is co$ceive# as meta!h*sics& !hiloso!h* ma'es room a$# must ma'e room for other forms of thought& other forms of thi$'i$g)

This mo#er$ i#ea is sei e# o$ i$ various co$texts& which #ramati e it2 1- *od is dead ,it woul# "e i$teresti$g to #o a$ a$tholog* of all the versio$s of the #ea# Go#& all the #ramati atio$s of this #eath) %or exam!le& Carr*0s "ic*cle race) 1 +$ 5iet sche alo$e& we coul# fi$# a #o e$ versio$s& the first of which is $ot at all fou$# i$ T e *ay Science, "ut i$ T e /anderer and +is S adow, i$ the a#mira"le text o$ the #eath of the !riso$(guar#) 2 >ut whatever the case& the #eath of Go# for !hiloso!h* mea$s the a"olitio$ of the cosmological #isti$ctio$ "etwee$ two worl#s& the meta!h*sical #isti$ctio$ "etwee$ esse$ce a$# a!!eara$ce& the logical #isti$ctio$ "etwee$ the true a$# the false) The #eath of Go# thus #ema$#s a $ew form of thought& a tra$smutatio$ of values)-

2- T e +uman dies a'so ,fi$ishe# is the "elief i$ the su"stitutio$ of huma$it* for Go#& the "elief i$ the ;uma$(Go# who woul# re!lace Go#(the ;uma$) %or i$ cha$gi$g !laces& $othi$g has cha$ge#& the ol# values remai$ i$ !lace) 5ihilism must go all the wa*& to the e$# of itself& i$ the huma$ "ei$g who wa$ts to !erish& the last huma$& the me$ a$# wome$ of the atomic age foretol# "* 5iet sche)-

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This somethi$g 1other1 is co$ceive# as a force alrea#* at wor' i$ huma$ su"/ectivit*& "ut hi#i$g i$ it& a$# also #estro*i$g it) ,cf) Bim"au#0s 17omethi$g thi$'s me)1- The actio$ of this force follows two !aths2 the !ath of actual histor* a$# the #evelo!me$t of tech$olog*& a$# the !ath of !oetr* a$# the !oetic creatio$ of fa$tastic imagi$ar* machi$es) This co$ce!tio$ #ema$#s a $ew thi$'er ,a $ew su"/ect of thought& 1#eath to the 9ogito1-& $ew co$ce!ts ,a $ew o"/ect to "e thought-& a$# $ew forms of thought ,which i$tegrate the ol# !oetic u$co$scious a$# to#a*0s !owerful machi$es& e)g) ;eraclitus a$# c*"er$etics-)+$ a certai$ wa*& this attem!t to sur!ass meta!h*sics is alrea#* well '$ow$) :e fi$# it i$ #iffere$t #egrees i$ 5iet sche& Aarx& a$# ;ei#egger) The o$l* ge$eral $ame that "efits it was coi$e# "* Carr*2 patap ysics% <ata!h*sics must "e #efi$e#2 1.$ e!i!he$ome$o$ is that which is a##e# o$ to a !he$ome$o$) <at( a!h*sics ))) is the scie$ce of that which is a##e# o$ to meta!h*sics& either from withi$& or outsi#e it& exte$#i$g as far "e*o$# meta!h*sics as meta!h*ics exte$#s "e*o$# !h*sics) =)g) si$ce the e!i!he$ome$o$ is ofte$ e?uate# with the acci#e$t& !ata!h*sics will "e a"ove all the scie$ce of the !articular& eve$ though it is sai# that scie$ce #eals o$l* with the ge$eral)1 3 +$ the /argo$ of s!ecialists2 >ei$g is the e!i!he$ome$o$ of all beings 0e,tants1 a$# must "e thought "* the $ew thi$'er& who is a$ e!i!he$ome$o$ of huma$'i$#)

+$ that !ro!ortio$ of "lac' humor a$# white serious$ess& so #ifficult to 'ee! se!arate& "ut #ema$#e# "* the $ew thi$'i$g& Fostas .xelos has "rought out a "oo'2 Eers 'a penseep'anetaire ,4es =#itio$s #e Ai$uit-D0 <reviousl*& he wrote A'ienation, )ra!is, and Tec ne in t e T oug t of Far' Mar! a$# +erac'ite et 'a p i'osop ic +t is fitti$g that the !u"lishi$g house which welcome# the nouveau roman I4es =#itio$s #e Ai$uitJ shoul# also attest a $ew !hiloso!h*) Fostas .xelos& #irector of the series .rgume$ts&0 has "ee$ trai$e# "oth as a Aarxist a$# a ;ei#eggeria$) :hat is more& he !ossesses the force a$# i$s!iratio$ of a Gree'& "oth clever a$# lear$e#) ;e re!roaches his me$tors for $ot haivi$g sufficie$tl* "ro'e$ with meta!h*sics& for $ot havi$g sufficie$tl* co$ceive# of the !owers of a tech$olog* "oth real a$# imagi$ar*& for havi$g remai$e# !riso$ers of the !ers!ectives which the* themselves #e$ou$ce) +$ his $otio$ of p'anetary, he #iscovers the motive a$# the co$#itio$& the o"/ect a$# the su"/ect& the !ositive a$# the $egative of the $ew thi$'i$g) .$# followi$g this !ath& he writes a$ asto$ishi$g "oo'3i$ m* o!i$io$& the culmi$atio$ of !ata!h*sics)

.xelos0s metho# !roce#es "* a$ e$umeratio$ of se$ses) This e$umeratio$ is $ot a /uxta!ositio$& si$ce each mea$i$g !artici!ates i$ the others) 5ot accor#i$g to Ru'es which woul# refer "ac' to the ol# meta!h*sics& "ut accor#i$g to a *ame which i$clu#es withi$ it all !ossi"le

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rules& which thus has $o other i$ter$al rule tha$ to affirm all that 0ca$0 "e affirme# ,i$clu#i$g cha$ce a$# $o$se$se-& a$# to #e$* all that 0ca$0 "e #e$ie# ,i$clu#i$g Go# a$# ma$-) ;e$ce the fu$#ame$tal list of the se$ses of the wor# p'anetary8 glo"al& iti$era$t& erra$c*& !la$$i$g& !latitu#e& gears a$# wheels) 1The !la* of thought a$# the !la$etar* era is thus g'oba', erratic, itinerant, organi(ing, p'anning and f'attening, caug t up in gears and w ee's2 ,!) 46-)

Givi$g a$ extreme mo"ilit* to each of its se$ses Ii$ ref) to) 4ogic of Senses% 74J& his !la$etarism is !rese$te# i$ the followi$g wa*2 fi$# the fragment re!rese$te# "* each o"/ect i$ such a wa* that thought ma'es u! the alwa*s o!e$ sum ,a$# su"tractio$- of all the other fragme$ts su"sisti$g as such) .xelos o!e$s a$ irre#uci"le #ialogue "etwee$ the fragme$t a$# the whole) 5o other totalit* tha$ that of Dio$*sos& "ut Dio$*sos #ismem"ere#) +$ this $ew !luralism& the

8$e ca$ "e sai# o$l* of the multi!le a$# must "e sai# of the multi!le6 >ei$g is sai# o$l* of "ecomi$g a$# time6 5ecessit*& o$l* of cha$ce6 a$# the :hole& o$l* of fragme$ts) .xelos #evelo!s the !ower of what Carr* use# to call Te!i!he( $ome$o$13"ut .xelos lau$ches a$ e$tirel* #iffere$t term& a$# a #iffere$t i#ea2 1"ei$g i$ the !rocess of "ecomi$g the fragme$tar* a$# fragme$te# totalit*)1

Two fu$#ame$tal $otio$s will "e remar'e#2 *ame, which must "e su"stitute# for the meta!h*sical relatio$ of the relative a$# the a"solute6 a$# Errancy, which must sur!ass the meta!h*sical o!!ositio$ of true a$# false& error a$# truth) .xelos writes his most "rillia$t !ages o$ erra$c*) 7imilarl*& his comme$taries o$ <ascal& Bim"au#& a$# %reu# are trul* !rofou$# ,the text o$ Bim"au# is extremel* "eautiful-) 7till this "rillia$t a$# stra$ge "oo' is o$l* a$ i$tro#uc ( tio$) .xelos will have to i$ve$t his ow$ $ew forms of ex!ressio$& his ow$ versio$s of the #eath

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of Go#& his ow$ real fa$tastic machi$es) .ll the wa* to the great s*$thesis& which must u$ite the two si#es of a true 1!ata!h*sics13the u"ues?ue si#e& a$# the #octoral or %austrollia$ si#e) .s .xelos sa*s& i$ o$e of his stra$gel* !olite !hrases2 1with a$# without /o* a$# sa#$ess))))1 >ut $ever with i$#iffere$ce) <la$atarism or !ata!h*sics)

F,e %as my Tea7herF

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The sa#$ess of ge$eratio$s without 1teachers)1 8ur teachers are $ot /ust !u"lic !rofessors& though we "a#l* $ee# !rofessors) 8ur teachers& o$ce we reach a#ulthoo#& are those who "ri$g us somethi$g ra#ical a$# $ew& who '$ow how to i$ve$t a$ artistic or literar* tech$i?ue& fi$#i$g those wa*s of thi$'i$g that corres!o$# to our modernity, that is& our #ifficulties as well as our vague e$thusiasms) :e '$ow there is o$l* o$e value for art& a$# eve$ for truth2 the 1first(ha$#&1 the authe$tic $ew$ess of somethi$g sai#& a$# the 1u$hear# music1 with which it is sai#) That0s what 7artre was for us ,for us twe$t*(*ear(ol#s #uri$g the 4i"eratio$-) +$ those #a*s& who exce!t 7artre '$ew how to sa* a$*thi$g $ew@ :ho taught us $ew wa*s to thi$'@ .s "rillia$t a$# !rofou$# as the wor' of Aerleau(<o$t* was& it was !rofessorial a$# #e!e$#e# i$ ma$* res!ects o$ 7artre0s wor') ,7artre rea#il* li'e$e# the existe$ce of huma$ "ei$gs to the $o$("ei$g of a 1hole1 i$ the worl#2 little la'es of $othi$g$ess& he calle# them) >ut Aerleau(<o$t* too' them to "e fol#s& sim!le fol#s a$# !leats) +$ this wa*& o$e ca$ #isti$guish a tough& !e$etrati$g existe$tialism from a more te$#er a$# reserve# existe$tialism)- .s for 9amus3alasO =ither it was i$flate# heroism& or it was seco$#(ha$# a"sur#it*6 9amus claime# #esce$t from a li$e of curse# thi$'ers& "ut his whole !hiloso!h* /ust le# us "ac' to 4ala$#e a$# Ae*erso$& writers well('$ow$ to a$* u$#ergra#uate) The $ew themes& a !articular $ew st*le& a $ew aggressive a$# !olemical wa* of !osi$g !ro"lems3these came from 7artre) +$ the #isor#er a$# the ho!e of the 4i"eratio$& we #iscovere#& we re(#iscovere# ever*thi$g2 Faf'a& the .merica$ $ovel& ;usserl a$# ;ei#egger& i$cessa$t re$egotiatio$s with Aarxism& e$thusiasm for a nouveau roman%%% +t was all cha$$ele# through 7artre& $ot o$l* "ecause he was a !hiloso!her a$# ha# a ge$ius for totali atio$& "ut "ecause he '$ew how to i$ve$t somethi$g $ew) The first !erforma$ces of T e .'ies, the !u"licatio$ of 3eing and Not ingness- An Essay in ) enomeno'ogica' Onto'ogy, his co$fere$ce E!istentia'ism and +umanism3these were eve$ts2 the* were how we lear$e#& after lo$g $ights& the i#e$tit* of thought a$# li"ert*)1<rivate thi$'ers1 are i$ a wa* o!!ose# to 1!u"lic !rofessors)1 =ve$ the 7or"o$$e $ee#s a$ a$ti(7or"o$$e& a$# the stu#e$ts #o$0t reall* liste$ to their !rofessors exce!t whe$ the* have other teachers also) 5iet sche i$ his #a* ha# cease# to "e a !rofessor to "ecome a !rivate thi$'er2 7artre #i# the same& i$ a$other co$text& a$# with a$other outcome) <rivate thi$'ers have a #ou"le character2 a 'i$# of solitu#e that remai$s their ow$ i$ ever* situatio$6 "ut also a !articular agitatio$& a !articular #isor#er of the worl# i$ which the* rise u! a$# s!ea') ;e$ce the* s!ea' o$l* i$ their ow$ $ame& without 1re!rese$ti$g1 a$*thi$g6 a$# the* solicit those raw !rese$ces& those $a'e# !owers i$ the worl# which are har#l* more 1re!rese$ta"le)1 .lrea#* i$ / at is 4iterature=, 7artre s'etche# the i#eal writer2 1The writer ta'es u! the worl# as is& totall* raw& sti$'i$g& a$# ?uoti#ia$& a$# !rese$ts it to free !eo!le o$ a fou$#atio$ of free#om))) +t is $ot e$ough to gra$t the writer the free#om to sa* whatever he !leasesO ;e must a##ress a !u"lic that has the free#om to cha$ge ever*thi$g& which im!lies& "e*o$# the su!!ressio$ of social classes& the a"olitio$ of all #ictatorshi!& the !er!etual re$ewal of categories& a$# the co$ti$ual reversal of ever* or#er& as soo$ as it starts to ossif*) +$ a wor#& literature is esse$tiall* the su"/ectivit* of a societ* i$ !erma$e$t revolutio$)1 2 %rom the "egi$$i$g& 7artre co$ceive# the writer as a "ei$g li'e a$* other& a##ressi$g others from the sole !oi$t of view of their free#om) ;is whole !hiloso!h* was !art of a s!eculative moveme$t that co$teste# the $otio$ of representation, the order itself of re!rese$tatio$2 !hiloso!h* was cha$gi$g its are$a& leavi$g the s!here of /u#gme$t& to esta"lish itself i$ the more vivi# worl# of the 1!re( /u#gme$tal&1 the 1su"(re!rese$tatio$al)1 7artre has /ust refuse# the 5o"el !ri e2 this is the !ractical co$ti$uatio$ of the same attitu#e6 it shows his revulsio$ at the i#ea of re!rese$ti$g somethi$g i$ a !ractical ma$$er& eve$ s!iritual values& or as 7artre himself sa*s& his revulsio$ at the i#ea of "ei$g i$stitutio$ali e#)

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The !rivate thi$'er re?uires a worl# that co$tai$s a certai$ mi$imum #isor#er& eve$ if o$l* revolutio$ar* ho!e& a see# of !erma$e$t revolutio$) +$ 7artre& we fi$# almost a fixatio$ with the 4i"eratio$& with the #isa!!oi$tme$ts of the #a*) +t too' the .lgeria$ :ar to recover somethi$g of the $ecessar* !olitical struggle or li"erati$g agitatio$& a$# the$& the co$#itio$s were all the more com!lex& si$ce we were $o lo$ger the o!!resse#& "ut those who woul# tur$ o$ o$e a$other) .h& *outh) .ll that is left is 9u"a a$# the He$e uela$ ma?uis) >ut greater still tha$ the solitu#e of the !rivate thi$'er is the solitu#e of those loo'i$g for a teacher& who woul# li'e a teacher& a$# woul# $ot have come to him exce!t i$ a$ agitate# worl#) The moral or#er& the 1re!rese$tatio$al1 or#er has close# i$ o$ us) =ve$ atomic fear has ta'e$ o$ the a!!eara$ce of a "ourgeois fear) To#a*& *ou$g !eo!le are schoole# i$ thought with Teilhar# #e 9har#i$ for a teacher) Nou get what *ou #eserve) .fter 7artre& $ot o$l* 7imo$e :eil& "ut 7imo$e :eil0s mo$'e*) 5ot that !rofou$#l* $ew thi$gs i$ co$tem!orar* literature are lac'i$g) Ta'e a few ra$#om exam!les2 the nouveau roman,

Gom"rowic 0s "oo's& Flossows'i0s stories& 4evi(7trauss0s sociolog*& Ge$et0s theatre& Gatti0s theatre& the !hiloso!h* of 1u$reaso$1 that %oucault is wor'i$g o$))) >ut what is missi$g to#a*& what 7artre '$ew how to "ri$g together a$# i$car$ate for the !revious ge$eratio$& were the co$#itio$s of tota'i(ation8 a totali atio$ i$ which !olitics& the imagi$atio$& sexualit*& the u$co$scious& a$# the will are all u$ite# i$ the rights of huma$ totalit*) :e co$ti$ue to live o$ li'e so ma$* scattere# lim"s) 7!ea'i$g of Faf'a& 7artre sai#2 his wor' is 1a free a$# u$itar* reactio$ to the Cu#eo(9hristia$ worl# of 9e$tral =uro!e6 his $ovels are the s*$thetic overcomi$g of his situatio$ as a ma$& a Cew& a Tehee& a recalcitra$t fia$ce& aT> !atie$t& etc)10 >ut what a"out 7artre himself2 his wor' is a reactio$ to the "ourgeois worl# as ex!ose# "* commu$ism) ;is wor' ex!resses the overcomi$g of his ow$ situatio$ as a "ourgeois i$tellectual& as a gra#uate of the Eco'e Norma'e, as a free fia$ce& as a$ ugl* ma$ ,7artre ofte$ !rese$te# himself as such-& etc)2 all those thi$gs which are reflecte# a$# echoe# i$ the moveme$t of his "oo's)

:e s!ea' of 7artre as though he "elo$ge# to a "*go$e era) .las& we are the o$es who i$ to#a*0s co$formist moral or#er are "*go$e) .t least 7artre allows us to await some vague future mome$t& a retur$& whe$ thought will form agai$ a$# ma'e its totalities a$ew& li'e a !ower that is at o$ce collective a$# !rivate) This is wh* 7artre remai$s m* teacher) 7artre0s last "oo'& &riti@ue of #ia'ectica' Reason, T eory of )ractica' Ensemb'es, is o$e of the most "eautiful "oo's to have come out i$ rece$t *ears) +t !rovi#es 3eing and Not ingness with its $ecessar* com!leme$t& i$

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the se$se that collective #ema$#s $ow com!lete the su"/ectivit* of the !erso$) .$# whe$ we thi$' "ac' o$ 3eing and Not ingness, we re#iscover the i$itial asto$ishme$t we felt for 7artre0s re$ewal of !hiloso!h*) :e '$ow "etter to#a* that the relatio$ of 7artre to ;ei#egger& his #e"t to ;ei#egger& was a false !ro"lem& "ase# o$ a misu$#ersta$#i$g) +t was the u$i?uel* 7artria$ that struc' me i$ 3eing and Not ingness, it was the measure of his co$tri"utio$2 his theor* of bad fait , where co$scious$ess& from withi$ itself& !la*s o$ its #ual !ower $ot to "e what it is a$# to "e what it is $ot6 his theor* of the Ot er, where the ga e of the other is e$ough to ma'e the worl# vacillate& 1steali$g1 the worl# from me6 his theor* of 'iberty, where li"ert* limits itself "* co$stituti$g situations- e!istentia' psyc oana'ysis, where o$e #iscovers the fou$#atio$al c oices of a$ i$#ivi#ual at the heart of his co$crete life) .$# ever* time& esse$ce a$# exam!le woul# e$ter com!lex relatio$shi!s that gave a $ew st*le to !hiloso!h*) The cafe waiter& the girl i$ love& the ugl* ma$& a$# a"ove all m* frie$#(<ierre(who(was($ever(there2 these com!rise# real $ovels i$ the !hiloso!hical wor' a$# set the esse$ces goi$g to the rh*thm of existe$tial exam!les) . viole$t s*$tax of "rea's a$# stretches were ever*where #a li$g evi#e$ce& recalli$g the twi$ 7artria$ o"sessio$s2 the la'es of $o$("ei$g& a$# the viscosit* of matter)

93

;is refusal of the 5o"el !ri e is goo# $ews) %i$all* someo$e is $ot tr*i$g to ex!lai$ what a #elicious !ara#ox it is for a writer& for a !rivate thi$'er& to acce!t ho$ors a$# !u"lic re!rese$tatio$s) The clever few are alrea#* tr*i$g to ma'e 7artre co$tra#ict himself2 the* attri"ute to him feeli$gs of vexatio$ at havi$g the !ri e come too late6 the* o"/ect that& i$ a$* case& he re!rese$ts somethi$g6 the* remi$# him that& at a$* rate& his success was a$# remai$s "ourgeois6 the* suggest that his refusal is $either reaso$a"le $or grow$(u!6 the* !oi$t to the exam!le of those who acce!te#(while(refusi$g& #etermi$e# to !ut the mo$e* to goo# wor's) :e shoul#$0t get too i$volve#) 7artre is a formi#a"le !olemicist))) There is $o ge$ius without self( !aro#*) >ut which is the "etter !aro#*@ To "ecome a !olite ol# ma$& a co?uettish s!iritual authorit*@ 8r rather to wish o$eself the half(wit of the 4i"eratio$@ To watch *ourself "e electe# to the .ca#em*& or #ream of "ei$g a He$e uela$ ma?uis@ :ho fails to see the ?ualitative #iffere$ce& the #iffere$ce of ge$ius& the vital #iffere$ce "etwee$ these two choices& these two !aro#ies@ To what is 7artre faithful@ =ver a$# alwa*s to the frie$# <ierre(who(is($ever(there) +t is his !eculiar #esti$* to circulate !ure air whe$ he s!ea's& eve$ if this !ure air& the air of a"se$ces& is #ifficult to "reathe)1

The +hi"osophy o' Crime 0o#e"s;

4a Serie Noire is cele"rati$g a mome$tous occasio$3its release of P1000) The cohere$ce& the i#ea of this collectio$ owes ever*thi$g to its e#itor) 8f course ever*o$e '$ew somethi$g a"out co!s& crimi$als& a$# their relatio$shi!& eve$ if it was o$l* from rea#i$g the !a!ers& or the '$owle#ge of s!ecial re!orts) >ut literature is li'e co$scious$ess& it alwa*s lags "ehi$#) These thi$gs ha# $ot *et fou$# their co$tem!orar* literar* ex!ressio$& or the* ha#$0t attai$e# the status of commo$(!lace i$ literature) The cre#it for closi$g this ga! at a !articularl* favora"le mome$t goes to Aarcel Duhamel) 2 Aalraux ha# this i$sight to offer i$ his !reface to the tra$slatio$ of Sanctuary8 1%aul'$er '$ows ver* well that #etectives #o$0t exist6 that !olice !ower stems $either from !s*cholog* $or from clarit* of visio$& "ut from i$forma$ts6 a$# that it0s $ot Aoustachu or Ta!i$ois& the mo#est thi$'ers of the Guai #es 8rfevres& who "ri$g a"out the a!!rehe$sio$ of the mur#erer o$ the loose& "ut ra$'(a$#(file co!s1)))) 4a Serie Noire was a"ove all a$ a#a!tatio$ of Sanctuary for a mass mar'et ,loo' at 9hase0s No Orc ids for Miss 3'andis $, a$# a ge$erali atio$ of Aalraux0s !reface)

+$ the ol# co$ce!tio$ of the #etective $ovel& we woul# "e show$ a ge$ius #etective #evoti$g the whole !ower of his mi$# to the search a$# #iscover* of the truth) The i#ea of truth i$ the classic #etective $ovel was totall* !hiloso!hical& that is& it was the !ro#uct of the effort a$# the

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o!eratio$s of the mi$#) 7o it is that !olice i$vestigatio$ mo#ele# itself o$ !hiloso!hical i$?uir*& a$# co$versel*& gave to !hiloso!h* a$ u$usual o"/ect to eluci#ate2 crime)

There were two schools of truth2 1- the %re$ch school ,Descartes-& where truth is a ?uestio$ of some fu$#ame$tal i$tellectual i$tuitio$& from which the rest is rigorousl* #e#uce#6 a$# 2- the =$glish school ,;o""es-& accor#i$g to which truth is alwa*s i$#uce# from somethi$g else& i$ter!rete# from se$sor* i$#ices) +$ a wor#& #e#uctio$ a$# i$#uctio$) The #etective $ovel re!ro#uce# this #ualit*& though i$ a moveme$t which was !ro!er to the literar* ge$re& a$# has !ro#uce# famous exam!les of each) The =$glish school2 9o$a$ Do*le gave us 7herloc' ;olmes& the masterful i$ter!reter of sig$s& the i$#uctive ge$ius) The %re$ch school2 Ga"oriau gave us Ta"aret a$# 4eco?6 a$# Gasto$ 4eroux& Bouleta"ille& who with 1a circle "etwee$ the two lo"es of his forehea#&1 is alwa*s i$vo'i$g 1the right trac' of reaso$1 a$# ex!licitl* o!!osi$g his theor* of certai$t* to the i$#uctive metho#& the .$glo(7axo$ theor* of sig$s)

The crimi$al si#e of the affair ca$ also "e ?uite i$teresti$g) >* a meta!h*si cal law of reflectio$& the co! is $o more extraor#i$ar* tha$ the crimi$al3he& too& !rofesses allegia$ce to /ustice a$# truth a$# the !owers of #e#uctio$ a$# i$#uctio$) .$# so *ou have the !ossi"ilit* of two series of $ovels2 the hero of the first is the #etective& a$# the hero of the seco$# is the crimi$al) :ith Bouleta"ille a$# 9heri(>i"i& 4eroux "rought each series to its !erfectio$) >ut $ever the twai$ shall meet2 the* are the motors for two #iffere$t series ,the* coul# $ever meet without o$e of them loo'i$g ri#iculous6 cf 4e"la$c0s attem!t to !ut .rse$e 4u!i$ together with 7herloc' ;olmes-)0 Bouleta"ille a$# 9heri(>i"i2 =ach is the #ou"le of the other& the* have the same #esti$*& the same !ai$& the same ?uest for the truth) This is the #esti$* a$# ?uest of 8e#i!us ,Bouleta"ille is #esti$e# to 'ill his father6 9heri(>i"i atte$#s a !erforma$ce of 8e#i!us a$# shouts2 1;e0s /ust li'e meO1-) .fter !hiloso!h*& Gree' trage#*)

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7till we must$0t "e too sur!rise# that the crime $ovel so faithfull* re!ro#uces Gree' trage#*& si$ce 8e#i!us is alwa*s calle# o$ to i$#icate a$* such coi$ci#e$ce) :hile it is the o$l* Gree' trage#* that alrea#* has this #etective structure& we shoul# marvel that 7o!hocles0s 8e#i!us is a #etective& a$# $ot that the #etective $ovel has remai$e# 8e#i!al) :e shoul# give cre#it where cre#it is #ue2 to 4eroux& a !he$ome$al $ovelist i$ %re$ch literature& who ha# a ge$ius for stri'i$g !hrases2 1$ot the ha$#s& $ot the ha$#s&1 1the ugliest of me$&1 1%atal( itas&1 1me$ who o!e$ #oors a$# me$ who shut tra!s&1 1a circle "etwee$ two lo"es&1 etc)

>ut the "irth of 4a Serie Noire has "ee$ the #eath of the #etective $ovel& !ro!erl* s!ea'i$g) To "e sure& the great ma/orit* of $ovels i$ the collectio$ have "ee$ co$te$t to cha$ge the #etective0s wa* of #oi$g thi$gs ,he #ri$'s& he0s i$ love& he0s restless- "ut 'ee! the same structure2 the sur!rise e$#i$g that "ri$gs all the characters together for the fi$al ex!la$atio$ that fi$gers o$e of them as the guilt* !art*) 5othi$g $ew there)

:hat the $ew literar* use a$# ex!loitatio$ of co!s a$# crimi$als taught us is that !olice activit* has $othi$g to #o with a meta!h*sical or scie$tific search for the truth) <olice wor' $o more resem"les scie$tific i$?uir* tha$ a tele!ho$e call from a$ i$forma$t& i$ter(!olice relatio$s& or mecha$isms of torture resem"le meta!h*sics) .s a ge$eral rule& there are two #isti$ct cases2 1- the !rofessio$al mur#er& where the !olice '$ow imme#iatel* more or less who is res!o$si"le6 a$# 2- the sexual mur#er& where the guilt* !art* coul# "e a$*o$e) >ut i$ either case the !ro"lem is $ot frame# i$ terms of truth) +t is rather a$ asto$ishi$g com!e$satio$ of errot) The sus!ect& '$ow$ to the co!s "ut $ever charge#& is either $a""e# i$ some other #omai$ tha$ his usual s!here of crimi$al activit* ,whe$ce the .merica$ schema of the u$toucha"le ga$gster& who is arreste# a$# #e!orte# for tax frau#-6 or he is !rovo'e#& force# to show himself& as the* lie i$ wait for him)

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:ith 4a Serie Noire, we0ve "ecome accustome# to the sort of co! who #ives right i$& come what ma*& regar#less of the errors he ma* commit& "ut co$fi#e$t that somethi$g will emerge) .t the other extreme& we0ve "ee$ allowe# to watch the meticulous !re!aratio$ of a sti$g o!eratio$& a$# the #omi$o effect of little errors that loom ever larger as the mome$t of rec'o$i$g a!!roaches ,it0s i$ this se$se that 4a Serie Noire i$flue$ce# ci$ema-) The totall* i$$oce$t rea#er is shoc'e# i$ the e$# "* so ma$* errors committe# o$ "oth si#es) =ve$ whe$ the co!s themselves are hatchi$g a $ast* !lot& the* ma'e so ma$* "lu$#ers& the* #ef* "elief)

This is "ecause the truth is i$ $o wa* the am"ie$t eleme$t of the i$vestiga tio$2 $ot for a mome$t #oes o$e "elieve that this com!e$satio$ of errors aims for the #iscover* of the truth as its fi$al o"/ective) 8$ the co$trar*& this com!e$satio$ has its ow$ #ime$sio$& its ow$ sufficie$c*& a 'i$# of e?uili"rium or the reesta"lishme$t of it& a !rocess of restitutio$ that allows a societ*& at the limits of c*$icism& to hi#e what it wa$ts to hi#e& reveal what it wa$ts to reveal& #e$* all evi#e$ce& a$# cham!io$ the im!ro"a"le) The 'iller still at large ma* "e 'ille# for his ow$ errors& a$# the !olice ma* have to sacrifice o$e of their ow$ for still other errors& a$# so it is that these com!e$satio$s have $o other o"/ect tha$ to !er!etuate a$ e?uili"rium that re!rese$ts a societ* i$ its e$tiret* at t e eig ts of its power of fa'se ood%

This same !rocess of restitutio$& e?uili"rium or com!e$satio$ also a!!ears i$ Gree' trage#* ,.esch*lus& for exam!le-) The greatest $ovel of this 'i$#& a$# the most a#mira"le i$ ever* res!ect& is $ot !art of 4a Serie Noire8 it0s Bo""e( Grillet0s 4es *ommes, which #evelo!s a$ i$cre#i"le com!e$satio$ of errors whose 'e*$otes are a$ .esch*lea$ e?uili"rium a$# a$ 8e#i!al ?uest)

%rom a literar* !oi$t of view& 4a Serie Noire ma#e the !ower of falsehoo# the !rimar* #etective eleme$t) .$# this e$tails a$other co$se?ue$ce2 clearl*& the relatio$ "etwee$ co! a$#

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crimi$al is $o lo$ger o$e of meta!h*sical reflectio$) The i$ter!e$etratio$ is real& a$# the com!licit* #ee! a$# com!e$sator*) %air0s fair& @uid pro @uo, the* excha$ge favors a$# $o less fre?ue$tl* "etra*als o$ the o$e si#e a$# the other) :e are alwa*s le# "ac' to the great tri$it* of falsehoo#2 i$forma$t(corru!tio$(torture) >ut it goes without sa*i$g that the co!s #o $ot of their ow$ accor# i$itiate this #is?uieti$g com!licit*) The meta!h*sical reflectio$ of the ol# #etective $ovel has give$ wa* to a mirrori$g of the other) . societ* i$#ee# reflects itself to itself i$ its !olice a$# its crimi$als& eve$ while it !rotects itself from them "* mea$s of a fu$#ame$tal #ee! com!licit* "etwee$ them)

:e '$ow that a ca!italist societ* more willi$gl* !ar#o$s ra!e& mur#er& or 'i#$a!!i$g tha$ a "ou$ce# chec'& which is its o$l* theological crime& the crime agai$st s!irit) :e '$ow ver* well that im!orta$t !olitical #eali$gs e$tail a$* $um"er of sca$#als a$# real crimes6 co$versel*& we '$ow that crime is orga$i e# i$ "usi$ess(li'e fashio$& with structures as !recise as a "oar# of #irectors or ma$agers) 4a Se,rie Noire i$tro#uce# us to a !olitics(crime com"o that& #es!ite the evi#e$ce of ;istor* !ast a$# !rese$t& ha# $ot "ee$ give$ a co$tem!orar* literar* ex!ressio$)

The Fefauver re!ort&4 a$# es!eciall* the "oo' "* Tur'us& Societe anonyme pour assassinats, were the source of i$s!iratio$ for ma$* of the texts i$ 4a Se,rie Noire% Aa$* writers #i# little more tha$ !lagiari e them& or rather the* tur$e# them i$to !o!ular $ovels) :hether it0s the Tru/illo regime& or >attista& or ;itler& or %ra$co3what will "e $ext whe$ ever*o$e is tal'i$g a"out >e$ >ar'a3that "egets a h*"ri# that is !ro!erl* 7erie 5oire6 whether it0s .sturias writi$g a $ovel of ge$ius2 M% 'e )resident,2 or whether it0s !eo!le sitti$g arou$# tr*i$g to figure out the secret of this u$it* of the grotes?ue a$# the terrif*i$g& the terri"le a$# the clow$ish& which "i$#s together !olitical !ower& eco$omic !ower& crime a$# !olice activit*3it0s all alrea#* i$ 7ueto$ius& 7ha'es!eare& Carr*& .sturias2 4a Serie Noire has rec*cle# it all) ;ave we reall* ma#e a$* !rogress i$ u$#ersta$#i$g this h*"ri# of the grotes?ue a$# terrif*i$g which& u$#er the right circumsta$ces& coul# #etermi$e the fate of us all@

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7o it is that 4a Serie Noire has tra$sforme# our imagi$i$gs& our evaluatio$s of the !olice) +t was high time) :as it goo# for us to !artici!ate as 1active rea#ers1 i$ the ol# #etective $ovel& a$# there"* lose our gri! o$ realit* a$# thus our !ower of i$#ig$atio$@ +$#ig$atio$ wells u! i$ us "ecause of realit*& or "ecause of masterful wor's of art) 4a Serie Noire i$#ee# seems to have !astiche# ever* great $ovelist2 imitatio$ %aul'$er& "ut also imitatio$ 7tei$"ec'& imitatio$ 9al#( well& imitatio$ .sturias) .$# it followe# the tre$#s2 first .merica$& the$ it re#iscovere# %re$ch crime)

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T;= <;+4878<;N 8% 9B+A= 58H=47

True& 4a Serie Noire is full of stereot*!es2 the !uerile !rese$tatio$ of sexualit*& or what a"out the e*es of the 'illers ,o$l* 9hase ma$age# to le$# a !articular col# life to his 'illers& who are hea#stro$g a$# $o$(co$formist-) >ut its great$ess "elo$gs to Duhamel0s i#ea& which remai$s the #rivi$g force "ehi$# rece$t releases2 a reorga$i atio$ of the visio$ of the worl# that ever* ho$est !erso$ has co$cer$i$g co!s a$# crimi$als)9learl*& a $ew realism is i$sufficie$t to ma'e goo# literature) +$ "a# literature& the real as such is the o"/ect of stereot*!es& !uerile $otio$s& a$# chea! fa$tasies& worse tha$ a$* imagi$ative im"ecile coul# #ream u!) >ut more !rofou$# tha$ either the real or the imagi$ar* is !aro#*) 4a Serie Noire ma* have suffere# from a$ over(a"u$#a$t !ro#uctio$& "ut it has 'e!t a u$it*& a te$#e$c*& which !erio#icall* fou$# ex!ressio$ i$ a "eautiful wor' ,the co$tem!orar* success of Cames >o$#& who was $ever i$tegrate# i$to 4a Serie Noire, seems to re!rese$t a serious literar* regressio$& though com!e$sate# for "* the ci$ema& a retur$ to a ros* co$ce!tio$ of the secret age$t-)

The most "eautiful wor's of 4a Serie Noire are those i$ which the real fi$#s its !ro!er !aro#*& such that i$ its tur$ the !aro#* shows us #irectio$s i$ the real which we woul# $ot have fou$# otherwise) These are some of the great wor's of !aro#*& though i$ #iffere$t mo#es2 9hase0s Miss S umway /aves a /and- :illiams0s T e #iamond 3i:ini- or ;ime0s $egro $ovels& which alwa*s have extraor#i$ar* mome$ts) <aro#* is a categor* that goes "e*o$# real a$# imagi$ar*) .$# let0s $ot forget P502 Cames Gu$$0s #ead'ier t an t e Ma'e%

The tre$# i$ those #a*s was .merica$2 it was sai# that certai$ $ovelists were writi$g u$#er .merica$ !seu#o$*ms) #ead'ier t an t e Ma'e is a marvelous wor'2 the !ower of falsehoo# at its height& a$ ol# woma$ !ursui$g a$ assassi$ "* smell& a mur#er attem!t i$ the #u$es3what a !aro#*& *ou woul# have to rea# it3or rerea# it3to "elieve it) :ho is Cames Gu$$ a$*wa*@ 8$l* a si$gle wor' i$ 4a Serie Noire a!!eare# u$#er his $ame) 7o $ow that 4a Serie Noire is cele"rati$g the release of P1000& a$# is re(releasi$g ma$* ol#er wor's& a$# as a tri"ute to Aarcel Duhamel& + hum"l* re?uest the re(release of m* !erso$al favorite2 P50)

On <i".ert Simondon;

The !ri$ci!le of i$#ivi#uatio$ is "* all accou$ts a res!ecta"le& eve$ ve$era"le $otio$) E$til ?uite rece$tl*& however& it seems mo#er$ !hiloso!h* has "ee$ war* of a#o!ti$g the !ro"lem as its ow$) The acce!te# wis#om of !h*sics& "iolog*& a$# !s*cholog* has le# thi$'ers to atte$uate the !ri$ci!le& "ut $ot to rei$ter!ret it) >ut Gil"ert 7imo$#o$ ma'es $o small #is!la* of i$tellectual !ower with a !rofou$#l* origi$al theor* of i$#ivi#uatio$ im!l*i$g a whole !hiloso!h*) 7imo$#o$ "egi$s from two critical remar's2 1- Tra#itio$all*& the !ri$ci!le of i$#ivi#uatio$ is mo#ele# o$ a com!lete# i$#ivi#ual& o$e who is alrea#* forme#) The ?uestio$ "ei$g as'e# is merel* what co$stitutes the i$#i(

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T;= <;+4878<;N 8% 9B+A= 58H=47

vi#ualit* of this "ei$g& that is to sa*& what characteri es a$ alrea#* i$#ivi#uate#( "ei$g) .$# "ecause we !ut the i$#ivi#ual after the i$#ivi#uatio$& i$ the same "reath we !ut the !ri$ci!le of i$#ivi#uatio$ before the !rocess of "ecomi$g a$ i$#ivi#ual& "e*o$# the i$#ivi#uatio$ itself) 2- %rom that !oi$t o$& i$#ivi#uatio$ is !erceive# to "e ever*where) :e ma'e it a characteristic coexte$sive with "ei$g& at least with co$crete "ei$g ,eve$ if it were #ivi$e-) :e rema'e all "ei$g i$ its image& as well as the first mome$t of "ei$g "e*o$# the co$ce!t) This mis ta'e is relate# to the !revious o$e) +$ realit*& the i$#ivi#ual ca$ o$l* "e co$tem!ora$eous with its i$#ivi#uatio$& a$# i$#ivi#uatio$& co$tem!ora$eous with the !ri$ci!le2 the !ri$ci!le must "e trul* ge$etic& a$# $ot sim!l* a !ri$ci!le of reflectio$) .lso& the i$#ivi#ual is $ot /ust a result& "ut a$ environment of i$#ivi#uatio$) ;owever& o$ this view& i$#ivi#uatio$ is $o lo$ger coexte$sive with "ei$g6 it must re!rese$t a mome$t& which is $either all of "ei$g $or its first mome$t) :e must "e a"le to locali e i$#ivi#uatio$& to #etermi$e it with res!ect to "ei$g& i$ a moveme$t that will cause a !assage from the !re(i$#i( vi#ual to the i$#ivi#ual)

The !rior co$#itio$ of i$#ivi#uatio$& accor#i$g to 7imo$#o$& is the existe$ce of a metasta"le s*stem) >* $ot recog$i i$g the existe$ce of such s*stems& !hiloso!h* arrive# at the two !revious a!orias) >ut what esse$tiall* #efi$es a metasta"le s*stem is the existe$ce of a 1#is!aratio$&1 the existe$ce of at least two #iffere$t #ime$sio$s& two #is!arate levels of realit*& "etwee$ which there is $ot *et a$* i$teractive commu$icatio$) . metasta"le s*stem thus im!lies a fu$#ame$tal difference, li'e a state of #iss*mmetr*) +t is $o$etheless a s*stem i$sofar as the #iffere$ce therei$ is li'e potentia' energy, li'e a difference of potentia' #istri"ute# withi$ certai$ limits) 7imo$#o$0s co$ce!tio$& it seems to me& ca$ i$ this res!ect "e assimilate# to a theor* of i$te$sive ?ua$ta& si$ce each i$te$sive ?ua$tum i$ itself is #iffere$ce) .$ i$te$sive ?ua$tum i$clu#es #iffere$ce withi$ itself& co$tai$s factors of the =(=0 t*!e& ad infinitum, a$# esta"lishes itself first a$# foremost "etwee$ #is!arate levels& "etwee$ heteroge$eous or#ers that e$ter i$to commu$icatio$ o$l* much later& whe$ exte$#e#) 4i'e the metasta"le s*stem& a$ i$te$sive ?ua$tum is the structure ,$ot *et the s*$thesis- of heteroge$eit*) The im!orta$ce of 7imo$#o$0s thesis is $ow a!!are$t) >* #iscoveri$g the !rior co$#itio$ of i$#ivi#uatio$& he rigorousl* #isti$guishes si$gularit* a$# i$#ivi#ualit*) +$#ee# the metasta"le& #efi$e# as pre-individua' "ei$g& is !er( fectl* well e$#owe# with si$gularities that corres!o$# to the existe$ce a$# the #istri"utio$ of !ote$tials) ,+s this $ot the same as i$ the theor* of #iffere$tial e?uatio$s& where the existe$ce a$# the #istri"utio$ of 1si$gularities1 are of a$other $ature tha$ the 1i$#ivi#ual1 forms of the i$tegral curves i$ their $eigh"orhoo#@- 7i$gular without "ei$g i$#ivi#ual2 that is the state of !re(i$#i( vi#ual "ei$g) +t is #iffere$ce& #is!arit*& 1#is!aratio$)1 .$# the fi$est !ages i$ the "oo' are those where 7imo$#o$ shows how #is!arit*& as i$ the first mome$t of "ei$g& a si$gular mome$t& is i$ fact !resu!!ose# "* all other states& whether u$ificatio$& i$tegratio$& te$sio$& o!!ositio$& resolutio$ of o!!ositio$s& etc) Aost $ota"l*& agai$st 4ewi$0s *esta't eorie, 7imo$#o$ hol#s that the i#ea of 1#is!aratio$1 is more !rofou$# tha$ the i#ea of o!!ositio$& a$# the i#ea of !ote$tial e$erg* more !rofou$# tha$ the i#ea of a fiel# of forces2 1<rior to o#o(logical s!ace& there is a$ overla!!i$g of !ers!ectives which #oes $ot allow o$e to gras! the #etermi$e# o"/ect& "ecause there are $o #ime$sio$s with res!ect to which the u$i?ue whole coul# "e or#ere#6 the f'uctatio animi, which !rece#es a$* resolute actio$& is $ot a hesitatio$ "etwee$ several !aths& "ut a mo"ile overla!!i$g of i$com!ati"le wholes& almost similar& a$# *et #is!arate1 ,!) 233-) .$ overla!!i$g worl# of #iscrete si$gularities& which overla!s all the more give$ that the #iscrete si$gularities #o $ot *et commu$icate& or are $ot *et ta'e$ u! i$ a$ i$#ivi#ualit*2 such is the first mome$t of "ei$g

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)7o how will i$#ivi#uatio$ arise from this co$#itio$@ 9learl*& it must esta"lish a$ i$teractive commu$icatio$ "etwee$ #ime$sio$s or #is!arate realities6 it must actuali e the !ote$tial e$erg* or i$tegrate the si$gularities6 it $ee#s to reso've t e prob'em which #is!arate realities !ose& "* orga$i i$g a $ew #ime$sio$ i$ which the* form a u$i?ue whole at a higher level ,a$alogous to the !erce!tio$ of #e!th that emerges from reti$al images-) This categor* of !ro"lem ac?uires i$ 7imo$#o$0s thought treme$#ous im!orta$ce i$sofar as the categor* is e$#owe# with a$ o"/ective se$se2 it $o lo$ger #esig$ates a !rovisio$al state of our '$owle#ge& a$ u$#etermi$e# su"/ective co$ce!t& "ut a mome$t of "ei$g& the first !re(i$#ivi#ual mome$t) .$# i$ 7imo$#o$0s #ialectic& the !ro"lematic re!laces the $egative) +$#ivi#uatio$ is thus the orga$i atio$ of a solutio$& the orga$i atio$ of a 1resolutio$1 for a s*stem that is o"/ectivel* !ro"lematic) This resolutio$ must "e co$ceive# i$ two com!leme$tar* wa*s2 o$ the o$e ha$#& as interna' resonance, which is 1the most !rimitive mo#e of commu$icatio$ "etwee$ realities of #iffere$t or#ers1 ,a$# i$ m* o!i$io$& 7imo$#o$ has succee#e# i$ ma'i$g 0i$ter$al reso$a$ce0 a$ extremel* !ro#uctive co$ce!t& o!e$ to all sorts of a!!licatio$s& es!eciall* i$ !s*cholog*& i$ the area of affectivit*-6 o$ the other ha$#& as information, which i$ its tur$ esta"lishes commu$icatio$ "etwee$ two #is!arate levels& o$e of them #efi$e# "* a form alrea#* co$tai$e# i$ the receiver& a$# the other "* the sig$al "rought i$ from the outsi#e ,here we e$cou$ter 7imo$#o$0s !reoccu!atio$s with c*"er$etics& a$# a whole theor* of sig$ificatio$ i$ the relatio$s of the i$#ivi#ual-) +$ a$* eve$t& i$#ivi#uatio$ a!!ears as the a#ve$t of a $ew mome$t of >ei$g& the mome$t of !hase(loc'e# "ei$g& cou!le# to itself2 1+$#i( vi#uatio$ creates the !hase(loc'i$g& "ecause the !hases are "ut the #evelo!me$t of "ei$g& o$ the o$e si#e a$# the other& of itself))) <re(i$#ivi#ual "ei$g is !haseless& whereas "ei$g after i$#ivi#uatio$ is !hase(loc'e#) 7uch a co$ce!tio$ i#e$tifies& or at least co$$ects the i$#ivi#uatio$ a$# the "ecomi$g of "ei$g1 ,!) 276-)

To this !oi$t + have i$#icate# o$l* the ver* ge$eral !ri$ci!les of the "oo') +$ its #etail& the a$al*sis is orga$i e# arou$# two ce$ters) %irst& a stu#* of the #iffere$t #omai$s of i$#ivi#uatio$6 i$ !articular& the #iffere$ces "etwee$ !h*sical a$# vital i$#ivi#uatio$ receive a !rofou$# ex!ositio$) The eco$om* of i$ter$al reso$a$ce loo's #iffere$t i$ each case6 the !h*sical i$#ivi#ual is co$te$t to receive i$formatio$ o$l* o$ce& a$# reiterate a$ i$itial si$gularit*& whereas the livi$g "ei$g receives several co$tri"utio$s of i$formatio$ i$ successio$ a$# "ala$ces several si$gularities6 a$# most im!orta$tl*& the !h*sical i$#ivi#ual creates a$# !rolo$gs itself to the limit of the "o#*3for exam!le& cr*stal 3whereas the livi$g "ei$g grows from the i$terior a$# the exterior& with the whole co$te$t of its i$terior i$ co$tact 1to!ologicall*1 with the co$te$t of i$terior s!ace ,o$ this !oi$t 7imo$#o$ writes a$ a#mira"le cha!ter& 1to!olog* a$# o$toge$esis1-) +t ma* "e sur!risi$g that 7imo$#o$ #i# $ot avail himself of the research co$#ucte# "* the 9hil# school i$ the #omai$ of "iolog*& #eali$g with the gra#ie$ts a$# resolutio$ s*stems i$ egg #evelo!me$t& si$ce their wor' suggests the i#ea of i$#ivi#uatio$ "* i$te$sit*& a$ i$te$sive fiel# of i$#ivi#uatio$& which woul# co$firm 7imo$#o$0s theses i$ several res!ects) >ut certai$l* this is #ue to 7imo$#o$0s #esire $ot to restrict himself to a "iological #etermi$atio$ of the i$#ivi#ual& "ut to s!ecif* i$creasi$gl* com!lex levels) :e therefore fi$# a !ro!erl* !s*chic i$#ivi#uatio$ emergi$g !recisel* whe$ the vital fu$ctio$s $o lo$ger suffice to resolve the !ro"lems e$cou$tere# "* the livi$g "ei$g& a$# whe$ a $ew #ose of !re(i$#ivi#ual realit* is mo"ili e# i$ a $ew !ro"lematic& i$ a $ew !rocess of !ro"lem solvi$g ,cf) his ver* i$teresti$g theor* of affectivit*-) +$ tur$& the !s*che o!e$s u! to a 1tra$s(i$#ivi#ual collective)1

5ow we see the seco$# ce$ter of 7imo$#o$0s a$al*ses2 his moral visio$ of the worl#) The fu$#ame$tal i#ea is that the !re(i$#ivi#ual& a 1source of future metasta"le states&1 must remai$ associate# with the i$#ivi#ual) Est eticism is

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therefore co$#em$e# as that act "* which a$ i$#ivi#ual cuts him or herself off from the !re(i$#ivi#ual realit* from which he or she emerge#) .s a result& the i$#ivi#ual is close# i$ o$ a si$gularit*& refusi$g to commu$icate& a$# !rovo'i$g a loss of i$formatio$) 2Et ics exists to the exte$t that there is i$formatio$& i$ other wor#s& sig$ificatio$ overcomi$g a #is!aratio$ of the eleme$ts of "ei$g& such that what is i$terior is also exterior1 ,!) 297-) =thics thus follows a 'i$# of moveme$t ru$$i$g from the !re(i$#ivi#ual to the tra$s(i$#ivi#ual via i$#ivi#uatio$) ,The rea#er ma* i$#ee# as' whether& i$ his ethics& 7imo$#o$ has $ot rei$tro#uce# the form of the 7elf which he ha# averte# with his theor* of #is!arit*& i)e) his theor* of the i$#ivi#ual co$ceive# as #e!hase# a$# multi!hase# "ei$g)-

+$ a$* eve$t& few "oo's ca$ im!ress a rea#er as much as this o$e ca$2 it #emo$strates the exte$t to which a !hiloso!her ca$ "oth fi$# his i$s!iratio$ i$ co$tem!orar* scie$ce a$# at the same time co$$ect with the ma/or !ro" ( lems of classical !hiloso!h*3eve$ as he tra$sforms a$# re$ews those !ro"lems) The $ew co$ce!ts esta"lishe# "* 7imo$#o$ seem to me extremel* im!orta$t6 their wealth a$# origi$alit* are stri'i$g& whe$ the*0re $ot outright i$s!iri$g) :hat 7imo$#o$ ela"orates here is a whole o$tolog*& accor#i$g to which >ei$g is $ever 8$e) .s !re( i$#ivi#ual& "ei$g is more tha$ o$e3 metasta"le& su!er!ose#& simulta$eous with itself) .s i$#ivi#uate#& it is still multi!le& "ecause it is 1multi!hase#&1 1a !hase of "ecomi$g that will lea# to $ew !rocesses)1

,-mans8 ! 3-.io-s 6xisten7e;

%oucault0s "oo' "egi$s with a #etaile# #escri!tio$ of Hela ?ue 0s Maids of +onor3or rather a #escri!tio$ of the !ai$ti$g0s s!ace2 we see the !ai$ter& "ut i$ the !rocess of loo'i$g6 we see the ca$vas he is !ai$ti$g& "ut o$l* from the "ac'6 we see the !eo!le co$vergi$g o$ a !oi$t /ust i$ fro$t of the !ai$te# surface6 a$# the true mo#el& the 'i$g& reflecte# o$l* i$ a mirror i$ the "ac'grou$#& is co$tem!lati$g all those co$tem!lati$g him& there"* formi$g the great a"se$ce a$# *et also the extri$sic ce$ter of the wor') .s we rea# these fi$e !ages "* Aichel %oucault& we see "oth the eleme$ts a$# the mome$ts of what is calle# a representation emerge2 its s*stem of i#e$tit*& #iffere$ce& #ou"li$g a$# reflectio$& a s!ace all its ow$& #ow$ to to the esse$tial em!ti$ess #esig$ati$g the !erso$age for whom the re!rese$tatio$ exists& who is himself re!rese$te# i$ the re!rese$tatio$& a$# who *et is $ot !rese$t i$ !erso$3this is 1the 'i$g0s !lace)

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1%oucault #efi$es the 9lassical .ge& which falls "etwee$ the Be$aissa$ce a$# our mo#er$it*& "* the $otio$ of re!rese$tatio$) The Be$aissa$ce still u$#erstoo# its '$owle#ge as a$ 1i$ter!retatio$ of sig$s16 the relatio$ of the sig$ to what it sig$ifies was covere# "* the rich #omai$ of 1similitu#es)1 8$ce agai$& %oucault0s a$al*sis from the outset is so masterful& a$# the to$e he stri'es so $ew& that the rea#er se$ses a $ew form of thought "ei$g "or$ i$ this a!!are$t reflectio$ o$ histor*) .ccor#i$g to %oucault& ever* thought u$fol#s i$ a 1characteristic1 s!ace) ;owever& i$ the seve$tee$th(ce$tur*& t e space of signs is te$#i$g towar# #issolutio$& givi$g wa* to the s!ace of re!rese$tatio$ which reflects sig$ificatio$s a$# #ecom!oses similitu#es& causi$g a $ew or#er of i#e$tities a$# #iffere$ces to emerge) "#on Gui!ote is !recisel* the first great wor' to ac'$owle#ge the "a$'ru!tc* of sig$s i$ favor of a worl# of re!rese$tatio$)This 8r#er& this form of re!rese$tatio$& will "e com!lete# "* !ositive or#ers fou$#e# o$ em!irical results2 15atural ;istor*&1 1Theor* of Ao$e* a$# Halue&1 1Ge$eral Grammar)1 These three or#ers will !ro#uce all 'i$#s of reso$a$ces amo$g themselves& #ue to their commo$ mem"ershi! i$ the s!ace of re!rese$tatio$2 1character1 is the re!rese$tatio$ of the i$#ivi#ual of $ature6 1mo$e*&1 the re!rese$tatio$ of the o"/ects of $ee#6 the 1$ame&1 the re!rese$tatio$ of la$guage itself)

+$ vai$& however& #oes o$e search for t e uman sciences, allege#l* create# i$ the eightee$th(ce$tur*) The !rece#i$g a$al*sis i$ fact shows that t e uman does not e!ist and cannot e!ist i$ this classical s!ace of re!rese$tatio$) .gai$& it0s the 'i$g0s !lace2 1huma$ $ature1 is certai$l* re!rese$te#& i$ a #ou"li$g of re!rese$tatio$ that attri"utes this huma$ $ature to Nature, "ut the ;uma$ #oes $ot *et exist i$ its !ro!er $ature or its su"(re!rese$tative #omai$) The ;uma$ #oes $ot exist 1as a$ o!a?ue first realit*& as a #ifficult o"/ect& the sovereig$ su"/ect of all !ossi"le '$owle#ge)12 +t is i$ this se$se that %oucault su"titles his "oo'2 1.$ .rcheolog* of the ;uma$ 7cie$ces)1 :hat were the co$#itio$s of !ossi"ilit* of the huma$ scie$ces& or what is huma$it*0s true #ate of "irth@

There is a !recise a$swer2 the ;uma$ ca$ exist i$ the s!ace of '$owle#ge o$l* o$ce the 1classical1 worl# of re!rese$tatio$ itself has colla!se# u$#er the !ressure of $o$(re!rese$ta"le a$# $o$(re!rese$tative forces) This is the emerge$ce of somethi$g o"scure& or a #ime$sio$ of #e!th) >efore the ;uma$ ca$ exist& bio'ogy must first "e "or$& a$# po'itica' economy a$# p i'o'ogy8 the livi$g orga$ism0s co$#itio$s of !ossi"ilit* are sought i$ life itself ,9uvier-& the co$#itio$s of excha$ge a$# !rofit are sought i$ the #e!ths of la"or ,Bicar#o-& a$# the !ossi"ilit* of #iscourse a$# grammar is sought i$ the historical #e!th of la$guages& i$ its s*stem of i$flexio$s& i$ the series of its e$#i$gs a$# the mo#ificatio$s of its ra#icals ,Grimm& >o!!-) 18$ce livi$g orga$isms have left the s!ace of re!rese$tatio$ to lo#ge themselves i$ the s!ecific #e!th of life6 a$# wealth& i$ the !rogressive #evelo!me$t of the forms of !ro#uctio$6 a$# wor#s& i$ the "ecomi$g of la$guage61 the$ $atural histor* gives wa* to "iolog*& the the or* of mo$e* to !olitical eco$om*& a$# ge$eral grammar to !hilolog*)

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.t the same time& huma$it* #iscovers itself i$ two #iffere$t wa*s2 on t e one and, as #omi$ate# "* la"or& life& a$# la$guage6 he$ceforth as a$ o"/ect of $ew !ositive scie$ces& which will mo#el themselves o$ "iolog* or !olitical eco$om* or !hilolog*6 on t e ot er and, huma$it* sees itself as fou$#i$g this $ew !osi( tivit* o$ the categor* of his ow$ fi$itu#e2 the meta!h*sics of the i$fi$ite will "e re!lace# "* a$ a$al*tic of the fi$ite that u$covers 1tra$sce$#e$tal1 structures i$ life& la"or& a$# la$guage) ;uma$it* thus comes to have a #ou"le "ei$g) :hat has colla!se# is the sovereig$t* of i#e$tit* i$ re!rese$tatio$) The ;uma$ is traverse# "* a$ esse$tial #is!arit*& almost a$ a'ienation by rig ts, se!arate# from itself "* its wor#s& "* its wor's& a$# "* its #esires) .$# i$ this revolutio$ that ex!lo#es re!rese$tatio$& it is $o lo$ger #iffere$ce that must "e su"or#i$ate# to the same& "ut the same that must "e sai# of the Differe$t2 the 5iet chea$ revolutio$)

%oucault i$#ee# u$#erta'es to !rovi#e the huma$ scie$ces with a fou$#atio$& "ut it is a !oiso$ous fou$#atio$& a$ archeolog* that smashes its i#ols& a malicious gift) 4et0s tr* to sum u! %oucault0s thesis2 the huma$ scie$ces #i# $ot come a"out whe$ huma$it* too' itself to "e the o"/ect of re!rese$tatio$& $or eve$ whe$ huma$it* #iscovere# its histor*) 8$ the co$trar*& the* came a"out whe$ huma$it* "ecame 1#ehistorici e#&1 whe$ thi$gs ,wor#s& livi$g orga$isms& !ro#uctio$s- receive# their ow$ histor* that li"erate# them from huma$it* a$# its re!rese$tatio$) The$ the huma$ scie$ces were co$stitute# "* mimic:ing the $ew !ositive scie$ces of "iolog*& !olitical eco$om*& a$# !hilolog*) To affirm their s!ecificit*& the huma$ scie$ces restore# the or#er of re!rese$tatio$& though the* loa# it #ow$ with the resources of the u$co$scious)

This false e?uili"rium alrea#* shows that the huma$ scie$ces are $ot scie$ces) The* as!ire# to occu!* the em!t* !lace i$ re!rese$tatio$& "ut this !lace of the 'i$g ca$$ot a$# must $ot "e occu!ie#2 a$thro!olog* is a m*stificatio$) %rom the 9lassical .ge to Ao#er$it*& we move from a state where the ;uma$ #oes $ot *et exist to a state where it has alrea#* #isa!!eare#) 1To#a* we $o lo$ger thi$' "ut i$ the em!ti$ess which the ;uma$ has left) >ecause the em!ti$ess #oes $ot create a lac'2 it #oes $ot !rescri"e a lacu$a to "e fille#) +t is $othi$g more& a$# $othi$g less tha$ the u$fol#i$g of a s!ace i$ which it is fi$all* o$ce agai$ !ossi"le to thi$')1 1 +$#ee#& this a$al*tic of fi$itu#e i$vites us $ot to create a huma$ scie$ce& "ut to set u! a $ew image of t oug t8 a thi$'i$g that $o lo$ger o!!oses itself as from the outsi#e to the u$thi$'a"le or the u$thought& "ut which woul# lo#ge the u$thi$'a"le& the u$thought withi$ itself as thought& a$# which woul# "e i$ a$ esse$tial relatio$shi! to it ,#esire is 1what remai$s alwa*s u$thought at the heart of thought1-6 a thi$'i$g that woul# of itself "e i$ relatio$ to the o"scure& a$# which "* rights woul# "e traverse# "* a sort of fissure& without which thought coul# $o lo$ger o!erate) The fissure ca$$ot "e fille# i$& "ecause it is the highest o"/ect of thought2 the ;uma$ #oes $ot fill it i$ or glue it "ac' together6 the fissure i$ huma$it* is the e$# of the ;uma$ or the origi$ of thought) . 9ogito for a self u$#er$eath))) 8f those #isci!li$es that treat of huma$it*& o$l* eth$olog*& !s*choa$al*sis& a$# li$guistics effectivel* sur!ass the ;uma$& !rovi#i$g the three ma/or axes of the a$al*tic of the fi$ite)

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5ow we see how this "oo' co$ti$ues %oucault0s reflectio$s o$ ma#$ess& o$ the tra$sformatio$ of the co$ce!t of ma#$ess from the 9lassical .ge to Ao#er$it*) ."ove all& it is cr*stal clear that %oucault0s three ma/or wor's3 Madness and &ivi'i(ation8 A +istory of ;nsanity in t e Age of Reason, T e birt of t e &'inic8 An Arc aeo'ogy of Medica' )erception, a$# T e Order of T ings8 An Arc aeo'ogy of t e +uman Sciences 3form a chai$ i$ a ra#icall* $ew !ro/ect for !hiloso!h* as well as the histor* of scie$ces) %oucault himself #escri"es his metho# as archeological) :hat shoul# "e u$#erstoo# "* archeolog* is a stu#* of the 1su"stratum&1 the 1grou$#1 o$ which thought o!erates& a$# i$to which it reaches to form its co$ce!ts) :hat %oucault shows us is the ver* #iffere$t strata i$ this grou$#& eve$ the mutatio$s& the to!ogra!hical u!heavals& the orga$i atio$ of $ew s!aces2 for exam!le& the mutatio$ that ma'es the classic image of thought !ossi"le& or the o$e which !re!ares the mo#er$ image of thought) To "e sure& o$e ca$ assig$ sociological or eve$ !s*chological causes to this 1histor*16 "ut i$ realit* the causalities at wor' alrea#* u$fol# i$ s!aces that !resu!!ose a$ image of thought) :e must tr* to imagi$e eve$ts of !ure thought& ra#ical or tra$sce$#e$tal eve$ts that #etermi$e a s!ace of '$owle#ge for a$* o$e era)

+$stea# of a$ historical stu#* of o!i$io$s ,a !oi$t of view that still gover$s the tra#itio$al co$ce!tio$ of the histor* of !hiloso!h*-& we fi$# a s*$chro$ic stu#* of '$owle#ge a$# its co$#itio$s2 $ot co$#itio$s that ma'e '$owle#ge !ossi"le i$ ge$eral& "ut those that ma'e it real a$# #etermi$e it at a$* o$e mome$t)

7uch a metho# has at least two !ara#oxical results2 it #is!laces the im!orta$ce of co$ce!ts& a$# also the im!orta$ce of authors) .ccor#i$gl*& what is im!orta$t i$ #efi$i$g the 9lassical .ge is $ot mecha$ics or mathematics& "ut a$ u!heaval i$ the eco$om* of sig$s& which cease to "e a figure of the worl# a$# sli! i$to re!rese$tatio$2 it is o$l* this that ma'es !ossi"le "oth mat esis a$# mecha$ics) 7imilarl*& what is im!orta$t to '$ow is $ot that 9uvier is 1fixist&1 "ut how i$ reactio$ agai$st the !oi$t of view of $atural histor* that still im!riso$s 4amarc'& 9uvier esta"lishes a "iolog* that ma'es !ossi"le "oth evolutio$ism a$# #iscussio$s o$ evolutio$ism) .s a ge$eral rule& a$# this "oo' a"ou$#s i$ #ecisive exam!les& the ma/or !olemics i$volvi$g #iffere$t o!i$io$s are less im!orta$t tha$ the s!ace of '$owle#ge that ma'es them !ossi"le6 a$# those authors who occu!* a ce$tral !lace i$ a more visi"le histor* are $ot $ecessaril* the same i$ archeolog*) %oucault sa*s2 1)))+ saw it more clearl* i$ 9uvier& i$ >o!!& i$ Bicar#o tha$ i$ Fa$t or ;egel&1 a$# $owhere #oes %oucault more resem"le a great !hiloso!her tha$ whe$ he re/ects the ma/or li$eages for a more secret& su"terra$ea$ ge$ealog*) . $ew image of thought3a $ew co$ce!tio$ of what thi$'i$g mea$s is the tas' of !hiloso!h* to#a*) This is where !hiloso!h*& $o less tha$ the scie$ces a$# the arts& ca$ #emo$strate its ca!acit* for mutatio$s a$# $ew 1s!aces)1 To the ?uestio$& :hat0s $ew i$ !hiloso!h*@ %oucault0s "oo's all "* themselves !rovi#e a !rofou$# a$swer& o$e of the most livel* a$# most !e$etrati$g) +$ m* o!i$io$& T e Order of T ings is a great "oo'& "rimmi$g with $ew thoughts

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)1

The 4ethod o' 3ramati=ation;

*i'es #e'eu(e, university professor of 4etters and +uman Sciences in 4yon, proposes to deve'op before t e members of t e .renc Society of ) i'osop y t e fo''owing arguments8

+t is $ot certai$ that the ?uestio$ w at is t is= is a goo# ?uestio$ for #iscoveri$g the esse$ce or the +#ea) +t ma* "e that ?uestio$s such as w o= ow muc = ow= w ere= w en= are "etter3as much for #iscoveri$g the esse$ce as for #etermi$i$g somethi$g more im!orta$t a"out the +#ea)

7!atio(tem!oral #*$amisms have several #iffere$t !ro!erties2 1- the* create !articular s!aces a$# times6 2- the* !rovi#e a rule of s!ecificatio$ for co$ce!ts& which without these #*$amisms woul# remai$ u$a"le to receive their logical articulatio$s6 3- the* #etermi$e the #ou"le as!ect of differentiation, ?ualitative a$# ?ua$titative ,?ualities a$# exte$sio$s& s!ecies a$# !arts-6

4- the* e$tail or #esig$ate a su"/ect& though a 1larval1 or 1em"r*o$ic1 su"/ect6

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5- the* co$stitute a s!ecial theatre6 6- the* ex!ress +#eas) 3+t is through all these #iffere$t as!ects that s!atio(tem!oral #*$amisms figure the moveme$t of #ramati atio$)

Through #ramati atio$& the +#ea is i$car$ate# or actuali e#& it differentiates itse'f% 5evertheless& the +#ea i$ its !ro!er co$te$t must alrea#* !rese$t characteristics that corres!o$# with the two as!ects of its #iffere$tiatio$) The +#ea is i$ itself a s*stem of differentia' relatio$s a$# the result of a #istri"utio$ of remar'a"le or si$gular !oi$ts ,i#eal eve$ts-) +$ other wor#s& the +#ea is full* #iffere$tial i$ itself& "efore eve$ differentiating itself i$ the actual) This status of the +#ea ex!lai$s its logical value& which is $ot the clear a$# #isti$ct& "ut rather as 4ei" $i se$se#& the #isti$ct(o"scure) The metho# of #ramati atio$ as a whole is re!rese$te# i$ the com!lex co$ce!t of #iffere$tiatio$ ,#iffere$tial D #iffere$tiatio$-& which gives a$ orie$tatio$ to the ?uestio$s from which + "ega$) TRANSCRIPT OF THE SESSION T e session began at 98D6pm at t e Sorbonne, in t e Mic e'et Amp it eatre, wit )resident of t e Society Mr% ?ean /a 'presiding%

Jean Wahl: Ar) Gilles Deleu e $ee#s $o i$tro#uctio$2 *ou are $o #ou"t familiar with his wor' o$ ;ume as well as 5iet sche a$# <roust& a$# +0m sure *ou are all familiar with his extraor#i$ar* tale$t) 7o without further a#o& + give *ou Gilles Deleu e)

Gilles Deleu e: The +#ea& the #iscover* of the +#ea& is i$se!ara"le from a certai$ t*!e of ?uestio$) The +#ea is first a$# foremost a$ 1o"/ectalit*1 that corres!o$#s& as such& to a certai$ wa* of as'i$g ?uestio$s) The +#ea res!o$#s o$l* to the call of certai$ ?uestio$s) <lato$ism has #etermi$e# the +#ea0s form of ?uestio$ as w at w .@This $o"le ?uestio$ is su!!ose# to co$cer$ the esse$ce a$# is o!!ose# to vulgar ?uestio$s which !oi$t merel* to the exam!le or the

108

acci#e$t) 7o& we #o $ot as' w o or w at is "eautiful& "ut w at is the >eautiful) +t is $ot w ere a$# w en #oes /ustice exist& "ut what is the Cust) 5ot ow we o"tai$ 1two&1 "ut what is the #*a#) 5ot ow muc , "ut what))) <lato$ism i$ its e$tiret* seems to o!!ose a ma/or ?uestio$& which is alwa*s ta'e$ u! a$# re!eate# "* 7ocrates as that of the esse$ce or the +#ea& to the mi$or ?uestio$s of o!i$io$ which ex!ress o$l* slo!!* thi$'i$g& whether "* ol# me$ a$# $ot so clever chil#re$& or "* all too clever so!hists a$# rhetoricia$s)

.$# *et the !rivilege accor#e# the ?uestio$ / at is t is= reveals itself to "e co$fuse# a$# #ou"tful& eve$ i$ <lato a$# the <lato$ic tra#itio$) >ecause the ?uestio$ / at is t is= is i$ the e$# the #rivi$g force "ehi$# those #ialogues '$ow$ as a!oretic) +s it !ossi"le that the ?uestio$ of the esse$ce is the ?uestio$ of co$tra#ictio$& that it lea#s us i$to i$extrica"le co$tra#ictio$s@ >ut whe$ the <lato$ic #ialectic "ecomes somethi$g serious a$# !ositive& it ta'es other forms2 who@ i$ the Repub'ic- how much@ i$ ) i'ebus- where a$# whe$@ i$ the Sop ist, a$# i$ which case@ i$ )armenides% +t is almost as if the +#ea were $ot !ositivel* #etermi$a"le exce!t accor#i$g to a t*!olog*& a to!olog*& a !osolog*& a casuistr*3all tra$sce$#e$tal) <lato critici es the so!hists i$ this i$sta$ce less for usi$g i$ferior forms of ?uestio$s tha$ for $ot '$owi$g how to #etermi$e the co$#itio$s i$ which ?uestio$s ac?uire their i#eal im!ort a$# se$se) .$# whe$ we exami$e the histor* of !hiloso!h* as a whole& we will have a tough time #iscoveri$g a$* !hiloso!her whose research was gui#e# "* the ?uestio$ / at is t is= .ristotle@ Defi$itel* $ot .ristotle) Aa*"e ;egel& ma*"e there is o$l* ;egel who #i# so& !recisel* "ecause his #ialectic& that of the em!t* a$# a"stract esse$ce& is i$se!ara"le from the moveme$t of co$tra#ictio$) The ?uestio$ / at is t is= !rematurel* /u#ges the +#ea as sim!licit* of the esse$ce6 from the$ o$& it is i$evita"le that the sim!le esse$ce i$clu#es the i$esse$tial& a$# i$clu#es it in essence, a$# thus co$tra#icts itself) .$other wa* of goi$g a"out it ,as i$ the !hiloso!h* of 4ei"$i -& a$# this must "e com!letel* #isti$guishe# from co$tra#ictio$& is to have the i$esse$tial i$clu#e the esse$tial) >ut the i$esse$tial i$clu#es the esse$tial o$l* in case% This su"sum!tio$ u$#er 1the case1 co$stitutes a$ origi$al la$guage of !ro!erties a$# eve$ts) This !roce#ure is totall* #iffere$t from that of co$tra( #ictio$ a$# ca$ "e calle# vice-diction% +t is a wa* of a!!roachi$g the +#ea as a multi!licit*) +t is $o lo$ger a ?uestio$ of '$owi$g whether the +#ea is o$e or multi!le& or eve$ "oth at o$ce6 1multi!licit*&1 whe$ use# as a su"sta$tive& #esig$ates a #omai$ where the +#ea& of itself& is much closer to the acci#e$t tha$ to the a"stract esse$ce& a$# ca$ "e #etermi$e# o$l* with the ?ues tio$s w o= ow= ow muc = w ere and w en= in w ic case= 3forms that s'etch the ge$ui$e s!atio( tem!oral coor#i$ates of the +#ea)

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%irst + wa$t to as'2 what is the characteristic or #isti$ctive trait of a thi$g i$ ge$eral@ 7uch a trait is twofol#2 the ?ualit* or ?ualities which it !ossesses& the exte$sio$ which it occu!ies) =ve$ whe$ we ca$$ot #isti$guish actual #ivisi"le !arts& we still si$gle out remar'a"le regio$s or !oi$ts6 a$# it is $ot o$l* the i$ter$al exte$sio$ that must "e exami$e#& "ut also the wa* i$ which the thi$g #etermi$es a$# #iffere$tiates a whole exter$al s!ace& as i$ the hu$ti$g grou$#s of a$ a$imal) +$ a wor#& each thi$g is at the i$tersectio$ of a twofol# s*$thesis2 a s*$thesis of ?ualificatio$ or s!ecificatio$& a$# of !artitio$& com!ositio$& or orga$i atio$) There is $o ?ualit* without a$ exte$sio$ u$#erl*i$g it& a$# i$ which the ?ualit* is #iffuse#& $o s!ecies without orga$ic !arts or !oi$ts) These are the two correlative as!ects of differentiation8 s!ecies a$# !arts& s!ecificatio$ a$# orga$i atio$) These co$stitute the co$#itio$s of the re!rese$tatio$ of thi$gs i$ ge$eral)

>ut if #iffere$tiatio$ thus has two com!lime$tar* forms& what is the age$t of this #isti$ctio$ a$# this com!lime$tarit*@ >e$eath orga$i atio$ a$# s!ecificatio$& we #iscover $othi$g more tha$ s!atio(tem!oral #*$amisms2 that is to sa*& agitatio$s of s!ace& holes of time& !ure s*$theses of s!ace& #irectio$& a$# rh*thms) The most ge$eral characteristics of "ra$chi$g& or#er& a$# class& right o$ u! to ge$eric a$# s!ecific characteristics& alrea#* #e!e$# o$ such #*$amisms or such #irectio$s of #evelo!me$t) .$# simulta$eousl*& "e$eath the !artitio$i$g !he$ome$a of cellular #ivisio$& we agai$ fi$# i$sta$ces of #*$amism2 cellular migratio$s& fol#i$gs& i$vagi$atio$s& stretchi$gs6 these co$stitute a 1#*$amics of the egg)1 +$ this se$se& the whole worl# is a$ egg) 5o co$ce!t coul# receive a logical #ivisio$ i$ re!rese$tatio$& if this #ivisio$ were $ot #etermi$e# alrea#* "* su"(re!rese$tatio$al #*$amisms6 we see this i$ the <lato$ic !rocess of #ivisio$ which wor's o$l* i$ two #irectio$s2 left a$# right& a$#3to ta'e a$ exam!le from fishi$g3with the hel! of #etermi$atio$s such as 1surrou$# a$# stri'e&1 1stri'e from to! to "ottom& "ottom to to!)1

These #*$amisms alwa*s !resu!!ose a fiel# i$ which the* are !ro#uce#& outsi#e of which the* woul# $ot "e !ro#uce#) This fiel# is i$te$sive& that is& it im!lies #iffere$ces of i$te$sit* #istri"ute# at #iffere$t #e!ths) Though ex!erie$ce alwa*s shows us i$te$sities alrea#* #evelo!e# i$ exte$sio$s& alrea#* covere# over "* ?ualities& we must co$ceive& !recisel* as a co$#itio$ of ex!erie$ce& of !ure i$te$sities e$velo!e# i$ a #e!th& i$ a$ i$te$sive spatium that !reexists ever* ?ualit* a$# ever* exte$sio$) De!th is the !ower of !ure u$exte$#e# spatium- i$te$sit* is o$l* the

110

!ower of #iffere$tiatio$ or the u$e?ual i$ itself& a$# each i$te$sit* is alrea#* #iffere$ce& of the t*!e = ( =0& where = i$ tur$ refers to e ( eQ a$# e& to e ( e0& etc) 7uch a$ i$te$sive fiel# co$stitutes a$ e$viro$me$t of i$#i( vi#uatio$) This ex!lai$s the i$sufficie$c* of a$* remi$#er that i$#ivi#uatio$ fu$ctio$s $either through !rolo$ge# s!ecificatio$ Bspecies infima$ $or through com!ositio$ or #ivisio$ of !arts Bpars u'tima$% +t is $ot e$ough to #iscover a #iffere$ce of $ature "etwee$ i$#ivi#uatio$ o$ the o$e ha$#& a$# s!ecificatio$ or !artitio$ o$ the other) >ecause i$#ivi#uatio$ is the !rior co$#itio$ u$#er which s!ecificatio$& a$# !artitio$ or com!ositio$& fu$ctio$ i$ a s*stem) +$#ivi#uatio$ is i$te$sive& a$# it is !resu!!ose# "* all ?ualities a$# s!ecies& "* all exte$sio$s a$# !arts that ha!!e$ to fill u! or #evelo! the s*stem)

5evertheless& si$ce i$te$sit* is #iffere$ce& #iffere$ces of i$te$sit* must e$ter i$to commu$icatio$) 7omethi$g li'e a 1#iffere$ce o!erator1 is re?uire#& to relate #iffere$ce to #iffere$ce) This role is fille# "* what is calle# a$ obscure precursor% . light$i$g "olt flashes "etwee$ #iffere$t i$te$sities& "ut it is !rece#e# "* a$ obscure precursor, i$visi"le& im!erce!ti"le& which #etermi$es i$ a#va$ce the i$verte# !ath as i$ $egative relief& "ecause this !ath is first the age$t of commu$icatio$ "etwee$ series of #iffere$ces) +f it is true that ever* s*stem is a$ i$te$sive fiel# of i$#ivi#uatio$ co$structe# o$ a series of heteroge$eous or #is!arate "ou$#aries& the$ whe$ the series come i$to commu$icatio$ tha$'s to the actio$ of the o"scure !recursor& this commu$icatio$ i$#uces certai$ !he$ome$a2 coup'ing "etwee$ series& interna' resonance withi$ the s*stem& a$# inevitab'e movement i$ the form of a$ am!litu#e that goes "e*o$# the most "asic series themselves) +t is u$#er these co$#itio$s that a s*stem fills u! with ?ualities a$# #evelo!s i$ exte$sio$) >ecause a ?ualit* is alwa*s a sig$ or a$ eve$t that rises from the #e!ths& that flashes "etwee$ #iffere$t i$te$sities& a$# that lasts as lo$g as it ta'es for its co$stitutive #iffere$ce to "e $ullifie#) .$# most im!orta$tl*& these co$#itio$s ta'e$ together #etermi$e s!atio(tem!oral #*$amisms& which themselves are res!o$si"le for ge$erati$g ?ualities a$# exte$sio$s)

D*$amisms are $ot a"solutel* su"/ectless& though the su"/ects the* sustai$ are still o$l* rough #rafts& $ot *et ?ualifie# or com!ose#& rather !atie$ts tha$ age$ts& o$l* a"le to e$#ure the !ressure of a$ i$ter$al reso$a$ce or the am!litu#e of a$ i$evita"le moveme$t) . com!ose#& ?ualifie# a#ult woul# !erish i$ such a$ e$viro$me$t) The truth of em"r*olog* is that there are

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moveme$ts which the em"r*o alo$e ca$ e$#ure2 i$ this i$sta$ce& the o$l* su"/ect is larval) The $ightmare is !erha!s o$e of these moveme$ts which $either someo$e awa'e& nor even t e dreamer, ca$ e$#ure3"ut o$l* the #ee!(slee!er i$ a #reamless slee!) .$# thought itself& co$si#ere# as a #*$amism !ro!er to the !hiloso!hical s*stem& is !erha!s i$ its tur$ o$e of these terrif*i$g moveme$ts that are irreco$cila"le with a forme#& ?ualifie#& a$# com!ose# su"/ect& such as the su"/ect of the cogito i$ re!rese$tatio$) 1Begressio$1 will "e misu$#erstoo# as lo$g as we fail to see i$ it the activatio$ of a larval su"/ect& the o$l* !atie$t a"le to e$#ure the #ema$#s of a s*stematic #*$amism)

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T;= A=T;8D 8% DB.A.T+R.T+85

These #etermi$atio$s as a whole2 fiel# of i$#ivi#uatio$& series of i$te$sive #iffere$ces& o"scure !recursor& cou!li$g& reso$a$ce a$# i$evita"le moveme$t& larval su"/ect& s!atio(tem!oral #*$amisms3these s'etch out the multi!le coor#i$ates which corres!o$# to the ?uestio$s ow muc = w o= ow= w ere= and w en=, a$# which gives such ?uestio$s their tra$sce$#e$t co$se?ue$ces& "e*o$# em!irical exam!les) These #etermi$atio$s as a whole i$#ee# are $ot co$$ecte# with a$* !articular exam!le "orrowe# from a !h*sical or "iological s*stem& "ut articulate the categories of ever* s*stem i$ ge$eral) . !h*sical ex!erime$t& $o less tha$ !s*chic ex!erime$ts of the <roustia$ variet*& im!l* the commu$icatio$ of #is!arate series& the i$terve$tio$ of a$ o"scure !recursor& as well as the reso$a$ces a$# i$evita"le moveme$ts that result) +t ha!!e$s all the time that #*$amisms which are ?ualifie# i$ a certai$ wa* i$ o$e #omai$& are the$ ta'e$ u! i$ a$ e$tirel* #iffere$t mo#e i$ a$other #omai$) The geogra!hical #*$amism of the isla$# ,isla$# as ru!ture with the co$ti$e$t& a$# isla$# as a$ eru!tio$ from the #ee!- is ta'e$ u! i$ the m*thical #*$amism of ma$'i$# o$ the #eserte# isla$# ,a #erive# ru!ture a$# a$ origi$al re"egi$$i$g-) %ere$c i has show$ how& i$ sexual life& the !h*sical #*$amism of cellular eleme$ts is ta'e$ u! i$ the "iological #*$amism of orga$s a$# eve$ i$ the !s*chic #*$amism of !eo!le)D*$amisms& a$# all that exists simulta$eousl* with them& are at wor' i$ ever* form a$# ever* ?ualifie# exte$sio$ of re!rese$tatio$6 the* co$stitute $ot so much a !icture as a grou! of a"stract li$es comi$g from the u$exte$#e# a$# formless #e!th) This is a stra$ge theatre com!rise# of !ure #etermi$atio$s& agitati$g time a$# s!ace& #irectl* affecti$g the soul& whose actors are larva3.rtau#0s $ame for this theatre was 1cruelt*)1 These a"stract li$es co$stitute a #rama which corres!o$#s to this or that co$ce!t& a$# which also #irects its s!ecificatio$ a$# #ivisio$) 7cie$tific '$owle#ge& the #ream& as well as thi$gs i$ themselves3these all #ramati e) Give$ a$* co$ce!t& we ca$ alwa*s #iscover its #rama& a$# t e concept wou'd never be divided or specified i$ the worl# of re!rese$tatio$ wit out t e dramatic dynamisms that thus #etermi$e it i$ a material s*stem "e$eath all !ossi"le re!rese$tatio$) Ta'e the co$ce!t of truth6 it is $ot e$ough to as' the ?uestio$2 1what is the true@1 .s soo$ as we as' w o wants t e true, w en and w ere, ow and ow muc =, we have the tas' of assig$i$g larval su"/ects ,the /ealous ma$& for exam!le- a$# !ure s!atio(tem!oral #*$amisms ,sometimes we cause the ver* 1thi$g1 to emerge& at a certai$ time& i$ a certai$ !lace6 sometimes we accumulate i$#exes a$# sig$s from mome$t to mome$t& followi$g a !ath that $ever e$#s-) The$ whe$ we lear$ that the co$ce!t of truth i$ re!rese$tatio$ is #ivi#e# i$ two #irectio$s3the first accor#i$g to which the true emerges i$ a$ i$tuitio$ a$# as itself& the seco$# accor#i$g to which the true is alwa*s co$clu#e# from i$#ices or i$ferre# from somethi$g else as that which is $ot there3we have $o trou"le #iscoveri$g "e$eath t ese traditiona' t eories of intuition and induction, the #*$amisms of i$?uisitio$ or a#missio$& accusatio$ or i$?uir*& sile$tl* a$# #ramaticall* at wor'& i$ such a wa* as to #etermi$e the theoretical #ivisio$ of the co$ce!t)

:hat + am calli$g a #rama !articularl* resem"les the Fa$tia$ schema) The schema& accor#i$g to Fa$t& is i$#ee# a$ a priori #etermi$atio$ of s!ace a$# time corres!o$#i$g to a co$ce!t2 t e s ortest schema is the #rama ,#ream or $ightmare- of the straight li$e) +t is !recisel* #*$amism that #ivi#es the co$ce!t of li$e i$to straight a$# curve#& a$# more im!orta$tl*& i$ the .rchime#ia$ co$ce!tio$ of limits& that allows the curve to "e measure# accor#i$g to the straight) 7till& what remai$s rather m*sterious is the wa* i$ which the schema has this !ower i$ relatio$ to the co$ce!t) +$ a certai$ wa*& all the !ost(Fa$tia$s have trie# to eluci#ate the m*ster* of this hi##e$ art& accor#i$g to which #*$amic s!atio(tem!oral #etermi$atio$s ge$ui$el* have the !ower to #ramati e a co$ce!t& although the* have a $ature totall* #iffere$t from the co$ce!t)

The a$swer !erha!s lies i$ a #irectio$ that certai$ !ost(Fa$tia$s have i$#icate#2 !ure s!atio(tem!oral #*$amisms have the !ower to #ramati e concepts, "ecause first the* actuali e& i$car$ate ;deas% :e have at our #is!osal a !oi$t of #e!arture to test this h*!othesis2 if it is true that #*$amisms co$trol the two i$se!ara"le as!ects of #iffere$tiatio$3

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s!ecificatio$ a$# !artitio$& the ?ualificatio$ of a s!ecies a$# the orga$i atio$ of a$ exte$sio$3the +#ea i$ tur$ shoul# !rese$t two as!ects& from which those of #iffere$tiatio$ somehow #erive) 7o& we have to as' ourselves a"out the $ature of the +#ea& a"out its #iffere$ce of $ature from the co$ce!t)

.$ +#ea has two !ri$ci!al characteristics) 8$ the o$e ha$#& it co$sists of a grou! of #iffere$tial relatio$s amo$g eleme$ts stri!!e# of all se$si"le form a$# fu$ctio$& existi$g o$l* through their reci!rocal #etermi$atio$) 7uch relatio$s are of the 3r t*!e ,eve$ though the ?uestio$ of the i$fi$itel* small will $ot come u! here-) +$ the most #iverse cases& we ca$ as' whether we are i$#ee# co$fro$te# "* idea' e'ements, that is to sa*& without figure or fu$ctio$& though reci!rocall* #etermi$a"le i$ a $etwor' of #iffere$tial relatio$s2 #o !ho$emes fall u$#er this case@ .$# what a"out !h*sical !articles@ 8r "iological ge$es@ +$ each case& we have to co$ti$ue the search till we o"tai$ these #iffere$tials& which exist a$# are #etermi$e# o$l* i$ res!ect to o$e a$other) 7o *ou see + am i$vo'i$g this !ri$ci ( !le& calle# reci!rocal #etermi$atio$& as the first as!ect of sufficie$t reaso$) 8$ the other ha$#& #istri"utio$s of si$gularities& #istri"utio$s of remar'a"le a$# or#i$ar* !oi$ts& corres!o$# to these #iffere$tial relatio$s& such that a remar'a"le !oi$t ca$ e$ge$#er a series ca!a"le of "ei$g !rolo$ge# alo$g ever* or#i$ar* !oi$t& all the wa* to the vici$it* of a$other si$gularit*) 7i$gularities are idea' events% +t is !ossi"le that $otio$s such as si$gular a$# regular& or remar'a"le a$# or#i$ar*& have a greater e!istemological a$# o$tological im!orta$ce for !hiloso!h* tha$ #o the $otio$s of true a$# false& "ecause sense #e!e$#s o$ the #isti$ctio$ a$# #istri"utio$ of these "rillia$t !oi$ts i$ the +#ea) +$ this wa*& we see how a com!lete #etermi$atio$ of the +#ea& or of the thi$g i$ +#ea& !rocee#s) This co$stitutes the seco$# as!ect of sufficie$t reaso$) The +#ea thus a!!ears as a multi!licit* which must "e traverse# i$ two #irectio$s2 from the !oi$t of view of the variatio$ of #iffere$tial relatio$s& a$# from the !oi$t of view of the #istri"utio$ of si$gularities corres!o$#i$g to !articular values of those relatio$s) :hat + !reviousl* calle# the o!eratio$ of vice-diction merges with this twofol# #etermi$atio$ or twofol# a!!roach& which is reci!rocal a$# com!lete)

This has several co$se?ue$ces) +$ the first !lace& the +#ea #efi$e# i$ this wa* has $o actualit*) +t is virtual& it is !ure virtualit*) .ll the #iffere$tial relatio$s& "* virtue of reci!rocal #etermi$atio$& a$# all the #istri"utio$s of si$gularities& "* virtue of com!lete #etermi$atio$& coexist i$ the virtual multi!licit* of +#eas) The +#ea is actuali e# !recisel* o$l* i$sofar as its #iffere$tial relatio$s are i$car$ate# i$ s!ecies or se!arate ?ualities& a$# i$sofar as the co$comita$t si$gularities are i$car$ate# i$ a$ exte$sio$ that corres!o$#s to this ?ualit*) . s!ecies is ma#e u! of #iffere$tial relatio$s amo$g ge$es& /ust as orga$ic !arts are ma#e u! of i$car$ate# si$gularities ,cf) 2'oci2$% ;owever& we must em!hasi e the a"solute co$#itio$ of $o$(resem"la$ce2 the s!ecies or the ?ualit* #oes $ot resem"le the #iffere$tial relatio$s that it i$car$ates& $o more so tha$ the si$gularities resem"le the orga$i e# exte$sio$ which actuali es them)

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+f it is true that ?ualificatio$ a$# !artitio$ co$stitute the two as!ects of #if fere$tiatio$& it follows that the +#ea actuali es itself through #iffere$tiatio$) :he$ the +#ea actuali es itself& it #iffere$tiates itself) +$ itself a$# i$ its virtualit*& the +#ea is com!letel* undifferentiated% ;owever& it is $ot at all i$#etermi$ate) :e must a"solutel* u$#erli$e the #iffere$ce "etwee$ the two o!eratio$s& whose distinctive trait is this2 3 & #iffere$tial ,1- D #iffere$tiatio$ ,$-) The +#ea i$ itself& or the thi$g i$ +#ea& is $ot at all differentiated, si$ce it lac's the $ecessar* ?ualities a$# !arts) >ut it is full* a$# com!letel* differentia', si$ce it has at its #is!osal the relatio$s a$# si$gularities that will "e actuali e#& without resem"la$ce& i$ the ?ualities a$# !arts) +t seems& the$& that each thi$g has two 1halves13u$eve$& #issimilar& a$# u$s*mmetrical3each of which is itself #ivi#e# i$to two2 a$ idea' a'f, which reaches i$to the virtual a$# is co$stitute# "oth "* #iffere$tial relatio$s a$# "* co$comita$t si$gularities6 a$# a$ actual half& co$stitute# "oth "* the ?ualities that i$car$ate those relatio$s a$# "* the !arts that i$car$ate those si$gularities) The ?uestio$ of the 2ens omni modo determinatum2 must "e !ose# i$ the followi$g wa*2 a thi$g i$ +#ea ca$ "e com!letel* #etermi$e# "differentia'$, a$# *et lac' the #etermi$atio$s that co$stitute actual existe$ce "t e t ing is undifferentiated$% +f we characteri e the state of the full* #iffere$tial +#ea as distinct, a$# the state of the actuali e#& i)e) #iffete$tiate#& +#ea as c'ear, the$ the !ro!ortio$ that gover$s the clear a$# #isti$ct must "e a"a$#o$e#2 the +#ea i$ itself is $ot clear a$# #isti$ct6 o$ the co$trar*& it is distinct and obscure% +$ this same se$se& the +#ea is Dio$*sia$2 that o$e of o"scure #isti$ctio$ which it !reserves withi$ itself& that u$#iffere$tiatio$ which is $o less !erfectl* #etermi$e#3this is its #ru$'e$$ess)

+ shoul# ma'e clear u$#er what co$#itio$s the wor# 1virtual1 ca$ "e rigorousl* use# ,i$ the wa* >ergso$& for exam!le& uses it whe$ he #isti$guishes virtual a$# actual multi!licities& or the wa* i$ which Ar) Bu*er uses it-) The virtual is $ot o!!ose# to the real6 it is the real that is o!!ose# to the !ossi"le) Hirtual is o!!ose# to actual& a$# therefore& !ossesses a full realit*) :e saw that this realit* of the virtual is co$stitute# "* the #iffere$tial relatio$s a$# the #istri"utio$s of si$gularities) +$ ever* res!ect& the virtual echoes the formulatio$ which <roust gave to his states of ex!erie$ce2 1real without "ei$g actual& i#eal without "ei$g a"stract)1 5 The virtual a$# the !ossi"le are o!!ose# i$ several wa*s) 8$ the o$e ha$#& the !ossi"le is such that the real is co$structe# as its resem"la$ce) +t is eve$ "ecause of this #efect that the !ossi"le loo's sus!iciousl* retros!ective or retroactive6 it is sus!ecte# of "ei$g co$structe# after the fact& i$ resem"la$ce to the real which it is su!!ose# to !rece#e) This is wh*& too& whe$ someo$e as's what more is fou$# i$ the real& there is $othi$g to !oi$t out exce!t 1the same1 thi$g as !osite# outsi#e re!rese$tatio$) The !ossi"le is /ust the co$ce!t as !ri$ci!le of the re!rese$tatio$ of the thi$g& u$#er the followi$g categories2 the i#e$tit* of w at is representing, a$# the resem"la$ce of w at is being represented% 8$ the other ha$#& the virtual "elo$gs to the +#ea a$# #oes $ot resem"le the actual& $o more tha$ the actual resem"les the virtual) The +#ea is a$ image without resem"la$ce6 the virtual actuali es itself $ot through resem"la$ce& "ut through #iverge$ce a$# #iffere$tiatio$) Differe$tiatio$ or actuali atio$ is alwa*s creative with res!ect to what it actuali es& whereas reali atio$ is alwa*s re!ro#uctive or limiti$g) The #iffere$ce "etwee$ the virtual a$# the actual is $o lo$ger the #iffere$ce of the 7ame i$sofar as the 7ame is !osite# o$ce i$ re!rese$tatio$& a$# o$ce agai$ outsi#e re!rese$tatio$) Bather& it is the #iffere$ce of the 8ther& i$sofar as the 8ther a!!ears o$ce i$ the +#ea& a$# o$ce agai$& though i$ a totall* #iffere$t ma$$er& i$ the !rocess of actuali i$g the +#ea)

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The extraor#i$ar* worl# of 4ei"$i !uts us i$ touch with a$ idea' continuum% This co$ti$uit*& accor#i$g to 4ei"$i & is #efi$e# $ot at all "* homoge$eit*& "ut "* the coexiste$ce of all the variatio$s of #iffere$tial relatio$s& a$# of the #istri"utio$s of si$gularities that corres!o$# to them) The state of this worl# is "eautifull* ex!resse# "* the image of murmuri$g& or the ocea$& or a water mill& or va$ishi$g& or eve$ #ru$'e$$ess2 the* all "es!ea' a Dio$*sia$ #e!th rum"li$g "e$eath this a!!are$tl* .!ollo$ia$ !hiloso!h*) +t has ofte$ "ee$ as'e# what the $otio$s 1com!ossi"le1 a$# 1i$com!ossi"le1 co$sist of& a$# how exactl* the* #iffer from the !ossi"le a$# the im!ossi"le) +t is #ifficult to give a$ a$swer& !erha!s "ecause 4ei"$i 0s !hiloso!h* as a whole exhi"its a certai$ hesitatio$ "etwee$ a clear co$ce!tio$ of the !ossi"le a$# the o"scure co$ce!tio$ of the virtual) +$ fact& the i$com!ossi"le a$# the com!ossi"le have $othi$g whatsoever to #o with the co$tra#ictor* a$# the $o$(co$tra#ictor*) +t has to #o with somethi$g else2 #iverge$ce a$# co$verge$ce) :hat #efi$es the com!ossi"ilit* of a worl# is the co$verge$ce of those series which are each co$structe# i$ the vici$it* of a si$gularit*& all the wa* to the vici$it* of a$other si$gularit*) The i$com!ossi"ilit* of worl#s& o$ the other ha$#& arises at that mome$t whe$ the ge$erate# series #iverge) The "est of all !ossi"le worl#s therefore e$com!asses a maximum of relatio$s a$# si$gularities& u$#er the co$#itio$ of co$ti$uit*& i$ other wor#s& a maximum co$verge$ce of series) 5ow we see how& i$ such a worl#& i$#ivi#ual esse$ces or mo$a#s are forme#) 4ei"$i sa*s "oth that the worl# #oes $ot exist outsi#e the mo$a#s that ex!ress it& a$# that Go# create# the worl# rather tha$ the mo$a#s ,Go# #i# $ot create .#am the si$$er& "ut the worl# i$ which .#am si$$e#-) The si$gularities of the worl# serve as !ri$ci!les for the co$stitutio$ of i$#ivi#ualities2 each i$#ivi#ual e$velo!s a certai$ $um"er of si$gularities a$# clearl* ex!resses their relatio$s wit respect to his ow$ "o#*) 9o$se?ue$tl*& the ex!resse# worl# virtuall* !reexists the ex!ressive i$#ivi#ualities& "ut #oes $ot exist actuall* outsi#e the i$#ivi#ualities which ex!ress it little "* little) The !rocess of i$#ivi#uatio$ #etermi$es the relatio$s a$# si$gularities of the i#eal worl# to "e i$car$ate# i$ the ?ualities a$# exte$sio$s filli$g u! the i$tervals "etwee$ i$#ivi#uals) This a!!roach towar# a 1#e!th1 !o!ulate# "* relatio$s a$# si$gularities& the resulti$g formatio$ of i$#ivi#ual esse$ces& a$# the co$se?ue$t #etermi$atio$ of ?ualities a$# exte$sio$s& are the eleme$ts that co$stitute a metho# of vice-diction, which itself co$stitutes a theor* of multi!licities& alwa*s su"sumi$g each thi$g u$#er its 1case)1

The $otio$ of #iffere$rial D #iffere$tiatio$ , 3 - ex!resses $ot o$l* a math( ematico("iological com!lex& "ut the ver* co$#itio$ of a$* cosmolog*& as the two halves of the o"/ect) The #iffere$tial ,1- ex!resses the $ature of a !re( i$#ivi#ual #e!th& which is i$ $o wa* re#uci"le to a$ a"stract u$iversal& "ut which e$tails relatio$s a$# si$gularities characteri i$g virtual multi!licities or +#eas) Differe$tiatio$ ,$- ex!resses the actuali atio$ of these relatio$s a$# si$gularities i$ ?ualities a$# exte$sio$s& s!ecies a$# !arts& as o"/ects of re!rese$tatio$) The two as!ects of #iffere$tiatio$ thus corres!o$# to the two as!ects of the #iffere$tial& "ut the* #o $ot resem"le them2 we $ee# a thir# thi$g which #etermi$es the +#ea to actuali e itself& to i$car$ate itself i$ a !articular wa*) + trie# to show how this role was fille# "* the i$te$sive fiel#s of i$#ivi#uatio$& with their !recursors to !ut them i$ a state of activit*& with their larval su"/ects forme# arou$# si$gularities& a$# with their #*$amisms filli$g u! the s*stem) The com!lete $otio$ is this2 ,i$-#iffere$tial D ,i$-#iffere$tiatio$) +t is the s!atio(tem!oral #*$amisms withi$ the fiel#s of i$#ivi#uatio$ that #etermi$e the +#eas to actuali e themselves i$ the #iffere$tiate# as!ects of the o"/ect) Though a su"/ect is give$ i$ re!rese$tatio$& we still '$ow $othi$g) :e lear$ o$l* i$sofar as we #iscover the +#ea o!erati$g u$#er$eath the co$ce!t& the fiel# or fiel#s of i$#ivi#uatio$& the s*stem or s*stems that e$velo! the +#ea& the #*$amisms that #etermi$e the +#ea to i$car$ate itself6 it is o$l* i$ such co$#itio$s that we ca$ lift the veil of m*ster* co$cer$i$g the #ivisio$ of the co$ce!t) .ll these co$#itio$s #efi$e #ramati atio$& a$# its atte$#a$t ?uestio$s2 in w at case= w o= ow= ow muc = T e shortest schema is the co$ce!t of the straight li$e o$l* "ecause it is first the #rama of the +#ea of li$e& the #iffere$tial of the straight a$# the curve& the #*$amism that o!erates i$ sile$ce) The clear a$# #isti$ct is the claim of

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the co$ce!t i$ the .!ollo$ia$ worl# of re!rese$tatio$6 "ut "e$eath re!rese$tatio$ there is alwa*s the +#ea a$# its #isti$ct(o"scure #e!th& a #rama "e$eath ever* logos) DISC!SSION

Jean Wahl:" 4et me tha$' *ou o$ ever*o$e0s "ehalf for *our tal') Barel* have we ever wit$esse# such a3well& +0m $ot goi$g to sa* s*stem& "ut a$ attem!t to !eer through the le$s of #iffere$tiatio$& u$#erstoo# as twofol#& givi$g us a worl# u$#erstoo# !erha!s as fourfol#) >ut let me sto! here& si$ce m* role as <resi#e$t is to o!e$ u! the floor to ?uestio$s)

Pierre#$a%i&e S'huhl:(( I woul# li'e to as' Deleu e somethi$g) + woul# li'e to '$ow how& from his !ers!ective& the o!!ositio$ "etwee$ the $atural a$# the artificial woul# loo'& si$ce it is $ot s!o$ta$eousl* #*$amic& "ut "ecomes #*$amic through auto(regulatio$)

Gilles Deleu e: +s i) $ot "ecause the artificial e$tails its ow$ #*$amisms which have $o e?uivale$t i$ $ature@ Nou have i$#ee# show$ the im!orta$ce of the categories 0$atural0 a$# 0artificial0 !articularl* i$ Gree' thought) <recisel*& however& are these categories $ot #iffere$tiate# accor#i$g to #*$amisms& accor#i$g to a!!roaches& !laces& a$# #irectio$s@ >ut i$ s*stems of $ature as well as artifice& we fi$# i$te$sive orga$i atio$s& !recursors& larval su"/ects& ever* sort of vitalit*& a vital character& eve$ though i$ a$other mo#e)))

Pierre#$a%i&e S'huhl: This is "egi$$i$g to sou$# li'e the !oet 5erval) Gilles Deleu e: :ell& + shoul# ho!e so) Pierre#$a%i&e S'huhl: +$ ) e'ibos, 64 "& 7ocrates sa*s that creatio$ has "ee$ com!lete# "* a$ a"stract or#er that

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will have the !ower to a$imate itself) +$ the #omai$ of the s!irit& this ha!!e$s all "* itself) 7o what0s left over is the imme$se #omai$ of matter))

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)Gilles Deleu e: :e woul# have to classif* the #iffere$t s*stems of i$te$sit*) %rom this !ers!ective& the regulator* o!eratio$s *ou allu#e# to a mome$t ago woul# have a #ecisive im!orta$ce)

Pierre#$a%i&e S'huhl: + woul# /ust li'e to a## a sim!le a$ec#ote& co$cer$i$g the allusio$s Deleu e ma#e to the #iffere$t wa*s of thi$'i$g a"out fishi$g i$ the Sop ist% . few *ears ago& 4eroi(Gourha$ !u"lishe# a "oo' o$ tech$olog* that revam!s exactl* these <lato$ic #isti$ctio$s) + as'e# him if he ha# the Sop ist i$ mi$#& a$# he sai# he ha# $ever thought a"out it) This co$firms the !erma$e$ce of certai$ #ivisio$s that were u$#erli$e#)

Noel $oulou*:+ I wo$0t follow Ar) Deleu e i$to the o$tological #e!ths of his co$ce!tio$ of the +#ea) ;is wa* of !osi$g the !ro"lem goes "e*o$# m* usual ha"its of thought) :hat + fou$# most i$teresti$g i$ Ar) Deleu e0s tal' is this co$ce!tio$ of art6 clearl*& the artist ta'es u! a $o$(serial tem!oralit*& which is $ot *et orga$i e#& or a multi!licit* of live# a$# !recategorical s!acialities& a$# through his art or artifice& he "ri$gs these to a !articular la$guage& a$# a !articular s*$tax) The artist0s st*le or !erso$al recreatio$ co$sists i$ im!osi$g as o"/ective& structures which have "ee$ "orrowe# from a $o$(o"/ective stage) .$# there *ou have a goo# !art of the #*$amism of art)

+ woul# li'e to as' a few ?uestio$s a"out certai$ !oi$ts + fi$# trou"lesome) %or exam!le& how #oes o$e a!!l* this co$ce!tio$ of a !riorit* of s!atialit* or tem !oralit* to scie$ce@ +$ o$e se$se& we ca$ thi$' of s!ace& time& a$# #*$amism as the o!!osite of the co$ce!t& + mea$& as that which i$tro#uces variet* i$ a co$ce!t that te$#s towar# sta"ilit*) +$ a$other se$se& however& s!ace a$# time& at least as the* are accessi"le to our i$tuitio$& also te$# towar# a certai$ sta"ilit*& a certai$ immo"ilit*) =arl* !h*sics a$# earl* chemistr* "ega$ with a mecha$ics that relie# heavil* o$ the i#ea of s!atial co$ti$uities or the com!ositio$ of eleme$ts i$ a com!ou$#) =arl* "iolog* "ega$ with a 'i$# of i$tuitio$ of #uratio$& "ecomi$g& a co$ti$uous u$fol#i$g that tie# a!!are$t forms together a$# we$t "e*o$# their se!aratio$s) .$# mathemati atio$& for its !art&

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seems to have i$tro#uce# a seco$# #ramati atio$) +$ this case& the #ramati atio$ comes from the co$ce!t& a$# $ot so much from i$tuitio$) 7o& whe$ chemistr* arrives at the stage of electro$ic a$al*sis& there are $o more ge$ui$e su"sta$ces& ge$ui$e vale$ces6 there are o$l* li$'i$g fu$ctio$s that are create# as the !rocess #evelo!s a$# are u$#erstoo# o$e after the other) :e have a !rocess that is a$al* a"le o$l* "* the mathematics of the electro$) .$# as chemistr* "ecomes ?ua$tic& or u$#ulator*& a com"i$atio$ ca$ a"solutel* $ot "e co$ceive# as a sim!le a$# $ecessar* tra$sitio$) +t0s a !ro"a"ilit* that results from a calculatio$ with a$ e$ergetic "asis& i$ which o$e must 'ee! i$ mi$#& for exam!le& the s*mmetrical or u$s*mmetrical s!i$ of electro$s& or the overla!!i$g fiel#s of two waves that create a !articular e$erg*& etc) The e$ergetic i$ve$tor* ca$ "e ta'e$ o$l* "* the alge"rist& a$# $ot "* the geometer) +$ a similar sort of wa*& mo#er$ "iolog* "ega$ with the com"i$atorial a$al*sis of ge$etic eleme$ts& or whe$ the chemical or ra#ioactive effects o$ ge$es was stu#ie#3how the* affecte# ge$etic #evelo!me$ts or create# mutatio$s) 7o& the first i$tuitio$ of "iologists& who "elieve# i$ a co$ti$uous evolutio$& was #estro*e# a$# reformulate# i$ a wa* "* a more mathematical a$# o!eratio$al scie$ce) + /ust wa$te# to em!hasi e that + have the feeli$g the more #ramatic as!ects& or if *ou !refer& the more #ialectical as!ects of co$ce!tio$ are co$tri"ute# $ot "* the imagi$atio$& "ut "* the wor' of ratio$ali atio$)

+$ ge$eral& + #o$0t see how the #evelo!me$t of co$ce!ts& i$ the mathemati cal scie$ces& ca$ "e com!are# to a "iological u$fol#i$g& to the 1growth of a$ egg)1 The #evelo!me$t is more accuratel* #ialectical2 s*stems are co$structe# i$ a cohere$t ma$$er& a$# it #oes ha!!e$ that the* must "e smashe# from time to time i$ or#er to "e re"uilt) >ut +0ve alrea#* s!o'e$ too lo$g)

Gilles Deleu e: + wo$0t #isagree with *ou) + thi$' our #iffere$ces amou$t mostl* to termi$olog*) 9o$ce!ts& it seems to me& "ri$g a"out #ramati atio$ less tha$ the* e$#ure it) 9o$ce!ts are #iffere$tiate# through o!eratio$s that are $ot exactl* co$ce!tual a$# !oi$t to +#eas) 8$e of the $otio$s *ou allu#e# to& 1a $o$(locali a"le liaso$&1 goes "e*o$# the fiel# of re!rese$tatio$ a$# the locali atio$ of co$ce!ts i$ this fiel#) The* are 1i#eal1 liaso$s)

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Noel $oulou*: + #o$0t reall* wa$t to have to #efe$# the $otio$ of co$ce!t& which is am"iguous at "est& over(saturate# with !hiloso!hical tra#itio$s2 for exam!le& the .ristotelia$ co$ce!t is a mo#el of sta"ilit*) >ut + woul# #efi$e the scie$tific co$ce!t "* the wor' of a$ esse$tiall* mathematical thought) Aathematical thought ceaselessl* smashes the !reesta"lishe# or#ers of our i$tuitio$) .$# + woul# !oi$t out& too& the am"iguous use that coul# "e ma#e of the term idea, if o$e were to associate it too closel*& as >ergso$ i$ fact #i#& with some orga$i i$g schema& whose fou$#atio$s are i$ a !rofou$#& almost "iological i$tuitio$) The scie$ces& a$# eve$ the "iological scie$ces& have $ot #evelo!e# i$ the #irectio$ these schemas i$#icate#) 8r if the* i$#ee# "ega$ i$ that #irectio$& mathematical a$# ex!erime$tal mo#els ?uic'l* overtur$e# the schemas i$ ?uestio$)

Jean Wahl: +$ this case agai$& + see !ossi"le agreeme$t a$# a #iffere$ce of la$guage rather tha$ a #iffere$ce of co$ce!tio$)

Fer*inan* Al,uie- + ver* much a#mire# the tal' our goo# frie$# Deleu e /ust gave) The ?uestio$ +0# li'e to as' him is sim!le& a$# co$cer$s the "egi$$i$g of his s!eech) Deleu e co$#em$e#& right at the start& the ?uestio$ / at is t is= a$# the$ $ever came "ac' to it) + ca$ acce!t what came after that& a$# + ac'$owle#ge the extraor#i$ar* wealth !rocure# "* the other ?uestio$s he wa$ts to as') >ut + ca$0t acce!t his hast* re/ectio$ of the ?uestio$ / at is t is=, $or ca$ + acce!t what he sai#& a little i$timi#ati$gl*& whe$ he claime# that $o other !hiloso!her tha$ <lato ha# ever as'e# such a ?uestio$& exce!t for ;egel) + co$fess +0m a little shoc'e#2 "ecause + ca$ thi$' of $umerous !hiloso!hers who have as'e# this ?uestio$) 4ei"$i himself as'e#2 1what is a su"/ect@1 a$# 1what is a mo$a#@1 >er'ele*& too& as'e#2 1what is "ei$g@1 a$# 1what is the esse$ce a$# the sig$ificatio$ of the wor# "ei$g@1 Fa$t also as'e#2 1what is a$ o"/ect@1 + coul# cite ma$* more exam!les& so ma$* that $o o$e woul# co$test m* !oi$t& + ho!e) +t seems to me& the$& that Deleu e we$t o$ to orie$t !hiloso!h* towar# other !ro"lems& !ro"lems which are !erha!s $ot s!ecific to his wor'3or rather& he seems to have critici e# classical !hiloso!h*3 /ustifia"l* so3for $ot !rovi#i$g us with co$ce!ts sufficie$tl* a#a!ta"le to scie$ce& or !s*chological a$al*sis& or eve$ historical a$al*sis) This seems !erfectl* true to me& a$# i$ that res!ect& + ca$0t !raise him e$ough) ;owever& what struc' me was that all the exam!les he uses are $ot !ro!erl* !hiloso!hical exam!les) ;e s!o'e a"out the straight li$e& which is a mathematical exam!le& a"out the egg& which is a !h*siological exam!le& a"out ge$es& which is a "iological exam!le) :he$ he arrive# at the ?uestio$ of truth& the$ + sai#2 8F& $ow we have a

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!hiloso!hical exam!le) >ut it soo$ we$t astra*& "ecause Deleu e sa*s we shoul# as'2 who wa$ts the truth@ wh* #oes o$e wa$t the truth@ o$l* the /ealous ma$@& etc) These are all certai$l* i$teresti$g ?uestio$s& "ut the* #o$0t touch o$ the ver* esse$ce of truth& a$# the* are !erha!s $ot strictl* !hiloso!hical ?uestio$s) The* are ?uestio$s tur$e# i$stea# towar# !ro"lems that are !s*chological& !s*choa$al*tic& etc) 7o& + m*self woul# li'e to as' a sim!le ?uestio$) + u$#ersta$# that Ar) Deleu e critici es !hiloso!h* for ma'i$g the +#ea a co$ce!tio$ that is $ot a#a!ta"le& as he woul# li'e& to scie$tific& !s*chological& a$# historical !ro"lems) >ut + thi$' that alo$gsi#e these !ro"lems there remai$ classical !hiloso!hical !ro"lems& $amel* !ro"lems havi$g to #o with esse$ce) +$ a$* eve$t& + #o$0t "elieve& as Deleu e #oes& that the great !hiloso!hers have $ever !ose# such ?uestio$s)

Gilles Deleu e: +t is certai$l* true that $umerous !hiloso!hers have as'e# the ?uestio$2 / at is t is= >ut is this $ot& i$ their case& /ust a co$ve$ie$t wa* of tal'i$g@ Fa$t i$#ee# as's what is a$ o"/ect& "ut he as's this ?uestio$ withi$ the framewor' of a more !rofou$# ?uestio$& a ow ?uestio$& which too' o$ $ew mea$i$g2 1;ow is this !ossi"le@1 :hat seems most im!orta$t to me is the $ew wa* i$ which Fa$t i$ter!rets the ?uestio$ ou)% .s for 4ei"$i & whe$ he allows himself to as' w at is t is=, #oes he $ot get #efi$itio$s which he himself la"els $omi$al@ >ut whe$ he attai$s real #efi$itio$s& is it $ot tha$'s to ?uestio$s such as ow= from w at perspective= in w ic case= +$ 4ei"$i we fi$# a whole to!olog*& a whole casuistr*& that fi$#s ex!ressio$ !rimaril* i$ his i$terest i$ law) >ut i$ a$* eve$t& + was too hast*)

+t0s *our other criticism that hits home more forcefull*) >ecause + #o "elieve i$ the s!ecificit* of !hiloso!h*& a$# furthermore& this "elief of mi$e #erives from *ou *ourself) Nou sa* that the metho# + #escri"e "orrows its a!!licatio$s from all over& from #iffere$t scie$ces& "ut har#l* at all from !hiloso!h*) .$# that the o$l* !hiloso!hical exam!le + use#& the !ro"lem of truth& we$t astra* "ecause it co$siste# i$ #issolvi$g the co$ce!t of truth i$to !s*chological or !s*choa$al*tic #etermi$atio$s) +f this is the case& the$ + have faile#) >ecause the +#ea& as real(vir( tual& must $ot "e #escri"e# i$ u$i?uel* scie$tific terms& eve$ if scie$ce $ecessaril* comes i$to !la* i$ its actuali atio$) =ve$ co$ce!ts such as si$gular a$# regular& or remar'a"le a$# or#i$ar*& are $ot exhauste# "* mathematics) + wa$t to call o$ 4autma$0s theses2 a theor* of s*stems must show how the moveme$t of scie$tific co$ce!ts !artici!ates i$ a #ialectic that sur!asses them) 5or are #*$amisms re#uci"le to !s*chological #etermi$atio$s ,a$# whe$ + cite# the /ealous ma$ as the 1t*!e1 of the see'er of truth& it was $ot as a !s*chological character& "ut as a com!lex of

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s!ace a$# time& as a 1figure1 "elo$gi$g to the ver* notion of truth-) +t seems to me $ot o$l* that the theor* of s*stems is !hiloso!hical& "ut that this theor* forms a s*stem of a ver* !articular t*!e3the !hiloso!hical s*stem& with its ow$ #*$amisms& !recursors& larval su"/ects& s!ecific to it) .t a$* rate& it is o$ this co$#itio$ alo$e that the #ramatic metho# woul# ma'e se$se)

$auri'e *e Gan*illa':. >ehi$# *our suggestive a$# !oetic voca"ular*& + se$se !rofou$# a$# soli# thi$'i$g& as alwa*s& "ut + co$fess + woul# li'e a##itio$al clarificatio$ as to #ramati atio$& which is i$ *our title& a$# which *ou #efi$e# as though it were a well('$ow$ co$ce!t that $ee#s little comme$tar*) Esuall* whe$ we use the wor# dramatic or dramati(ation, we use it i$ a !e/orative se$se to re!roach someo$e for tur$i$g some mi$or i$ci#e$t i$to a theatrical !ro#uctio$ ,li'e whe$ we sa*2 1Guit "ei$g so #ramaticO1-) =t*mologicall*& a #rama is a$ actio$ "ut stage#& st*li e#& !rese$te# "efore a !u"lic) >ut + have #ifficult* imag i$i$g a situatio$ of this 'i$# arisi$g i$ co$$ectio$ with the fa$tasmic su"/ects *ou /ust s!o'e a"out2 the em"r*os& larvae& u$#iffere$tiate# #iffere$tiatio$s which are also #*$amic schemas& "ecause the terms *ou chose are !rett* vague& the*0re use# to mea$ /ust a"out a$*thi$g #e!e$#i$g o$ the co$text) Aore !re( cisel*& whereas *ou refuse the ?uestio$ ti ,i$asmuch as it co$cer$s a$ ousia$, *ou seem to acce!t tis as the su"/ect of a #oi$g or ma'i$g Btispoiei ti$% >ut ca$ we reall* s!ea' of a su"/ect #oi$g somethi$g at the larval level@

A* seco$# ?uestio$ is a"out the relatio$ "etwee$ the #ramatic a$# the tragic) Does the #rama *ou have i$ mi$#& li'e trage#*& refer to a$ irresolva"le co$flict "etwee$ two u$eve$ halves& i$ a su"tle #isharmo$ious harmo$*@ Nour allusio$ to .rtau# a$# his theatre of cruelt* sufficie$tl* #emo$strates that *ou are $ot a$ o!timistic !hiloso!her& or if *ou are& it0s i$ the wa* 4ei"i is& whose visio$ of the worl# is& all thi$gs co$si#ere#& o$e of the most cruel imagi$a"le) +s *our #ramati atio$ a T eodicy, this time situate# $ot i$ the celestial !alaces to which the famous a!ologists for 7extus allu#es& "ut rather with the lemurs from the seco$# .ausii

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Gilles Deleu e: I will tr* to #efi$e #ramati atio$ more rigorousl*2 what + have i$ mi$# are #*$amisms& #*$amic s!atio(tem!oral #etermi$atio$s& that are !re( ?ualitative a$# !re(exte$sive& ta'i$g 1!lace1 i$ i$te$sive s*stems where #iffere$ces are #istri"ute# at #iffere$t #e!ths& whose 1!atie$ts1 are larval su"/ects a$# whose 1fu$ctio$1 is to actuali e +#eas)))

$auri'e *e Gan*illa': >ut wh* #o *ou use the term dramati(ation to tra$slate all that ,which + fi$# a little o"scure-@

Gilles Deleu e: :he$ *ou assig$ such a s*stem of s!atio(tem!oral #etermi$atio$ to a co$ce!t& i$ m* view *ou0re re!laci$g a logos with a 1#rama&1 *ou0re setti$g u! the #rama of this logos) %or exam!le& *ou use# to sa*2 we #ramati e whe$ we0re with our famil*) +t0s true that ever*#a* life is full of #ramati atio$s) 7ome !s*choa$al*sts use the wor#& + "elieve& to #esig$ate the moveme$t "* which logical thought is #issolve# i$ !ure s!atio(tem!oral #etermi$atio$s& as i$ falli$g aslee!) .$# this is $ot so far remove# from the famous ex!erime$ts of the :urt "ourg school) Ta'e the case of a$ o"sessive com!ulsive& where the su"/ect 'ee!s shri$'i$g2 ha$#'erchiefs a$# towels are !er!etuall* cut& first i$ two& the$ the halves are cut agai$6 the cor# for the "ell i$ the #i$i$g room is regularl* shorte$e#& a$# the "ell gets closer to the ceili$g6 ever*thi$g is g$awe# at& mi$iaturi e#& !ut i$to "oxes) This is i$#ee# a #rama& i$ the se$se that the !atie$t orga$i es a s!ace& agitates it& while i$ this s!ace he ex!resses a$ +#ea of the u$co$scious) .$ a$gr* fit is a #ramati atio$ that stages larval su"/ects) Nou as'e# me whether #ramati atio$ i$ ge$eral is relate# to the tragic) + #o$0t see there "ei$g a$* !rivilege# relatio$ "etwee$ them) The tragic a$# the comic are still categories of re!rese$tatio$& whereas there is a more fu$#ame$tal relatio$ "etwee$ #ramati atio$ a$# a certai$ mo#e of terror& which ca$ e$tail a maxi mum of clow$ish$ess as well as grotes?ue))) Nou sai# *ourself that the worl# of 4ei"$i & i$ the e$#& is the most cruel of all vDorl#s)

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$auri'e *e Gan*illa': 9low$ish$ess& the grotes?ue& a$# s$ic'eri$g all "elo$g to the regio$ of the tragic& + "elieve) Nour co$clusio$ allu#e# to 5iet schea$ themes& all tol# more Dio$*sia$ tha$ .!ollo$ia$)

Jean Wahl: + thi$' Deleu e coul# have a$swere# *ou with the ?uestio$ w en=, "ecause there are times whe$ it all "ecomes tragic a$# there are times whe$ it "ecomes)))

Gilles Deleu e: +$#ee# + coul# have)

$i'hel Souriau:/ +0# li'e to as' for clarificatio$ as to a refere$ce) Ar) Deleu e cite# several !hiloso!hers& $ot ma$*& "ut certai$ o$es6 + thought + ma* have #etecte# a refere$ce to Aale"ra$che& though he was$0t cite#) There are several thi$gs i$ Aale"ra$che that woul# "e com!letel* out of !lace i$ *our wor'& for exam!le& his visio$ i$ Go#2 whereas for *ourself it is more a ?uestio$ of a 1visio$ i$ Ae!histo!heles)1 >ut we ca$0t forget the Aale"ra$che of inte''igib'e e!tension- whe$ *ou refer to the at first o"scure a$# i$ ever* case #*$amic "ecomi$g of i#eas& a$# the$ to this exte$sio$ which is $ot ?uite s!ace& "ut te$#s to "ecome s!ace& it reall* #oes sou$# li'e Aale"ra$che0s inte''igib'e e!tension%

Gilles Deleu e: +t #i#$0t occur to me u$til $ow& "ut there is i$#ee# a 'i$# of !ure& !re(exte$sive spatium i$ i$telligi"le exte$sio$) The same goes for the #isti$ctio$ 4ei"$i ma'es "etwee$ spatium a$# e!tensio%

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0u'1 Prenan):23 A* ?uestio$ is alo$g the same li$es as Ar) 7ouriau0s) :hat *ou call o"scure a$# #isti$ct& woul#$0t 4ei"$i call it i$telligi"le a$# u$(imagi$a"le@ E$(imagi$a"le corres!o$#s to o"scure3to what *ou0re calli$g the o"scure) %or 4ei"$i & the o"scure is thought $ot "ei$g a"le to #etermi$e its o"/ect& as i$ the Meditationes, for exam!le2 a fleeti$g memor* of a$ image) 8$ the other ha$#& the '$owle#ge that metal wor'ers have of gol# is co$verte# i$to a law of a series of !ro!erties6 this is $ot availa"le for the se$ses& a$# it #oes $ot ta'e the form of a$ image& a$# co$se?ue$tl*& + thi$' 4ei"$i woul# tra$slate it as o"scure& as o!!ose# to clear) .$# this ca$ eve$ a!!l* to what 4ei"$i calle# "li$# thought3$ot u$#er /ust a$* co$#itio$s& "ecause "li$# thought ca$ lea# to ver"alism a$# error& as he !oi$ts out i$ his criti?ue of the o$tological !roof) >ut this ca$ corres!o$# to certai$ forms of "li$# thought6 for exam!le& to characteristics3to forms that are rigorousl* co$structe#)

<recisel*& however& must $ot these 1#isti$ct a$# "li$#1 i#eas of 4ei"$i "e "ase# o$ 1#isti$ct visio$s1@ 4ei"$i sees that a straight li$e ca$ "e exte$#e# to i$fi$it* "ecause he sees the reaso$2 the similitu#e of the segme$ts) Thus we have recourse to 1!rimitive $otio$s1 which 1are the !ro!er mar's of themselves&1 to the al!ha"et of huma$ thought) +$ other wor#s& + #o$0t "elieve that thought ca$ remai$ full* 1o"scure&1 i$ Ar) Deleu e0s se$se of the wor#& throughout its course) Thought must at least 1see a reaso$&1 gras! a law)

Gilles Deleu e: I am struc' "* *our remar's o$ the rigor of 4ei"$i 0s termi$olog*) >ut is it $ot true& As) <re$a$t& that 1#isti$ct1 has ma$* se$ses i$ 4ei"$i @ ;is texts o$ the sea em!hasi e that there are eleme$ts i$ !erce!tio$& i)e) remar'a"le !oi$ts& that i$ com"i$atio$ with other remar'a"le !oi$ts of our "o#*& #etermi$e a threshol# of co$scious !erce!tio$) This co$scious !erce!tio$ is clear a$# co$fuse# ,$o$(#isti$ct-& "ut the #iffere$tial eleme$ts that it actuali es are themselves #isti$ct a$# o"scure) +t is true that we are #eali$g with a #e!th& which !erha!s i$ a certai$ wa* excee#s sufficie$t reaso$ itself)))

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0u'1 Prenan): %urthermore& whe$ a sim!le su"sta$ce 1ex!resses1 the u$iverse& + #o$0t thi$' it alwa*s #oes so through a$ image6 it is certai$l* ex!resse# through some ?ualit*3co$scious or $ot ,at most !artiall* co$scious for the fi$ite activit* of a create# su"sta$ce-& a$# this ?ualit* corres!o$#s to a s*stem of varia"le relatio$s from some 1!oi$t of view)1 Go# alo$e ca$ reflect o$ the totalit* of these virtualities with !erfect #isti$ctio$3which for him elimi$ates a$* $ee# for a calculus of !ro"a"ilities)))

>ut + wa$te# to as' *ou a seco$# ?uestio$) Does$0t this virtualit* that claims to corres!o$# to existe$ce $ot !ose a !ro"lem for the researcher o$ the loo'(out for a ti#* classificatio$& who fi$#s o$l* 1mess*1 exam!les& which the$ o"ligate her to rea#/ust her s!ecies@ +$ other wor#s& is this virtualit* a$*thi$g other tha$ a !rogressive a$# mo"ile ex!ressio$@

Gilles Deleu e: I #o$0t thi$' virtualit* ca$ ever corres!o$# to the actual i$ the wa* esse$ce #oes to a$ existe$ce) This woul# "e to co$fuse the virtual with the !ossi"le) +$ a$* eve$t& the virtual a$# the actual corres!o$# "ut #o $ot resem"le o$e a$other) This is wh* the search for actual co$ce!ts ca$ "e i$fi$ite& there is alwa*s a$ excess of virtual +#eas a$imati$g them)

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Jean !ll&o: + am a little overwhelme# "* such a !urel* !hiloso!hical ex!ose& a$# + ver* much a#mire# it& first for its form a$# its !oetic value& "ut also for the feel( i$g3"ut is it a feeli$g@3+ ha# while liste$i$g to it& that #es!ite m* ig$ora$ce& !hiloso!hicall* s!ea'i$g& a$# m* $aivete with res!ect to the co$ce!ts& metho#s& a$# refere$ces *ou use#& + felt li'e + coul# follow *ou& or rather at ever* mome$t + coul# tra$slate *ou i$to a more hum"le la$guage& the la$guage of e!istemolog*& from which + have ela"orate# a scie$tific reflectio$ which has "ee$ goi$g o$ for a few *ears $ow a$# e$com!asses more tha$ a few ex!erime$ts) 8f course& these two #isci!li$es #o $ot exactl* overla!& a$# from time to time + lost m* footi$g) >ut tha$'s to the ?uestio$s that were raise#& $ow + u$#ersta$# wh* + lost m* footi$g& si$ce there were !recise allusio$s to !hiloso!hical issues + am $ot familiar with) ;avi$g sai# that& + thi$' ever*thi$g *ou sai# ca$ "e tra$slate# i$to the la$guage of mo#er$ e!istemolog*& a$# + "elieve that the !ro/ect *ou have u$#erta'e$3givi$g !hiloso!hical co$ce!ts a ge$etic a$# evolutive exte$sio$& the 'i$# of i$ter$al #iffere$tiatio$ that allows them to "e a#a!te# to the #isci!li$es of scie$ce a$# histor*& as well as "iolog*& si$ce we agree that the fiel# of "iolog* is more evolve# tha$ the !h*sical scie$ces3+ thi$' this !ro/ect is extremel* i$teresti$g a$# that *ou have ma#e treme$#ous !rogress)Georges Bouligan*:22 I woul# /ust li'e to comme$t o$ the 1mess*1 exam!les that As) <re$a$t "rought u!) %or the mathematicia$& such 1mess*1 exam!les are alwa*s cou$ter(exam!les) . researcher who& i$ goo# faith& exami$es a theme #erives a !ros!ective view from it& i$ co$formit* with such exam!les as 1lea#1 him towar# the #esire# 1theorem)1 >ut a frie$# whom he meets soo$ !uts this theorem to the test with a cou$ter(exam!le) The$ our researcher u$#ergoes this 1!s*chological shoc'&1 which ca$ "e severe& "ut which is ?uic'l* #omi$ate# "* evaluati$g as 1stra$ge1 the case which was 1!racticall*1 exclu#e# from the start) This is a fre?ue$t !he$ome$o$& too) This is what ha!!e$s whe$ *ou ta'e a !oi$t of a surface 73 with a $ormal vertical for 3a$# tr* to /ustif* a 1mi$imum height1 for usi$g this h*!otheses2 ever* vertical meets 7 i$ a si$gle !oi$t6 for ever* li$e of 7 o"tai$e# as the i$tersectio$ of 7 a$# a$ ar"itrar* vertical !la$e co$tai$i$g the vertical of , the mi$imum woul# "e !ro#uce# for % The retur$ to a clear visio$ of thi$gs ca$ "e rather #ifficult2 havi$g starte# with more or less su"/ective im!ressio$s& we woul# have to re#iscover full agreeme$t with rigorous logic)

22

Ja',ues $erleau#Pon)1:3 7everal times *ou s!o'e a"out s!atio(tem!oral #*$amisms& which clearl* have a$ im!orta$t role to !la*& a$# + thi$' + more or less u$#erstoo# what *ou mea$t "* them i$ *our tal') ;owever& a$# this is certai$l* feasi"le& there ma* "e reaso$ to #ivi#e the s!atial from the tem!oral i$ these #*$amisms) . com!ariso$ of two images *ou use# ma'es me thi$' it coul# "e im!orta$t to clarif* this !oi$t) Nou use# the image of light$i$g6 + #o$0t '$ow if *ou fou$# it i$ 4ei"$i or if *ou fou$# it all "* *ourself& it #oes$0t matter) >ut clearl*& what we0re #eali$g with i$ this case is what *ou call the i$te$sive& a$# i$ !articular& !ote$tial) :e0re #eali$g with a$ i$sta$ta$eous #is!ersio$ that is !urel* s!atial& such as the moveme$t of charges& or sou$# waves& etc) The$ *ou use# the image of the em"r*o6 i$ this case& however& the tem!oral as!ect is clearl* tie# to the s!atial as!ect& si$ce the #iffere$tiatio$ is as rigorousl* co$trolle# i$ time as it is i$ s!ace) 7o + woul# li'e to '$ow if *ou have a$* clarificatio$s o$ this !oi$t& "ecause this is what +0m thi$'i$g2 + thought + #etecte#& a$# this is $o sur!rise& a certai$ echo of >ergso$ i$ *our tal'6 !recisel*& however& the light$i$g "olt is $ot at all >ergso$ia$& "ecause i$ >ergso$ there is $ever a ru!ture of time& or at least + #o$0t see it that wa*)

Gilles Deleu e: Nour ?uestio$ is a goo# o$e) :e woul# have to #isti$guish what "elo$gs to s!ace a$# what to time i$ these #*$amisms& a$# i$ each case& the !articular s!ace(time com"i$atio$) :he$ever a$ +#ea is actuali e#& there is a s!ace a$# a time of actuali atio$) The com"i$atio$s are clearl* varia"le) 8$ the o$e ha$#& if it is true that a$ +#ea has two as!ects& #iffere$tial relatio$s a$# si$gular !oi$ts& the time of actuali atio$ relates to the first& whereas the s!ace of

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actuali atio$ relates to the seco$#) 8$ the other ha$#& if we exami$e the two as!ects of actuali atio$& ?ualities a$# exte$sio$s& the ?ualities result for the most !art from the time of actuali atio$2 what !ro!erl* "elo$gs to ?ualities is #uratio$& lasti$g as lo$g as a$ i$te$sive s*stem mai$tai$s a$# commu$icates its co$stitutive #iffere$ces) .$# the exte$sio$s& for their !art& result from the s!ace of actuali atio$ or from the moveme$t "* which these si$gularities are i$car$ate#) :e see ver* well i$ "iolog* how #iffere$tial rh*thms #etermi$e the orga$i atio$ of the "o#* a$# its tem!oral s!ecificatio$)

Ja',ues $erleau#Pon)1: Begar#i$g the same ?uestio$& +0m thi$'i$g of a$ image *ou #i#$0t use i$ *our tal'& the image of li$eage) +$ the tal' *ou gave o$ <roust a few *ears ago& *ou s!o'e a"out li$eage& e)g) the two li$eages that arise from the great herma!hro#ite& etc) :oul#$0t that image "e suita"le i$ *our tal' to#a*@

Gilles Deleu e: Nes& #*$amisms i$#ee# #etermi$e 1li$eages)1 To#a* + s!o'e a"out a"stract li$es& a$# the #e!th from which these li$es emerge)

Jean Beau4re):2"2 woul# li'e to as' a ?uestio$& "ut $ot co$cer$i$g the tal' itself) +t0s a"out the last a$swer Deleu e gave to Ar) #e Ga$#illac) .t the e$# of *our excha$ge& .!ollo a$# Dio$*sus were evo'e#& a$# ever*thi$g was summe# u!2 the o!!ositio$ is i$surmou$ta"le) .m + o$ trac'@

Gilles Deleu e: Nes& I "elieve so)

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Jean Beau4re): The$ + woul# as' *ou this2 "* whom@ how far@ how@ where@ whe$@ >* whom ca$ this o!!ositio$ "e overcome@ + feel li'e)))

Gilles Deleu e: >* whom coul# it "e overcome@ 9ertai$l* $ot "* Dio$*sus& who has $o reaso$ to #o so) Dio$*sus wa$ts what is #isti$ct to remai$ o"scure) ;e sees $o reaso$ a$# $o a#va$tage i$ it) The i#ea of a reco$ciliatio$ is u$"eara"le to Dio$*sus) The clear a$# #isti$ct is /ust as u$"eara"le) ;e has ta'e$ o$ the #isti$ct a$# wa$ts it to remai$ o"scure) + su!!ose it0s /ust his !articular will))) >ut who wa$ts to overcome this o!!ositio$@ + ca$ tell that the #ream of a reco$ciliatio$ "etwee$ the clear a$# the #isti$ct ca$ o$l* "e ex!lai$e# "* the clear) .!ollo wa$ts to overcome this o!!ositio$) ;e elicits the reco$ciliatio$ of the clear a$# #isti$ct& a$# he i$s!ires the artisa$ with this reco$ciliatio$2 the tragic artist) 4et me come "ac' to the theme A) #e Ga$#illac touche# o$ a few mome$ts ago) The tragic is the effort at reco$ciliatio$& which $ecessaril* comes from .!ollo) >ut i$ Dio$*sus there is alwa*s somethi$g that with#raws a$# tur$s awa*& somethi$g that wa$ts to mai$tai$ the #isti$ct o"scure)))

Jean Beau4re): + thi$' we0ve acce!te# the .!ollo(Dio$*sus #isti$ctio$ a little too ?uic'l*& though the #isti$ctio$ is i$#ee# shar!l* #raw$ i$ T e 3irt of Tragedy% Aore a$# more& however& + get the feeli$g there is a thir# character that shows u! i$ 5iet sche& a$# which he te$#s to call ;alc*o$) + #o$0t '$ow what it #oes& "ut what stri'es me is this A':yonisc e, which is& as 5iet sche sa*s& the s'* of 5ice& li'e a #ime$sio$ that #oes$0t corres!o$# to either the .!ollo$ia$ or the Dio$*sia$ #ime$sio$) .t the e$# of 3eyond *ood and Evi', 5iet sche #iscusses his e$cou$ter with Dio$*sus a$# sa*s that the go# re!lie# with 1his halc*o$ smile)1 + as'e# m*self what this halc*o$ smile coul# mea$) +$ a$* case& this is wh* + thi$' 5iet sche is more retice$t tha$ *ou have "ee$) + thi$' it0s a late #iscover*)

Gilles Deleu e: 9ertai$l*& the sig$ificatio$ of ;alc*o$ remai$s a real !ro"lem i$ 5iet sche0s later wor')

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S)anislas Bre)on:(5 The ?uestio$ w at is t is= i$#ee# har#l* gets me a$*where i$ the #iscover* of the esse$ce or the +#ea) >ut it #oes seem to have a$ i$#is!e$sa"le regu'ative function% +t o!e$s u! a regio$ of i$?uir* which o$l* the euristic @uestions w o= ow=, etc)& are a"le to fill) %ar from re!laci$g the ?uestio$ w at is t is=, these other ?uestio$s thus a!!ear to re?uire it) The* form a$ i$#is!e$sa"le me#iatio$) +t is i$ or#er to a$swer the ?uestio$ w at is t is= that + as' the other ?uestio$s) The two t*!es of ?uestio$s are therefore heteroge$eous a$# com!lime$tar*)

%urthermore& these other ?uestio$s a!!ear fou$#e# o$ a !rior i#ea of the 1thi$g&1 a$ i#ea that is alrea#* a res!o$se& i$ a glo"al wa*& to the ?uestio$ w at is t is= The* !resu!!ose a 1larval1 su"/ect that u$fol#s i$ a$ interva' of actua'i(ation, which the s!atio(tem!oral #*$amisms ma'e co$crete)

+t follows that& "* virtue of what has "ee$ calle# the co$versio$ of su"sta$ce i$to the su"/ect& the esse$ce is less w at is alrea#* there tha$ to ti ev einai ,what is a"out to "e-) ;egel also s!ea's of a 3estimmt eit that "ecomes a 3estimmung% The #etermi$atio$ of the thi$g woul# "e the !ast of its 1#ramati atio$)1 Esse se@uitur operari ,rather tha$ operari se@uitur esse$% Tra#itio$al o$tolog* woul# thus "e o$l* a$ a!!roximatio$ of a$ o$to(ge$ius& whose ce$ter is the causa sui or the aut upostaton that <roclus #iscusses)

>* situati$g *our reflectio$s withi$ this o$tological hori o$& +0m $ot tr*i$g to #imi$ish their im!licatio$s or their im!orta$ce) + wa$t to u$#ersta$# them "etter) >ut there is $evertheless o$e ?uestio$ that comes first2 what exactl* is the a!!licatio$ of *our metho#@ :ithi$ which hori o$ of realit* exactl* #o *ou !ose *our 1to!ical1 ?uestio$s @uis= @uomodo=, etc) Do$0t these ?uestio$s o$l* ma'e se$se i$ the worl# of ma$'i$#@ 8r ca$ the* "e a!!lie# to the 1thi$gs1 of commo$ or scie$tific ex!erie$ce@ 7!atio(tem!oral #*$amisms are o"/ects of i$?uir* i$ #*$amic !s*cholog* a$# micro!h*sics) :hat relatio$s of a$alog* are there "etwee$ these ver* #iffere$t s!atio(tem!oral #*$amisms@ 9a$ we imagi$e a !rocess of #iffere$tiatio$ that relates them@

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Gilles Deleu e: I(& $ot sure that the two 'i$#s of ?uestio$s ca$ "e reco$cile#) Nou sa* that the ?uestio$ w at is t is= !rece#es a$# #irects the i$?uir* of the other ?uestio$s) .$# that these other ?uestio$s allow us to a$swer w at is t is= ;owever& is there $ot ever* reaso$ to fear that& if we "egi$ with w at is t is=, we will $ever eve$ get to the other ?uestio$s) The ?uestio$ w at is t is= "iases the results of the i$?uir*& it !resu!!oses the a$swer as the sim!licit* of a$ esse$ce& eve$ if the esse$ce is !ro!erl* multi!le& co$tra#ictor*& etc) This is /ust a"stract moveme$t& a$# we will $ever "e a"le to reco$$ect with real moveme$t& that which traverses a multi!licit* as such) +$ m* view& the two 'i$#s of ?uestio$s im!l* irreco$cila"le metho#s) %or exam!le& whe$ 5iet sche as's w o, or from w at perspective, i$stea# of w at, he is $ot tr*i$g to com!lete the ?uestio$ w at is t isH5, he is critici i$g the form of this ?uestio$ a$# all its !ossi"le res!o$ses) :he$ + as' w at is t is=, + assume there is a$ esse$ce "ehi$# a!!eara$ces& or at least somethi$g ultimate "ehi$# the mas's) The other 'i$# of ?uestio$& however& alwa*s #iscovers other mas's "ehi$# the mas'& #is!laceme$ts "ehi$# ever* !lace& other 1cases1 stac'e# u! i$ a case)

Nou i$#icate the !rofou$# !rese$ce of a tem!oral o!eratio$ in to ti en enai% >ut it seems to me that this o!eratio$ i$ .ristotle #oes $ot #e!e$# o$ the ?uestio$ w at is t is=, "ut rather o$ the ?uestio$ w o=, which .ristotle uses to ex!ress his a$ti(<lato$ism2 to ti a, or 1who is1 ,or rather& 1who& "ei$g1-)

.$# *ou woul# li'e to '$ow what is the sco!e of this #ramati atio$) +s it exclusivel* !s*chological or a$thro!ological@ + #o$0t see it as !rivilegi$g ma$'i$# i$ a$* wa*) +$ a$* eve$t& what is #ramati e# is the u$co$scious) .ll 'i$#s of re!etitio$s a$# reso$a$ces i$terve$e amo$g !h*sical& "iological& a$# !s*chic #*$amisms) <erha!s the #iffere$ces "etwee$ #*$amisms !rimaril* #erives from the order of the +#ea "ei$g actuali e#) The various or#ers of +#eas woul# have to "e #etermi$e#)

Ale%is Philonen6o:2+2 woul# li'e a clarificatio$ from Ar) Deleu e) Nou affirme# that i$ the moveme$t of actuali atio$& the #iffere$tial eleme$ts ha# $o se$si"le figure& $o fu$ctio$& $o co$ce!tual sig$ificatio$ ,which seems totall* a$ti(4ei"$i & so to s!ea'& si$ce 4ei"$i assig$s a co$ce!tual sig$ificatio$ to the #iffere$tial !recisel* "ecause the #iffere$tial has $o 1figure61 "ut that0s $ot m* ?uestio$-) To i$tro#uce *our thesis& *ou allu#e# to the !ost(Fa$tia$s) %or me& that im!lie# $ot o$l* a refere$ce to ;egel& "ut also to Aai0mo$& %ichte& 7chelli$g& eve$ 7cho!e$hauer) Aa*"e eve$ 5iet sche& if *ou li'e))) + woul# li'e *ou to clarif* which !ost(Fa$tia$s i$ !articular *ou ha# i$ mi$#)

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Gilles Deleu e: Nou0re as'i$g me who + ha# i$ mi$#2 o"viousl* Aai0mo$ a$# certai$ as!ects of 5ovalis)

Ale%is Philonen6o: .$# *ou were thi$'i$g of the #iffere$tial of co$scious$ess@ Gilles Deleu e: That0s right)))

Ale%is Philonen6o: :ell& !arts of *our tal' seeme# i$s!ire# "* the wor' of Aai0mo$) This clarificatio$ is im!orta$t "ecause the $otio$ of the #iffere$tial of co$scious$ess i$ Aai0mo$ is crucial& a$# i$ ma$* res!ects& the s!atio(tem!oral #*$amisms *ou #escri"e# are remar'a"l* remi$isce$t of Aai0mo$0s #iffere$tial of co$scious$ess) 4et me ex!lai$) .t the level of re!rese$tatio$ we have somethi$g li'e i$tegratio$s6 "ut there is a su"(re!rese$tative level& as *ou *ourself trie# to show& a$# at this level the #iffere$tial has a ge$etic sig$ifica tio$& at least i$ Aai0mo$0s view) + was as'i$g for clarificatio$ to set u! the #iscussio$) :hat& to m* wa* of thi$'i$g& is so i$teresti$g is that for Aa0i0mo$& t e notion of t e differentia', w ic is associated wit t e transcendenta' imagination, is a s:eptica' princip'e, a !ri$ci!le which lea#s us to /u#ge the real as illusor*) +$sofar as the root of s!atio(tem!oral #*$amisms is su"(re!rese$tatio$al& we have accor#i$g to Aa0imo$& $o criterio$) .$# this mea$s two thi$gs2 i$ the first !lace& we ca$$ot #iscer$ what we !ro#uce a$# what the o"/ect !ro#uces6 i$ the seco$# !lace& we ca$$ot #iscer$ what is !ro#uce# logicall* a$# what is $ot) .ll there remai$s is the results of the su"(re!rese$tatio$al ge$esis of the tra$sce$#e$tal imagi$atio$) 7o& accor#i$g to Aaimo$& a #ialectic of the tra$sce$#e$tal imagi$atio$ must "e #evelo!e#& or if *ou !refer& a dia'ectic of synt esis% This coul# "e associate# with 4ei"$i & "ut /ust a little) 7o this is what + wa$t to '$ow2 what !art #oes illusio$ ,or the illusor*- have i$ the moveme$t of #iffere$tial eleme$ts@ Gilles Deleu e: %or me& $o$e)

Ale%is Philonen6o: .$# what allows *ou to sa* that@

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Gilles Deleu e: Nou sa* to me2 for Aaimo$ there is a$ illusio$) + follow *ou& "ut + was$0t tr*i$g to ex!licate Aaimo$) +f what *ou0re tr*i$g to as' me is2 what !art #oes illusio$ have i$ the schema *ou0re !ro!osi$g@ A* a$swer is2 $o$e) +t seems to me we have the mea$s to !e$etrate the su"(re!rese$tatio$al& to reach all the wa* to the roots of s!atio( tem!oral #*$amisms& a$# all the wa* to the +#eas actuali e# i$ them2 the eleme$ts a$# i#eal eve$ts& the relatio$s a$# si$gularities are !erfectl* #etermi$a"le) The illusio$ o$l* comes afterwar#& from the #irectio$ of co$stitute# exte$sio$s a$# the ?ualities that fill out these exte$sio$s)

Ale%is Philonen6o: 7o illusio$ a!!ears o$l* i$ what is co$stitute#@

Gilles Deleu e: That0s right) To sum thi$gs u!& + #o$0t have the same co$ce!tio$ of the u$co$scious as 4ei"$i or Aaimo$) %reu# alrea#* we$t #ow$ that roa#) 7o illusio$ has "ee$ #is!lace#)))

Ale%is Philonen6o: :ell& + mea$ to sta* o$ the level of logic a$# eve$ tra$ sce$#e$tal logic& without getti$g i$to !s*cholog*3"ut if *ou !ush illusio$ over to the si#e of what is co$stitute#& without acce!ti$g illusio$ i$ ge$esis& i$ co$stitutio$& are *ou $ot i$ the e$# /ust comi$g "ac' to <lato ,whe$ i$ fact *ou woul# li'e to avoi# such a thi$g-& for whom !recisel* co$stitutio$& u$#erstoo# as !rocee#i$g from the +#ea& i$ as much as it ca$ "e u$#erstoo#& is alwa*s veracious& truthful@ Gilles Deleu e: Nes& ma*"e)

Ale%is Philonen6o: 7o& as far as s!ecificatio$ a$# multi!licit* are co$cer$e#& we woul# ex!erie$ce the same truth as <lato& a$# we woul# have the same i#ea of the true& i)e) the sim!licit* of the true alwa*s e?ual to itself i$ the totalit* of its !ro#uctio$@

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Gilles Deleu e: That0s $ot the <lato + have i$ mi$#) +f we thi$' of the <lato from the later #ialectic& where the +#eas are somethi$g li'e multi!licities that must "e traverse# "* ?uestio$s such as ow= ow muc = in w ic case=, the$ *es& ever*thi$g +0ve sai# has somethi$g <lato$ic a"out it) +f *ou0re thi$'i$g of the <lato who favors a sim!licit* of the esse$ce or a i!seit* of the +#ea& the$ $o) Jean Wahl: +f $o o$e else wa$ts to as' a ?uestio$& the$ + will co$clu#e "* tha$'i$g Ar) Deleu e a$# all those who !artici!ate# i$ the #iscussio$

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)

+f we were to ta'e awa* o$l* o$e lesso$ from this collo?uium& 2 it woul# "e how ma$* thi$gs i$ 5iet sche are hi##e$& mas'e#) .$# this for several reaso$s)

%irst for reaso$s co$cer$i$g the editions of 5iet sche0s wor') +t0s $ot so much a ?uestio$ of falsificatio$s2 his sister was i$#ee# o$e of those a"usive relatives that figure i$ the !rocessio$ of curse# thi$'ers& "ut her !ri$ci!al faults #i# $ot co$sist i$ falsif*i$g texts) The exte$t e#itio$s suffer more from "a# rea#i$gs or #is!laceme$ts& a$# es!eciall* ar"itrar* selectio$s ta'e$ from the mass of !osthumous $otes) T e /i'' to )ower is the most famous exam!le) :e ca$ further sa* that $o$e of the exte$t e#itio$s& eve$ the most rece$t& meet $ormal scie$tific a$# critical #ema$#s) This is wh* the !ro/ect "* Ar) 9olli a$# Ar) Ao$ti$ari is i$ m* o!i$io$ so im!orta$t2 the com!lete !osthumous $otes will at last "e e#ite#& o"servi$g the most rigorous chro$olog* !ossi"le& accor#i$g to the !erio#s corres!o$#i$g to the "oo's 5iet sche !u"lishe#) The successio$ of o$e mo#e of thi$'i$g for 1872 a$# a$other for 1884 will thus come to a$ e$#) Ar) 9olli a$# Ar) Ao$ti$ari were gracious e$ough to u!#ate us o$ the !rogress of their wor' a$# its immi$e$t com!letio$6 a$# + am ha!!* to a$$ou$ce that their e#itio$ will also a!!ear i$ %re$ch)

>ut thi$gs are hi##e$ i$ 5iet sche for still other reaso$s3of a !athological $ature) ;is wor' is u$fi$ishe#& i$terru!te# "* ma#$ess) :e must $ot forget that the =ter$al Betur$ a$# the :ill to <ower& the two most fu$#ame$tal co$ce!ts i$ the 5iet schea$ cor!us& are har#l* i$tro#uce# at all) The* $ever #i# receive the exte$#e# treatme$t 5iet sche i$te$#e#) +$ !articular& *ou will recall that Rarathoustra ca$$ot "e sai# to have articulate# or formulate# the

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eter$al retur$& which is o$ the co$trar* hi##e$ i$ the four "oo's of T us Spo:e Iarat ustra8 A 3oo: for A'' and None% :hat little is articulate# i$ T us Spo:e Iarat ustra is $ot formulate# "* Rarathoustra himself& "ut either "* the 1#warf1 or "* the eagle a$# the ser!e$t) 3 This is a sim!le i$tro#uctio$& which ca$ eve$ e$tail volu$tar* #isguises) .$# 5iet sche0s $otes& i$ this case& #o $ot !ermit us to a$tici!ate how he woul# have orga$i e# a$* future essa*s co$cer$i$g it) :e have ever* right to "elieve that ma#$ess "rutall* i$terru!te# 5iet sche0s wor' "efore he was a"le to write what seeme# to him most fu$#ame$tal)3+$ what se$se ma#$ess "elo$gs to the wor' is a com!lex ?uestio$) %or m* !art& + #o$0t see the least ma#$ess i$ Ecce +omo, u$less o$e sees also great master* i$ it) + feel that the ma# letters of 1888 a$# 1889 #o "elo$g to the wor'& eve$ while the* i$terru!t it a$# cause its termi$atio$ ,the great letter to >ur'har#t is i$ a$* case u$forgetta"le-)

Ar) Flossows'i sai# that the #eath of Go#& the #ea# Go#& #e!rives the 7elf of its o$l* guara$tee of i#e$tit*& its su"sta$tial "asis of u$it*2 with Go# #ea#& the self #issolves or eva!orates& "ut i$ a certai$ wa*& o!e$s itself u! to all the other selves& roles& a$# characters which must "e ru$ through i$ a series li'e so ma$* fortuitous eve$ts) 1+ am 9ham"ige& 1 am >a#i$guet& + am <ra#o& + am esse$tiall* ever* $ame i$ histor*)1 Ar) :ahl ha# alrea#* give$ us a !icture of this "rillia$t wasteful$ess !rior to 5iet sche0s sic'$ess3this !ower of metamor!hosis at the heart of 5iet sche0s !luralism) +$#ee# 5iet sche0s whole !s*cholog*& $ot o$l* his !erso$al !s*cholog* "ut also the o$e he is i$ve$ti$g& is a !s*cholog* of the mas'& a t*!olog* of mas's6 a$# "ehi$# ever* mas' there lies still a$other mas')

>ut the most ge$eral reaso$ wh* there are so ma$* hi##e$ thi$gs i$ 5iet sche a$# his wor' is met odo'ogica' i$ $ature) . thi$g $ever has o$l* o$e se$se) =ach thi$g has several se$ses that ex!ress the forces a$# the "ecomi$g of forces at wor' i$ it) 7till more to the !oi$t& there is $o 1thi$g&1 "ut o$l* i$ter!retatio$s hi##e$ i$ o$e a$other& li'e mas's la*ere# o$e o$ the other& or la$guages that i$clu#e each other) .s Ar) %oucault has show$ us& 5iet sche i$ve$ts a $ew co$ce!tio$ a$# $ew metho#s of i$ter!retatio$2 first "* cha$gi$g the s!ace i$ which sig$s are #istri"ute#& "* #iscoveri$g a $ew 1#e!th1 i$ relatio$ to which the ol# #e!th flatte$s out a$# is $o lo$ger a$*thi$g6 seco$#& a$# most im!orta$tl*& "* re!laci$g the sim!le relatio$ of sig$ a$# se$se with a com!lex of se$ses& such that ever* i$ter!retatio$ is alrea#* the i$ter!retatio$ of a$

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i$ter!retatio$ ad infinitum% 5ot that ever* i$ter!retatio$ therefore has the same value a$# occu!ies the same !la$e3o$ the co$trar*& the* are stac'e# or la*ere# i$ the $ew #e!th) >ut the* $o lo$ger have the true a$# the false as criteria) The $o"le a$# the vile& the high a$# the low& "ecome the imma$e$t !ri$ci!les of i$ter!retatio$s a$# evaluatio$s) 4ogic is re!lace# "* a to!olog* a$# a t*!olog*2 there are some i$ter!retatio$s that !resu!!ose a "ase or vile wa* of thi$'i$g& feeli$g& a$# eve$ existi$g& a$# there are others that exhi"it $o"ilit*& ge$erosit*& creativit*)))& such that i$ter!retatio$s sa* somethi$g a"out the 1t*!e1 of i$ter!reter& a$# re$ou$ce the ?uestio$ 1what is it@1 i$ favor of 1who is it@1

This is how the $otio$ of value allows the truth to "e 1stam!e# out&1 so to s!ea'& a$# a more !rofou$# force to "e #iscovere# "ehi$# the true a$# the false) Does this $otio$ of value commit 5iet sche to a <lato$ic(9artesia$ meta!h*sics& or #oes it o!e$ u! a $ew !hiloso!h*& eve$ a $ew o$tolog*@ This seco$# theme of our collo?uium is the !ro"lem that Ar) >eaufret tac'le#) The ?uestio$ is this2 if ever*thi$g is a mas'& if ever*thi$g is i$ter!retatio$ a$# evaluatio$& is there some ultimate court of a!!eal& si$ce there are $o thi$gs to i$ter!ret or evaluate& $o thi$gs to mas'@ Eltimatel*& there is $othi$g exce!t the will to !ower& which is the !ower to metamor!hose& to sha!e mas's& to i$ter!ret a$# evaluate) Ar) Hattimo showe# us o$e a!!roach2 he argue# that the two !ri$ci!le as!ects of 5iet sche0s !hiloso!h*& the criti?ue of all curre$t values a$# the creatio$ of $ew values& #em*stificatio$ a$# tra$svaluatio$& coul# $ot "e u$#erstoo# a$# woul# amou$t to $othi$g "ut sim!le !re!ositio$al states of co$scious$ess& shoul# we fail to refer these two as!ects to a$ origi$al& o$tological #e!th31a cave "ehi$# ever* cave&1 1a$ a"*ss u$#er ever* ocea$ floor)1

This origi$al #e!th& Rarathoustra0s cele"rate# height(#e!th& must "e $ame# the will to !ower) 8f course& Ar) >irault figure# out how we must u$#ersta$# the term 1will to !ower)1 +t0s $ot wa$ti$g to live& "ecause how coul# whatever life is wa$t to live@ +t0s $ot a #esire for #omi$atio$ either& "ecause how coul# whatever it is that #omi$ates #esire to #omi$ate@ Rarathoustra sa*s2 1The #esire to #omi$ate2 $ow who woul# call that a #esire@1 The will to !ower& the$& is $ot a will that wa$ts !ower or wa$ts to #omi$ate)

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7uch a$ i$ter!retatio$ woul# i$#ee# have two #isa#va$tages) +f the will to !ower mea$t wa$ti$g !ower& it woul# clearl* #e!e$# o$ lo$g esta"lishe# values& such as ho$or& mo$e*& or social i$flue$ce& si$ce these values #etermi$e the attri"utio$ a$# recog$itio$ of !ower as a$ o"/ect of #esire a$# will) .$# this !ower which the will #esire# coul# "e o"tai$e# o$l* "* throwi$g itself i$to the struggle or fight) Aore to the !oi$t& we as'2 w o wa$ts such !ower@ w o wa$ts to #omi$ate@ <recisel* those whom 5iet sche calls slaves a$# the wea') :a$t i$g !ower is the image of the will to !ower which the im!ote$t i$ve$t for themselves) 5iet sche alwa*s saw i$ struggle& i$ fighti$g& a mea$s of selectio$ that wor'e# i$ reverse& tur$i$g to the a#va$tage of slaves a$# her#s) This is o$e of 5iet sche0s great o"servatio$s2 1The stro$g must "e #efe$#e# /ust li'e the wea')1 9ertai$l*& i$ the #esire to #omi$ate& i$ the image of the will to !ower which the im!ote$t i$ve$t for themselves& we #iscover a will to !ower2 "ut at its lowest level) The will to !ower has its highest level i$ a$ i$te$se or i$te$sive form& which is $either coveti$g $or ta'i$g& "ut givi$g& creati$g) +ts true $ame& sa*s Rarathoustra& is the virtue that gives) 4 .$# the mas' is the most "eautiful gift& showi$g the will to !ower as a !lastic force& as the highest !ower of art) <ower is $ot what the will wa$ts& "ut that which wa$ts i$ will& that is to sa*& Dio$*sos)

This is wh*& as Ar) >irault remar'e#& 5iet sche0s !ers!ectivism cha$ges ever*thi$g& #e!e$#i$g whether *ou loo' at thi$gs from a"ove or from "elow) %rom a"ove& the will to !ower is affirmatio$& a$ affirmatio$ of #iffere$ce& !la*& !leasure a$# gift& the creatio$ of #iffere$ce) >ut from "elow& ever*thi$g is reverse#) .ffirmatio$ is reflecte# i$to $egatio$& a$# #iffere$ce i$to o!!ositio$6 it is o$l* thi$gs(from("elow that origi$all* $ee# to o!!ose whatever the* are $ot) Ar) >irault a$# Ar) %oucault agree o$ this !oi$t) Ar) %oucault showe# us that goo# moveme$ts& i$ 5iet sche& origi$ate from a"ove& "egi$$i$g with the moveme$t of i$ter!retatio$) :hatever is goo#& whatever is $o"le& !artici!ates i$ the eagle0s flight2 hoveri$g a$# #esce$t) .$# the #e!ths are i$ter!rete# o$l* whe$ the* are excavate#& i$ other wor#s& traverse#& tur$e# u!si#e #ow$& a$# re!ossesse# "* a moveme$t which comes from a"ove)

This lea#s us to the thir# theme of the collo?uium& which ofte$ came u! i$ our #iscussio$s& co$cer$i$g the relatio$ of affirmatio$ a$# $egatio$ i$ 5iet sche0s wor') Ar) 4owith& i$ a masterful !rese$tatio$ whose re!ercussio$s echoe# throughout our collo?uium& a$al* e# the $ature of $ihilism a$# showe# how goi$g "e*o$# $ihilism lea#s 5iet sche to a real recu!eratio$

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of the worl#& a $ew allia$ce& a$ affirmatio$ of the earth a$# "o#*) This i#ea of the 1recu!eratio$ of the worl#1 sums u! Ar) 4owith0s i$ter!retatio$ of 5iet sche) ;e relie# i$ !articular o$ a text from T e *ay Science8 17u!!ress *our ve$eratio$s& or else su!!ress *ourselvesO1 5 .$# + thi$' we were all im!resse# "* Ar) Ga"riel Aarcel& whe$ he evo'e# the same text to clarif* his ow$ !ositio$ with res!ect to $ihilism& to 5iet sche& a$# eve$tual #isci!les of 5iet sche)

+$#ee#& the res!ective role of Nes a$# 5o& of affirmatio$ a$# $egatio$& i$ 5iet sche0s wor' raises ma$* !ro"lems) +$ Ar) :ahl0s o!i$io$& a$# as he #emo$strate#& there are so ma$* sig$ificatio$s of Nes a$# 5o& the* coexist o$l* at the cost of te$sio$s& live# co$tra#ictio$s& co$tra#ictio$s i$ thought& some of which are u$thi$'a"le) .$# Ar) :ahl multi!lie# ?uestio$ o$ ?uestio$& "eautifull* wiel#i$g the metho# of !ers!ectives which he ta'es from 5iet sche& a$# which he '$ows how to ma'e $ew)

4et0s ta'e a$ exam!le) There is $o #ou"t that the Aule i$ Rarathoustra is a$ a$imal that sa*s Nes& +(.& +(.) >ut his Nes is $ot the Nes of Rarathoustra) 5ot to me$tio$ the Aule0s 5o& which is $ot li'e Rarathoustra0s either) This is "ecause whe$ the Aule sa*s Nes& whe$ he affirms or "elieves he is affirmi$g& he #oes $othi$g "ut shoul#er a "ur#e$6 he measures the value of his affirmatio$s "* the "ur#e$ he "ears) .s Ar) Gueroult remi$#e# us at the start of this col lo?uium& the Aule ,or the 9amel- "ears first the values of 9hristia$it*6 the$& whe$ Go# is #ea#& he "ears the "ur#e$ of huma$ist values3huma$& all too huma$6 a$# fi$all* the "ur#e$ of the real& whe$ there are $o lo$ger a$* values at all) :e here recog$i e the three stages of 5iet schea$ $ihilism2 Go#& huma$it*& a$# the last huma$3the "ur#e$ we ourselves hoist o$ our ow$ shoul#ers& a$# whe$ we have $othi$g else to "ear& the "ur#e$ of our ow$ fatigue) 6 ;e$ce the Aule i$ fact sa*s 5o& "ecause he sa*s Nes to all the !ro#ucts of $ihilism& eve$ as he exhausts each of its stages) 9o$se?ue$tl*& affirmatio$ here is o$l* the !ha$tom of affirmatio$6 the $egative is the o$l* realit*)

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Rarathoustra0s Nes is ?uite #iffere$t) Rarathoustra '$ows that affirmatio$ #oes $ot mea$ shoul#eri$g a "ur#e$) 8$l* the clow$& the mo$'e* of Rarathoustra has himself carrie#) 8$ the co$trar*& Rarathoustra '$ows that affirmatio$ mea$s u$"ur#e$i$g life& ma'i$g it light& #a$ci$g a$# creati$g)1 That0s wh* for Rarathoustra affirmatio$ comes first& whereas $egatio$ is o$l* a co$se?ue$ce that serves affirmatio$& li'e a sur!lus of !leasure) 5iet sche( Rarathoustra co$trasts his small& rou$#& la"*ri$thi$e ears with the Aule0s lo$g& !oi$te# ears2 Rarathoustra0s Nes is i$#ee# the affirmatio$ of the #a$cer& whereas the Aule0s Nes is the affirmatio$ of the "east of "ur#e$6 Rarathoustra0s 5o is !ure aggressio$& whereas the Aule0s 5o is merel* rese$tme$t) Rarathoustra0s moveme$t& comi$g from a"ove& thus "ri$gs us "ac' to the legitimac* of a 5iet chea$ t*!olog*& a$# eve$ to!olog*) The Aule0s moveme$t reverses the #e!th& i$verti$g the Nes a$# the 5o)

>ut o$l* the fourth theme of our collo?uium coul# a##ress the fu$#ame$tal se$se which the Dio$*sia$ Nes #iscovers i$ the eter$al retur$) 8$ce agai$& there were ma$* ?uestio$s !ut forwar#) +$ the first !lace2 ;ow #oes o$e ex!lai$ that the eter$al retur$ is a$ a$cie$t i#ea& #ati$g from the !re(7ocrat( ics& a$# *et 5iet sche0s great i$$ovatio$& or what he !rese$ts as his ow$ #iscover*@ .$# how #oes o$e ex!lai$ that there is somethi$g $ew i$ the i#ea that $othi$g is $ew@ The eter$al retur$ is most certai$l* $ot the $egatio$ or su!!ressio$ of time& a$ atem!oral eter$it*) >ut how #oes o$e ex!lai$ that it is "oth c*cle a$# mome$t2 o$ the o$e ha$# co$ti$uatio$6 a$# o$ the other& iteratio$@ 8$ the o$e ha$#& a co$ti$uatio$ of the !rocess of "ecomi$g which is the :orl#6 a$# o$ the other& re!etitio$& light$i$g flash& a m*stical view o$ this !rocess or this "ecomi$g@ 8$ the o$e ha$#& the co$ti$ual re"egi$$i$g of what has "ee$6 a$# o$ the other& the i$sta$ta$eous retur$ to a 'i$# of i$te$se focal !oi$t& to a 1 ero1 mome$t of the will@ .$# i$ the seco$# !lace2 ;ow #oes o$e ex!lai$ that the eter$al retur$ is the most #evastati$g thought& eliciti$g the 1Greatest Disgust&1 a$# *et is the greatest co$solatio$& the great thought of co$valesce$ce& which !rovo'es the su!er(huma$@ .ll these !ro"lems were co$sta$tl* !rese$t i$ our #iscussio$s6 a$# little "* little& #ivisio$s a$# #isti$ctio$s ma#e themselves felt)

.t least o$e thi$g is clear2 the eter$al retur$& as the a$cie$ts u$#erstoo# it& #oes $ot have either the sim!licit* or the #ogmatism ofte$ attri"ute# to it6 it is i$ $o wa* a co$sta$t of the archaic !s*cholog*) 8$ this !oi$t& we were remi$#e# that the eter$al retur$ i$ a$cie$t thought

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was $ever !ure& "ut alwa*s accom!a$ie# "* other themes such as the tra$smigratio$ of souls) 5or was it co$ceive# i$ a u$iform wa*& "ut #e!e$#i$g o$ the civili atio$ a$# the school& it coul# "e co$ceive# i$ a$* $um"er of wa*s) .lso& the retur$ was !erha!s $ot total or eter$al& co$sisti$g rather i$ !artial c*cles that were i$comme$surate) 7trictl* s!ea'i$g& we ca$$ot eve$ categoricall* affirm that the eter$al retur$ was a$ a$cie$t #octri$e6 a$# the theme of the Great Near is sufficie$tl* com!lex for us to "e cautious i$ our i$ter!retatio$s) 8 5iet sche '$ew this& u$willi$g as he was to ac'$owle#ge a$* !recursors here& $either ;eraclitus& $or the ve$era"le Roroaster) =ve$ if we #o su!!ose that a$ eter$al retur$ was ex!licitl* !rofesse# "* the .$cie$ts& we must the$ recog$i e that it is either a 1?ualitative1 or a$ 1exte$sive1 eter$al retur$) +$ other wor#s& either it is the c*clical tra$sformatio$ of ?ualitative eleme$ts& each i$ the other& that #etermi$es the retur$ of each thi$g& i$clu#i$g celestial "o#ies) 8r o$ the other ha$#& it is the local circular moveme$t of ?ualities a$# thi$gs i$ the su"lu$ar worl#) :e here vacillate "etwee$ a !h*sical a$# a$ astro$omical i$ter!retatio$)

>ut $either the o$e $or the other corres!o$#s to 5iet sche0s thought) .$# if 5iet sche co$si#ers his thought so a"solutel* $ew& it is certai$l* $ot #ue to a$* lac' of familiarit* with the .$cie$ts) ;e '$ows that what he calls the eter$al retur$ is ta'i$g us i$to a #ime$sio$ as *et u$ex!lore#2 $either exte$sive ?ua$tit* $or local moveme$t& $or !h*sical ?ualit*& "ut a #omai$ of !ure i$te$sities) Ar) #e 7chloe er ma#e a rather im!orta$t o"servatio$2 there is i$#ee# a$ assig$a"le #iffere$ce "etwee$ o$e time a$# a hu$#re# or a thousa$# times& "ut $ot "etwee$ o$e time a$# a$ i$fi$ite $um"er of times) This im!lies that i$fi$it* is i$ this case li'e the 1$th1 !ower of 1& or li'e that #evelo!e# i$te$sit* which corres!o$#s to 1) Ar) >eaufret& moreover& as'e# a fu$#ame$tal ?uestio$2 is >ei$g a !re#icate@ +s it $ot somethi$g more a$# somethi$g less& a$# is it $ot itself a"ove all a more and a 'ess= This more a$# this less& which must "e u$#erstoo# as a #iffere$ce of i$te$sit* i$ "ei$g& a$# of "ei$g& as a #iffere$ce of levels& is o$e of the fu$#ame$tal !ro"lems 5iet sche is wor'i$g o$) 5iet sche0s taste for the !h*sical scie$ces a$# e$ergetics has occasio$e# much sur!rise) +$ fact& 5iet sche was i$tereste# i$ !h*sics as a scie$ce of i$te$sive ?ua$tities& a$# ultimatel* he was aimi$g at the will to !ower as a$ 1i$te$sive1 !ri$ci!le& as a !ri$ci!le of !ure i$te$sit*3"ecause the will to !ower #oes $ot mea$ wa$ti$g !ower6 o$ the co$trar*& whatever o$e #esires& it mea$s raisi$g this to its ultimate !ower& to the nt !ower) +$ a wor#& it mea$s extracti$g t e superior form of ever*thi$g that is ,the form of i$te$sit*-)

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+t is i$ this se$se that Ar) Flossows'i wa$te# to show us a worl# of i$te$se fluctuatio$s i$ the :ill to !ower& where i#e$tities are lost& a$# where each o$e ca$$ot wa$t itself without wa$ti$g all the other !ossi"ilities& without "ecomi$g i$$umera"le 1others&1 without a!!rehe$#i$g itself as a fortuitous mome$t& whose ver* cha$ce im!lies the $ecessit* of the whole series) +$ Ar) Flossows'i0s formulatio$& it is a worl# of sig$s a$# se$se6 the sig$s are esta"lishe# i$ a #iffere$ce of i$te$sit*& a$# "ecome 1se$se1 i$sofar as the* aim at other #iffere$ces i$clu#e# i$ the first #iffere$ce& comi$g "ac' at themselves through these others) +t is Ar) Flossows'i0s !articular stre$gth to have u$covere# the li$' that exists i$ 5iet sche "etwee$ the #eath of Go# a$# the #issolutio$ of the self& the loss of !erso$al i#e$tit*) Go# is the o$l* guara$tee of the self2 the first ca$$ot !erish without the seco$# eva!orati$g) .$# the will to !ower follows from this& as the !ri$ci!le of these fluctuatio$s or i$te$sities that i$ter!e$etrate a$# flow i$to o$e a$other) .$# the eter$al retur$ also follows from this& as the !ri$ci!le of these fluctuatio$s or i$te$sities that come "ac' a$# flow "ac' through all their mo#ificatio$s) +$ short& the worl# of the eter$al retur$ is a worl# of #iffere$ces& a$ i$te$sive worl#& which !resu!!oses $either the 8$e $or the 7ame& "ut whose e#ifice is "uilt "oth o$ the tom" of the o$e Go# a$# o$ the rui$s of the i#e$tical self) The eter$al retur$ is itself the o$l* u$it* of this worl#& which has $o$e at all exce!t as it comes "ac'6 it is the o$l* i#e$tit* of a worl# which has $o 1same1 at all exce!t through re!etitio$)

+$ the texts which 5iet sche !u"lishe#& the eter$al retur$ #oes $ot figure as the o"/ect of a$* formal or 1#efi$itive1 essa*) +t is o$l* a$$ou$ce#& i$timate#& i$ horror or ecstas*) .$# if we exami$e the two !ri$ci!al texts from T us Spo:e Iarat ustra that #eal with it& 18$ the Hisio$ a$# the Bi##le1 a$# 1The 9o$valesce$t&1 we see how the a$$ou$ceme$t& the i$timatio$ is alwa*s !erforme# u$#er #ramatic co$#itio$s& "ut ex!resses $othi$g of the !rofou$# co$te$t of this 1su!reme thought)1 +$ o$e case i$ !articular& Rarathoustra challe$ges the Dwarf& the 9low$3his !ro!er caricature) >ut what Rarathoustra sa*s a"out the eter$al retur$ is alrea#* e$ough to ma'e him sic'& givi$g rise to the u$"eara"le visio$ of a$ u$coile# ser!e$t slitheri$g from the mouth of a she!her#& as though the eter$al retur$ u$#i# itself to the exte$t Rarathoustra s!o'e of it) .$# i$ the seco$# text& the eter$al retur$ is the o"/ect of a co$versatio$ amo$g a$imals& the eagle a$# the ser!e$t) Rarathoustra sa*s $othi$g this time& a$# their co$versatio$ is e$ough to !ut the co$valesce$t Rarathoustra to slee!) >ut he ha# /ust e$ough time to tell them2 1Nou0ve alrea#* tur$e# it i$to the same ol# so$gO1 Nou0ve tur$e# the eter$al retur$ i$to 1the same ol# so$g&1 that is to sa*& a mecha$ical or $atural re!etitio$& whe$ i$ fact it is some thi$g else e$tirel*))) ,7imilarl*& i$ the first text& res!o$#i$g to the Dwarf who ha# sai# 1.ll truth is sla$te#& time itself is a circle&1 Rarathoustra sai#2 1Nou "loc'hea#& #o$0t oversim!lif* thi$gs so much)1-

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:e have ever* right to "elieve that 5iet sche i$ his !u"lishe# wor's ha# o$l* !re!are# the revelatio$ of the eter$al retur$& "ut that he #i# $ot reveal it& i$#ee# #i# $ot have the time to #o so) =ver*thi$g suggests that his !ro/ecte# wor'& o$ the eve of the crisis of 1888& woul# have go$e much farther i$ this #irectio$) >ut alrea#* the texts from T us Spo:e Iarat ustra o$ the o$e ha$#& a$# the $otes from 1881(1882 o$ the other& at least tell us what the eter$al retur$ is not accor#i$g to 5iet sche) +t is $ot a c*cle) +t #oes $ot !resu!!ose the 8$e& the 7ame& the =?ual or e?uili"rium) +t is $ot the retur$ of .ll) +t is $ot the retur$ of the 7ame) +t thus has $othi$g i$ commo$ with what is !resume# to "e a$cie$t #octri$e& the i#ea of a c*cle that causes ever*thi$g to come "ac'& !assi$g through a !oi$t of e?uili"rium& "ri$gi$g the .ll "ac' to the 8$e& amou$ti$g to the 7ame) There *ou have 1the same ol# so$g1 or the 1over(sim!lificatio$12 the eter$al retur$ as a !h*sical tra$sformatio$ or a$ astro$omical moveme$t3the eter$al retur$ live# as though it were a $atural a$imal certai$t* ,such as the 9low$ or as Rarathoustra0s a$imal sees it-) :e are all too familiar with the criti?ue that 5iet sche& i$ all his wor'& "ri$gs to "ear o$ the ge$eral $otio$s of 8$e& 7ame& =?ual& a$# .ll) 7till more to the !oi$t& the $otes from 1881( 1882 ex!licitl* o!!ose the c*clical h*!othesis6 the* exclu#e the !resu!!ositio$ of a$* state of e?uili"rium) These $otes !roclaim that .ll #oes $ot come "ac'& "ecause the eter$al retur$ is esse$tiall* se'ective, i$#ee# selective !ar excelle$ce) %urthermore& what ha!!e$e# i$ Rarathoustra0s two mome$ts& "etwee$ the time whe$ he was sic' a$# whe$ he was recoveri$g@ :h* #i# the eter$al retur$ first i$s!ire him with u$"eara"le #isgust a$# fear& which the$ #isa!!ear whe$ he feels "etter@ .re we to "elieve that Rarathoustra ta'es it o$ himself to shoul#er what he coul# $ot "ear a mome$t "efore@ 8"viousl* $ot6 the cha$ge is $ot sim!l* !s*chological) +t0s a 1#ramatic1 !rogressio$ i$ the ver* com!rehe$sio$ of the eter$al retur$) :hat sic'e$e# Rarathoustra was the i#ea that the eter$al retur$ was i$ the e$#& i$ s!ite of ever*thi$g& li$'e# to a c*cle6 that it woul# cause ever*thi$g to come "ac'6 that ever*thi$g woul# come "ac'& eve$ huma$it*& 1little huma$it*1))) 1The great #isgust for the ;uma$ is what suffocate# me a$# got stuc' i$ m* throat& a$# also what the seer !re#icte#2 .ll is e?ual))) .$# the eter$al retur$& of eve$ the littlest thi$g& was the cause of m* lassitu#e with all of existe$ce)010 +f Rarathoustra feels "etter& it0s "ecause he u$#ersta$#s that the eter$al retur$ is $ot that at all) ;e fi$all* u$#ersta$#s the u$e?ual a$# the selectio$ i$ the eter$al retur$)

=sse$tiall*& the u$e?ual& the #iffere$t is the true ratio$ale for the eter$al retur$) +t is "ecause $othi$g is e?ual& or the same& that 1it1 comes "ac') +$ other wor#s& the eter$al retur$ is !re#icate# o$l* of "ecomi$g a$# the multi!le) +t is the law of a worl# without "ei$g& without u$it*& without i#e$tit*) %ar from presupposing the 8$e or the 7ame& the eter$al retur$ co$stitutes the o$l* u$it* of the multi!le as such& the o$l* i#e$tit* of what #iffers2 comi$g "ac' is the o$l* 1"ei$g1 of "ecomi$g) 9o$se?ue$tl*& the fu$ctio$ of the eter$al retur$ as >ei$g is $ever to

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i#e$tif*& "ut to authe$ticate) This ex!lai$s wh*& each i$ his ow$ wa*& Ar) 4owith& :ahl a$# Flossows'i allu#e# to the selective sig$ificatio$ of the eter$al retur$)

This sig$ificatio$ is #ou"le) %irst& the eter$al retur$ is selective of thought& "ecause it elimi$ates 1half(#esires)1 . rule that is vali# "e*o$# goo# a$# evil) The eter$al retur$ gives us a !aro#* of the Fa$tia$ im!erative) :hatever *ou will& will it i$ such a wa* that *ou also will its eter$al retur$)) ):hat falls awa*& what is a$$ihilate# as a result& is ever*thi$g + feel& #o or #esire !rovi#e# that it ha!!e$ 1o$ce& o$l* o$ce)1 +magi$e la i$ess that wille# its eter$al retur$ a$# sto!!e# sa*i$g2 1tomorrow + will get to wor'13or cowar#ice& or a"/ectio$ that wille# its eter$al retur$2 clearl*& we woul# fi$# ourselves face# with forms as *et u$'$ow$ a$# u$ex!lore#) These woul# $o lo$ger "e what we usuall* call la i$ess or cowar#ice) .$# the fact that we have $o i#ea of what the* woul# "e mea$s o$l* that extreme forms #o $ot pree!ist the or#eal of the eter$al retur$) The eter$al retur$ is i$#ee# the categor* of the or#eal& a$# we must u$#ersta$#& as such& of eve$ts& of ever*thi$g that ha!!e$s) Aisfortu$e& sic'$ess& ma#$ess& eve$ the a!!roach of #eath have two as!ects2 i$ o$e se$se& the* se!arate me from m* !ower6 i$ a$other se$se& the* e$#ow me with a stra$ge !ower& as though + !ossesse# a #a$gerous mea$s of ex!loratio$& which is also a terrif*i$g realm to ex!lore) The fu$ctio$ of the eter$al retur$& i$ ever* case& is to se!arate the su!erior from the mo#erate mea$s& the torri# or glacial o$es from the tem!erate o$es& the extreme !owers from the mi##le states) The wor#s 1se!arate1 or 1extract1 are $ot eve$ a#e?uate& si$ce the eter$al retur$ creates the su!erior forms) +t is i$ this se$se that the eter$al retur$ is the i$strume$t a$# the ex!ressio$ of the will to !ower2 it raises each thi$g to its su!erior form& that is& its nt !ower)

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D=7=BT +74.5D7 .5D 8T;=B T=KT7

This creative selectio$ #oes $ot ha!!e$ o$l* i$ the thought of the eter$al retur$) +t ha!!e$s i$ "ei$g2 "ei$g is selective& "ei$g is selectio$) There is $o wa* to "elieve that the eter$al retur$ causes ever*thi$g to come "ac'& a$# "ac' to the same& si$ce it elimi$ates ever*thi$g that ca$$ot withsta$# the or#eal2 $ot o$l* the 1half(#esires1 i$ thought& "ut the half(!owers i$ "ei$g) 14ittle huma$it*1 will $ot come "ac')))$othi$g that #e$ies the eter$al retur$ will "e a"le to come "ac') +f we i$sist o$ thi$'i$g of the eter$al retur$ as the moveme$t of a wheel& we must $evertheless e$#ow it with a ce$trifugal moveme$t& "* mea$s of which it ex!ulses ever*thi$g which is too wea'& too mo#erate& to withsta$# the or#eal) :hat the eter$al retur$ !ro#uces& a$# causes to come "ac' i$ corres!o$#e$ce with the will to !ower& is the 7u!erma$& #efi$e# as 1the su!erior form of ever*thi$g that is%2 The su!erma$ ver* much resem"les the !oet as Bim"au# #efi$es it2 o$e who is 1loa#e# with huma$it*& eve$ with a$imals&1 a$# who i$ ever* case has retai$e# o$l* the su!erior form& a$# the extreme !ower) =ver*where& the eter$al retur$ u$#erta'es to authe$ticate2 $ot to i#e$tif* the same& "ut to authe$ticate #esires& mas's a$# roles& forms a$# !owers)Ar) >irault was therefore right to remi$# us that accor#i$g to 5iet sche& there is a #iffere$ce of $ature "etwee$ extreme a$# mi##le forms) The same goes for the 5iet schea$ #isti$ctio$ "etwee$ the creatio$ of values a$# the recog$itio$ of curre$t values) This #isti$ctio$ woul# ma'e $o se$se if we i$ter!rete# it from the !ers!ectives offere# "* historical relativism2 those values curre$tl* recog$i e# woul# have "ee$ $ew values i$ their #a*6 a$# the $ew values woul# have "ee$ calle# o$ i$ tur$ to "ecome curre$t) 7uch a$ i$ter!retatio$ woul# miss what is most esse$tial) :e alrea#* saw it i$ the will to !ower2 there exists a #iffere$ce of $ature "etwee$ 1attri"uti$g curre$t values to o$eself1 a$# 1creati$g $ew values)1 This #iffere$ce "etwee$ them is the ver* #iffere$ce of the eter$al retur$& that which co$stitutes the esse$ce of the eter$al retur$2 vi )& 1$ew1 values are !recisel* those su!erior forms of ever*thi$g that is) 7ome values& the$& are "or$ curre$t a$# a!!ear o$l* "* soliciti$g a$ or#er of recog$itio$& eve$ if the* must await favora"le historical co$#itio$s to "e& i$ effect& recog$i e#) 8$ the other ha$#& some values are eter$all* $ew& forever u$timel*& alwa*s co$tem!orar* with their creatio$& a$# these& eve$ whe$ the* seem esta"lishe#& a!!are$tl* assimilate# "* a societ*& i$ fact a##ress themselves to other forces& soliciti$g from withi$ that societ* a$archic forces of a$other $ature) 7uch values alo$e are tra$s(historical& su!ra( historical& a$# "ear wit$ess to a co$ge$ial chaos& a creative #isor#er that is irre#uci"le to a$* or#er whatsoever) +t is this chaos of which 5iet sche s!o'e whe$ he sai# it was $ot the co$trar* of the eter$al retur$& "ut the eter$al retur$ i$ !erso$) The great creatio$s #e!art from this su!ra(historical stratum& this 1u$timel*1 chaos& at the extreme limit of what is liva"le)

This is wh* Ar) >eaufret ?uestio$e# the $otio$ of value& as'i$g himself to what exte$t value was a!t to ma$ifest this stratum without which there is $o o$tolog*) This is also wh* Ar) Hattimo u$#erli$e# the existe$ce of a chaotic #e!th i$ 5iet sche& without which the creatio$ of values woul# lose their se$se) >ut co$crete exam!les ha# to "e !rovi#e#& we wa$te# to show how artists a$# thi$'ers come together i$ this #ime$sio$) ;e$ce the fifth theme of our collo?uium) 9ertai$l*& i$ this res!ect& whe$ 5iet sche was co$fro$te# "* other authors& he must have "ee$ i$flue$ce# "* some of them) >ut there was alwa*s somethi$g else at sta'e) 7o& whe$ Ar) %oucault co$fro$te# 5iet sche with %reu# a$# Aarx& i$#e!e$#e$tl* of a$* i$flue$ce& he was careful $ot to choose a theme such as the commo$l* share# 1recog$itio$1 of the u$co$scious "* the three authors6 o$ the co$trar*& he co$si#ere# that the #iscover* of a$ u$co$scious #e!e$#s o$ somethi$g more !rofou$#& o$ a fu$#ame$tal cha$ge i$ i$ter!retive #ema$#s& a cha$ge that itself im!lies a !articular evaluatio$ of the 1ma#$ess1 of the worl# a$# me$) Ar) #e 7chloe er s!o'e of 5iet sche a$# Dostoievs'*6 Ar) Gae#e& of %re$ch literature6 Ar) Beichert& of Germa$ literature a$# ;erma$$ ;esse6 Ar) Grlic& of art a$# !oetr*) :hat we saw i$ ever* case& regar#less of a$* actual i$flue$ce& was how o$e thi$'er coul# e$cou$ter a$other& meet u! with a$other i$ a #ime$sio$ that is $o lo$ger that of chro$olog* or histor* ,much less the #ime$sio$ of eter$it*6 5iet sche woul# call it the #ime$sio$ of the u$timel*-)

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D=7=BT +74.5D7 .5D 8T;=B T=KT7

. s!ecial tha$'s to Ar) Gol#"ec'& a$# to As) #e 7a"ra$& who !la*e# the Manfred score& a$# to 8BT% for letti$g us hear the melo#ies of 5iet sche6 tha$'s to them we ex!erie$ce# a$ as!ect of 5iet sche little '$ow$ i$ %ra$ce2 5iet sche(as(musicia$) +$ #iffere$t wa*s& Ar) Gol#"ec'& Ga"riel Aarcel& a$# >oris #e 7chloe er ex!lai$e# to us what seeme# movi$g or i$teresti$g i$ this music) .$# the ?uestio$ occurre# to us2 what sort of mas' was 15iet sche(as( musicia$1@ + ho!e *ou wo$0t mi$# me formulati$g o$e last h*!othesis2 5iet sche is !erha!s #ee!l* theatrical) ;e $ot o$l* wrote a !hiloso!h* of theatre ,Dio$*sos-& he also "rought theatre i$to !hiloso!h* itself) .$# with it& he "rought $ew mea$s of ex!ressio$ to tra$sform !hiloso!h*) ;ow ma$* a!horisms must "e u$#erstoo# as the !ri$ci!les a$# evaluatio$s of a directorJ% 5iet sche co$ceives Rarathoustra com!letel* i$ !hiloso!h*& "ut also com!letel* for the stage) ;e #reams of !utti$g Rarathoustra to >i et0s music& as a form of #erisive :ag$eria$ theatre) ;e #reams of a music& as he #oes of a mas'& for 1his ow$1 !hiloso!hical theatre& which is alrea#* a theatre of cruelt*& a theatre of the will to !ower a$# the eter$al retur$

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)1

0iet=s7he;s 9-rst o' (a-ghter;

I;ow was the $ew e#itio$ of 5iet sche0s &omp'ete ) i'osop ica' /or:s esta"lishe#@J2

Gilles Deleu e: The !ro"lem was to reclassif* the !osthumous $otes3the Nac - 'ass3i$ accor#a$ce with the #ates 5iet sche ha# writte$ them& a$# to !lace them after the wor's with which the* were co$tem!ora$eous) 7ome of them ha# "ee$ use# i$ a$ a"usive wa* after 5iet sche0s #eath to com!ose T e /i'' to )ower% 7o it was esse$tial to reesta"lish the exact chro$olog*) This ex!lai$s wh* the first volume& T e *ay Science, is more tha$ half com!ose# of !reviousl* u$!u"lishe# fragme$ts #ati$g from 1881(1882) 8ur co$ce!tio$ of 5iet sche0s thought as well as his creative !rocess ma* "e !rofou$#l* altere# as a result) The $ew e#itio$ will a!!ear simulta$eousl* i$ +tal*& Germa$*& a$# %ra$ce) >ut we owe the texts to the wor' of two +talia$s& 9olli a$# Ao$ti$ari)

Gu1 Du&ur: ;ow #o *ou ex!lai$ that +talia$s rather tha$ Germa$s #i# the /o"@

Gilles Deleu e: Aa*"e the Germa$s were $ot i$ a goo# !ositio$ to #o it) The* alrea#* ha# $umerous e#itio$s& which the* were fo$# of& #es!ite the ar"itrar* orga$i atio$ of the $otes) .lso& 5iet sche0s ma$uscri!ts were i$ :eimar& =ast Germa$*3where the +talia$s were "etter receive#

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tha$ a$* :est Germa$ coul# have ho!e# to "e) %i$all*& the Germa$s were u$#ou"t e#l* em"arrasse# at havi$g acce!te# the e#itio$ of T e /i'' to )ower create# "* 5iet sche0s sister) =li a"eth %orster(5iet sche !ut together a$ extremel* harmful wor' that !rivileges ma$* 5a i i$ter!retatio$s) 7he #i#$0t falsif* the texts& "ut we '$ow well e$ough that there are other wa*s to #istort a$ author0s thi$'i$g& eve$ if it is merel* a$ ar"itrar* selectio$ from amo$g his !a!ers) 5iet schea$ co$ce!ts li'e those of 1force1 or 1master1 are com!lex e$ough to "e "etra*e# "* a selectio$ such as hers)

Gu1 Du&ur: :ill the tra$slatio$s "e $ew@

Gilles Deleu e: 9om!letel* $ew) This is es!eciall* im!orta$t for those writi$gs towar# the e$# ,there have "ee$ some !oor rea#i$gs& for which =li a"eth 5iet sche a$# <eter Gast are res!o$si"le-) The first two volumes to "e !u"lishe#& T e *ay Science a$# +uman, A'' Too +uman, have "ee$ tra$slate# "* <ierre Flossows'i a$# Bo"ert Bovi$i) This #oes$0t mea$ that the !rior tra$slatio$s "* ;e$ri .l"ert& a$# "* Ge$evieve >ia$?uis& were "a#3$ot at all) >ut if the* were #etermi$e# to !u"lish 5iet sche0s $otes with his wor's& the* ha# to "egi$ from scratch a$# u$if* the termi$olog*) 8$ that $ote& i$teresti$gl* e$ough& 5iet sche was first i$tro#uce# i$ %ra$ce $ot "* the 1right&1 "ut "* 9harles .$#ler a$# ;e$ri .l"ert& who re!rese$te# a whole socialist tra#itio$ with a$archical colori$gs)

Gu1 Du&ur: Do *ou thi$' a 1retur$ to 5iet sche1 is ta'i$g !lace i$ %ra$ce to#a*@ .$# if so& wh* is it@

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Gilles Deleu e: +t0s #ifficult to sa*) Aa*"e there has "ee$ a cha$ge& or ma*"e the cha$ge is ta'i$g !lace $ow& with res!ect to the mo#es of thought which have "ee$ so familiar to us si$ce the 4i"eratio$) :e were use# to thi$'i$g #ialectical( l*& historicall*) To#a* it seems the ti#e has tur$e# from #ialectical thi$'i$g towar# structuralism& for exam!le& as well as other s*stems of thought)

%oucault i$sists o$ the im!orta$ce of the tech$i?ues of i$ter!retatio$) +t0s !ossi"le that i$ the actual i#ea of i$ter!retatio$ is somethi$g which goes "e*o$# the #ialectical o!!ositio$ "etwee$ 1'$owi$g1 a$# 1tra$sformi$g1 the worl#) %reu# is the great i$ter!reter& so is 5iet sche& "ut i$ a #iffere$t wa*) 5iet sche0s i#ea is that thi$gs a$# actio$s are alrea#* i$ter!retatio$s) 7o to i$ter!ret is to i$ter!ret i$ter!retatio$s& a$# thus to cha$ge thi$gs& 1to cha$ge life)1 :hat is clear for 5iet sche is that societ* ca$$ot "e a$ ultimate authorit*) The ultimate authorit* is creatio$& it is art2 or rather& art re!rese$ts the a"se$ce a$# the im!ossi"ilit* of a$ ultimate authorit*) %rom the ver* "egi$$i$g of his wor'& 5iet sche !osits that there exist e$#s 1/ust a little higher1 tha$ those of the 7tate& tha$ those of societ*) ;e i$serts his e$tire cor!us i$ a #ime$sio$ which is $either historical& eve$ u$#erstoo# #ialecticall*& $or eter$al) :hat he calls this $ew #ime$sio$ which o!erates "oth i$ time a$# agai$st time is t e untime'y% +t is i$ this that life as i$ter!retatio$ fi$#s its source) Aa*"e the reaso$ for the 1retur$ to 5iet sche1 is a re#iscover* of the u$timel*& that #ime$sio$ which is #isti$ct "oth from classical !hiloso!h* i$ its 1timeless1 e$ter!rise a$# from #ialectical !hiloso!h* i$ its u$#ersta$#i$g of histor*2 a si$gular eleme$t of u!heaval)

Gu1 Du&ur: 9oul# we the$ sa* this is a retur$ to i$#ivi#ualism@

Gilles Deleu e: Nes& "ut a "i arre i$#ivi#ualism& i$ which mo#er$ co$scious$ess u$#ou"te#l* recog$i es itself to some #egree) >ecause i$ 5iet sche& this i$#ivi#ualism is accom!a$ie# "* a livel* criti?ue of the $otio$s of 1self a$# 1+)1 %or 5iet sche there is a 'i$# of #issolutio$ of the

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self) The reactio$ agai$st o!!ressive structures is $o lo$ger #o$e& for him& i$ the $ame of a 1self1 or a$ 1+)1 8$ the co$trar*& it is as though the 1self1 a$# the 1+1 were accom!lices of those structures)

Aust we sa* that the retur$ to 5iet sche im!lies a 'i$# of estheticism& a re$u$ciatio$ of !olitics& a$ 1i$#ivi#ualism1 as #e!erso$ali e# as it is #e!oliti( ci e#@ Aa*"e $ot) <olitics& too& is i$ the "usi$ess of i$ter!retatio$) T e untime'y, which we /ust #iscusse#& is $ever re#uci"le to the !olitical(historical eleme$t) >ut it ha!!e$s from time to time that& at certai$ great mome$ts& the* coi$ci#e) :he$ !eo!le #ie of hu$ger i$ +$#ia& such a #isaster is !olitical(historical) >ut whe$ the !eo!le struggle for their li"eratio$& there is alwa*s a coi$ci#e$ce of !oetic acts a$# historical eve$ts or !olitical actio$s& the glorious i$car$atio$ of somethi$g su"lime or u$timel*) 7uch great coi$ci#e$ces are 5asser0s "urst of laughter whe$ he $atio$ali e# 7ue & or 9astro0s gestures& a$# that other "urst of laughter& Gia!0s televisio$ i$terview) ;ere we have somethi$g that remi$#s us of Bim"au#0s or 5iet sche0s im!eratives a$# which !uts o$e over o$ Aarx3a$ artistic /o* that comes to coi$ci#e with historical struggle) There are creators i$ !olitics& a$# creative moveme$ts& that are !oise# for a mome$t i$ histor*) ;itler& o$ the co$trar*& lac'e# to a si$gular #egree a$* 5iet schea$ eleme$t) ;itler is $ot Rarathoustra) 5or is Tru/illo) The* re!rese$te# what 5iet sche calls 1the mo$'e* of Rarathoustra)1 .s 5iet sche sai#& if o$e wa$ts to "e 1a master&1 it is $ot e$ough to come to !ower) Aore ofte$ tha$ $ot it is the 1slaves1 who come to !ower& a$# who 'ee! it& a$# who remai$ slaves while the* 'ee! it)

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The masters accor#i$g to 5iet sche are t e untime'y, those who create& who #estro* i$ or#er to create& $ot to !reserve) 5iet sche sa*s that u$#er the huge earth(shatteri$g eve$ts are ti$* sile$t eve$ts& which he li'e$s to the creatio$ of $ew worl#s2 there o$ce agai$ *ou see the !rese$ce of the !oetic u$#er the historical) +$ %ra$ce& for i$sta$ce& there are $o earth(shatteri$g eve$ts right $ow) The* are far awa*& a$# horri"le& i$ Hiet$am) >ut we still have ti$* im!erce!ti"le eve$ts& which ma*"e a$$ou$ce a$ exo#us from to#a*0s #esert) Aa*"e the retur$ to 5iet sche is o$e of those 1ti$* eve$ts1 a$# alrea#* a rei$ter!retatio$ of the worl#) 1

4ysti7ism and 4aso7hism;

$a*eleine 9ha!sal2 ;ow #i# *ou come to "e i$tereste# i$ 7acher(Aasoch@

Gilles Deleu e: I alwa*s felt Aasoch was a great $ovelist) + was struc' "* the i$/ustice of rea#i$g so much 7a#e& "ut $ever Aasoch2 !eo!le ma'e him out to "e a !athetic& reverse 7a#e)

$a*eleine Cha7sal: ;is wor' is har#l* tra$slate#)))

Gilles Deleu e: 5o& $o& it was ver* much tra$slate# towar# the e$# of the $i$etee$th(ce$tur* a$# was well('$ow$& "ut for !olitical a$# fol'loric reaso$s rather tha$ sexual o$es) ;is wor' is co$$ecte# to the !olitical a$# $atio$al moveme$ts of ce$tral =uro!e& to !a$(7lavism) Aasoch is as i$se!ara"le from the revolutio$s of 048 i$ the .ustria$ =m!ire& as 7a#e from the %re$ch Bevolutio$) The t*!es of sexual mi$orities that Aasoch imagi$es refer i$ a rather com!lex wa*

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to the $atio$al mi$orities of the .ustria$ =m!ire3/ust as the li"erti$e mi$orities i$ 7a#e refer to !re(Bevolutio$ar* lo#ges a$# sects)

$a*eleine Cha7sal: :he$ someo$e sa*s Aasoch& *ou sa* 7a#e)))

Gilles Deleu e: 5ecessaril*& "ecause + wa$t to #issociate their !seu#o(i#e$tit*O There are values that "elo$g s!ecificall* to Aasoch& eve$ if these were o$l* o$ the level of literar* tech$i?ue) There are s!ecificall* masochistic !rocesses i$#e!e$#e$t of a$* reversal or tur$i$g "* sa#ism) >ut& i$teresti$gl*& the sa#o(masochistic u$it* goes without sa*i$g& whereas i$ m* view the* have e$tirel* #iffere$t esthetic a$# !athological mecha$isms) =ve$ %reu# himself i$ve$ts $othi$g $ew here2 his ge$ius set a"out i$ve$ti$g the !assagewa*s of tra$sformatio$ from the o$e to the other& "ut $ever ?uestio$e# the u$it* itself) +$ a$* eve$t& !erversio$ is the least stu#ie# #omai$ i$ !s*chiatr*2 it0s $ot a thera!eutic co$ce!t)

$a*eleine Cha7sal: ;ow #o *ou ex!lai$ that it is $ot !s*chiatrists "ut writers& 7a#e a$# Aasoch& who are the ex!erts i$ the #omai$ of !erversio$@

Gilles Deleu e: <erha!s there are three #iffere$t me#ical acts2 s*m!tomolog*& or the stu#* of sig$s6 etiolog*& or the search for causes6 a$# thera!eutics& or the search for a$# a!!licatio$ of a treatme$t) :hereas etiolog* a$# thera!eutics are i$tegral !arts of me#ici$e& s*m!tomolog*

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a!!eals to a 'i$# of $eutral !oi$t& a limit that is !reme#ical or su"(me#ical& "elo$gi$g as much to art as to me#ici$e2 it0s all a"out #rawi$g a 1!ortrait)1 The wor' of art exhi"its s*m!toms& as #o the "o#* or the soul& al"eit i$ a ver* #iffere$t wa*) +$ this se$se& the artist or writer ca$ "e a great s*m!tomologist& /ust li'e the "est #octor2 so it is with 7a#e or Aasoch) $a*eleine Cha7sal: :h* o$l* them@

Gilles Deleu e: 5ot o$l* them) There are of course others whose wor' has$0t *et "ee$ recog$i e# as a creative s*m!tomolog*& as i$ the case of Aasoch) 7amuel >ec'ett0s wor' is a$ extraor#i$ar* !ortrait of s*m!toms2 it0s $ot /ust a"out i#e$tif*i$g a$ ill$ess& "ut a"out the worl# as s*m!tom& a$# the artist as s*m!tomologist)

$a*eleine Cha7sal: 5ow that *ou me$tio$ it& we might sa* the same thi$g a"out Faf'a0s wor' or the wor' of Aarguerite Duras))) Gilles Deleu e: ."solutel*)

$a*eleine Cha7sal: 5ot to me$tio$ that Cac?ues 4aca$ ex!resse# his a!!reciatio$ of T e Ravis ing of4o' Stein a$# tol# Aarguerite Duras that he saw i$ it the exact& trou"li$g #escri!tio$ of !articular ma$ias fou$# i$ the cli$ic))) >ut certai$l* that is $ot the case with the wor' of ever* writer)

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Gilles Deleu e: 5o& of course $ot) :hat !ro!erl* "elo$gs to 7a#e& Aasoch a$# a few others ,for exam!le& Bo""e(Grillet or Flossows'i- is ma'i$g the !ha$tasm itself the o"/ect of their wor'& whereas usuall* it is o$l* the origi$ of the wor') :hat literar* creatio$ a$# the co$stitutio$ of s*m!toms have i$ commo$ is the !ha$tasm) Aasoch calls it 1the figure1 a$# i$ fact sa*s 1o$e must go "e*o$# the livi$g figure to the !ro"lem)1 +f the !ha$tasm for most writers is the source of the wor'& for those writers who i$terests me it is !recisel* the !ha$tasm that is at sta'e i$ the wor' a$# has the last wor#& as if the whole wor' reflecte# its origi$)

$a*eleine Cha7sal: Do *ou thi$' we ma* o$e #a* s!ea' of 'af'aism or "ec'( ettism the wa* we s!ea' of sa#ism or masochism@

Gilles Deleu e: + su!!ose so))) >ut /ust li'e 7a#e a$# Aasoch& these writers will $ot lose o$e "it of their esthetic 1u$iversalit*1 for it)

Aa#elei$e 9ha!sal2 ;ow #o *ou see the 'i$# of wor' *ou #i# i$ *our )resentation de Sac erMasoc:)% :hat + mea$ is& what was *our !articular o"/ective2 literar* criticism& !s*chiatr*@

Gilles Deleu e: :hat + woul# li'e to #o ,a$# this "oo' woul# "e o$l* a !relimi$ar* stu#*- is articulate a relatio$ "etwee$ literature a$# cli$ical !s*cholog*) There is a$ urge$t $ee# for cli$ical !s*cholog* to 'ee! awa* from swee!i$g u$ities accom!lishe# through 1reversals1 a$#

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1tra$sformatio$s12 the i#ea of a sa#o(masochism is sim!l* a !re/u#ice) ,There is a sa#ism of the masochist& "ut this sa#ism is well withi$ masochism a$# is $ot true sa#ism2 the same goes for the masochism of the sa#ist-) This !re/u#ice results from hast* s*m!tomolog*& such that we $o lo$ger attem!t to see what is there& "ut see' i$stea# to /ustif* our !rior i#ea) %reu# himself ex!erie$ce# this #ifficult*& for exam!le& i$ his a#mira"le A & i'd is 3eing 3eaten= a$# *et he still #i#$0t see' to ?uestio$ the theme of sa#o(masochistic u$it*) 7o it #oes ha!!e$ that a writer ca$ go farther i$ s*m!tomolog*& that the wor' of art gives him a $ew mea$s3!erha!s also "ecause the writer is less co$cer$e# with causes)

$a*eleine Cha7sal: %reu# $o$etheless res!ecte# the cli$ical ge$ius of writers& ofte$ loo'i$g to literar* wor's to co$firm his !s*choa$al*tic theories)))

Gilles Deleu e: Her* much so& "ut he #i#$0t #o it for 7a#e or Aasoch) .ll too ofte$ the writer is still co$si#ere# as o$e more case a##e# to cli$ical !s*cholog*& whe$ the im!orta$t thi$g is what the writer himself& as a creator& "ri$gs to cli$ical !s*cholog*) The #iffere$ce "etwee$ literature a$# cli$ical !s*cholog*& a$# this ma'es a$ ill$ess $ot the same thi$g as a wor' of art& is the 'i$# of wor: #o$e o$ the !ha$tasm) +$ each case& the source is the same2 it0s the !ha$tasm) >ut from there the wor' is ?uite #iffere$t& eve$ i$comme$surate& "etwee$ the wor' of the artist a$# the wor' of !atholog*) Her* ofte$ the writer goes farther tha$ the cli$icia$ a$# eve$ the !atie$t) Aasoch& for exam!le& is the first a$# o$l* !erso$ to sa* a$# to show that the esse$ce of masochism is the co$tract& a s!ecial co$tractual relatio$) $a*eleine Cha7sal: The o$l* !erso$@

Gilles Deleu e: +0ve $ever see$ this s*m!tom3the $ee# to esta"lish a co$tract3 cou$te# as a$ eleme$t of masochism) +$ this i$sta$ce& Aasoch we$t farther tha$ the cli$icia$s& who afterwar#s

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faile# to ta'e accou$t of his #iscover*) Aasochism ca$ "e co$si#ere# from three #iffere$t !oi$ts of view2 1- as a$ allia$ce "etwee$ !leasure a$# !ai$& 2- as a wa* to act out humiliatio$ a$# slaver*& a$# 3- as slaver* i$stitute# withi$ a co$tractual relatio$) This thir# characteristic is !erha!s the most !rofou$#& a$# so it shoul# accou$t for the others)

$a*eleine Cha7sal: Nou0re $ot a !s*choa$al*st& *ou0re a !hiloso!her) Do *ou have reservatio$s a"out ve$turi$g out o$ !s*choa$al*tic terrai$@

Gilles Deleu e: 7ure + #o& it0s a #elicate matter) + woul# $ever have allowe# m*self to tal' a"out !s*choa$al*sis a$# !s*chiatr* if this were $ot a ?uestio$ of s*m!tomolog* <recisel*& s*m!tomolog* is locate# almost outsi#e me#ici$e& at a $eutral !oi$t& a ero !oi$t& where artists a$# !hiloso!hers a$# #octors a$# !atie$ts ca$ come together)

$a*eleine Cha7sal: ;ow #i# *ou settle o$ Eenus in .urs for *our "oo'@

Gilles Deleu e: Aasoch has writte$ three es!eciall* "eautiful "oo's2 4a Mere de #ieu, )ec euse d,dmes, a$# Eenus in .urs% + ha# to choose& a$# + thought the "oo' "est a"le to i$tro#uce someo$e to Aasoch0s wor' woul# "e Eenus, si$ce its themes are !urest a$# sim!lest) +$ the other two& m*stical sects are mixe# u! with exercises that are !ro!erl* masochist) >ut $ew e#itio$s of these wor's woul# "e much welcome#)3

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$a*eleine Cha7sal: 8$e other thi$g co$cer$i$g Aasoch& somethi$g that *ou wrote i$ *our !revious wor'& )roust and Signs8 *ou sa* that the esse$ce of a$* great wor' of art is comic& a$# that it is a misrea#i$g to "e satisfie# with tragic first im!ressio$s) 7!ecificall*& o$ Faf'a& *ou write2 2T is pseudo-sense of t e tragic ma:e us stupid% +ow many aut ors we deface by substituting a pueri'e, tragic fee'ing for t e aggressive, comic power of t e t oug t w ic animates t eir wor:% 2

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Gilles Deleu e: Nes& the esse$ce of art is a 'i$# of/o*& a$# this is the ver* !oi$t of art) There ca$ "e $o tragic wor' "ecause there is a $ecessar* /o* i$ creatio$2 art is $ecessaril* a li"eratio$ that ex!lo#es ever*thi$g& first a$# foremost the tragic) 5o& there is $o u$ha!!* creatio$& it is alwa*s a vis comica% 5iet sche sai#2 1the tragic hero is ha!!*)1 7o is the masochist hero& i$ his ow$ wa*& which is i$se!ara"le from Aasoch0s ow$ literar* tech$i?ues)

On 0iet=s7he

and the 5mage o' Tho-ght

Jean#Noel 8uarne): Gallimar#0s ree#itio$ of 5iet sche0s com!lete wor's has starte# to a!!ear o$ the shelves) Nou a$# %oucault have "ee$ cre#ite# with 1res!o$si"ilit*1 for the first volume) 2 :hat exactl* was *our role@

Gilles Deleu e: :e !la*e# a small role) Nou are $o #ou"t well aware that the whole !oi$t of this e#itio$ is to !u"lish all !osthumous $otes& ma$* of which have $ever see$ the light of #a*& "* #istri"uti$g them chro$ologicall* i$ the or#er of the "oo's that 5iet sche himself !u"lishe#) .ccor#i$gl*& T e *ay Science, tra$slate# "* Flossows'i& i$clu#es the !osthumous $otes of 1881(1882) The authors of this e#itio$ are& o$ the o$e ha$#& 9olli a$# Ao$ti$ari& to whom we are i$#e"te# for the texts& a$# o$ the other& the tra$slators& for whom 5iet sche0s st*le a$# tech$i?ues have !ose# e$ormous !ro"lems) :e were res!o$si"le o$l* for grou!i$g the texts i$ or#er)

Jean#Noel 8uarne): In Niet(sc e and ) i'osop y, *ou write that his !ro/ect i$ the most ge$eral se$se is to "ri$g the co$ce!ts of se$se a$# value i$to !hiloso!h*& a$# that 2it goes wit out saying t at modern p i'osop y as for t e most part 'ived off and sti'' 'ives off Niet(sc e% 2 ;ow shoul# we i$ter!ret these #eclaratio$s@

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Gilles Deleu e: The* have to "e u$#erstoo# i$ two wa*s2 $egativel* as well as !ositivel*)

>ut first there is this fact2 5iet sche ?uestio$s the co$ce!t of truth& he #e$ies that the true ca$ "e a$ eleme$t of la$guage) :hat he is co$testi$g is the ver* $otio$s of true a$# false) 5ot "ecause he wa$ts to 1relativi e1 them li'e a$ ot#i( $ar* s'e!tic) +$ their !lace he su"stitutes se$se a$# value as rigorous $otio$s2 the se$se of what o$e sa*s& a$# the evaluatio$ of the o$e sa*i$g it) Nou alwa*s get the truth *ou #eserve accor#i$g to the se$se of what *ou sa*& a$# accor#i$g to the values to w ic you give voice% This !resu!!oses a ra#icall* $ew co$ce!tio$ of thought a$# la$guage& "ecause se$se a$# value& sig$ificatio$ a$# evaluatio$& "ri$g i$to !la* mecha$isms of the u$co$scious) +t thus goes without sa*i$g that 5iet sche lea#s !hiloso!h* a$# thought i$ ge$eral i$to a $ew eleme$t) :hat is more& this eleme$t im!lies $ot o$l* $ew wa*s of thi$'i$g a$# 1/u#gi$g&1 "ut also $ew wa*s of writi$g& a$# ma*"e acti$g)

+$ this res!ect& mo#er$ !hiloso!h* has "ee$ a$# is clearl* 5iet schea$& "ecause it $ever tires of #iscussi$g se$se a$# value) 8f course& other ver* #iffere$t a$# $o less esse$tial i$flue$ces must "e a##e# here2 the Aarxist co$ce!tio$ of value& the %reu#ia$ co$ce!tio$ of se$se 3the* tur$e# ever*thi$g u!si#e #ow$) >ut the fact that mo#er$ !hiloso!h* has fou$# the source of its re$ewal i$ the 5iet sche(Aarx(%reu# tri$it* is i$#ee# rather am"iguous a$# e?uivocal) >ecause it ca$ "e i$ter!rete# !ositivel* as well as $egativel*) %or exam!le& after the war& !hiloso!hies of value were i$ vogue) =ver*o$e was tal'i$g a"out values& a$# the* wa$te# 1axiolog*1 to re!lace "oth o$tolog* a$# the theor* of '$owle#ge)) )>ut it was$0t the least "it 5iet schea$ or Aarxist i$ i$s!iratio$) 8$ the co$trar*& $o o$e tal'e# a"out 5iet sche or Aarx at all& $o o$e '$ew them& a$# the* #i#$0t wa$t to '$ow them) :hat the* ma#e of 1value1 was a !lace to resurrect the most tra#itio$al& a"stract s!iritualism imagi$a"le2 the* calle# o$ values i$ or#er to i$s!ire a $ew co$formit* which the* "elieve# was "etter suite# to the mo#er$ worl#& *ou '$ow& the res!ect for values& etc) %or 5iet sche& as well as for Aarx& the $otio$ of value is strictl* i$se!ara"le 1- from a ra#ical a$# total criti?ue of societ* a$# the worl# ,loo' at the theme of the 1fetish1 i$ Aarx& or the theme of 1i#ols1 i$ 5iet sche-& a$# 2- from a creatio$ $o less ra#ical2 5iet sche0s tra$s(valuatio$& a$# Aarx0s revolutio$ar* actio$) 7o& i$ the !ost(war co$text& ever*o$e was all for usi$g a co$ce!t of value& "ut the* ha# com!letel* $eutrali e# it6 the* ha# su"tracte# all critical or creative se$se from it) :hat the* ma#e of it was a$ i$strume$t of

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esta"lishe# values) +t was !ure a$ti(5iet sche3eve$ worse& it was 5iet sche hi/ac'e#& a$$ihilate#& su!!resse#& it was 5iet sche "rought "ac' to 7u$#a* mass)

>ut such misa!!ro!riatio$s ca$$ot last for lo$g& si$ce there is somethi$g i$ the 5iet schea$ $otio$ of value to ex!lo#e all recog$i e#& esta"lishe# values& somethi$g to create& i$ a state of !erma$e$t creatio$& $ew thi$gs that esca!e all recog$itio$ a$# ever* esta"lishme$t) There *ou have a !ositive getti$g "ac' to 5iet sche& how to !hiloso!hi e with a hammer2 $ever what is '$ow$& "ut a great #estructio$ of the '$ow$& for the creatio$ of the u$'$ow$)

Jean#Noel 8uarne): +f I follow *ou& *ou0re sa*i$g that the $otio$s of se$se a$# value come to us from 5iet sche& Aarx& a$# %reu#& though the* are alwa*s i$ #a$ger of "ei$g hi/ac'e# "* servi$g the re"irth of a s!iritualism that the* were su!!ose# to #estro*3a$# that the* are o$ce agai$ fi$#i$g their wa* "ac'& comi$g i$to their ow$ to#a* "* e$ergi i$g wor's that are "oth critical a$# creative) 7o much for the $otio$ of value& ca$ the same thi$g "e sai# of se$se@

Gilles Deleu e: ."solutel*& eve$ more so) The $otio$ of se$se ca$ also "e the refuge of a re$asce$t s!iritualism2 what is sometimes calle# 1herme$eutics1 ,i$ter!retatio$- has ta'e$ u! the slac' of what was calle# 1axiolog*1 ,evaluatio$- after the war) The 5iet schea$ or& i$ this case& %reu#ia$ $otio$ of se$se is /ust as much i$ #a$ger of "ei$g misa!!ro!riate#) Nou hear ever*o$e tal'i$g a"out 1se$se12 origi$al se$se& forgotte$ se$se& erase# se$se& veile# se$se& reem( !lo*e# se$se& etc) .ll the ol# mirages are /ust re"a!ti e# u$#er the categor* of se$se6 =sse$ce is "ei$g revive#& with all its sacre# a$# religious values) +$ 5iet sche a$# %reu#& it0s the exact o!!osite6 the $otio$ of se$se is a$ i$strume$t of a"solute co$testatio$& a"solute criti?ue& a$# also s!ecific creatio$2 se$se is $ot a reservoir& $ot a !ri$ci!le or a$ origi$& $ot eve$ a$ e$#& it0s a$ 1effect&1 a$ eiieaproduced, whose laws of !ro#uctio$ must "e u$covere#) 4oo' at the !reface which C)(<) 8sier /ust #i# for the "oo' "* %euer"ach he tra$slate#2 3 8sier i$#ee# #isti$guishes "etwee$ these

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two co$ce!tio$s of se$se a$# has a real "ou$#ar*& from the !oi$t of view of !hiloso!h*& !ass "etwee$ them) This is o$e of structuralism0s esse$tial i#eas& u$if*i$g authors as #iffere$t as 4evi( 7trauss& 4aca$& %oucault& a$# .lthusser2 the i#ea of se$se as a$ effect !ro#uce# "* a s!ecific machi$er*& a !h*sical& o!tic& so$orous effect& etc) ,.$# this is $ot the same thi$g as a$ a!!eara$ce)- :ell& a$ a!horism "* 5iet sche is a se$se( !ro#uci$g machi$e& i$ that or#er s!ecific to thought) 8f course& there are other or#ers& other machi$eries3for exam!le& those which %reu# #iscovere#& a$# others still that are !olitical or !ractical i$ $ature) >ut we must "ecome machi$ists& 1o!erators)1

Jean#Noel 8uarne): ;ow woul# *ou #efi$e the !ro"lems of co$tem!orar* !hiloso!h*@

Gilles Deleu e: <erha!s i$ the wa* + /ust #escri"e# it& usi$g the $otio$s of se$se a$# value) Aa$* thi$gs are ha!!e$i$g i$ !hiloso!h* right $ow& it0s a co$fuse# a$# rich !erio#) 5o o$e "elieves a$* more i$ the +& the 7elf& i$ characters or !erso$s) This is ?uite clear i$ literature) >ut it goes eve$ #ee!er2 what + mea$ is& ma$* !eo!le have s!o$ta$eousl* sto!!e# thi$'i$g i$ terms of + a$# 7elf) %or a lo$g time !hiloso!h* offere# *ou a !articular alter$ative2 Go# or ma$3 or i$ !hiloso!hical /argo$2 i$fi$ite su"sta$ce or the fi$ite su"/ect) 5o$e of that is ver* im!orta$t a$* more2 the #eath of Go#& the !ossi"ilit* of re!laci$g Go# with huma$it*& all the Go#(;uma$ !ermutatio$s& etc) +t0s li'e %oucault sai#& we are $o more huma$ tha$ Go#& the o$e #ies with the other) 5or ca$ we remai$ satisfie# with the o!!ositio$ "etwee$ a !ure u$iversal a$# !articularities e$close# withi$ !erso$s& i$#ivi#uals& or 7elves) :e ca$0t let ourselves "e satisfie# with that& es!eciall* if the two terms are to "e reco$cile#& or com!lete# "* o$e a$other) :hat we0re u$coveri$g right $ow& i$ m* o!i$io$& is a worl# !ac'e# with impersona' individuations, or eve$ pre-individua' singu'arities ,that0s what 5iet sche mea$s whe$ he sa*s2 1$either Go# $or ma$&1 it0s a$arch* trium!ha$t-)

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The $ew $ovelists tal' of $othi$g else2 the* give voice to these $o$(!etso$al i$#ivi#uatio$s& these $o$(i$#ivi#ual si$gularities)

>ut most im!orta$tl*& all this corres!o$#s to somethi$g ha!!e$i$g i$ the co$tem!orar* worl#) +$#ivi#uatio$ is $o lo$ger e$close# i$ a wor#) 7i$gularit* is $o lo$ger e$close# i$ a$ i$#ivi#ual) This is reall* im!orta$t& es!eciall* !oliticall*6 it0s li'e the 1fish #issolve# i$ water16 it0s the revolutio$ar* struggle& the struggle for li"eratio$))) .$# i$ our wealth* societies& the ma$* a$# various forms of $o$(i$tegratio$& the #iffere$t forms of refusal "* *ou$g !eo!le to#a*& are !erha!s ma$ifestatio$s of it) Nou see& the forces of re!ressio$ alwa*s $ee# a 7elf that ca$ "e assig$e#& the* $ee# #etermi$ate i$#ivi#uals o$ which to exercise their !ower) :he$ we "ecome the least "it flui#& whe$ we sli! awa* from the assig$a"le 7elf& whe$ there is $o lo$ger a$* !erso$ o$ whom Go# ca$ exercise his !ower or "* whom ;e ca$ "e re!lace#& the !olice lose it) This is $ot theor*) .ll the stuff goi$g o$ as we s!ea' is what matters) :e ca$0t #ismiss the u!heavals trou"li$g the *ou$ger ge$eratio$ /ust "* sa*i$g2 oh& the*0ll grow out of it) +t0s #ifficult& of course& sometimes worrisome& "ut it0s also reall* /o*ful& "ecause the*0re creati$g somethi$g& accom!a$ie# "* the co$fusio$ a$# sufferi$g that atte$#s a$* !ractical creatio$& + thi$')

:ell the$& !hiloso!h*& too& must create worl#s of thought& a whole $ew co$ ce!tio$ of thought& of 1what it mea$s to thi$'&1 a$# it must "e a#e?uate to what is ha!!e$i$g arou$# us) +t must a#o!t as its ow$ those revolutio$s goi$g o$ elsewhere& i$ other #omai$s& or those that are "ei$g !re!are#) <hiloso!h* is i$se!ara"le from 1criti?ue)1 8$l*& there are two wa*s of goi$g a"out it) 8$ the o$e ha$#& *ou critici e 1false a!!licatio$s12 false moralit*& false '$owle#ge& false religio$s& etc) This is how Fa$t& for i$sta$ce& thi$'s of his famous 19riti?ue12 i#eal '$owle#ge& true moralit*& a$# faith come out !erfectl* i$tact) 8$ the other ha$#& *ou have this other famil* of !hiloso!hers who su"/ect true moralit*& true faith& a$# i#eal '$owle#ge to com!rehe$sive criticism& i$ the !ursuit of somethi$g else& as a fu$ctio$ of a $ew image of thought) .s lo$g as we0re co$te$t with critici i$g the 1false&1 we0re $ot "otheri$g a$*o$e ,true criti?ue is the criticism of true forms& $ot false co$te$ts) Nou #o$0t critici e ca!italism or im!erialism "* #e$ou$ci$g their 1mista'es1-) This other famil* of !hiloso!hers i$clu#es 4ucretius& 7!i$o a& 5iet sche3a$ i$cre#i"le li$eage i$ !hiloso!h*& a "ro'e$ li$e& ex!losive& totall* volca$ic)

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Jean#Noel 8uarne): Nou0ve writte$ "oo's o$ ;ume& 5iet sche& Fa$t& >ergso$& <roust& Aasoch) 9a$ *ou ex!lai$ these successive choices& #o the* somehow co$verge@ .$# #o$0t *ou have a !articular i$terest i$ 5iet sche@

Gilles Deleu e: 8h *es& for reaso$s that + have "ee$ tr*i$g to ex!lai$2 5iet sche is $ot at all the i$ve$tor of the famous !hrase 1Go# is #ea#)1 8$ the co$trar*& he is the first to "elieve this !hrase to have $o im!orta$ce whatsoever as lo$g as the huma$ occu!ies the !lace of Go#) 5iet sche was tr*i$g to u$cover somethi$g that was $either Go# $or ;uma$& tr*i$g to give voice to these im!erso$al i$#i( vi#uatio$s a$# these !re(i$#ivi#ual si$gularities)))that0s what he calls Dio$*sos& or also the su!er(ma$) +t is his !articular !hiloso!hical a$# literar* ge$ius to have fou$# the tech$i?ues to give them voice) 5iet sche sa*s of the su!er(ma$2 it0s the su!erior 'i$# of ever*thi$g that is& i$clu#i$g a$imals3li'e Bim"au# sa*s& 1he is

loa#e# with huma$it*& eve$ a$imalsSSSSSSSS109o$se?ue$tl*& 5iet sche rei$ve$ts that

total criti?ue which is at the same time a creatio$& total !ositivit*)

The other "oo's +0ve #o$e for #iffere$t reaso$s) Fa$t& for exam!le& is the !erfect i$car$atio$ of false criti?ue2 that0s wh*The fasci$ates me) >ut whe$ *ou0re faci$g such a wor' of ge$ius& there0s $o !oi$t sa*i$g *ou #isagree) %irst *ou have to '$ow how to a#mire6 *ou have to

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re#iscover the !ro"lems e !oses& his !articular machi$er*) +t is through a#miratio$ that *ou will come to ge$ui$e criti?ue) The ma$ia of !eo!le to#a* is $ot '$owi$g how to a#mire a$*thi$g2 either the*0re 1agai$st&1 or the* situate ever*thi$g at their ow$ level while the* chit(chat a$# scruti$i e) That0s $o wa* to go a"out it) Nou have to wor' *our wa* "ac' to those !ro"lems which a$ author of ge$ius has !ose#& all the wa* "ac' to that which he #oes $ot sa* in what he sa*s& i$ or#er to extract somethi$g that still "elo$gs to him& though *ou also tur$ it agai$st him) Nou have to "e i$s!ire#& visite# "* the ge$iuses *ou #e$ou$ce)

Cules Halles sa*s that a revolutio$ar* must first '$ow how to a#mire a$# res!ect2 this is a$ extraor#i$ar* remar'& !racticall* s!ea'i$g) 4oo' at ci$ema& for exam!le) :he$ Cerr* 4ewis or Tati 1critici e1 mo#er$ life& the* #o$0t have the com!lace$c*& the vulgarit* to show us ugl* thi$gs) :hat the* critici e& the* show as beautifu', as magnificent, the* love what the* critici e a$# give it a $ew "eaut*) Their criti?ue is o$l* the more forceful) +$ ever* mo#er$it* a$# ever* $ovelt*& *ou fi$# co$formit* a$# creativit*6 a$ i$si!i# co$formit*& "ut also 1a little $ew music16 somethi$g i$ co$formit* with the time& "ut also somethi$g u$timel*3se!arati$g the o$e from the other is the tas' of those who '$ow how to love& the real #estro*ers a$# creators of our #a*) Goo# #estructio$ re?uires love)

;ume& >ergso$& a$# <roust i$terest me so much "ecause i$ their wor' ca$ "e fou$# !rofou$# eleme$ts for a $ew image of thought) There0s somethi$g extraor#i$ar* i$ the wa* the* tell us2 thi$'i$g mea$s somethi$g else tha$ what *ou "elieve) :e live with a !articular image of thought& that is to sa*& "efore we "egi$ to thi$'& we have a vague i#ea of what it mea$s to thi$'& its mea$s a$# e$#s) .$# the$ someo$e comes alo$g a$# !ro!oses a$other i#ea& a whole other image) <roust& for exam!le& has the i#ea that ever* thought is a$ aggressio$& a!!eari$g u$#er the co$strai$t of a sig$& a$# that we thi$' o$l* whe$ we are force# a$# co$strai$e# to thi$') %rom the$ o$& thought is $o lo$ger carrie# o$ "* a volu$tar* self& "ut "* i$volu$tar* forces& the 1effects1 of machi$es)))7till& *ou have to "e a"le to love the i$sig$ifica$t& to love what goes "e*o$# !erso$s

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a$# i$#ivi#uals6 *ou have to o!e$ *ourself to e$cou$ters a$# fi$# a la$guage i$ the si$gularities that excee# i$#ivi#uals& a la$guage i$ the i$#ivi#uatio$s that excee# !erso$s) Nes& what we0re loo'i$g for these #a*s is a $ew image of the act of thought& its fu$ctio$i$g& its ge$esis i$ thought itself) Jean#Noel 8uarne): :oul# this ?uote ta'e$ from *our "oo' o$ <roust sum u! *our thi$'i$g here2 2T ere is no 'ogos, t ere are on'y ierog'yp s2= =lsewhere& s!ea'i$g of Aasoch& *ou sai# the artist was 2a symptomo'ogist, 2 i$#icati$g that 2etio'ogy, t e scientific or e!perimenta' part of medicine, must ma:e room for symptomo'ogy, w ic is t e 'iterary or artistic part% 1+s this the same !ro"lem i$ each case@

Gilles Deleu e: +t0s the same !ro"lem2 hierogl*!hs vs) the logos& s*m!toms vs) esse$ces ,s*m!tom here mea$s eve$ts& #ro!s& e$cou$ters& aggressio$s-) The artist is a s*m!tomologist) +$ the se$se that characters from 7ha'es!eare sa*2 KKOSNgoes it with the worl#@ :ith all the !s*chological a$# !olitical im!licatio$s such a ?uestio$ e$tails) 5a ism is a rece$t #isease o$ this earth) .$# what the .merica$s are #oi$g i$ Hiet$am is *et a$other #isease) The worl# ca$ "e treate# as a s*m!tom a$# searche# for sig$s of #isease& sig$s of life& sig$s of a cure& sig$s of health) .$# sometimes a viole$t reactio$ is a sig$ of a ro"ust health retur$i$g) 5iet sche thought of the !hiloso!her as the !h*sicia$ of civili atio$) ;e$r* Ailler was a$ extraor#i$ar* #iag$osticia$) The artist i$ ge$eral must treat the worl# as a s*m!tom& a$# "uil# his wor' $ot li'e a thera!eutic& "ut i$ ever* case li'e a cli$ic) The artist is $ot outsi#e the s*m!toms& "ut ma'es a wor' of art from them& which sometimes serves to !reci!itate them& a$# sometimes to tra$sform them) Jean#Noel 8uarne): ;ere is somethi$g *ou wrote somewhere2 2T ep ysio'ogist, t e p ysician is an interpreter, one w o considers p enomena as symptoms and spea:s in ap orisms% T e artist eva'uates, bot considering and creating perspectives, and spea:s in poems% T e p i'osop er of t e future is bot artist and p ysicianLin a word, a 'egis'ator 1+t has alwa*s struc' me that most of those !hiloso!hers i$s!ire# "*

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5iet sche0s thought& !ara#oxicall*& write i$ a$ almost tra#itio$al form) +t seems to me that the structure of some of *our "oo's ,which o$e coul# !erha!s ?ualif* as a mosaic structure- is movi$g towar# i$ve$ti$g a $ew la$guage for !hiloso!h* to#a*) ;ow shoul# we i$ter!ret the clear i$terest *ou have i$ literature@

Gilles Deleu e: .s *ou are $o #ou"t aware& the !ro"lem of formal re$ewal ca$ "e !ose# o$l* whe$ the co$te$t is $ew) 7ometimes& eve$& the formal re$ewal comes after) +t is what o$e has to sa*& what o$e thi$'s o$e has to sa*& that im!oses $ew forms) 5ow !hiloso!h*& it0s true& is $othi$g s!ectacular) <hiloso!h* has $ot at all u$#ergo$e similar revolutio$s or ex!erime$ts as those !ro#uce# i$ scie$ce& !ai$ti$g& scul!ture& music& or literature) <lato& Fa$t& a$# the rest3 the*

remai$ fu$#ame$tal& a$# that0s fi$e) + mea$& $o$(=ucli#ea$ geometries #o$0t 'ee! =ucli# from "ei$g fu$#ame$tal to geometr*) 7choe$"erg #oes$0t $ullif* Ao art) 7imilarl*& the search for mo#es of ex!ressio$ ,"oth a $ew image of thought a$# $ew tech$i?ues- must "e esse$tial for !hiloso!h*) >ec'ett0s com!lai$t2 1.h& the ol# st*leO1 ta'es o$ its full sig$ifica$ce here) :e get the feeli$g that we ca$0t go o$ writi$g !hiloso!h* "oo's i$ the ol# st*le much lo$ger6 the* $o lo$ger i$terest the stu#e$ts& the* #o$0t eve$ i$terest their authors) 7o& + thi$' ever*o$e is o$ the loo'(out for somethi$g $ew) 5iet sche #iscovere# extraor#i$ar* metho#s& "ut *ou ca$0t #o it over agai$) Nou reall* have to "e a$ im!u#e$t "astar# to write .ruits of t e Eart after T us Spo:e Iarat ustra%

The $ovel #iscovere# its ow$ re$ewal) +t matters little that some !eo!le re!roach the nouveau roman for "ei$g ex!erime$tal or la"orator* wor') Those 1"oo's writte$ agai$st somethi$g1 have $ever amou$te# to much ,agai$st the nouveau roman, agai$st structuralism& etc)-) +t is o$l* i$ the $ame of $ew creatio$ that *ou ca$ o!!ose& a$# the$ *ou have other thi$gs

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to thi$' a"out) 4et0s ta'e a$ exam!le from ci$ema2 Go#ar# tra$sforms ci$ema "* i$tro#uci$g thought i$to it) ;e #i#$0t have thoughts on ci$ema& he #oes$0t !ut more or less vali# thought into ci$ema6 he starts ci$ema thi$'i$g& a$# for the first time& if +0m $ot mista'e$) Theoreticall*& Go#ar# woul# "e ca!a"le of filmi$g Fa$t0s &riti@ue or 7!i$o a0s Et ics, a$# it woul#$0t "e a"stract ci$ema or a ci$ematogra!hic a!!licatio$) Go#ar# '$ew how to fi$# "oth a $ew mea$s a$# a $ew 1image13which $ecessaril* !resu!!oses a revolutio$ar* co$te$t) 7o& i$ !hiloso!h*& we0re all ex!erie$ci$g this !ro"lem of formal re$ewal) +t0s certai$l* !ossi"le) +t "egi$s with little thi$gs) %or exam!le& usi$g the histor* of !hiloso!h* as a 1collage1 ,alrea#* a$ ol# tech$i?ue i$ !ai$ti$g- woul# $ot i$ the least #imi$ish the great !hiloso!hers of the !ast3ma'i$g a collage at the heart of a !ro!erl* !hiloso!hical !icture) That woul# "e "etter tha$ 1selectio$s&1 "ut it woul# re?uire !articular tech$i?ues) Nou woul# $ee# some Aax =r$sts i$ !hiloso!h*))) .lso& the me#i( um i$ !hiloso!h* is the co$ce!t ,li'e sou$# for the musicia$ or color for the !ai$ter-& the !hiloso!her creates co$ce!ts) ;e executes his creatio$ i$ a co$ce!tual 1co$ti$uum1 /ust li'e the musicia$ #oes i$ a so$orous co$ti$uum) :hat0s im!orta$t here is this2 where #o co$ce!ts come from@ :hat is the creatio$ of co$ce!ts@ . co$ce!t exists $o less tha$ characters #o) +$ m* o!i$io$& what we $ee# is a massive ex!e$#iture of co$ce!ts& a$ excess of co$ce!ts) Nou have to !rese$t co$ce!ts i$ !hiloso!h* as though *ou were writi$g a goo# #etective $ovel2 the* must have a o$e of !rese$ce& resolve a local situatio$& "e i$ co$tact with the 1#ramas&1 a$# "ri$g a certai$ cruelt* with them) The* must exhi"it a certai$ cohere$ce "ut get it from somewhere else) 7amuel >utler coi$e# a fa"ulous wor# to #esig$ate those stories that seem to come from elsewhere2 =B=:;85& it0s "oth 0$o(where&0 the $owhere of origi$s& a$# 0$ow(here&0 the here a$# $ow tur$e# u!si#e #ow$& #is!lace#& #isguise#) This is the ge$ius of em!iricism& which is so !oorl* u$#erstoo#2 the creatio$ of co$ce!ts i$ the wil#& s!ea'i$g i$ the $ame of a cohere$ce which is $ot their ow$& $or that of Go#& $or that of the 7elf& "ut a cohere$ce alwa*s o$ the wa*& alwa*s i$ #ise?uili"rium with itself) :hat !hiloso!h* lac's is em!iricism)

Jean#Noel 8uarne): The* sa* *ou0re $ow wor'i$g o$ a "oo' ce$tere# arou$# the co$ce!t of re!etitio$) ;ow #oes this co$ce!t affect the huma$ scie$ces& literature& or !hiloso!h*@

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Gilles Deleu e: Nes& I fi$ishe# the "oo'3o$ re!etitio$ a$# #iffere$ce ,the*0re the same thi$g- as the actual categories of our thought) +t0s the !ro"lem of re!etitio$s a$# co$sta$ts& "ut also the !ro"lem of mas's& #isguises& #is!laceme$ts& a$# variatio$s i$ re!etitio$) These themes must mea$ somethi$g to our time if !hiloso!hers a$# $ovelists 'ee! circli$g arou$# them) <eo!le usuall* thi$' a"out these themes ?uite i$#e!e$#e$tl* of o$e a$other) >ut there0s $othi$g ?uite so festive as a !o!ular tu$e& is there@ +t0s also o$e of m* themes& rather i$volu$taril*& /ust somethi$g that !reoccu!ies me) :ithout tr*i$g to& +0ve "ee$ loo'i$g for it i$ all the writers +0ve love#) There are ma$* rece$t excelle$t stu#ies o$ the co$ce!ts of #iffere$ce a$# re!etitio$) 7o wh* $ot /oi$ i$@ :h* $ot li'e so ma$* others as' the ?uestio$2 :hat are we #oi$g i$ !hiloso!h*@ :e0re loo'i$g for 1vitalit*)1 =ve$ !s*choa$al*sis $ee#s to a##ress a certai$ 1vitalit*1 i$ the !atie$t& which the !atie$t has lost& "ut which the a$al*st has lost& too) <hiloso!hical vitalit* is $ot far off& $or is !olitical vitalit*) Aa$* thi$gs& ma$* #ecisive re!etitio$s a$# ma$* cha$ges are $ot far off)1

<i""es 3e"e-=e Ta"2s +hi"osophy1

Jeane))e Colo&9el: Nou /ust !u"lishe# two "oo's& #ifference and Repetition a$# Spino(a and t e )rob'em of E!pression% .$# a still more rece$t wor'& T e 4ogic of Sense, will come out ver* soo$) :ho s!ea's i$ these "oo's@

Gilles Deleu e2 :he$ever we write& we s!ea' as someo$e else) .$# it is a !articular form that s!ea's through us) +$ the classical worl#& for exam!le& what s!ea's is the i$#ivi#ual) The classical worl# is e$tirel* fou$#e# o$ the form of i$#ivi#ualit*6 the i$#ivi#ual is coexte$sive with "ei$g ,we see this i$ Go#0s !ositio$ as the i$#ivi#uate# sovereig$ "ei$g-) +$ the roma$tic worl#& it is !erso$s who s!ea'& a$# this is ?uite #iffere$t2 the !erso$ is #efi$e# as coexte$sive with re!rese$tatio$) These were $ew values i$ la$guage a$# life) 7!o$ta$eit* to#a* !erha!s esca!es the i$#ivi#ual as much as the !erso$& a$# $ot sim!l* "ecause of a$o$*mous !owers) %or a lo$g time we were stuc' with the alter$ative2 either *ou are !erso$s or i$#ivi#uals& or *ou si$' "ac' i$to a$ u$#iffere$tiate# sea of a$o$*mit*) To#a*& however& we are u$coveri$g a worl# of !re(i$#ivi#ual& im!erso$al si$gularities) The* are $ot re#uci"le to i$#ivi#uals or !erso$s& $or to a sea without #iffere$ce) These si$gularities are mo"ile& the* "rea' i$& thievi$g a$# steali$g awa*& alter$ati$g "ac' a$# forth& li'e a$arch* crow$e#& i$ha"iti$g a $oma# s!ace) There is a "ig #iffere$ce "etwee$ !artitio$i$g a fixe# s!ace amo$g se#e$tar* i$#ivi#uals accor#i$g to "ou$#aries or e$closures& a$# #istri"uti$g si$gularities i$ a$ o!e$ s!ace without e$closures or

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!ro!erties) The !oet %erli$ghetti tal's a"out the fourth !erso$ si$gular2 it is that to which we tr* to give voice)

Jeane))e Colo&9el: +s that how *ou see the !hiloso!hers *ou i$ter!ret& as si$gularities i$ a$ o!e$ s!ace@ To this #a*& + have alwa*s wa$te# to com!are what *ou #o to what a stage #irector #oes whe$ he illumi$ates the writte$ #ramatic text) +$ #ifference and Repetition, however& the com!ariso$ has "ee$ #is!lace#2 *ou0re $o lo$ger a$ i$ter!reter& *ou0re a creator) +s this com!ariso$ still vali#@ 8r is the role of the histor* of !hiloso!h* #iffere$t@ +s the histor* of !hiloso!h* the 1collage1 *ou are after& the 1collage1 that re$ews the la$#sca!e& or is it the 1cita( tio$1 i$tegrate# i$to the text@

Gilles Deleu e2 Nes& !hiloso!hers ofte$ have a #ifficult time with the histor* of !hiloso!h*6 it0s horri"le& it0s $ot eas* to !ut "ehi$# *ou) <erha!s a goo# wa* of #eali$g with the !ro"lem is& as *ou sa*& to su"stitute a 'i$# of stagi$g for it) 7tagi$g mea$s that the writte$ text is goi$g to "e illumi$ate# "* other values& $o$(textual values ,at least i$ the or#i$ar* se$se-2 it is i$#ee# !ossi"le to su"stitute for the histor* of !hiloso!h* a theatre of !hiloso!h*) Nou sa* + have sought a$other tech$i?ue& closer to collage tha$ to theatre& for m* co$ce!tio$ of #iffere$ce) The 'i$# of collage tech$i?ue or eve$ the ge$esis of series ,re!etitio$ with slight variatio$s- which *ou see i$ <o! .rt) >ut *ou also thought + was$0t e$tirel* successful) + "elieve + go farther i$ m* "oo' o$ the logic of se$se)

Jeane))e Colo&9el: :hat stri'es me es!eciall* is the frie$#shi! *ou have for the authors *ou write a"out) 7ometimes *our rece!tio$ seems too favora"le eve$2 for exam!le& whe$ *ou sile$ce the co$servative as!ects of >ergso$0s thought) 8$ the other ha$#& *ou are merciless with ;egel) :h* is that@

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Gilles Deleu e: +f *ou #o$0t a#mire somethi$g& if *ou #o$0t love it& *ou have $o reaso$ to write a wor# a"out it) 7!i$o a or 5iet sche are !hiloso!hers whose critical a$# #estructive !owers are without e?ual& "ut this !ower alwa*s s!ri$gs from affirmatio$& from /o*& from a cult of affirmatio$ a$# /o*& from the exige$c* of life agai$st those who woul# mutilate a$# mortif* it) %or me& that is !hiloso!h* itself) >ut *ou0re as'i$g me a"out two other !hiloso!hers) <recisel*& "* virtue of those criteria of stagi$g or collage we /ust #iscusse#& it seems a#missi"le to extract from a !hiloso!h* co$si#ere# co$servative as a whole those si$gularities which are $ot reall* si$gularities2 that is what + #i# for >ergso$ism a$# its image of life& its image of li"ert* or me$tal ill$ess) :h* $ot ;egel@ :ell& some"o#* has to !la* the role of traitor) :hat is !hiloso!hicall* i$car$ate# i$ ;egel is the e$ter!rise to 1"ur#e$1 life& to overwhelm it with ever* "ur#e$& to reco$cile life with the 7tate a$# religio$& to i$scri"e #eath i$ life3the mo$strous e$ter!rise to su"mit life to $egativit*& the e$ter!rise of rese$tme$t a$# u$ha!!* co$scious$ess) 5aturall*& with this #ialectic of $egativit* a$# co$tra#ictio$& ;egel has i$s!ire# ever* la$guage of "etra* al& o$ the right as well as o$ the left ,theolog*& s!iritualism& tech$ocrac*& "ureaucrac*& etc)-)

Jeane))e Colo&9el: Nour hatre# of $egativit* lea#s *ou to show #iffere$ce a$# co$tra#ictio$ as a$tago$istic) 9ertai$l* the s*mmetrical o!!ositio$ of co$traries i$ the ;egelia$ #ialectic co$firms *our !oi$t& "ut is this relatio$ the same for Aarx@ :h* #o *ou a##ress this o$l* i$ a$ allusive wa*@ Nour a$al*sis& which is so fruitful& of the co$flict(#iffere$ces relatio$ i$ %reu# u$mas's false s*mmetries2 sa#ismDmasochism& #eath i$sti$ctD#eath #rive3coul#$0t o$e #o the same for Aarx@

Gilles Deleu e2 Nou0re right& "ut this li"eratio$ of Aarx from ;egel& this rea!!ro!riatio$ of Aarx& this u$coveri$g of #iffere$tial a$# affirmative mecha$isms i$ Aarx& is$0t this what .lthusser is accom!lishi$g so a#mira"l*@ +$ a$* case& u$#er the false o!i$io$s& u$#er the false o!!ositio$s& *ou #iscover much more ex!losive s*stems& u$s*mmetrical wholes i$ #ise?uili"rium ,fetishes& for exam!le& "oth eco$omic a$# !s*choa$al*tic-)

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Jeane))e Colo&9el: 8$e last ?uestio$ i$ co$$ectio$ with the 1u$(s!o'e$1 i$ Aarx2 + clearl* see the li$' "etwee$ *our !hiloso!h* a$# !la*& a$# + u$#ersta$# its relatio$shi! to co$testatio$) >ut ca$ it have a !olitical #ime$sio$ a$# co$tri"ute to a revolutio$ar* !ractice@

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Gilles Deleu e: That0s a tough ?uestio$& + #o$0t '$ow) +$ the first !lace& there are relatio$s of frie$#shi! or love that #o $ot wait for the revolutio$& that #o $ot !refigure it& although the* are revolutio$ar* o$ their ow$ accou$t2 the* have i$ them a co$testi$g force which is !ro!er to the !oetic life& the "eat$i's for i$sta$ce) The* have more to #o with Re$ >u##hism tha$ Aarxism& "ut there are effective& ex!losive thi$gs i$ Re$) .s for social relatio$s& let0s su!!ose that the tas' of !hiloso!h* i$ this or that era is to have a !articular i$sta$ce s!ea' through it2 the i$#ivi#ual i$ the classical worl#& the !erso$ i$ the roma$tic worl#& or si$gularities i$ the mo#er$ worl#) <hiloso!h* #oes $ot "ri$g a"out the existe$ce of these i$sta$ces2 it gives them voice through itself) >ut the* #o exist a$# are !ro#uce# i$ histor* a$# themselves #e!e$# o$ social relatio$s) :ell the$O Bevolutio$ woul# "e the tra$sformatio$ of those relatio$s corres!o$#i$g to the #evelo!me$t of this or that i$sta$ce ,such as the "ourgeois i$#ivi#ual i$ the 1classical1 revolutio$ of 1789-) The real !ro"lem of revolutio$& a revolutio$ without "ureaucrac*& woul# "e the !ro"lem of $ew social relatio$s& where si$gularities come i$to !la*& active mi$orities i$ $oma# s!ace without !ro!ert* or e$closure)

<-ero-"t;s <enera" 4ethod

'or Spino=a;

A) Geuroult has !u"lishe# the first volume of his Spino(a, which focuses o$ >oo' + of the Et ics% +t is too "a# that the !u"lisher has its ow$ reaso$s for 'ee!i$g the seco$# volume& which is fi$ishe#& from "ei$g release# at this time& si$ce the seco$# volume !romises to follow u! the #irect co$se?ue$ces of the first) 8$e ca$ $evertheless a!!reciate the im!orta$ce of this first volume& from the !ers!ective of 7!i$o ism as well as the !ers!ective of the ge$eral metho# #evelo!e# "* Gueroult)

Gueroult re$ewe# the histor* of !hiloso!h* through a ge$etic(structural metho# which he ha# #evelo!e# well "efore structuralism "ecame fashio$a"le i$ other #isci!li$es) +$ Gueroult0s metho#& a structure is #efi$e# "* a$ order of reasons% Beaso$s are the #iffere$tial a$# ge$erative eleme$ts of the corres!o$#i$g s*stem6 the* are ge$ui$e !hiloso!hemes that exist o$l* i$ relatio$ to o$e a$other) Beaso$s are $o$etheless ?uite #iffere$t accor#i$g to whether the* are sim!le rea ( so$s of '$owle#ge or ge$ui$e reaso$s of "ei$g3i$ other wor#s& accor#i$g to whether their or#er is a$al*tic or s*$thetic& a$ or#er of '$owle#ge vs) a$ or#er of !ro#uctio$) +t is o$l* i$ the seco$# case that the ge$esis of the s*stem is also a ge$esis of thi$gs through a$# i$ the s*stem) >ut we must "e careful $ot to o!!ose the two s*stems i$ too summaril* a fashio$) :he$ the reaso$s are reaso$s of '$owle#ge& it is true that the metho# of i$ve$tio$ is esse$tiall* a$al*tical6 s*$thesis&

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however& is i$tegrate# withi$ it& either as a metho# of ex!ositio$& or more !rofou$#l*& "ecause reaso$s of "ei$g are e$cou$tere# i$ the or#er of reaso$s& "ut !recisel* that !lace assig$e# to them "* the relatio$ amo$g eleme$ts of '$owle#ge ,e)g)& Descartes0s o$tological !roof-) 9o$versel*& i$ the other t*!e of s*stem& whe$ the reaso$s are #etermi$e# as reaso$s of "ei$g& it is true that the s*$thetic metho# "ecomes the real metho# of i$ve$tio$6 however& si$ce regressive a$al*sis is #esti$e# to lea# as @uic:'y as possib'e to the #etermi$atio$ of those eleme$ts which are reaso$s of "ei$g& it ta'es o$ mea$i$g or se$se at the ver* !oi$t where it is rela*e# a$# eve$ a"sor"e# "* !rogressive s*$thesis) The two t*!es of s*stems ca$ thus "e #isti$guishe# structurall*& that is to sa*& more !rofou$#l* tha$ /ust "* a sim!le o!!ositio$)

Gueroult #emo$strate# this alrea#* co$cer$i$g %ichte0s metho#& which is o!!ose# to Fa$t0s a$al*tic metho#) The o!!ositio$ is $ot com!rise# of a ra#ical #ualit*& "ut a !articular reversal2 the a$al*tic !rocess is $ot ig$ore# or re/ecte# "* %ichte& "ut wor's to su!!ress itself) 1.s the !ri$ci!le te$#s to a"sor" it com!letel*& the a$al*tic !rocess ta'es o$ a$ ever larger scale))) .t ever* mome$t& 0T e #octrine of Science1 affirms that& si$ce the !ri$ci!le must sta$# alo$e& the a$al*tic metho# must $ot !ursue a$* e$# other tha$ its ow$ su!!ressio$) This mea$s that the co$structive metho# alo$e shoul# "e effective)1 2 The #ee! 7!i$( o ism of %ichte lea#s us to thi$' that a$ a$alogous !ro"lem ma* "e !ose# co$cer$i$g 7!i$o a himself& "ut i$ o!!ositio$ to Descartes) >ecause it is literall* false that 7!i$o a "egi$s with the i#ea of Go#& i$ a s*$thetic !rocess which is assume# to "e rea#*(ma#e) The Treatise on t e Reform of t e ;nte''ect i$vites us to raise ourselves& "egi$$i$g from a$* i#ea at all& as @uic:'y as possib'e to the i#ea of Go#& where all fictio$ ceases& a$# where !rogressive ge$esis rela*s a$# i$ a wa* war#s off& "ut #oes $ot su!!ress& the !relimi$ar* a$al*sis) 5or #oes the Et ics "egi$ with the i#ea of Go#6 i$ the or#er of #efi$itio$s& it comes i$ sixth !lace& a$# i$ the or#er of !ro!ositio$s& $i$th a$# te$th !lace) 9o$se?ue$tl*& o$e of the fu$#ame$tal !ro"lems of Gueroult0s "oo' ca$ "e formulate# i$ this wa*2 what exactl* is goi$g o$ i$ the first eight !ro!ositio$s@

The or#er of reaso$s is i$ $o case a hi##e$ or#er) +t #oes $ot refer to a late$t co$te$t& to somethi$g left u$sai#6 rather& the or#er of reaso$s is alwa*s o$ the same !la$e as the s*stem ,e)g) the or#er of reaso$s of '$owle#ge i$ Descartes0s Meditationes, or the or#er of reaso$s of "ei$g i$ 7!i$o a0s Et ics$% .ccor#i$g to Gueroult& this is wh* the historia$ of !hiloso!h* is $ot a$

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i$ter!reter)0 7tructure is $ever somethi$g left u$sai# which must "e #iscovere# "e$eath what is sai#6 the structure ca$ "e #iscovere# o$l* "* followi$g the ex!licit or#er of the author) .$# *et& though alwa*s ex!licit a$# ma$ifest& the structure is the most #ifficult thi$g to see2 it goes u$$otice#& $eglecte# "* the historia$ of i#eas or other su"/ects) This is "ecause structure is i#e$tical to the fact of sa*i$g& a !ure !hiloso!hical give$ "factum$, "ut which is co$sta$tl* twiste# "* what o$e sa*s& "oth the material treate# a$# the i#eas "rought together) 7eei$g structure or the or#er of reaso$s is thus followi$g the !ath alo$g which the material is #issociat ( e# accor#i$g to the #ema$#s of the or#er& a$# the i#eas #ecom!ose# accor#i$g to their ge$erative #iffere$tial eleme$ts& alo$g which also the eleme$ts or reaso$s are orga$i e# i$to 1series16 o$e must follow the chai$s to where i$#e!e$#e$t series form a 2ne!us2 the i$tersectio$ of !ro"lems or solutio$s)00

Cust as he followe# Descartes0s a$al*tic geometric or#er ste! "* ste! i$ the Meditationes, so Gueroult follows 7!i$o a0s s*$thetic geometric or#er ste! "* ste! i$ the Et ics8 #efi$itio$s& axioms& !ro!ositio$s& #emo$stratio$s& corollaries& scolia))) .$# this !roce#ure $o lo$ger has a sim!l* #i#actic a!!licatio$& as it #oes i$ 4ewis Bo"i$so$0s comme$tar*) 5 The rea#er has ever* right to ex!ect2 1- the emerge$ce of the structure of the 7!i$o ist s*stem& that is& the #etermi( $atio$ of the ge$erative eleme$ts a$# 'i$#s of relatio$s the* exhi"it& the series i$to which the* fall& a$# the 1$exuses1 "etwee$ series ,structure as spritua' automaton$- 2- the reaso$s wh* 7!i$o a0s geometric metho# is strictl* a#e?uate to this structure& that is& how the structure effectivel* frees the geometric co$structio$ from the limits that affect it as lo$g as it is a!!lie# to figures ,"ei$gs of reaso$ or imagi$atio$-& a$# causes it to im!act real "ei$gs "* assig$i$g the co$#itio$s of such a$ exte$sio$66 fi$all*& a$# this is har#l* a #etail& 3- the reaso$s wh* a #emo$stratio$ shows u! i$ o$e !articular !lace& is accom!a$ie# whe$ $ecessar* "* other #emo$stratio$s to #ou"le it& a$# refers to this or that !revious #emo$stratio$ ,whe$ the im!atie$t rea#er coul# imagi$e other filiatio$s-) These last two as!ects& co$cer$i$g the !ro!er metho# a$# the !ro!er formalism of the s*stem& #erive #irectl* from the structure)

4et0s a## a fi$al theme2 si$ce the structure of the s*stem is #efi$e# "* a$ or#er or a s!ace of coexiste$t reaso$s& we ca$ as' what the !ro!er histor* of the s*stem& its i$ter$al evolutio$ "ecome) +f Gueroult more ofte$ tha$ $ot relegates such a stu#* to a!!e$#ices& it is $ot at all

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"ecause it is $egligi"le& $or "ecause his "oo' is mea$t to "e a comme$tar* o$ the Et ics as 1master!iece)1 Bather& a$ evolutio$3u$less it is !urel* imagi$ar*& ar"itraril* fixe# "* the historia$ of i#eas3ca$ "e #e#uce# o$l* from a rigorous com!ariso$ of the structural states of the s*stem) 8$l* the structural state of the Et ics e$a"les o$e to #eci#e& for exam!le& whether the S ort Treatise exhi"its some other structure or sim!l* a$other state less reso$a$t with the same structure& a$# what is the im!orta$ce of the revisio$s from the !ers!ective of the ge$erative eleme$ts a$# their relatio$s) +$ ge$eral& a s*stem evolves i$asmuch as certai$ !ieces cha$ge their !ositio$& i$ such a wa* that the* cover a larger s!ace tha$ "efore& eve$ while the* more tightl* co$trol this s!ace) ;owever& it ca$ ha!!e$ that a s*stem i$clu#es e$ough !oi$ts of i$#etermi$atio$ for several !ossi"le or#ers to coexist withi$ it2 Gueroult "rillia$tl* showe# this for Aale"ra$che)1 >ut i$ the case of s*stems that are !articularl* saturate# or tight('$it& a$ evolutio$ is $ecessar* for !articular reaso$s to cha$ge their !ositio$s a$# thus !ro#uce a $ew effect) 9o$cer$i$g %ichte& Gueroult alrea#* #iscusses 1i$ter$al surges of the s*stem1 which #etermi$e $ew #issociatio$s& #is!laceme$ts& a$# relatio$s)00 Gueroult raises the ?uestio$ of such i$ter$al surges i$ 7!i$o ism o$ several occasio$s i$ the a!!e$#ices of his "oo'2 co$cer$i$g the esse$ce of Go#& the !roofs of the existe$ce of Go#& a$# the #emo$stratio$ of a"solute #etermi$ism& "ut most im!orta$tl*& i$ two extremel* #e$se a$# exhaustive !ages& co$cer$i$g the #efi$itio$s of su"sta$ce a$# attri"ute)10

+$ effect& it seems that the S ort Treatise is a"ove all !reoccu!ie# with i#e$tif*i$g Go# a$# 5ature2 thus attri"utes ca$ "e u$co$#itio$all* i#e$tifie# with su"sta$ces& a$# su"sta$ces #efi$e# as attri"utes) 7o we fi$# a !articular valori atio$ of 5ature& si$ce Go# is #efi$e# as >ei$g which !rese$ts o$l* ever* attri"ute or su"sta$ce& a$# a #evalori atio$ of su"sta$ces or attri"utes& which are $ot *et self(cause# "ut o$l* self(co$ceive#) 8$ the other ha$#& the Et ics is co$cer$e# to i#e$tif* Go# a$# su"sta$ce itself2 so we fi$# a valori atio$ of su"sta$ce which is ge$ui$el* co$stitute# "* ever* attri"ute or ?ualifie# su"sta$ce& each full* e$/o*i$g the !ro!ert* of "ei$g self(cause#& a$# each "ei$g a co$stitutive eleme$t a$# $o lo$ger a sim!le !rese$ce6 we also fi$# a !articular #is!laceme$t of 5ature& whose i#e$tit* with Go# must "e esta"lishe#& a$# so from that !oi$t o$& such a #is!laceme$t a!tl* ex!resses the mutual imma$e$ce of create# $ature a$# creative $ature) 7u##e$l*& we reali e that it is less a ?uestio$ of a$other structure tha$ of a$other state of the same structure) Thus the stu#* of the i$ter$al evolutio$ com!letes the stu#* of the metho# !ro!er as well as the stu#* of the characteristic formalism& all three of which "ecome clear o$ce the structure of the s*stem has "ee$ #etermi$e#)

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:hat exactl* is goi$g o$ i$ the first eight !ro!ositio$s& whe$ 7!i$o a #emo$strates that there is o$e su"sta$ce !er attri"ute& a$# thus that there are /ust as ma$* ?ualifie# su"sta$ces as there are attri"utes& each ?ualifie# su"sta$ce e$/o*i$g the !ro!erties of "ei$g u$i?ue i$ its 'i$#& self(cause#& a$# i$fi$ite@ 9ritics have ofte$ acte# li'e 7!i$o a0s reaso$i$g ha# a#o!te# a h*!othesis that was $ot his ow$ a$# the$ asce$#e# to the u$it* of su"sta$ce as a$ ah*!otheical !ri$ci!le which $ullifies his i$itial h*!othesis) This !ro"lem is crucial for several reaso$s) %irst& this ah*!othetical !roce#ure attri"ute# to 7!i$o a ca$ "e corro"orate# "* a corres!o$#i$g eleme$t i$ the Treatise on t e Reform of t e ;nte''ect8 here 7!i$o a0s !oi$t of #e!arture is a$* true i#ea& i#eas of geometrical "ei$gs which ca$ still "e im!reg$ate# with fictio$& i$ or#er to reach as ?uic'l* as !ossi"le the i#ea of Go#& where all fictio$ ceases) 7eco$#l*& from the !ers!ective of the Et ics, the !ractical evaluatio$ of the role of the first eight !ro!ositio$s "ecomes #ecisive for the theoretical com!rehe$sio$ of the $ature of attri"utes6 certai$l*& moreover& it is o$l* i$sofar as the first eight !ro!ositio$s are accor#e# merel* a h*!othetical se$se that we get two misrea#i$gs of the attri"ute2 1- the Fa$tia$ illusio$ that ma'es attri"utes forms or co$ce!ts of the u$#ersta$#i$g& a$# 2- the $eo(<lato$ic vertigo that ma'es attri"utes alrea#* #egra#e# ema$atio$s or ma$ifestatio$s)1 %i$all*& it is clear that somethi$g i$ the first eight !ro!ositio$s is merel* !rovisio$al a$# co$#itio$e#& so the real ?uestio$ is what& a$# whether we ca$ sa* that it is the first eight !ro!ositio$s as a whole which are !rovisio$al a$# co$#itio$e#)

Gueroult0s a$swer is that the first eight !ro!ositio$s are !erfectl* categorical) +f the* were$0t& the$ we coul# $ot u$#ersta$# how these !ro!ositio$s co$fer o$ each ?ualifie# su"sta$ce !ositive a$# a!o#ictic !ro!erties& a$# es!eciall* the !ro!ert* of "ei$g self(cause# ,?ualifie# su"sta$ces #i# $ot *et have this !ro!ert* i$ the S ort Treatise$% That there is o$e su"sta$ce !er attri"ute& a$# o$e o$l*& is ta$tamou$t to sa*i$g that attri"utes& a$# o$l* attri"utes& are i$ realit* #isti$ct6 this affirmatio$ from the Et ics, moreover& has $othi$g h*!othetical a"out it) 12 +t is o$l* "* ig$ori$g the $ature of real #isti$ctio$ accor#i$g to 7!i$o a& a$# thus the whole logic of #isti$ctio$& that comme$tators have co$ferre# a merel* h*!othetical se$se o$ the first eight !ro!ositio$s) +$ fact& it is "ecause real #isti$ctio$ cannot "e $umerical that ?ualifie# su"sta$ces or attri"utes which are i$ realit* #isti$ct co$stitute o$e a$# the same su"sta$ce) Aore tha$ that& i$ all rigor& one as a $um"er is $o more a#e?uate to su"sta$ce tha$ 2& 3& 4)))are a#e?uate to attri"utes as ?ualifie# su"sta$ces6 a$# throughout his comme$tar*& Gueroult em!hasi es a #evaluatio$ of $um"er i$ ge$eral& si$ce it #oes $ot a#e?uatel* ex!ress the $ature of mo#e)1 7a*i$g that attri"utes are i$ realit* #isti$ct is ta$tamou$t to sa*i$g that each is co$ceive# of itself& without $egatio$ or i$ o!!ositio$ to a$other& a$# that the* are all therefore affirme# of the same su"sta$ce) %ar from "ei$g a$ o"stacle& their real #isti$ctio$ is the co$#itio$ for co$stituti$g a "ei$g all the more rich for havi$g attri"utes)14 The logic of real #isti$ctio$ is a logic of !urel* affirmative #iffere$ce a$#

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without $egatio$) .ttri"utes i$#ee# co$stitute a$ irre#uci"le mu'tip'icity, "ut the whole ?uestio$ is what t*!e of multi!licit*) The !ro"lem is erase# if the su"sta$tive 0multi!licit*0 is tra$sforme# i$to two o!!ose# a#/ectives "mu'tip'e attri"utes a$# one su"sta$ce-) .ttri"utes are a formal or ?ualitative multi!licit*& 1a co$crete !luralit* which& "ecause it im!lies the i$tri$sic #iffere$ce a$# reci!rocal heteroge$eit* of the "ei$gs that com!rise it& has $othi$g i$ commo$ with the !luralit* of $um"er literall* u$#erstoo#)11 8$ two occasio$s& moreover& Gueroult uses the term 1motle*1 0bigarre18 Go# is sim!le i$sofar as he is $ot com!ose# of !arts& "ut $o less com!lex i$sofar as he is co$stitute# "* 2prima e'ementa2 which alo$e are a"solutel* sim!le6 1Go# is thus a motle* ens rea'issimum, $ot a !ure& i$effa"le a$# u$?ualifia"le ens simp'icissimum i$ which all #iffere$ces woul# #isa!!ear61 1Go# is motle*& "ut u$fragme$ta"le& co$stitute# of heteroge$eous "ut i$se!ara"le attri"utes)116

Fee!i$g i$ mi$# the i$a#e?uac* of $umerical la$guage& we ca$ sa* that attri"utes are ?ui##ities or su"sta$tial forms of a"solutel* o$e su"sta$ce2 co$stitutive eleme$ts& which are irre#uci"le& of a su"sta$ce that is o$tologicall* co$stitute# as o$e6 structural eleme$ts& which are multi!le& of the s*stematic u$it* of the su"sta$ce6 #iffere$tial eleme$ts ot a su"sta$ce that $either /uxta!oses $or grou$#s them& "ut i$tegrates them) 17 +$ other wor#s& we fi$# i$ 7!i$o ism $ot o$l* a ge$esis of mo#es from the su"sta$ce& "ut a genea'ogy of t e substance itse'f, a$# the se$se of the first eight !ro!ositio$s !recisel* esta"lishes this ge$ealog*) 9ertai$l*& the ge$esis of the mo#es is $ot the same as the ge$ealog* of the su"sta$ce& si$ce the first co$cer$s the #etermi$atio$s or the !arts of o$e same realit*& a$# the seco$# #eals with the #iverse realities of o$e same "ei$g6 the first co$cer$s !h*sical com!ositio$& the seco$# #eals with logical co$( stitutio$6 or to "orrow a$ ex!ressio$ from ;o""es which i$s!ire# 7!i$o a2 the first is a 2descriptio generati,2 whereas the seco$# is a 2descriptio generationis%25J 5evertheless& "oth the ge$esis a$# the ge$ealog* ca$ "e s!o'e$ of in one and t e same sense ,Go# as the cause of all thi$gs havi$g the same se$se as "ei$g self( cause#- !recisel* "ecause the ge$esis of mo#es comes a"out i$ the attri"utes& a$# this coul# $ot occur imma$e$tl* if the attri"utes themselves were $ot the ge$ealogical eleme$ts of the su"sta$ce) :hat emerges from this is the metho#( ological u$it* of 7!i$o ism as a ge$etic !hiloso!h*)

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This ge$etic or co$structive !hiloso!h* is i$se!ara"le from a s*$thetic metho#& i$ which attri"utes are #etermi$e# as ge$ui$e reaso$s of "ei$g) These reaso$s are co$stitutive eleme$ts2 there is thus $o asce$sio$ from attri"utes to su"sta$ce& from 1attri"utive su"sta$ces1 to a"solutel* i$fi$ite su"sta$ce6 the a"solutel* i$fi$ite su"sta$ce co$tai$s $o other realit* tha$ these attri"utive su"sta$ces& although the a"solutel* i$fi$ite su"sta$ce is their i$tegratio$ a$# $ot their sum ,a sum woul# *et !resu!!ose $um"er a$# $umerical #isti$ctio$-) >ut as we saw earlier& Gueroult has show$ that the s*$thetic metho# ca$$ot "e sim!l* o!!ose# to a$ a$al*tic a$# regressive !rocess) .$# i$ the Treatise on t e Reform of t e ;nte''ect, the !oi$t of #e!arture is a$* true i#ea whatsoever& eve$ if it is still im!reg$ate# with fictio$ a$# $othi$g i$ $ature corres!o$#s to it& i$ or#er the$ to asce$# as ?uic'l* as !ossi"le to the i#ea of Go#& where all fictio$ ceases& a$# where thi$gs as well as i#eas are e$ge$#ere# starti$g from Go#) +$ the Et ics, to "e sure& we #o $ot asce$# from attri"ute(su"sta$ces to the a"solute l* i$fi$ite su"sta$ce6 "ut we attai$ attri"ute(su"sta$ces as real co$stitutive eleme$ts through a regressive a$al*tic !rocess& such that the attri"ute(su"sta$ces are $ot o"/ects of a ge$etic co$structio$& a$# the* must $ot "e6 rather& the* are o"/ects of a demonstration from absurdity ,esse$tiall*& the mo#es of su"sta$ce are 1to!!le#1 to show that each attri"ute ca$ o$l* #esig$ate a$ i$comme$sura"le su"sta$ce& u$i?ue i$ its 'i$#& existi$g for itself& a$# $ecessaril* i$fi$ite-) .$# what is a"olishe# or overcome after that is $ot the result of the regressive !rocess& si$ce the attri"utes exist exactl* as the* are !erceive#& "ut the !rocess itself which& as soo$ as the attri"utes are !erceive# as co$stitutive eleme$ts& gives wa* to the !rocess of ge$etic co$structio$) Thus ge$etic co$structio$ i$tegrates the a$al*tic !rocess a$# its se'f-suppression% +$ this se$se& the$& we are sure to attai$ reaso$s of "ei$g a$# $ot sim!le reaso$s of '$owle#ge) +$ this se$se& too& the geometric metho# surmou$ts what was still fictio$al whe$ it was a!!lie# to sim!le figures& reveali$g itself a#e?uate to the co$structa"ilit* of the real) 19 +$ short& what is !rovisio$al is $ot the co$te$t of the first eight !ro!ositio$s& $or is it a$* of the !ro!erties co$ferre# o$ the attri"ute(su"sta$ces& it is o$l* the a$al*tic !ossi"ilit* for these su"sta$ces to form se!arate existe$ces& a !ossi"ilit* that was $ot effecte# at all i$ the first eight !ro!ositio$s) 20

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5ow we see that the co$structio$ of the u$i?ue su"sta$ce occurs at the i$tersectio$ of two series a$# !recisel* forms a ne!us ,"ecause comme$tators were u$aware of this& the* acte# li'e there was a$ 1asce$t1 from the attri"utes to the su"sta$ce& accor#i$g to a si$gle h*!othetical series& or li'e the attri"utes were o$l* reaso$s of '$owle#ge& accor#i$g to a !ro"lematic series-) +$ fact& the first eight !ro!ositio$s re!rese$t a first series through which we asce$# to the #iffer( e$tial co$stitutive eleme$ts6 the$ the 9th& 10th& a$# 11th re!rese$t a$other series through which the i#ea of Go# i$tegrates these eleme$ts a$# ma'es clear it ca$ "e co$stitute# o$l* "* all these eleme$ts together) This is wh* 7!i$o a ex!ressl* states that the first eight !ro!ositio$s ca$ have $o im!act if we #o $ot 1simulta$eousl*1 'ee! i$ mi$# the #efi$itio$ of Go#) 7!i$o a is $ever satisfie# with #rawi$g a co$clusio$& accor#i$g to o$e series o$l*& a"out the u$icit* of the co$stitute# su"sta$ce from the u$it* of co$stitutive su"sta$ces) 8$ the co$trar*& he i$vo'es the i$fi$ite !ower of a$ Ens rea'issimum, a$# its $ecessar* u$icit* as su"sta$ce& to #raw a co$clusio$ a"out the u$it* of the su"sta$ces that co$stitute it without losi$g a$* of their !revious !ro!erties) 21 Thus we #isti$guish the structural eleme$ts that are i$ realit* #isti$ct from the co$#itio$ u$#er which the* com!ose a structure that fu$ctio$s as a whole& where ever*thi$g wor's i$ !airs& a$# where real #isti$ctio$ will "e a guara$tee of formal corres!o$#e$ce a$# o$tological i#e$tit*)The 1$exus1 "etwee$ the two series is a!!are$t i$ the $otio$ of self(cause& with the ce$tral role it !la*s i$ ge$esis) &ausa sui is first a$# foremost a !ro!ert* of each ?ualifie# su"sta$ce) .$# the a!!are$t vicious circle accor#i$g to which it #erives itself from the i$fi$ite& eve$ as it grou$#s the i$fi$ite& ca$ "e u$#o$e i$ the followi$g wa*2 it #erives itself from i$fi$itu#e as the full !erfectio$ of essence, "ut grou$#s i$fi$itu#e as the a"solute affirmatio$ of e!istence% The same goes for Go# or the u$i?ue su"sta$ce2 its existe$ce is !rove# first "* the i$fi$it* of its esse$ce& the$ "* self(causatio$ as the ge$etic reaso$ of the i$fi$itu#e of existe$ce& 1$amel* the i$fi$itel* i$fi$ite !ower of the Ens rea'issimum, "* which this "ei$g& $ecessaril* causi$g itself& a"solutel* !osits its existe$ce i$ all its exte$sio$ a$# !le$itu#e& without limitatio$ or fault)122 8$ the o$e ha$#& it follows that the ge$etic co$structio$ as a whole is i$se!ara"le from a #e#uctio$ of its #isti$ctive features& whose causa sui is !aramou$t) The #e#uctio$ of #isti$ctive features is i$terwove$& i$tertwi$e# with the ge$etic co$structio$2 1+f we #iscovere# that the thi$g causes itself after havi$g !roce#e# to the genesis of its essence% ))it is $o less certai$ that the genesis of t e t ing was o"tai$e# o$l* "* the '$owle#ge of this #isti$ctive feature that accou$ts for its existe$ce) .$# from this fact& we have ma#e real !rogress also i$ the '$owle#ge of esse$ce& si$ce with its truth "ei$g rigorousl* #emo$strate#& it "ecomes rigorousl* clear that it is i$ realit* a$ esse$ce) .$# what hol#s for the causa sui hol#s& i$ var*i$g #egrees& for all the other #isti$ctive features2 eter$it*& i$fi$itu#e& i$#ivisi"ilit*& u$icit*& etc)& "ecause these are $othi$g more tha$ the causa sui itself from #iffere$t !oi$ts of view)120 8$ the other ha$#& the causa sui a!!ears at the 1$exus1 of the two series of ge$esis& "ecause it is the i#e$tit* of the attri"utes& as to the cause or causal act& that ex!lai$s the u$icit* of a si$gle su"sta$ce existi$g of itself& #es!ite the #iffere$ce of its attri"utes as to its esse$ce2 the attri"utes are #iverse a$# i$comme$sura"le realities& i$tegrate# i$to a$ i$#ivisi"le "ei$g 1o$l* "* the i#e$tit* of the causal act through which the* give themselves existe$ce a$# !ro#uce their mo#es)1 24

The causa sui a$imates the whole theme of !ower) ;owever& we ris' a misrea#i$g as we evaluate the i$tertwi$i$g of $otio$s& if we attri"ute to this !ower a$ i$#e!e$#e$ce which it #oes $ot have& a$# to the #isti$ctive features& a$ auto$om* which the* #o $ot have i$ relatio$ to the esse$ce) <ower itself& the causa sui, is o$l* a #isti$ctive feature6 a$# if it is true that it is #is!lace# from ?ualifie# su"sta$ces to the u$i?ue su"sta$ce& it is o$l* i$sofar as this su"sta$ce& "ecause of its esse$ce& ma#e use a fortiori of the characters of the su"sta$tial attri"utes& "ecause of t eir esse$ce) +$ co$formit* with the #iffere$ce "etwee$ #isti$ctive feature a$# esse$ce& the su"sta$ce woul# $ot "e u$i?ue without !ower& "ut it is $ot "* virtue of !ower that the su"sta$ce is u$i?ue& it is "* virtue of its esse$ce2 1+f "* the u$icit* of !ower ,i)e) the !ower of the attri"utes-& we u$#ersta$# ow it is possib'e that the attri"utes are o$e #es!ite the #iversit* of their !ro!er esse$ces& t e reason t at grounds their u$io$ i$ o$e su"sta$ce alo$e is $othi$g other tha$ the i$fi$ite co$stitutive !erfectio$ of the esse$ce of Go#)1 25 This ex!lai$s wh* it is so mislea#i$g to i$vert 7!i$o a0s formulatio$ a$# claim that the esse$ce of Go# is !ower& es!eciall* whe$ 7!i$o a himself sa*s2 1the !ower of Go# is his ver* esse$ce)126 +$ other wor#s& !ower is the i$se!ara"le #isti$ctive feature of esse$ce& a$# it ex!resses at o$ce how the esse$ce is the cause of the existe$ce of su"sta$ce a$# the cause of the other thi$gs that #erive from it) 7o& 1!ower is $othi$g other tha$ esse$ce1 mea$s two thi$gs2 1- Go# has $o other !ower tha$ the !ower of his esse$ce6 he acts a$# !ro#uces o$l* through his esse$ce& a$# $ot through a$ u$#ersta$#i$g or a will2 he is thus the cause of ever* thi$g i$

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the same se$se that he is self(cause#& si$ce the $otio$ of !ower ex!resses !recisel* the i#e$tit* of the cause of ever* thi$g with the self(cause#6 2- the !ro#ucts or effects of Go# are properties which #erive from esse$ce& "ut which are $ecessaril* produced i$ the co$stitutive attri"utes of this esse$ce6 the* are thus modes, whose u$it* i$ the #iffere$t attri"utes is i$ tur$ ex!lai$e# "* the theme of !ower& that is& the i#e$tit* of the causal act which !osits the !ro!erties i$ each of the mo#es ,whe$ce *ou have the assimilatio$2 real effects M !ro!erties M mo#es6 !lus the formulatio$ 1 Go# !ro#uces a$ i$fi$it* of thi$gs i$ a$ i$fi$it* of mo#es&1 where t ing refers to the si$gular cause acti$g i$ all the attri"utes at o$ce& a$# modes, to the esse$ces #e!e$#e$t o$ the res!ective attri"utes-) 27

The rigorous i$terweavi$g of esse$ce a$# !ower !reclu#es esse$ces from "ei$g mo#els i$ a creative u$#ersta$#i$g& a$# !ower from "ei$g raw force i$ a creative will) The co$ce!tio$ of !ossi"les is exclu#e# from Go#& /ust as is the reali atio$ of co$ti$ge$ts2 the u$#ersta$#i$g as well as the will ca$ o$l* "e a fi$ite or i$fi$ite mo#e) :e must ta'e a mome$t to a!!reciate this #evaluatio$ of the u$#ersta$#i$g) >ecause whe$ u$#ersta$#i$g i$ the esse$ce of Go# is esta"lishe#& the wor# 0u$#ersta$#i$g0 "ecomes am"iguous6 clearl*& the i$fi$ite u$#ersta$#i$g ca$ o$l* "e relate# to our ow$ "* a$alog*& a$# clearl*& the !erfectio$s ge$erall* "elo$gi$g to Go# ca$$ot have the same form as those "elo$gi$g to his creatures) 8$ the co$trar*& whe$ we sa* that #ivi$e u$#ersta$#i$g is $o less a mo#e tha$ fi$ite or huma$ u$#ersta$#i$g is& we $ot o$l* esta"lish the a#e?uatio$ of the huma$ u$#ersta$#i$g as !art& to the #ivi$e u$#ersta$#i$g as whole& we also esta"lish the a#e?uatio$ of all u$#ersta$#i$g to the forms which it i$clu#es& si$ce modes enve'ope t e perfections on w ic t ey depend in t e same form as t e perfections w ic constitute t e essence of substance% Ao#e is a$ effect6 "ut if the effect #iffers from the cause i$ esse$ce a$# existe$ce& it at least has i$ commo$ with cause the forms that it e$velo!es o$l* i$ its esse$ce& whereas the forms co$stitute the esse$ce of the su"sta$ce)28 Thus& the re#uctio$ of the i$fi$ite u$#ersta$#i$g to the state of a mo#e is i$se!ara"le from two other theses& which e$sure at o$ce the most rigorous #isti$ctio$ of esse$ce a$# existe$ce "etwee$ su"sta$ce a$# its !ro#ucts& a$# *et the most !erfect commo$alit* of form ,u$ivocit*-) 9o$versel*& the co$fusio$ of i$fi$ite u$#ersta$#i$g with the esse$ce of su"sta$ce lea#s to a #istortio$ of the forms which Go# !ossesses o$l* i$ his i$com!rehe$si"le ma$$er& i)e) emi$e$tl*& "ut also a co$fusio$ of esse$ce "etwee$ su"sta$ce a$# its creatures& si$ce the !er fectio$s of huma$'i$# are com!lace$tl* attri"ute# to Go# "* raisi$g them to the i$fi$ite) 29 This formal status of the u$#ersta$#i$g ex!lai$s the !ossi"ilit* of the geometric& s*$rhetic& a$# ge$etic metho#) :he$ce we have Gueroult0s i$siste$ce o$ the $ature of the 7!i$o ist u$#ersra$#i$g& the o!!ositio$ "etwee$ Descartes a$# 7!i$o a as to this !ro"lem& $ot to me$tio$ 7!i$o ism0s most ra#ical thesis2 a"solute ratio$alism& "ase# o$ the a#e?uatio$ of our u$#ersta$#i$g to a"solute '$owle#ge) 1>* affirmi$g the total i$telligi"ilit* for huma$'i$# of the esse$ce of Go# a$# thi$gs& 7!i$o a is co$sciousl* o!!osi$g Descartes))) ."solute ratio$alism& im!osi$g the total i$telligi"ilit* of Go#& the 'e* of the total i$telligi"ilit* of thi$gs& is thus for 7!i$o ism the first article of faith) Through Go# alo$e is the soul !urge# from the multi!le su!erstitio$s& for which a$ i$com!rehe$si"le Go# serves as the ultimate refuge& a$# through him #oes the soul accom!lish this !erfect u$io$ of Go# a$# huma$it* that co$#itio$s salvatio$)100 There woul# "e $o ge$etic a$# s*$thetic metho# if what is e$ge$#ere# were $ot i$ a wa* e?ual to what e$ge$#ers ,thus the mo#es are $either more $or less tha$ the su"sta$ce-&1 a$# if what e$ge$#ers were $ot itself the o"/ect of a ge$ealog* that grou$#s the ge$esis of what is e$ge$#ere# ,thus the attri"utes are the ge$ealogical eleme$ts of su"sta$ce& a$# the ge$etic !ri$ci!les of the mo#es-) Gueroult a$al* es this structure of 7!i$o ism i$ ever* #etail) .$# "ecause a structure is #efi$e# "* its effect as a whole& $o less tha$ "* its eleme$ts& relatio$s& ne!uses and intertwinings, we sometimes wit$ess a cha$ge i$ to$e& as though Gueroult were u$veili$g or su##e$l* reveali$g the fu$ctio$i$g effect of the structure as a whole& which he will #evelo! i$ the volumes to follow2 such as the effect of :now'edge ,how #oes huma$'i$# ma$age to 1situate itself1 i$ Go#& that is& to occu!* i$ the structure that !lace which the '$owle#ge of the true assig$s to Go#& a$# which also e$sures true '$owle#ge a$# true free#om-6 or also& the effect of 'ife ,how #oes !ower& as esse$ce& co$stitute the 1life1 of Go# which is commu$icate# to huma$'i$#& a$# how #oes it i$ realit* grou$# the i#e$tit* of huma$'i$#0s i$#e!e$#e$ce i$ Go# a$# of its i$#e!e$#e$ce from Go#-) 32 The im!orta$ce of this a#mira"le "oo' "* Gueroult is twofol#2 from the sta$#!oi$t of the ge$eral metho# he esta"lishes& a$# from the

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sta$#!oi$t of 7!i$o ism& of which the metho# #oes $ot re!rese$t merel* o$e a!!licatio$ amo$g others& "ut i$#ee# em"o#ies& comi$g as it #oes at the e$# of a series of stu#ies o$ Descartes& Aale"ra$che a$# 4ei"$i & the most a#e?uate& the most saturate#& a$# the most exhaustive o"/ect for such a metho#) Gueroult0s "oo' esta"lishes the ge$ui$el* scie$tific stu#* of 7!i$o ism

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The &iss-re o' !naxagoras and the (o7a" &ires o' ,era7"it-s
)

Fostas .xelos& i$ search of !la$etar* thought& #efi$es it i$ these terms2 1<la$etar* certai$l* mea$s !la$et earth& the terrestrial glo"e& a$# its relatio$shi! to the other !la$ets) +t is the g'oba'% >ut the exte$sio$ of this co$ce!t remai$s too great))) <la$etar* mea$s whatever is itinerant and errant, wa$#eri$g as it follows a tra/ector* i$ s!ace(time a$# !erformi$g a rotatio$al moveme$t) <la$etar* i$#icates the era of glo"al !la$$i$g& i$ which the su"/ects a$# the o"/ects of the will to orga$i e a$# foresee are swe!t u! motio$less o$ a$ iti$erar* that sur!asses "oth su"/ect a$# o"/ect) <la$etar* $ames the reig$ of p'atitude as it s!rea#s a$# flatte$s ever*thi$g& which is also more erra$t tha$ a"erra$t) .s a $ou$& moreover& a$# accor#i$g to #ictio$aries& the !la$etar* #esig$ates a 'i$# of tec no'ogica' mec anism, or gears and w ee's% Therefore& the !la* of thought a$# the !la$etar* is g'oba', erratic, itinerant, organi(ing, p'anning and f'attening, caug t up in gears and w ee's% 12 The histor* of the worl# is mar'e# "* the great figures of erra$c*2 8#*sseus& Do$ Guixote& the :a$#eri$g Cew& >ouvar# a$# <echuet& >loom& Aalo$e3 who i$ the wor#s of = ra <ou$# are average se$sual t*!es ho!i$g a$# !ra*i$g for 1the most ge$eral ge$erali atio$)1 The great figures of erra$c* are i$#ee# thi$'ers) >ouvar# a$# <echuet are the first !la$etar* cou!le) >ut we have !erfecte# erra$c*& as though we $o lo$ger $ee#e# to move) <la$etar* thought i$clu#es the sa$iti e# !hiloso!h* of tech$icia$(ge$erals who #ream of !recisio$(gui#e# "om"s& a$# whose cosmolog* rivals that of Teilhar#& as well as the meager reflectio$s of those who are goi$g to the moo$& "ut also the thought recor#e# i$ the i$strume$ts that !ro!el them i$to s!ace& a$# fi$all* the thoughts of us all as we watch& glue# to the televisio$& motio$less a$# schi oi#2 average& se$sual& 1com!act a$# fissure#)1 1 There is $o reaso$ to !rivilege o$e as!ect over the other2 !la$$i$g over glo"ali atio$& or erra$c* over !latitu#e) :e have achieve# what was foretol#2 the a"se$ce of a$* goal) =rra$c* has cease# "ei$g a retur$ to the origi$6 it is $o lo$ger eve$ a"(erratio$& which woul# still !resu!!ose a fixe# !oi$t6 it is as far from error as it is from truth) =rra$c* has co$?uere# auto$om* i$ a 'i$# of catato$ic immo"ilit*

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.tte$tio$ has "ee$ tur$e# to the mea$s .xelos uses to ex!ress the magma which !la$etar* thought ought to "e& a$# which it is i$#ee#& "ut which !oses co$si#era"le tech$ical !ro"lems of registratio$& tra$slatio$& a$# !oetici atio$& with o$e filter !lace# o$ a$other& a$# o$e fragme$t lo#ge# i$ a$other) .xelos !ulls u! short of <lato& te$#i$g towar# the !re(7ocratics6 a$# he goes "e*o$# Aarx& movi$g towar# !ost(Aarxism) +$ his wor' we fi$#2 a tur$i$g of a!horisms "orrowe# from what survives of ;eraclitus& a !osi$g of theses "orrowe# from the milita$t Aarx& e$(li'e a$ec#otes& !ro/ects& refrai$s& tracts& a$# !la$s remi$isce$t of the Eto!ia$ socialists) >ut o$e feels& too& that .xelos woul# li'e to have au#io(visual mea$s at his #is!osal& that he is #reami$g of a ;eraclitus at the hea# of a !ost(Aarxist grou! of comma$#os& sei i$g a ra#io statio$ to "roa#cast short a!horistic messages or rou$#(ta"les of eter$al retur$) +$ his wor'& ;ei#eggeria$ termi$olog* is retu$e# a$# ta'es o$ $ew mea$i$g& eve$ as it is co$verte# from the cou$tr* to the cit*) .xelos tries to reevaluate the !ossi"ilities of ci$ema as a$ ex!ressio$ of the mo#er$ forms of erra$c*1 >ut his assi#uous stu#* of the !re( 7ocratics is $o more a retur$ to origi$s tha$ !ost(Aarxism is itself a goal2 it is rather a"out gras!i$g a$ a"se$ce of origi$ as the 1!la$etar* "ecomi$g1 that a!!eare# i$ Greece& a$# that $ow a!!ears to us& as we #eviate with res!ect to ever* goal)

4e ?eu du monde is writte$ i$ a!horisms) The o"/ect !ro!er to the a!horism is the !artial o"/ect& the fragme$t& the !art) To#a* we are familiar with what Aaurice >la$chot has taught us a"out the co$#itio$s of a thought a$# a 1la$guage of fragme$t12 s!ea'i$g a$# thi$'i$g the !artial o"/ect $ot as !resu!!osi$g a$* a$terior totalit* from which it woul# #erive& $or a$* !osterior whole which woul# #erive from the fragme$t& "ut ?uite the o!!osite2 letti$g the fragme$t evolve for itself a$# for other fragme$ts) This is accom!lishe# "* ma'i$g the #ista$ce& the #iverge$ce& a$# the #ece$teri$g which se!arate the fragme$ts& "ut which also mix them u!& i$to a$ affirmatio$ such as 1a $ew relatio$ with the 8utsi#e&1 a$# which ca$$ot "e re#uce# to u$it*) =ach a!horism must "e co$ceive# as e$#owe# with a !ro!ulsive mecha$ism6 a$# !ro/ectio$s& i$tro/ectio$s& as well as fixatio$s& regressio$s& a$# su"limatio$s& are $ot sim!l* !s*chological !rocesses "ut cosmo(a$thro!ological mecha$isms) +$ a se$se& huma$'i$# re$ews its ties with a #esti$* that ca$ "e rea# i$ the !la$ets a$# stars) 5 <la$etar* thought is $ot u$if*i$g2 it im!lies hi##e$ #e!ths i$ s!ace& a$ exte$sio$ of #ee! u$iverses& i$comme$surate #ista$ces a$# !roximities& $o$(exact $um"ers& a$ esse$tial o!e$i$g of our s*stem& a whole fictio$(!hiloso!h*) This is wh* the !la$etar* is $ot the same thi$g as the worl#& eve$ i$ ;ei#eggeria$ terms2 ;ei#egger0s worl# is #islocate#& 1the worl# a$# the cosmos are $ot i#e$tical)1 6 5or are the affective overto$es of !la$etar* "ei$g the same as those of "ei$g(i$(the(worl#) 9harles Foechli$& i$?uiri$g i$to the ex!ressive se$time$tal !ossi"ilities of mo#er$ music& claims that mo#er$ music has re$ou$ce# classical 1affirmatio$s1 a$# roma$tic 1effusio$s&1 "ut that it is rather a!t for ex!ressi$g 1a !articular #isarra*& a !articular #ise?uili"rium& eve$ a !articular i$#iffere$ce&1 a$#

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also 1a stra$ge /o* almost li'e ha!!i$ess)1 This tri!le 0!articular03#isarra*& #ise?uili"rium& i$#iffere$ce3 #efi$es !la$etar* music& the !athos of !la$etar* thought& which is "itter& "ut /o*ful "* #i$t of a !articular stra$ge$ess ,stra$ge$ess& rather tha$ alie$atio$& as the #etermi$atio$ of erra$c*-D

To this !athos there corres!o$#s a logic& a logos) The a!horism0s 1small form1 must $ot "e remi$isce$ce or archaicism& a collectio$ of !ieces survivi$g a !ast whole& "ut a mea$s a#a!te# to ex!lori$g the co$tem!orar* worl#& its holes a$# co$stellatio$s) The logic here is o$e of !ro"a"ilit*& referri$g $ot to !ro!erties or classes "ut to cases) :he$ce the im!orta$ce of a$ am"iguous sig$ "andMor$ that must i$#icate all at o$ce co$/u$ctio$ Band$, #is/u$ctio$ Bor$, a$# exclusio$ Bnor$% :he$ .xelos accumulates ex!ressio$s such as 1meta!h*sicall* a$ti(meta!h*si( cal&1 1#iscor#a$t co$cor#&1 1to marvel "ut without asto$ishme$t&1 1o$e cra" #evouri$g a$other is #evoure# "* a thir#&1 1what #oes the ma$i!ulati$g is ma$i!ulate#&1 etc)& the* are $ot so much facile #ialectical tra$sformatio$s& the mo$oto$e i#e$tit* of o!!osites& as se?ue$ces of ra$#om cases i$ which co$/u$ctio$ a$# #is/u$ctio$& #is/u$ctio$ or co$/u$ctio$ re!lace the form of the /u#gme$t of existe$ce a$# attri"utio$ which was still the "asis of #ialectical thi$'i$g Bis, is not$% 1:hat if the t ere is a$# the is $o lo$ger t*ra$$i e# us& what

if the t ere is not a$# the is not #i# $ot a!!ear as sim!le !rivatio$SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS1sThe

;egelia$& as well as Aarxist #ialectic& which is !erha!s ;ei#eggaria$& too& evolves i$ the categories of "ei$g& $o$("ei$g& a$# the 8$e(.ll) .$# what ca$ the .ll #o exce!t totali e $othi$g$ess& a$# $ihili e $othi$g$ess $o less tha$ "ei$g@ 15ihilism $ihili es $othi$g$ess& "ecause it leaves not ingness unt oug tThis not ing ca$ #rive us ma#& cause us a$guish& eve$ "e imagi$e#& "ut it $o$etheless remai$s u$thought i$ $ihilism) 5ihilism is i$#ee# the u$iversal #etermi$atio$ of mo#er$it*& /ust as !latitu#e is the moveme$t of erra$c*) .s .xelos 'ee!s sa*i$g

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a$# showi$g2 1it0s $ot a"out sto!!i$g the !rocess&1 whether fighti$g agai$st !latitu#e or overcomi$g $ihilism)10 >ut this not ing i$ $ihilism is !recisel* what remai$s u$thought as total u$iversal co$flagratio$ or e$# of the worl#& a$# it is also what #etotali es a$# #is!erses its ow$ moveme$t& 'i$#li$g here a$# there the local fires of these fragme$ts i$ which $ihilism is alrea#* self(overcome a$# self(foresee$3which causes .xelos to remar'2 1ever to "egi$ agai$ a$# agai$) Till the fi$al a$# fatal ex!losio$& which will come muc 'ater tha$ we thi$')1 <la$etar* thought ca$ have $o other logic2 it wills itself& it !rese$ts itself as !olitics& strateg*) 7ome of the "oo's .xelos has !u"lishe# i$ his 1.rgume$ts1 series he li'es to thi$' of as u$sta"le states of that !la$etar* thought of which he #reams)1 8$e of the first "oo's i$ the series was 9lausewit 0s On /ar% >e*o$# 9lausewit & the mo#er$ i#e$tit* of strateg* a$# !olitics from the !ers!ective of thermo$uclear $ihilism has "ee$ rece$tl* show$ to !ro#uce 1#etotali e# a$# #is!erse# war2 wars a$#Dor limite# agreeme$ts)112 The revolutio$ar* res!o$se to .merica$ worl# !olitics& i$vo'i$g game theor*& is four or five Hiet$ams) ;eraclitus as strategist& com"at !hiloso!her2 ;eraclitus sa*s that all thi$gs "ecome fire& "ut is !recisel* $ot thi$'i$g of a u$iversal co$flagratio$& which he leaves u$thought as the $othi$g of $ihilism& showi$g $ihilism $ecessaril* self(overcome or overcome "* what is u$thought i$ it& i$ the local fires that u$ite the !eo!les of the earth) 13 <h*sics& meta!h*sics& !s*cholog* a$# sociolog* are $o more i$ !la$etar* thought6 there is $othi$g left "ut a ge$erali e# strateg*)

This is our #iffere$ce from 9lausewit & "ut also ;egel& Aarx& ;ei#egger& a$# eve$ still from ;eraclitus))) >ecause we thi$' without origi$& a$# without #esti$atio$& #iffere$ce "ecomes the highest thought& "ut we ca$$ot thi$' it between two thi$gs& "etwee$ a !oi$t of #e!arture a$# a !oi$t of arrival& $ot eve$ "etwee$ >ei$g 0;,etre1 a$# "ei$g 0;,e,tant1% Differe$ce ca$$ot "e affirme# as such without #evouri$g the two terms that cease to co$tai$ it& though it #oes $ot itself cease from !assi$g through assig$a"le terms) Differe$ce is the true logos& "ut logos is the erra$c* that #oes awa* with fixe# !oi$ts6 i$#iffere$ce is its !athos) Differe$ce emerges from a$# re(e$ters a fissure that swallows u! all thi$gs a$# "ei$gs) :here #oes #iffere$ce go@ as's .xelos& with o$e $ear(sighte#& a$# o$e far(sighte# e*e) 1:hat li$e se!arates the hori o$ of the visi"le from the i$visi"le harmo$*@1 :here #oes the rh*thm alter$ate@ 1+$ the great e$com!assi$g s!ace a$# $ot i$ o$e s!ecific !lace@1 .xelos traces a comme$tar* "* .$axagoras& which 'ee!s as'i$g the ?uestio$2 where is the fissure@ :here #oes it lie@ 1+s there o$ o$e si#e a$ auto$omous !ure Noi's, a$# o$ the other a chaos of !reexisti$g "ei$gs& a$# i$ a thir# !lace& a chaos tra$sforme# i$to a cosmos "* the Nous= :here #oes the fissure lie@ +$ the chaos@ >etwee$ the chaos a$# the cosmos@ +$ the cosmos@ +$ the Nous a$# its !ositio$@ +$ its actio$@ +$ the com!ositio$ of the worl#@ +$ the ex!ositio$ of .$axagoras@ +$ our com!rehe$sio$@))):e are struc' "* the fragme$tatio$ a$# #is!ersio$ that go ha$# i$ ha$# with #iffere$ces6 we grow $ostalgic& crushe# "* a$# u$#er the !ressure of i$#iffere$ce6 we mix ever*thi$g u!& *et we come

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from this mixture)))we are o"sesse# "* our time& *et how ca$ we commu$icate with a$cie$t time a$# with the !la* of time@1 10 .xelos occu!ies that !oi$t where #iffere$ce ceaselessl* commu$icates3where the #iffere$ce "etwee$ mixture a$# se!aratio$ is also the #iffere$ce i$ the mixture a$#Dor i$ the se!aratio$& a$# the #iffere$ce 1i$1 .$axagoras is also our #iffere$ce 1from1 .$axagoras& at o$ce origi$ a$# #esti$atio$) Therefore& it woul# "e im!recise to !rese$t .xelos as a critic of totalit*& retai$i$g o$l* a worl# of fragme$ts) +t is true that the whole is $ever co$ceive# as totali atio$2 $either the wa* <lato #oes& as the actio$ of a u$it* !ri$ci!le or#eri$g chaos& $or the wa* ;egel a$# Aarx #o& as the !rocess of a "ecomi$g that gathers a$# sur!asses its mome$ts) 8$ce agai$& here we see .xelos& who with his 1.rgume$ts13"oth the /our$al a$# the series3#i# all he coul# to #issemi$ate 4u'acs a$# the %ra$'furt 7chool i$

%ra$ce& mar'i$g off 1his1 ow$ #iffere$ce with res!ect to a co$ce!tio$ of the :hole) 15 .ll totali atio$& i$clu#i$g first a$# foremost the totali atio$ of the 1!rocess of social a$# historical ex!erie$ce !raxis&1 is $ihilism to .xelos& a$# lea#s to the not ing which remai$s u$thought i$ $ihilism) Totali atio$ seems to him the moveme$t of "ureaucratic !latitu#e) >ut if it is true that $ihilism is self( overcome i$ the se$se that the not ing is thought& it must "e thought as a :hole 3"ut a whole that #oes $ot totali e or u$if*& whose !arts #o $ot !resu!!ose it as a lost u$it* $or eve$ as a fragme$te# totalit*& a$# which is $ot forme# or !refigure# "* the !arts i$ the course of a logical #evelo!me$t or orga$ic evolutio$) . whole that $o lo$ger cou$ts o$ existe$ce a$# attri"utio$& "ut thrives o$ co$/u$ctio$ a$# #is/u$ctio$& i$ mixture or se!aratio$& "ei$g "ut o$e with the u$foresee$ course of the fissure i$ ever* #irectio$& a river carr*i$g !artial o"/ects a$# var*i$g their #ista$ces& co$stituti$g i$ >la$chot0s wor#s a $ew relatio$ with the 8utsi#e& which is the o"/ect of thought to#a* +$ this se$se& the 'e*$ote of all .xelos0s "oo's is 1"ei$g i$ the !rocess of "ecomi$g a fragme$tar* totalit*16 a$# writi$g i$ a!horisms& he ca$ sa* that the a!horism a$# the s*stem are the same thi$g& the :hole(%ragme$t alwa*s outsi#e itself& which throws itself "oth i$ the fissure of .$axagoras a$# i$ the local fires of ;eraclitus)10

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.xelos0s 4ejeu du monde is a !la$etar* histor* The eleme$tar* forces of wor' a$# strife& la$guage a$# thought& love a$# #eath com!rise the great !owers of m*ths a$# religio$s& !oetr* a$# art& scie$ce a$# !hiloso!h* >ut the tech$olog* at wor' i$ all these !owers "ri$gs a"out a ge$erali e# !la$$i$g that ushers i$ their crisis& a$# it raises the ?uestio$ of their !la$etar* #esti$*) +t is as if at o$e a$# the same time a si$gle co#e !ersists& the co#e of tech$olog*& a$# *et there is $o lo$ger a$* co#e ca!a"le of coveri$g the whole of the social fiel#) +$ !la$etar* "ei$g& the earth has "ecome flat agai$) ;owever& this leveli$g of #ime$sio$s !reviousl* fille# "* such !owers& this flatte$i$g that re#uces thi$gs a$# "ei$gs to the unidimensiona'3i$ a wor#& this $ihilism& has the most "i arre effect2 it revitali es the eleme$tar* forces i$ the raw !la* of all their #ime$sio$s6 it 'iberates t e unt oug t not ing in a counter-power w ic is mu'tidimensiona' p'ay% 8f the most u$fortu$ate souls& o$e $o lo$ger sa*s that the* are alie$ate# or torture# "* the !owers& "ut rather that the* are !la*e# "* forces) =ve$ the !la$etar* !olitics of the E$ites 7tates& i$ its role as aggressive !olicema$& is s*stemati e# a$# fragme$te# i$ game theor*) .$# the efforts of the revolutio$ ca$ res!o$# to it o$l* "* local strategies& givi$g as goo# as it gets& i$ve$ti$g !ara#es& i$itiatives& a$# $ew stratagems) %rom the outset& .xelos0s wor' has ta'e$ this co$ce!t of !la* to its highest !oi$t) :ith %i$'& .xelos was o$e of the first to go "e*o$# the tra#itio$al co$ce!tio$ of the game2 which was a circumscri"e# a$# s!ecific huma$ activit* #efi$e# i$ o!!ositio$ to other !owers a$# other forces ,realit*& utilit*& wor'& the sacre#)))-) +$ this co$$ectio$& Cac?ues =hrma$$ has rece$tl* a$al* e# all the !ostulates of this tra#itio$al co$ce!tio$ that tries to #efi$e the game i$ isolatio$ from realit*& culture& a$# serious$ess)17 To this com!artme$tali atio$ is o!!ose# %i$'0s attem!t2 he shows how the Game s!rea#s through the u$iverse& i$terferes with it& a$# to the exte$t that o$e moves awa* from the meta!h*sical i$ter!retatio$ that #evalues a$# isolates games a$# towar# the m*thical i$ter!retatio$ of the game as a relatio$ with the worl#& o$e fi$all* reaches the Game as "ei$g& totall* of the worl# a$# without a !la*er) 18 .xelos u$#ou"te#l* acce!ts this #isti$ctio$ "etwee$ games !la*e#& !la* i$ the worl#& a$# the games of the worl#) >ut .xelos gives it the tur$ that he #oes to all ;ei#eggeria$ co$ce!ts& where the worl# gives wa* to the !la$etar*& the 1ratio$al1 to strateg*& "ei$g a$# truth to erra$c*) .xelos is to ;ei#egger what a 'i$# of e$ is to the >u##ha) .xe( los #oes $ot start from the game of huma$it* ,!he$ome$ologicall*- to see huma$it* a"le to s*m"oli e the game of the worl# ,o$tologicall*-) ;e starts from a #ialogue& from a game calle# !la$etar* that alrea#* co$$ects !la* of huma$it* a$# !la* of the worl#) .xelos gives full force to this !hrase2 ;t p'ays, wit out p'ayers% :ith .xelos& the overcomi$g of meta!h*sics re#iscovers the se$se that Carr* ha# give$ it i$ accor#a$ce with the et*molog*& !ata!h*sics& the !la$etar* gesture of Dr) %austroll& from where the salvatio$ of !hiloso!h* ca$ $ow come)1

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,-me;

The Signi4i'an'e o4 E&7iri'is&

The histor* of !hiloso!h* has !rett* much a"sor"e# a$# #igeste# em!iricism& which has "ee$ tra#itio$all* #efi$e# as the reverse of ratio$alism2 *es or $o& is there withi$ i#eas somethi$g $ot i$ the se$ses or se$se(#ata@ The histor* of !hiloso!h* has ma#e em!iricism a criti?ue of the a priori a$# i$$ate i#eas) >ut em!iricism has alwa*s hel# other secrets) .$# it is these which ;ume "ri$gs to light a$# #evelo!s to the utmost i$ his extremel* su"tle a$# #ifficult wor') Thus ;ume has a !eculiar !lace i$ the histor* of !hiloso!h*) ;is em!iricism is& so to s!ea'& a 'i$# of u$iverse of scie$ce fictio$2 as i$ scie$ce fictio$& the worl# seems fictio$al& stra$ge& foreig$& ex!erie$ce# "* other creatures6 "ut we get the feeli$g that this worl# is our ow$& a$# we are the creatures) .t the same time& scie$ce or theor* u$#ergoes a co$versio$2 theor* "ecomes in@uiry ,this co$ce!tio$ origi$ates with >aco$6 recalli$g this co$ce!tio$& Fa$t will tra$sform a$# ratio$ali e it whe$ he co$ceives of theor* as a tri"u$al-) 7cie$ce or theor* is a$ i$?uir*& i$ other wor#s& a !ractice2 a !ractice of the a!!are$tl* fictitious worl# #escri"e# "* em!iricism& a stu#* of the co$#itio$s of legitimac* of the !ractices i$ this our em!irical worl#) This is the great co$versio$ of theor* i$to !ractice) ;istor* of !hiloso!h* ma$uals will misu$#ersta$# what the* call 1associatio$ism1 whe$ the* see i$ it a theor*& i$ the or#i$ar* se$se of the wor#& a$# somethi$g li'e ratio$alism stoo# o$ its hea#) ;ume as's some "i arre ?uestio$s which seem somehow familiar to us2 to ta'e !ossessio$ of a$ a"a$#o$e# cit* is it e$ough to throw o$e0s s!ear agai$st the gate& or #o *ou have to touch it with *our ha$#@ Cust how far ca$ we !ossess the seas@ :h* i$ a s*stem of /ustice is the soil more im!orta$t tha$ the surface@ >ut the$ wh* is the !ai$t more im!orta$t tha$ the ca$vas@ 8$l* here #oes the !ro"lem of associatio$ ta'e o$ its full im!licatio$s)

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:hat is calle# the theor* of associatio$ locates its #esti$atio$ a$# its truth i$ a casuistr* of relatio$s& i$ a !ractice of law& !olitics& a$# eco$om*& which com!letel* cha$ges the $ature of !hiloso!hical reflectio$) The Na)ure o4 Rela)ion

;ume0s origi$alit*& o$e as!ect of his origi$alit*& #erives from the force with which he affirms2 re'ations are e!terior to t eir terms% 7uch a thesis ca$ "e u$#erstoo# o$l* i$ o!!ositio$ to the tireless effort "* ratio$alist !hiloso!hers to resolve the !ara#ox of relatio$s2 either a mea$s is fou$# to ma'e the relatio$ i$ter$al to the terms& or a more !rofou$# a$# i$clusive term is #iscovere# to which the relatio$ is alrea#* i$ter$al) <eter is smaller tha$ <aul2 how #oes o$e ma'e this relatio$ i$ter$al to <eter or <aul@ 8r to their co$ce!t@ 8r to the whole the* com!ose@ 8r to the +#ea i$ which the* !artici!ate@ ;ow #oes o$e overcome the irre#uci"le exteriorit* of their relatio$@ 9ertai$l* em!iricism ha# alwa*s militate# for the exteriorit* of relatio$s& "ut i$ a certai$ wa*& its !ositio$ o$ this to!ic was occlu#e# "* the !ro"lem of the origi$ of '$owle#ge or i#eas2 ever*thi$g ha# to have its origi$ i$ se$se(#ata& a$# i$ the o!eratio$s of the mi$# o$ these se$se(#ata) ;ume effects a$ i$versio$ that will ta'e em!iricism to a higher !ower2 if i#eas co$tai$ $othi$g else& a$# $othi$g more& tha$ what there is i$ se$se im!ressio$s& this is !recisel* "ecause the relatio$s are heteroge$eous a$# exterior to their terms& im!ressio$s& or i#eas) The #iffere$ce& therefore& is $ot "etwee$ i#eas and im!ressio$s& "ut "etwee$ two 'i$#s of im!ressio$s or i#eas2 the im!ressio$s or i#eas of terms and the im!ressio$s or i#eas of relatio$s) 5ow the em!iricist worl# ca$ for the first time trul* u$fol# i$ all its exte$sio$2 a worl# of exteriorit*& a worl# where thought itself is i$ a fu$#ame$tal relatio$ to the 8utsi#e& a worl# where terms exist li'e verita"le atoms& a$# relatio$s li'e verita"le exter$al "ri#ges3a worl# where the co$/u$ctio$ 1a$#1 #ethro$es the i$teriorit* of the ver" 1is&1 a ;arle?ui$ worl# of colore# !atter$s a$# $o$(totali a"le fragme$ts& where o$e commu$icates via exter$al relatio$s) ;ume0s thought is fou$#e# o$ a #ual register2 atomism, which ex!lai$s how i#eas or se$se im!ressio$s refer to #iscrete mi$ima that !ro#uce s!ace a$# time6 associationism, which ex!lai$s how relatio$s are esta"lishe# "etwee$ these terms& relatio$s which are alwa*s exter$al to them a$# #e!e$# o$ other !ri$ci!les) 8$ the o$e ha$#& a !h*sics of the mi$#6 o$ the other& a logic of relatio$s) ;ume #eserves the cre#it for "rea'i$g the "o$#s im!ose# "* the form of the /u#gme$t of attri"utio$& for ma'i$g !ossi"le a$ auto$omous logic of relatio$s& a$# #iscoveri$g a co$/u$ctive worl# of atoms a$# relatio$s& whose ulterior #evelo!me$t ca$ "e see$ i$ Bussell a$# mo#er$ logic3relatio$s are& after all& co$/u$ctio$s themselves)

190

Hu&an Na)ure

:hat is a relatio$@ +t is what allows a !assage from a give$ im!ressio$ or i#ea to the i#ea of somethi$g $ot !rese$tl* give$) %or exam!le& + thi$' of somethi$g 1similar1))) :he$ + see <eter0s !ortrait& + thi$' of <eter who is a"se$t) +$ vai$ woul# we search i$ the give$ term for the ratio$ale of the !assage) Belatio$ is itself the effect of so(calle# !ri$ci!les of associatio$2 co$tiguit*& resem"la$ce& a$# causalit*& which i$#ee# co$stitute uman nature% ;uma$ $ature mea$s that which is u$iversal or co$sta$t i$ the huma$ mi$#) +t is $ever this or that i#ea as a term& "ut merel* wa*s of !rocee#i$g from o$e !articular i#ea to a$other) +$ this se$se& ;ume will e$gage i$ the co$certe# #estructio$ of three great limit( i#eas i$ meta!h*sics2 the 7elf& the :orl#& a$# Go#) .t first "lush& however& ;ume0s thesis loo's #isa!!oi$ti$g2 what is the a#va$tage of ex!lai$i$g relatio$s "* !ri$ci!les of huma$ $ature& !ri$ci!les of associatio$ that a!!ear to "e /ust a$other $ame to #esig$ate such relatio$s@ >ut we are #isa!!oi$te# o$l* to the exte$t that we misu$#ersta$# the !ro"lem) The !ro"lem is $ot o$e of causes& "ut the fu$ctio$i$g of relatio$s as the effects of these causes& a$# the !ractical co$#itio$s of this fu$ctio$i$g)

4et0s loo' at a s!ecial relatio$ i$ this regar#2 the relatio$ of cause) This rela tio$ is s!ecial "ecause it $ot o$l* allows the !assage from a give$ term to the i#ea of somethi$g that is $ot !rese$tl* give$6 "ut causalit* also allows the !assage from somethi$g give$ to what has $ever "ee$ give$& eve$ somethi$g u$a"le to "e give$ i$ ex!erie$ce) %or exam!le& give$ sig$s i$ a "oo'& + "elieve that 9aesar live#) :atchi$g the su$ come u!& + sa* that it will come u! agai$ tomorrow6 havi$g o"serve# that water "oils at 100U 9& + sa* that it will $ecessaril* #o so at 100U 9) >ut ex!ressio$s such as 1alwa*s&1 1tomorrow&1 or 1$ecessaril*1 ex!ress somethi$g u$a"le to "e give$ i$ ex!erie$ce2 tomorrow is $ot give$ without "ecomi$g to#a*& without ceasi$g to "e tomorrow& a$# ever* ex!erie$ce is of a co$ti$ge$t !articular) +$ other wor#s& causalit* is a relatio$ accor#i$g to which + go "e*o$# what is give$& + sa* more tha$ what is give$ or a"le to "e give$3i$ short& D infer and ; be'ieve, + await& + ex!ect))) :hat is esse$tial here is this i$itial #is!laceme$t which ;ume effects& !ositi$g "elief as the "asis a$# !ri$ci!le of '$owle#ge) This fu$ctio$i$g of causal relatio$ is ex!lai$e# i$ the followi$g wa*2 similar o"serva"le cases ,ever* time + have see$ . followe# or accom!a$ie# "* >- are fuse# i$ the imagi$atio$& whereas the* remai$ se!arate a$# #isti$ct from o$e a$other i$ the u$#ersta$#i$g) This !ro!ert* of fusio$ i$ the imagi$atio$ co$stitutes ha"it ,+ ex!ect-& while the #isti$ctio$ i$ the u$#ersta$#i$g calculates

191

"elief i$ !ro!ortio$ to those cases that have "ee$ o"serve# ,!ro"a"ilit* as a calculatio$ of the #egrees of "elief-) The !ri$ci!le of ha"it& as fusio$ of similar cases i$ the imagi$atio$& a$# the !ri$ci!le of ex!erie$ce& as o"servatio$ of #isti$ct cases i$ the u$#ersta$#i$g& thus com"i$e to !ro#uce "oth relatio$ a$# the i$fere$ce followi$g o$ relatio$ ,"elief-& accor#i$g to which causalit* fu$ctio$s) Fi')ion

%ictio$ a$# $ature have a !articular #istri"utio$ i$ the em!iricist worl#) 4eft to itself& the mi$# #oes $ot lac' the !ower to !ass from o$e i#ea to a$other& "ut i$#ee# #oes so ha!ha ar#l*& i$ a #elirium that goes through the u$iverse #reami$g u! fire("reathi$g #rago$s& wi$ge# horses& gia$ts& a$# other mo$strosities) 8$ the other ha$#& the !ri$ci!les of huma$ $ature im!ose o$ this #elirium u$cha$gi$g rules as laws of !assage& tra$sitio$& a$# i$fere$ce& i$ accor#a$ce with 5ature itself) %rom this !oi$t o$& however& a stra$ge "attle e$sues) >ecause if it is true that the !ri$ci!les of associatio$ #etermi$e the mi$# "* im!osi$g o$ it a $ature to #isci!li$e its #elirium or fictio$s of the imagi$atio$& co$versel* the imagi$atio$ uses these same !ri$ci!les to !ass off its fictio$s a$# fa$tasies as real& le$#i$g them a suret* the* woul# $ot otherwise have) +$ this se$se& what is !ro!er to fictio$ is feig$i$g the relatio$s themselves& i$#uci$g .ctive relatio$s& a$# ma'i$g us "elieve i$ tales of ma#$ess) :e see this $ot o$l* i$ the imagi$atio$0s gift for #ou"li$g !rese$r relatio$s with other relatio$s that #o $ot exist i$ a !articular case& "ut es!eciall* where causalit* is co$cer$e#6 the imagi$atio$ forges .ctive causal chai$s& illegitimate rules& simulacra of "elief) =ither it co$fuses the acci#e$tal with the esse$tial& or it uses the !ro!erties of la$guage ,i)e) sur!assi$g ex!erie$ce- to su"stitute for the re!etitio$ of similar cases that have "ee$ actuall* o"serve#& a sim!le ver"al re!etitio$ that mimics the effect) The liar comes i$ this wa* to "elieve his lies "* re!eati$g them) .$# e#ucatio$& su!erstitio$& elo ?ue$ce& a$# !oetr* all wor' i$ the same wa*) +t is $o lo$ger o$ the !ath of scie$ce that we go "e*o$# ex!erie$ce& co$firme# "* 5ature itself a$# a corres!o$#i$g calculatio$6 we go "e*o$# it alwa*s a$# ever*where i$ our #elirium& which #reams u! a cou$ter($ature a$# e$sures the fusio$ of a$*thi$g whatsoever) The imagi$atio$ uses the !ri$ci!les of associatio$ to re#irect these !ri$ci!les themselves& givi$g them a$ illegitimate exte$sio$) ;ume is here effecti$g a seco$# ma/or #is!laceme$t i$ !hiloso!h*2 for the tra#itio$al co$ce!t of error he su"stitutes the co$ce!t of illusio$ or #elirium& accor#i$g to which there are $ot false "ut illegitimate "eliefs& illegitimate o!eratio$s of the faculties& a$# illegitimate fu$ctio$i$gs of relatio$s) +$ this res!ect& Fa$t o$ce agai$ owes somethi$g esse$tial to ;ume) :e0re $ot threate$e# "* error) +t0s much worse2 we0re swimmi$g i$ #elirium)

192

7till& it0s $ot so "a# that the fictio$s of the imagi$atio$ tur$ the !ri$ci!les of huma$ $ature agai$st themselves& as lo$g as it0s u$#er co$#itio$s that ca$ alwa*s "e correcte#2 so i$ the case of causalit*& a$ u$forgivi$g calculatio$ of !ro"a"ilities ca$ ex!ose feig$e# relatio$s or #elirious fa$tasies that go "e*o$# ex!erie$ce) >ut the illusio$ is !articularl* more serious whe$ it "elo$gs to huma$ $ature& that is& whe$ the illegitimate o!eratio$ or "elief is i$corrigi"le& i$se!ara"le from legitimate "eliefs& a$# i$#is!e$sa"le to their orga$i atio$) 5ow the fa$ciful use of the !ri$ci!les of huma$ $ature "ecome themselves a !ri$ci!le) Delirium a$# fictio$ come over to the si#e of huma$ $ature) This is what ;ume will #emo$strate i$ his most su"tle& most #ifficult a$al*ses of i#eas of the 7elf& the :orl#& a$# Go#2 how !ositi$g a #isti$ct a$# co$ti$uous existe$ce of "o#ies& a$# how !ositi$g a$ i#e$tit* of the self i$tro#uce all 'i$#s of .ctive fu$ctio$i$gs of relatio$s& es!eciall* a .ctive causalit*& u$#er co$#itio$s where $o fictio$ ma* "e correcte#& #rivi$g us rather from o$e fictio$ to a$other& all of which "elo$g to huma$ $ature) ;ume& i$ the !osthumous #ia'ogues concerning Natura' Re'igion, which ma* "e his master!iece& a!!lies the same critical metho# $ot o$l* to reveale# religio$& "ut to so(calle# $atural religio$ a$# the teleological argume$ts o$ which it is "ase#) 5ever has ;ume0s se$se of humor reache# such heights2 the more illegitimate these "eliefs are from the !oi$t of view of the !ri$ci!les of huma$ $ature& the more com!letel* the* "elo$g to our $ature) 9ertai$l* $ow we0re i$ a !ositio$ to u$#ersta$# the com!lex $otio$ of mo#er$ s'e!ticism as ;ume !ractices it) 9o$trar* to a$cie$t s'e!ticism& fou$#e# o$ the variet* of se$sor* a!!eara$ces a$# the errors of the se$ses& mo#er$ s'e!ticism is fou$#e# o$ the status of relatio$s a$# their exteriorit*) The first act of mo#er$ s'e!ticism is #iscoveri$g "elief at the "asis of '$owle#ge& that is& $aturali i$g "elief ,!ositivism-) %rom the$ o$& the seco$# act is ex!osi$g illegitimate "eliefs as those which #o $ot o"e* rules effectivel* !ro#uctive of '$owle#ge ,!ro"a"ilism& the calculatio$ of !ro"a"ilities-) The thir# act gives it a fi$al touch2 the illegitimate "eliefs i$ the :orl#& the 7elf& a$# Go# a!!ear as the hori o$ of ever* !ossi"le legitimate "elief& or as the lowest #egree of "elief) >ecause if ever*thi$g is "elief& ever*thi$g is a ?uestio$ of the #egrees of "elief& eve$ the #elirium of $o$(u$#ersta$#i$g) The virtue of ;ume0s mo#er$ s'e!ticism is humor3as agai$st iro$*& the a$cie$t #ogmatic virtue of 7ocrates a$# <lato) The I&agina)ion

5ow if the i$?uir* i$to the u$#ersta$#i$g has s'e!ticism as its !ri$ci!le a$# result& a$# if it lea#s to a$ i$extrica"le mixture of fictio$ a$# huma$ $ature& this is !erha!s "ecause it is o$l* !art of the i$?uir*& $ot eve$ its !ri$ci!al !art) The !ri$ci!les of associatio$ i$#ee# ma'e se$se o$l* i$ relatio$ to the !assio$s) 5ot o$l* #o affective circumsta$ces #irect the associatio$ of i#eas& "ut the relatio$s themselves are assig$e# a se$se& a #irectio$& a$ irreversi"ilit*& a$# a$ exclusivit* accor#i$g to the !assio$s) +$ a wor#& what co$stitutes huma$ $ature& a$# what gives the mi$# its

193

$ature or co$siste$c* are $ot o$l* the !ri$ci!les of associatio$ whe$ce #erive relatio$s& "ut also the !ri$ci!les of !assio$ whe$ce #erive our 1i$cli$atio$s)1 :e have to 'ee! two thi$gs i$ mi$# here2 o$ the o$e ha$#& the !assio$s #o $ot #etermi$e the mi$#& #o $ot im!art a $ature to the mi$# i$ the same wa* the !ri$ci!les of associatio$ #o6 a$# o$ the other ha$#& the esse$ce of the mi$# as #elirium or fictio$ #oes $ot react to the !assio$s i$ the same wa* it reacts to relatio$s)

:e saw how the !ri$ci!les of associatio$& es!eciall* causalit*& com!el the mi$# to go "e*o$# what is give$& i$s!iri$g it with "eliefs or fa$ciful $otio$s $ot all of which are legitimate) The effect of the !assio$s& however& is to restrict the ra$ge of the mi$# a$# attach it to !rivilege# i#eas a$# o"/ects) +$ fact& the esse$ce of !assio$ is $ot egoism3it0s worse2 partia'ity% :e have stro$g feeli$gs a"out our !are$ts& si"li$gs& a$# frie$#s ,restricte# causalit*& co$tiguit*& a$# resem"la$ce-) .$# this is much worse tha$ if we were gover$e# "* egoism) To ma'e societ* !ossi"le& egoism woul# o$l* have to "e limite#) +$ this se$se& the cele"rate# theories of the co$tract& from the sixtee$th( to the eightee$th(ce$tur*& have !ose# the social !ro"lem i#eall* as the limitatio$ of $atural rights& or eve$ a re$u$ciatio$ of them& whe$ce arises the co$tractual societ*) >ut whe$ ;ume sa*s that huma$s are $ot $aturall* egoist& "ut $aturall* !artial& we must$0t see this as a sim!le $ua$ce of wor#i$g) +t is a ra#ical cha$ge i$ the !ractical !ositi$g of the social !ro"lem) The !ro"lem is $o lo$ger2 how #o we limit egoism a$# its corres!o$#i$g $atural rights@ The !ro"lem is $ow2 how #o we go "e*o$# !artialit*@ ;ow #o we go from 1limite# s*m!ath*1 to a$ 1exte$#e# ge$erosit*1@ ;ow #o we exte$# the !assio$s& give them a$ exte$sio$ that the* #o $ot have of themselves@ 7ociet* is $o lo$ger co$ceive# as a s*stem of legal a$# co$tractual limitatio$s& "ut as a$ i$stitutio$al i$ve$tio$2 ;ow #o we invent artifices, create i$stitutio$s that force the !assio$s to go "e*o$# their !artialit*& !ro#uci$g moral& /uri#ical& a$# !olitical feeli$gs ,for exam!le& the feeli$g of /ustice-@ :he$ce *ou have the o!!ositio$ that ;ume esta"lishes "etwee$ the co$tract a$# the co$ve$tio$ or artifice) ;ume is certai$l* the first to "rea' with the restrictive mo#el of co$tract a$# law that still #omi$ates the sociolog* of the eightee$th(ce$tur*) ;e !ro!oses i$stea# the !ositive mo#el of artifice a$# i$sti ( tutio$) 9o$se?ue$tl*& the whole !ro"lem of huma$it* has "ee$ #is!lace#2 it is $o lo$ger a ?uestio$& as it is i$ u$#ersta$#i$g& of the com!lex relatio$shi! "etwee$ fictio$ a$# huma$ $ature& "ut "etwee$ huma$ $ature a$# artifice ,huma$'i$# as a$ i$ve$tive s!ecies-)

194

The Passions

+$ the u$#ersta$#i$g& the !ri$ci!les of huma$ $ature themselves esta"lishe# the rules for exte$#i$g or goi$g "e*o$# the give$& which the imagi$atio$ use# to !ass off simulacra of "elief as legitimate2 co$se?ue$tl*& a calculatio$ was co$sta$tl* $ecessar* as a correctio$& to #isti$guish the legitimate from the illegitimate) :ith the !assio$s& however& the !ro"lem is #iffere$t2 how ca$ we i$ve$t the artificial exte$sio$ that goes "e*o$# the !artialit* of huma$ $ature@ ;ere fictio$ or fa$tas* ta'es o$ a $ew se$se) .s ;ume sa*s& the mi$# or the imagi$atio$ #oes $ot fu$ctio$& i$ relatio$ to the !assio$s& li'e a wi$# i$strume$t& "ut li'e a !ercussio$ i$strume$t 1where after each stro'e the vi"ratio$s still retai$ some sou$#& which gra#uall* a$# i$se$si"l* #eca*s)12 +$ short& what is !ro!er to the imagi$atio$ is reflecti$g the !assio$s& ma'i$g them reso$ate& a$# causi$g them to go "e*o$# the limits of their $atural !artialit* a$# !rese$t$ess) ;ume shows how esthetic a$# moral feeli$gs come a"out2 the !assio$s reflecte# i$ the imagi$atio$ "ecome those of the imagi$atio$) >* reflecti$g the !assio$s& the imagi$atio$ li"erates them& stretches them ver* thi$& a$# !ro/ects them "e*o$# their $atural limits) +$ o$e res!ect& however& the !ercussio$ meta!hor must "e revise#2 as the* reso$ate i$ the imagi$atio$& the !assio$s are $ot co$te$t to "ecome gra#uall* less !rese$t a$# less i$te$se6 the* com!letel* cha$ge their color a$# their to$e& much the same wa* the sa#$ess of a re!rese$te# !assio$ i$ trage#* cha$ges i$to the !leasure of a$ almost i$fi$ite !la* of the imagi$atio$) The !assio$s ac?uire a $ew $ature a$# are atte$#e# "* a $ew 'i$# of "elief) Thus the will 1seems to move easil* ever* wa*& a$# casts a sha#ow or image of itself eve$ to that si#e o$ which it #i# $ot settle)1 0

:hat co$stitutes the worl# of artifice or culture is !recisel* this reso$a$ce& this reflectio$ of the !assio$s i$ the imagi$atio$& a$# it is what ma'e culture at o$ce the most frivolous a$# most serious of worl#s) >ut there are two #efects to "e avoi#e# i$ these cultural formatio$s2 o$ the o$e ha$#& exte$#e# !assio$s that are less i$te$se tha$ actual !assio$s& eve$ if the* are of a$other $ature6 a$# o$ the other& !assio$s that are i$#etermi$ate& !ro/ecti$g their fai$ter images i$ ever* #irectio$ i$#e!e$#e$tl* of a$* rule) The first #efect fi$#s its solutio$ i$ the gov er$i$g "o#ies of social !ower& i$ the a!!aratuses of !ermissio$& rewar# a$# !u$ishme$t& which le$# to am!lifie# feeli$gs or reflecte# !assio$s a su!!leme$tar* #egree of i$te$sit* or "elief2 !rimaril* the gover$eme$t& "ut also more su"terra$ea$ a$# im!licit authorities such as custom a$# taste3

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o$ce agai$& we see ;ume is o$e of the first to have !ose# the !ro"lem of !ower a$# gover$me$t i$ terms of cre#i"ilit*& $ot re!rese$tivit*)

.s for the seco$# #efect& it also i$volves the wa* i$ which ;ume0s !hiloso!h* forms a ge$eral s*stem) >ecause if the !assio$s are reflecte# i$ the imagi$atio$& it is $ot i$ some "are imagi$atio$& "ut a$ imagi$atio$ as it is alrea#* #etermi$e# or $aturali e# "* the !ri$ci!les of associatio$) Besem"la$ce& co$tiguit*& a$# causalit*3i$ a wor#& a$* a$# all relatio$s that are the o"/ect of u$#ersta$#i$g or calculatio$3fur$ish ge$eral rules to #etermi$e reflecte# feeli$gs& "e*o$# the imme#iate a$# restricte# use that the $o$(reflecte# !assio$s ma'e of them) 7o the esthetic feeli$gs #iscover ge$ui$e rules of taste i$ the !ri$ci!les of associatio$) Aost im!orta$tl*& ;ume ex!lai$s i$ #etail how the !assio$s of !ossessio$& "ei$g reflecte# i$ the imagi$atio$& fi$# i$ the !ri$ci!les of associatio$ the mea$s to #etermi$e ge$eral rules that co$stitute the factors at wor' i$ !ro!ert* or the worl# of law) There is a whole stu#* of the variatio$s of relatio$s& a whole calculus of relatio$s& that allows a res!o$se i$ each case to the ?uestio$2 #oes there exist "etwee$ this !erso$ a$# that o"/ect such a relatio$ as to ma'e us "elieve ,to ma'e the imagi$atio$ "elieve- that o$e "elo$gs to the other@ 1. !erso$ who has hu$te# a hare to the last #egree of weari$ess woul# loo' u!o$ it as a$ i$/ustice for a$other to rush i$ "efore him a$# sei e his !re*) >ut the same !erso$& a#va$ci$g to !luc' a$ a!!le that ha$gs withi$ his reach& has $o reaso$ to com!lai$ if a$other& more alert& !asses him a$# ta'es !ossessio$) :hat is the reaso$ of this #iffere$ce& "ut that immo"ilit*& $ot "ei$g $atural to the hare& "ut the effect of i$#ustr*& forms i$ that case a stro$g relatio$ with the hu$ter& which is wa$ti$g i$ the other@14 Does a s!ear throw$ agai$st the gate suffice to e$sure ow$ershi! of a$ a"a$#o$e# cit*& or #o *ou have to touch it with *our ha$# to esta"lish a sufficie$t relatio$@ :h* i$ civil law #oes the soil have !riorit* over the surface& "ut the !ai$t over the ca$vas& whereas the !a!er has it over writi$g@ The !ri$ci!les of associatio$ fi$# their true se$se i$ a casuistr* of relatio$s that #etermi$e the last #etail of the worl# of culture a$# law) .$# this is i$#ee# the ge$ui$e o"/ect of ;ume0s !hiloso!h*2 relatio$s as the mea$s of a$ activit*& a !ractice at o$ce /uri#ical& eco$omic& a$# !olitical) A Philoso7h1 9o)h Po7ular an* S'ien)i4i'

196

;ume is a rather !recocious !hiloso!her2 he was a"out twe$t*(five *ears ol# whe$ he wrote his master!iece A Treatise of +uman Nature ,!u"lishe# i$ 17393 1740-) . $ew to$e i$ !hiloso!h*& a$ extraor#i$ar* sim!licit* a$# co$crete$ess& emerges from a great com!lexit* of argume$ts& which simulta$eousl* "ri$g i$ the use of fictio$s& the scie$ce of huma$ $ature& a$# the !ractice of artifices) . 'i$# of !hiloso!h* that is !o!ular a$# scie$tific2 a !o!(!hiloso!h* +ts i#eal@ . #ecisive clarit*& which is $ot the clarit* of i#eas& "ut that which comes from relatio$s a$# o!eratio$s) +t is clarit* that he will attem!t to wor' more a$# more i$to his later "oo's& eve$ though it mea$s givi$g u! some of the com!lexit*& a$# re$ou$ci$g what was thought too #ifficult i$ his Treatise8 Essays, Mora' and )o'itica' ,1742-& An En@uiry concerning +uman Nnderstanding ,1748-& An En@uiry concerning t e )rincip'es of Mora's ,1751- a$# )o'itica' #iscourses ,1752-) The$ he will tr* his ha$# at T e +istory of *reat 3ritain ,1754(1762-) The a#mira"le #ia'ogues concerning Natura' Re'igion, a!!eari$g after ;ume0s #eath i$ 1779& fi$# him agai$ more com!lex a$# more clear) This is !erha!s the o$l* exam!le of a ge$ui$e #ialogue i$ !hiloso!h* "ecause there are $ot o$l* two& "ut three characters) .$# the* #o$0t have u$ivocal roles2 the* form !rovisio$al allia$ces& "rea' them off& see' reco$ciliatio$& etc) Demea is the a#vocate of reveale# religio$6 9lea$thes& of $atural religio$6 a$# <hilo$ is the s'e!tic) The se$se of humor of ;ume(<hilo$ is $ot o$l* a wa* of getti$g ever*o$e to agree& i$ the $ame of a s'e!ticism that assig$s 1#egrees1 of "elief& "ut it is alrea#* a ru!ture& "rea'i$g with the #omi$a$t curre$ts of the eightee$th(ce$tur*& to !refigure a future !hiloso!h* 1

,o* 3o %e Be7ogni=e Str-7t-ra"ismG

5ot lo$g ago we use# to as'2 :hat is existe$tialism@ 5ow we as'2 :hat is structuralism@ These ?uestio$s are of 'ee$ i$terest& !rovi#e# the* are timel* a$# have some "eari$g o$ wor' actuall* i$ !rogress) T is is 5OP>% Thus we ca$$ot i$vo'e the u$fi$ishe# character of such wor' to avoi# a re!l*& for it is that character alo$e which gives the ?uestio$ its sig$ifica$ce) 7o& the ?uestio$ / at is structura'ism= must u$#ergo certai$ tra$sformatio$s) +$ the first !lace& w o is a structuralist@ +$ the curre$t climate& rightl* or wro$gl*& it is customar* to $ame $ames 0designer1, to !rovi#e 0sam!les0 Iecha$tillo$$erJ2 a li$guist li'e Boma$ Ca'o"so$6 a sociologist li'e 9lau#e 4evi(7trauss6 a !s*choa$al*st li'e Cac?ues 4aca$6 a !hiloso!her li'e Aichel %oucault& re$ewi$g e!istemolo( g*6 a Aarxist !hiloso!her li'e 4ouis .lthusser& o$ce agai$ ta'i$g u! the !ro"lem of the i$ter!retatio$ of Aarxism6 a literar* critic li'e Bola$# >arthes6 writers li'e those from Te' Gue'%%% 8f these& some #o $ot re/ect the wor# 1structuralism&1 a$# use 1structure&1 1structural)1 8thers !refer the 7aussurea$ term 1s*stem)1 These are all ver* #iffere$t 'i$#s of thi$'ers& a$# from #iffere$t ge$eratio$s& a$# some have exercise# a real i$flue$ce o$ their co$tem!oraries) >ut more im!ort is the extreme #iversit* of the #omai$s the* ex!lore) =ach of them #iscovers !ro"lems& metho#s& solutio$s that are a$alogicall* relate#& as if shari$g i$ a free atmos!here or s!irit of the time& "ut o$e that #istri"utes itself i$to si$gular creatio$s a$# #iscoveries i$ each of these #omai$s)3;sm wor#s& i$ this se$se& are !erfectl* /ustifie#)

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There is goo# reaso$ to ascri"e the origi$ of structuralism to li$guistics2 $ot o$l* 7aussure& "ut the Aoscow a$# <rague schools) .$# if structuralism the$ migrates to other #omai$s& this occurs without it "ei$g a ?uestio$ of a$alog*& $or merel* i$ or#er to esta"lish metho#s 1e?uivale$t1 to those that first succee#e# for the a$al*sis of la$guage) +$ fact& la$guage is the o$l* thi$g that ca$ !ro!erl* "e sai# to have structure& "e it a$ esoteric or eve$ $o$(ver"al la$( guage) There is a structure of the u$co$scious o$l* to the exte$t that the u$co$scious s!ea's a$# is la$guage) There is a structure of "o#ies o$l* to the exte$t that "o#ies are su!!ose# to s!ea' with a la$guage which is o$e of the s*m!toms) =ve$ thi$gs !ossess a structure o$l* i$ so far as the* mai$tai$ a sile$t #iscourse& which is the la$guage of sig$s) 7o the ?uestio$ / at is structura'ism= is further tra$sforme#3it is "etter to as'2 :hat #o we recog$i e i$ those that we call structuralists@ .$# what #o the* themselves recog$i e@3 si$ce o$e #oes $ot recog$i e !eo!le& i$ a visi"le ma$$er& exce!t "* the i$visi"le a$# im!erce!ti"le thi$gs the* themselves recog$i e i$ their ow$ wa*) ;ow #o the structuralists go a"out recog$i i$g a la$guage i$ somethi$g& the la$guage !ro!er to a #omai$@ :hat #o the* #iscover i$ this #omai$@ :e thus !ro!ose o$l* to #iscer$ certai$ formal criteria of recog$itio$& the sim!lest o$es& "* i$vo'i$g i$ each case the exam!le of cite# authors& whatever the #iversit* of their wor's a$# !ro/ects) I: Firs) Cri)erion: The S1&9oli'

:e are use# to& almost co$#itio$e# to a certai$ #isti$ctio$ or correlatio$ "etwee$ the real a$# the imagi$ar*) .ll of our thought mai$tai$s a #ialectical !la* "etwee$ these two $otio$s) =ve$ whe$ classical !hiloso!h* s!ea's of !ure i$tellige$ce or u$#ersta$#i$g& it is still a matter of a facult* #efi$e# "* its a!titu#e to gras! the #e!ths of the real B'e ree' en son fond$, the real 1i$ truth&1 the real as such& i$ o!!ositio$ to& "ut also i$ relatio$ to the !ower of imagi$atio$) 4et us cite some creative moveme$ts that are ?uite #iffere$t2 Boma$ticism& 7*m"olism& 7urrealism))) +$ #oi$g so& we i$vo'e at o$ce the tra$sce$#e$t !oi$t where the real a$# the imagi$ar* i$ter!e$etrate a$# u$ite& a$# their shar! "or#er& li'e the cutti$g e#ge of their #iffere$ce) +$ a$* case& we get $o farther tha$ the o!!ositio$ a$# com!leme$tarit* of the imagi$ar* a$# the real3at least i$ the tra#itio$al i$ter!retatio$ of Boma$ticism& 7*m"olism& etc) =ve$ %reu#ia$ism is i$ter!rete# from the !ers!ective of two !ri$ci!les2 the realit* !ri$ci!le with its !ower to #isa!!oi$t& the !leasure !ri$ci!le with its halluci$ator* !ower of satisfactio$) :ith all the more reaso$& metho#s li'e those of Cu$g a$# >achelar# are wholl* i$scri"e# withi$ the real a$# the imag i$ar*& withi$ the frame of their com!lex relatio$s& tra$sce$#e$t u$it* a$# limi$ar* te$sio$& fusio$ a$# cutti$g e#ge)

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The first criterio$ of structuralism& however& is the #iscover* a$# recog$itio$ of a thir# or#er& a thir# regime2 that of the s*m"olic) The refusal to co$fuse the s*m"olic with the imagi$ar*& as much as with the real& co$stitutes the first #ime$sio$ of structuralism) +$ this case agai$& ever*thi$g "ega$ with li$guistics2 "e*o$# the wor# i$ its realit* a$# its reso$a$t !arts& "e*o$# images a$# co$ce!ts associate# with wor#s& the structuralist li$guist #iscovers a$ ele( me$t of ?uite a$other $ature& a structural o"/ect) .$# !erha!s it is i$ this s*m"olic eleme$t that the $ovelists of Te' Gue' wish to locate themselves& i$ or#er to re$ew the reso$a$t realities as well as the associate# $arratives) >e*o$# the histor* of me$& a$# the histor* of i#eas& Aichel %oucault #iscovers a #ee!er& su"terra$ea$ grou$# that forms the o"/ect of what he calls the archaeolog* of thought) >ehi$# real me$ a$# their real relatio$s& "ehi$# i#eologies a$# their imagi$ar* relatio$s& 4ouis .lthusser #iscovers a #ee!er #omai$ as o"/ect of scie$ce a$# of !hiloso!h*)

:e alrea#* ha# ma$* fathers i$ !s*choa$al*sis2 first of all& a real father& "ut also father( images) .$# all our #ramas occurre# i$ the strai$e# relatio$s of the real a$# the imagi$ar*) Cac?ues 4aca$ #iscovers a thir#& more fu$#ame$tal father& a s*m"olic father or 5ame(of(the( %ather) 5ot /ust the real a$# the imagi$ar*& "ut their relatio$s& a$# the #istur"a$ces of these relatio$s& must "e thought as the limit of a !rocess i$ which the* co$stitute themselves i$ relatio$ to the s*m"olic) +$ 4aca$0s wor'& i$ the wor' of other structuralists as well& the s*m"olic as eleme$t of the structure co$stitutes the !ri$ci!le of a ge$esis2 structure is i$car$ate# i$ realities a$# images accor#i$g to #eter( mi$a"le series) Aoreover& the structure co$stitutes series "* i$car$ati$g itself& "ut is $ot #erive# from them si$ce it is #ee!er& "ei$g the su"stratum "oth for the strata of the real a$# for the heights 0de's1 of imagi$atio$) 9o$versel*& catastro!hes that are !ro!er to the s*m"olic structural or#er ta'e i$to accou$t the a!!are$t #istur"a$ces of the real a$# the imagi$ar*2 thus& i$ the case of T e /o'f Man as 4aca$ i$ter!rets it& the theme of castratio$ rea!!ears i$ the real si$ce it remai$s $o$(s*m"oli e# ,1foreclosure1-& i$ the halluci$ator* form of the cut fi$ger)2

:e ca$ e$umerate the real& the imagi$ar*& a$# the s*m"olic2 1& 2& 3) >ut !erha!s these $umerals have as much a$ or#i$al as a car#i$al value) %or the real i$ itself is $ot se!ara"le from a certai$ i#eal of u$ificatio$ or of totali atio$2 the real te$#s towar#s o$e& it is o$e i$ its 1truth)1

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.s soo$ as we see two i$ 1o$e&1 as soo$ as we ma'e #ou"les 0de,doub'ons1, the imagi$ar* a!!ears i$ !erso$& eve$ if it is i$ the real that its actio$ is carrie# out) %or exam!le& the real father is o$e& or wa$ts to "e accor#i$g to his law6 "ut the image of the father is alwa*s #ou"le i$ itself& cleave# accor#i$g to a law of the #ual or #uel) +t is !ro/ecte# o$to two !erso$s at least& o$e assumi$g the role of the !la*( father& the father("uffoo$& a$# the other& the role of the wor'i$g a$# i#eal father2 li'e the <ri$ce of :ales i$ 7ha'es!eare& who !asses from o$e father image to the other& from %alstaff to the 9row$) The imagi$ar* is #efi$e# "* games of mirrori$g& of #u!licatio$& of reverse# i#e$tificatio$ a$# !ro/ectio$& alwa*s i$ the mo#e of the #ou"le) 5 >ut !erha!s& i$ tur$& the s*m"olic is three& a$# $ot merel* the thir# "e*o$# the real a$# the imagi$ar*) There is alwa*s a thir# to "e sought i$ the s*m"olic itself6 structure is at least tria#ic& without which it woul# $ot 1circulate13a thir# at o$ce u$real& a$# *et $ot imagi$a"le)

:e will see wh* later6 "ut alrea#* the first criterio$ co$sists of this2 the !ositi$g of a s*m"olic or#er& irre#uci"le to the or#ers of the real a$# the imagi$ar*& a$# #ee!er tha$ the* are) :e #o $ot *et '$ow what this s*m"olic eleme$t co$sists of) :e ca$ sa* at least that the corres!o$#i$g structure has $o relatio$shi! with a se$si"le form& $or with a figure of the imagi$atio$& $or with a$ i$telligi"le esse$ce) +t has $othi$g to #o with a form8 for structure is $ot at all #efi$e# "* a$ auto$om* of the whole& "* a !reemi$e$ce 0pregnance1 of the whole over its !arts& "* a *esta't which woul# o!erate i$ the real a$# i$ !erce!tio$) 7tructure is #efi$e#& o$ the co$trar*& "* the $ature of certai$ atomic eleme$ts which claim to accou$t "oth for the formatio$ of wholes a$# for the variatio$ of their !arts) +t has $othi$g to #o wit figures of the imagi$atio$& although structuralism is ri##le# with reflectio$s o$ rhetoric& meta!hor a$# meto$*m*& for these figures themselves im!l* structural #is!laceme$ts which must accou$t for "oth the literal a$# the figurative) 5or has it has a$*thi$g to #o with a$ essence8 it is more a com"i$ator* formula 0une combinatoire1 su!!orti$g formal eleme$ts which "* themselves have $either form& $or sig$ificatio$& $or re!rese$tatio$& $or co$te$t& $or give$ em!irical realit*& $or h*!othetical fu$ctio$al mo#el& $or i$telligi"ilit* "ehi$# a!!eara$ces) 5o o$e has "etter #etermi$e# the status of the structure as i#e$tical to the 1Theor*1 itself tha$ 4ouis .lthusser3a$# the s*m"olic must "e u$#erstoo# as the !ro#uctio$ of the origi$al a$# s!ecific theoretical o"/ect)

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7ometimes structuralism is aggressive& as whe$ it #e$ou$ces the ge$eral misu$#ersta$#i$g of this ultimate s*m"olic categor*& "e*o$# the imagi$ar* a$# the real) 7ometimes it is i$ter!retative& as whe$ it re$ews our i$ter!retatio$ of wor's i$ relatio$ to this categor*& a$# claims to #iscover a$ origi$al !oi$t at which la$guage is co$stitute#& i$ which wor's ela"orate themselves& a$# where i#eas a$# actio$s are "ou$# together) Boma$ticism a$# 7*m"olism& "ut also %reu#ia$ism a$# Aarxism& thus "ecome the o"/ects of !rofou$# rei$ter!retatio$s) 5ot to me$tio$ the m*thical& !oetic& !hiloso!hical& or !ractical wor's which themselves are su"/ecte# to structural i$ter!retatio$) >ut this rei$ter!retatio$ o$l* has value to the exte$t that it a$imates $ew wor's which are those of to#a*& as if the s*m"olic were the source& i$se!ara"l*& of livi$g i$ter!retatio$ a$# creatio$) II: Se'on* Cri)erion: 0o'al or Posi)ional

:hat #oes the s*m"olic eleme$t of the structure co$sist of@ :e se$se the $ee# to go slowl*& to state re!eate#l*& first of all& what it is $ot) Disti$ct from the real a$# the imagi$ar*& the s*m"olic ca$$ot "e #efi$e# either "* !re(existi$g realities to which it woul# refer a$# which it woul# #esig$ate& or "* the imagi$ar* or co$ce!tual co$te$ts which it woul# im!licate& a$# which woul# give it a sig$ificatio$) The eleme$ts of a structure have $either extri$sic #esig$atio$& $or i$tri$sic sig$ificatio$) The$ what is left@ .s 4evi(7trauss recalls rigorousl*& the* have $othi$g other tha$ a sense 0sens Q mea$i$g a$# #irectio$J2 a se$se which is $ecessaril* a$# u$i?uel* 1!ositio$al)010

+t is $ot a matter of a locatio$ i$ a real s!atial ex!a$se& $or of sites i$ imagi$ar* exte$sio$s& "ut rather of !laces a$# sites i$ a !ro!erl* structural s!ace& that is& a to!ological s!ace) 7!ace is what is structural& "ut a$ u$exte$#e#& !re( exte$sive s!ace& !ure spatium co$stitute# "it "* "it as a$ or#er of !roximit*& i$ which the $otio$ of !roximit* first of all has !recisel* a$ or#i$al se$se a$# $ot a sig$ificatio$ i$ exte$sio$) 5 8r ta'e ge$etic "iolog*2 the ge$es are !art of a structure to the exte$t that the* are i$se!ara"le from 1loci&1 sites ca!a"le of cha$gi$g their relatio$ withi$ the chromosome) +$ short& !laces i$ a !urel* structural s!ace are !rimar* i$ relatio$ to the thi$gs a$# real "ei$gs which come to occu!* them& !rimar* also i$ relatio$ to the alwa*s somewhat imagi( $ar* roles a$# eve$ts which $ecessaril* a!!ear whe$ the* are occu!ie#)

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The scie$tific am"itio$ of structuralism is $ot ?ua$titative& "ut to!ologi( cal a$# relatio$al& a !ri$ci!al that 4evi(7trauss co$sta$tl* reaffirms) .$# whe$ .lthusser s!ea's of eco$omic structure& he s!ecifies that the true 1su"/ects1 there are $ot those who come to occu!* the !laces& i)e) co$crete i$#ivi#uals or real huma$ "ei$gs3$o more tha$ the true o"/ects are the roles that the* fulfill a$# the eve$ts that are !ro#uce#) Bather& these 1su"/ects1 are a"ove all the !laces i$ a to!ological a$# structural s!ace #efi$e# "* relatio$s of !ro#uctio$) 6 :he$ %oucault #efi$es #etermi$atio$s such as #eath& #esire& wor'& or !la*& he #oes $ot co$si#er them as #ime$sio$s of em!irical huma$ existe$ce& "ut a"ove all as the ?ualificatio$s of !laces a$# !ositio$s which will re$#er those who come to occu!* them mortal a$# #*i$g& or #esiri$g& or wor'ma$(li'e& or !la*( ful) These& however& o$l* come to occu!* the !laces a$# !ositio$s seco$#aril*& fulfilli$g their roles accor#i$g to a$ or#er of !roximit* that is a$ or#er of the structure itself) That is wh* %oucault ca$ !ro!ose a $ew #istri"utio$ of the em!irical a$# the tra$sce$#e$tal& the latter fi$#i$g itself #efi$e# "* a$ or#er of !laces i$#e!e$#e$tl* of those who occu!* them em!iricall* 7 7tructuralism ca$$ot "e se!arate# from a $ew tra$sce$#e$tal !hiloso!h*& i$ which the sites !revail over whatever occu!ies them) %ather& mother& etc)& are first of all sites i$ a structure6 a$# if we are mortal& it is "* movi$g i$to the li$e& "* comi$g to a !articular site& mar'e# i$ the structure followi$g this to!ological or#er of !roximities ,eve$ whe$ we #o so ahea# of our tur$-)

1+t is $ot o$l* the su"/ect&1 sa*s 4aca$& 1"ut su"/ects gras!e# i$ their i$ter( su"/ectivit*& who li$e u!))) a$# who mo#el their ver* "ei$g o$ the mome$t of the sig$if*i$g chai$ which traverses them))) The #is!laceme$t of the sig$ifier #etermi$es su"/ects i$ their acts& i$ their #esti$*& i$ their refusals& i$ their "li$#$esses& i$ their co$?uests a$# i$ their fate& their i$$ate gifts a$# social ac?uisitio$ $otwithsta$#i$g& without regar# for character or sex)))1 8 8$e coul# $ot sa* more clearl* that em!irical !s*cholog* is $ot o$l* fou$#e#& "ut #etermi$e# "* a tra$sce$#e$tal to!olog*)

7everal co$se?ue$ces follow from this local or !ositio$al criterio$) %irst of all& if the s*m"olic eleme$ts have $o extri$sic #esig$atio$ $or i$tri$sic sig$ificatio$& "ut o$l* a !ositio$al se$se& it follows $ecessaril* a$# "* rights that sense a'ways resu'ts from t e combination of e'ements w ic are not t emse'ves signifying= .s 4evi(7trauss sa*s i$ his #iscussio$ with <aul Bicoeur& se$se is alwa*s a result& a$ effect2 $ot merel* a$ effect li'e a !ro#uct& "ut a$ o!tical

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effect& a la$guage effect& a !ositio$al effect) There is& !rofou$#l*& a $o$se$se of se$se& from which se$se itself results) 5ot that we retur$ i$ this wa* to what was o$ce calle# a !hiloso!h* of the a"sur# si$ce& for such a !hiloso!h*& se$se itself is lac'i$g& esse$tiall*) %or structuralism& o$ the other ha$#& there is alwa*s too much se$se& a$ over!ro#uctio$& a$ over(#etermi$atio$ of se$se& alwa*s !ro#uce# i$ excess "* the com"i$atio$ of !laces i$ the structure) ,;e$ce the im!orta$ce& i$ .lthusser0s wor' for exam!le& of the co$ce!t of over-determina- tionA 5o$se$se is $ot at all the a"sur# or the o!!osite of se$se& "ut rather that which gives value to se$se a$# !ro#uces it "* circulati$g i$ the structure) 7tructuralism owes $othi$g to .l"ert 9amus& "ut much to 4ewis 9arroll)1

The seco$# co$se?ue$ce is structuralism0s i$cli$atio$ for certai$ games a$# a certai$ 'i$# of theatre& for certai$ !la* a$# theatrical s!aces) +t is $o acci#e$t that 4evi(7trauss ofte$ refers to the theor* of games& a$# accor#s such im!orta$ce to !la*i$g car#s) .s #oes 4aca$ to his game meta!hors which are more tha$ meta!hors2 $ot o$l* the movi$g o"/ect 0'efuret, literall* the ferret6 or& movi$g to'e$ i$ t e jeu de furet, the game of hu$t(the(sli!!erJ which #arts arou$# the structure& "ut also the #umm*(ha$# 0'ap'ace du mort1 that circulates i$ "ri#ge) The $o"lest games such as chess are those that orga$i e a com"i$ator* s*stem of !laces i$ a !ure spatium i$fi$itel* #ee!er tha$ the real exte$sio$ of the chess"oar# a$# the imagi$ar* exte$sio$ of each !iece) 8r whe$ .lthusser i$terru!ts his comme$tar* o$ Aarx to tal' a"out theatre& "ut a theatre that is $either of realit* $or of i#eas& a !ure theatre of !laces a$# !osi tio$s& the !ri$ci!le of which he sees i$ >recht&12 a$# that woul# to#a* !erha!s fi$# its most extreme ex!ressio$ i$ .rma$# Gatti0s wor') +$ short& the ver* ma$ifesto of structuralism must "e sought i$ the famous formula& emi$e$tl* !oetic a$# theatrical2 to thi$' is to cast a throw of the #ice 0penser, c,est e,met- tre un coup de des1%5

The thir# co$se?ue$ce is that structuralism is i$se!ara"le from a $ew materialism& a $ew atheism& a $ew a$ti(huma$ism) %or if the !lace is !rimar* i$ relatio$ to whatever occu!ies it& it certai$l* will $ot #o to re!lace Go# with ma$ i$ or#er to cha$ge the structure) .$# if this !lace is the #umm*(ha$# 0'a p'ace du mort, i)e) the #ea# ma$0s !laceJ& the #eath of Go# surel* mea$s the #eath of ma$ as well& i$ favor& we ho!e& of somethi$g *et to come& "ut which coul# o$l*

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come withi$ the structure a$# through its mutatio$) This is how we u$#ersta$# the imagi$ar* character of ma$ for %oucault or the i#eological character of huma$ism for .lthusser) III: Thir* Cri)erion: The Di44eren)ial an* )he Singular

:hat the$ #o these s*m"olic eleme$ts or u$its of !ositio$ fi$all* co$sist of@ 4et us retur$ to the li$guistic mo#el) :hat is #isti$ct "oth from the voice# eleme$ts& a$# the associate# co$ce!ts a$# images& is calle# a !ho$eme& the smallest li$guistic u$it ca!a"le of #iffere$tiati$g two wor#s of #iverse mea$i$gs2 for exam!le& 1Aillar#1 I"illiar#J a$# 1DVillar#1 I!illagerJ) +t is clear that the !ho$eme is em"o#ie# i$ letters& s*lla"les a$# sou$#s& "ut that it is $ot re#uci"le to them) Aoreover& letters& s*lla"les a$# sou$#s give it a$ i$#e!e$#e$ce& whereas i$ itself& the !ho$eme is i$se!ara"le from the !ho$emic relatio$ which u$ites it to other !ho$emes2 " D !) <ho$emes #o $ot exist i$#e!e$#e$tl* of the relatio$s i$to which the* e$ter a$# through which the* reci!rocall* #etermi$e each other)14

:e ca$ #isti$guish three t*!es of relatio$) . first t*!e is esta"lishe# "etwee$ eleme$ts which e$/o* i$#e!e$#e$ce or auto$om*2 for exam!le& 3 W 2& or eve$ 2 D 3) The eleme$ts are real& a$# these relatio$s must themselves "e sai# to "e real) . seco$# t*!e of relatio$shi!& for exam!le& x2 W *2 ( B2 M 0& is esta"lishe# "etwee$ terms for which the value is $ot s!ecifie#& "ut which i$ each case& however& must have a #etermi$e# value) 7uch relatio$s ca$ "e calle# imagi$ar*) >ut the thir# t*!e is esta"lishe# "etwee$ eleme$ts which have $o #etermi$e# value themselves& a$# which $evertheless #etermi$e each other reci!rocall* i$ the relatio$2 thus *#* W x#x M 0& or #*(D #x M ( xD*) 7uch relatio$shi!s are s*m"olic& a$# the corres!o$#i$g eleme$ts are hel# i$ a #iffere$tial relatio$shi!) D* is totall* u$#etermi$e# i$ relatio$ to *& a$# #x is totall* u$#etermi$e# i$ relatio$ to x2 each o$e has $either existe$ce& $or value& $or sig$ificatio$) .$# *et the relatio$ #*D#x is totall* #etermi$e#& the two eleme$ts #etermi$i$g each other reci!rocall* i$ the relatio$)15 This !rocess of a reci!rocal #etermi$atio$ is at the heart of a relatio$shi! that allows o$e to #efi$e the s*m"olic $ature) 7ometimes the origi$s of structuralism are sought i$ the area of axiomatics& a$# it is true that >our"a'i& for exam!le& uses the wor# 1structure)1 >ut this use& it seems to me& is i$ a ver* #iffere$t se$se& that of relatio$s "etwee$ $o$(s!ecifie# eleme$ts& $ot eve$ ?ualitativel* s!ecifie#& whereas i$ structuralism& eleme$ts s!ecif* each other reci!rocall* i$ relatio$s) +$ this se$se& axiomatics woul# still "e imagi$ar*& $ot s*m"olic

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!ro!erl* s!ea'i$g) The mathematical origi$ of structuralism must "e sought rather i$ the #omai$ of #iffere$tial calculus& s!ecificall* i$ the i$ter!retatio$ which :eierstrass a$# Bussell gave to it& a static and ordina' i$ter!retatio$& which #efi$itivel* li"erates calculus from all refere$ce to the i$fi$itel* small& a$# i$tegrates it i$to a !ure logic of relatio$s)

9orres!o$#i$g to the #etermi$atio$ of #iffere$tial relatio$s are si$gularities& #istri"utio$s of si$gular !oi$ts which characteri e curves or figures ,a tria$gle for exam!le has three si$gular !oi$ts-) +$ this wa*& the #etermi$atio$ of !ho$emic relatio$s !ro!er to a give$ la$guage ascri"es si$gularities i$ !roximit* to which the vocali atio$s a$# sig$ificatio$s of the la$guage are co$stitute#) T e reciproca' determination of s*m"olic eleme$ts co$ti$ues he$ceforth i$to t e comp'ete determination of si$gular !oi$ts that co$stitute a s!ace corres!o$#i$g to these eleme$ts) The crucial $otio$ of si$gularit*& ta'e$ literall*& seems to "elo$g to all the #omai$s i$ which there is structure) The ge$eral formula& 1to thi$' is to cast a throw of the #ice&1 itself refers to the si$gularities re!rese$te# "* the shar!l* outli$e# !oi$ts o$ the #ice) =ver* structure !rese$ts the followi$g two as!ects2 a s*stem of #iffere$tial relatio$s accor#i$g to which the s*m"olic eleme$ts #etermi$e themselves reci!rocall*& a$# a s*stem of si$gularities corres!o$#i$g to these relatio$s a$# traci$g the s!ace of the structure) =ver* structure is a multi!licit*) The ?uestio$& 1+s there structure i$ a$* #omai$ whatsoever@&1 must "e s!ecifie# i$ the followi$g wa*2 i$ a give$ #omai$& ca$ o$e u$cover s*m"olic eleme$ts& #iffere$tial relatio$s a$# si$gular !oi$ts which are !ro!er to it@ 7*m"olic eleme$ts are i$car$ate# i$ the real "ei$gs a$# o"/ects of the #omai$ co$si#ere#6 the #iffere$tial relatio$s are actuali e# i$ real relatio$s "etwee$ these "ei$gs6 the si$gularities are so ma$* !laces i$ the structure& which #istri"utes the imagi$ar* attitu#es or roles of the "ei$gs or o"/ects that come to occu!* them) 16

+t is $ot a matter of mathematical meta!hors) +$ each #omai$& o$e must fi$# eleme$ts& relatio$shi!s a$# !oi$ts) :he$ 4evi(7trauss u$#erta'es the stu#* of eleme$tar* 'i$shi! structures& he $ot o$l* co$si#ers the real fathers i$ a societ*& $or o$l* the father(images that ru$ through the m*ths of that societ*) ;e claims to #iscover real 'i$shi! !ho$emes& that is& :in-emes 0parentemes1, !ositio$al u$its which #o $ot exist i$#e!e$#e$tl* of the #iffere$tial relatio$s i$to which the* e$ter a$# that #etermi$e each other reci!rocall*) +t is i$ this wa* that the four relatio$s3"rother D sister& hus"a$# D wife& father D so$& mater$al u$cle D sister0s so$3form the

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sim!lest structure) .$# to this com"i$ator* s*stem of 1'i$shi! $ames1 corres!o$# i$ a com!lex wa*& "ut without resem"li$g them& the 1'i$shi! attitu#es1 that reali e the si$gularities #etermi$e# i$ the s*stem) 8$e coul# /ust as well !rocee# i$ the o!!osite ma$$er2 start from si$gularities i$ or#er to #etermi$e the #iffere$tial relatio$s "etwee$ ultimate s*m"olic eleme$ts) Thus& ta'i$g the exam!le of the 8e#i!us m*th& 4evi(7trauss starts from the si$gularities of the stor* ,8e#i!us marries his mother& 'ills his father& immolates the 7!hi$x& is $ame# clu"(foot& etc)- i$ or#er to i$fer from them the #iffere$tial relatio$s "etwee$ 1m*themes1 which are #etermi$e# reci!rocall* ,overestimatio$ of 'i$shi! relatio$s& u$#erestimatio$ of 'i$shi! relatio$s& $egatio$ of a"origi$alit*& !ersiste$ce of a"origi$alit*-) 17 +$ a$* case& the s*m"olic eleme$ts a$# their relatio$s alwa*s #etermi$e the $ature of the "ei$gs a$# o"/ects which come to reali e them& while the si$gularities form a$ or#er of !ositio$s that simulta$eousl* #etermi$es the roles a$# the attitu#es of these "ei$gs i$ so far as the* occu!* them) The #etermi$atio$ of the structure is therefore com!lete# i$ a theor* of attitu#es which ex!lai$s its fu$ctio$i$g)

7i$gularities corres!o$# with the s*m"olic eleme$ts a$# their relatio$s& "ut #o $ot resem"le them) 8$e coul# sa*& rather& that si$gularities 1s*m"oli e1 with them& #erive from them& si$ce ever* #etermi$atio$ of #iffere$tial relatio$s e$tails a #istri"utio$ of si$gular !oi$ts) Net& for exam!le2 the values of #iffere$tial relatio$s are i$car$ate# i$ s!ecies& whereas si$gularities are i$car$ate# i$ the orga$ic !arts corres!o$#i$g to each s!ecies) The former co$stitute varia"les& the latter co$stitute fu$ctio$s) The former co$stitute withi$ a structure the #omai$ of appe''ations, the latter the #omai$ of attitudes%25 4evi(7trauss i$siste# o$ this #ou"le as!ect3 #erive#& *et irre#uci"le3of attitu#es i$ relatio$ to a!!ellatio$s)19 . #isci!le of 4aca$& 7erge 4eclaire& shows i$ a$other fiel# how the s*m"olic eleme$ts of the u$co$scious $ecessaril* refer to 1li"i#i$al moveme$ts1 of the "o#*& i$car$ati$g the si$gularities of the structure i$ such a$# such a !lace)20 +$ this se$se& ever* structure is !s*chosomatic& or rather re!rese$ts a categor*( attitu#e com!lex)

4et us co$si#er the i$ter!retatio$ of Aarxism "* .lthusser a$# his colla"orators2 a"ove all& the relatio$s of !ro#uctio$ are #etermi$e# as #iffere$tial relatio$s that are esta"lishe#& $ot "etwee$ real me$ or co$crete i$#ivi#uals& "ut "etwee$ o"/ects a$# age$ts which& first of all& have a s*m"olic value ,o"/ect of !ro#uctio$& i$strume$t of !ro#uctio$& la"or force& imme#iate

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wor'ers& imme#iate $o$(wor'ers& such as the* are hel# i$ relatio$s of !ro!ert* a$# a!!ro!riatio$-)21 =ach mo#e of !ro#uctio$ is thus characteri e# "* si$gularities corres!o$#i$g to the values of the relatio$s) .$# if it is o"vious that co$crete me$ come to occu!* the !laces a$# carr* forth the eleme$ts of the structure& this ha!!e$s "* fulfilli$g the role that the structural !lace assig$s to them ,for exam!le the 1ca!italist1-& a$# "* servi$g as su!!orts for the structural relatio$s) This occurs to such a$ exte$t that 1the true su"/ects are $ot these occu!a$ts a$# fu$c ( tio$aries))) "ut the #efi$itio$ a$# #istri"utio$ of these !laces a$# these fu$ctio$s)1 The true su"/ect is the structure itself2 the #iffere$tial a$# the si$gular& the #iffere$tial relatio$s a$# the si$gular !oi$ts& the reci!rocal #etermi$atio$ a$# the com!lete #etermi$atio$) I8: Four)h Cri)erion: The Di44eren'ia)or, Di44eren)ia)ion

7tructures are $ecessaril* u$co$scious& "* virtue of the eleme$ts& relatio$s a$# !oi$ts that com!ose them) =ver* structure is a$ i$frastructure& a micro(structure) +$ a certai$ wa*& the* are $ot actual) :hat is actual is that i$ which the structure is i$car$ate# or rather what the structure co$stitutes whe$ it is i$car$ate#) >ut i$ itself& it is $either actual $or fictio$al& $either real& $or !ossi"le) Ca'o"so$ !oses the !ro"lem of the status of the !ho$eme& which is $ot to "e co$ fuse# with a$* actual letter& s*lla"le or sou$#& $o more tha$ it is a fictio$& or a$ associate# image) 22 <erha!s the wor# virtualit* woul# !recisel* #esig$ate the mo#e of the structure or the o"/ect of theor*& o$ the co$#itio$ that we elimi$ate a$* vague$ess a"out the wor#) %or the virtual has a realit* which is !ro!er to it& "ut which #oes $ot merge with a$* actual realit*& a$* !rese$t or !ast actualit*)

The virtual has a$ i#ealit* that is !ro!er to it& "ut which #oes $ot merge with a$* !ossi"le image& a$* a"stract i#ea) :e will sa* of structure2 rea' wit out being actua', idea' wit out being abstract%5D This is wh* 4evi(7trauss ofte$ !rese$ts the structure as a sort of i#eal reservoir or re!ertoire& i$ which ever*thi$g coexists virtuall*& "ut where the actuali atio$ is $ecessaril* carrie# out accor#i$g to exclusive rules& alwa*s im!licati$g !artial com"i$atio$s a$# u$co$scious choices) To #iscer$ the structure of a #omai$ is to #etermi$e a$ e$tire virtualit* of coexiste$ce which !re(exists the "ei$gs& o"/ects a$# wor's of this #omai$) =ver* structure is a multi!licit* of virtual coexiste$ce) 4ouis .lthusser& for exam!le& shows i$ this se$se that the

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origi$alit* of Aarx ,his a$ti(;egelia$ism- resi#es i$ the ma$$er i$ which the social s*stem is #efi$e# "* a coexiste$ce of eleme$ts a$# eco$omic relatio$s& without o$e "ei$g a"le to e$ge$#er them successivel* accor#i$g to the illusio$ of a false #ialectic) 24

:hat is it that coexists i$ the structure@ .ll the eleme$ts& the relatio$s a$# relatio$al values& all the si$gularities !ro!er to the #omai$ co$si#ere#) 7uch a coexiste$ce #oes $ot im!l* a$* co$fusio$& $or a$* i$#etermi$atio$ for the relatio$shi!s a$# #iffere$tial eleme$ts coexist i$ a com!letel* a$# !erfectl* #etermi$e# whole) =xce!t that this whole is $ot actuali e# as such) :hat is actuali e#& here a$# $ow& are !articular relatio$s& relatio$al values& a$# #istri"utio$s of si$gularities6 others are actuali e# elsewhere or at other times) There is $o total la$guage 0'angue1, em"o#*i$g all the !ossi"le !ho$emes a$# !ho$emic relatio$s) >ut the virtual totalit* of the la$guage s*stem 0'angage1 is actuali e# followi$g exclusive rules i$ #iverse& s!ecific la$guages& of which each em"o#ies certai$ relatio$shi!s& relatio$al values& a$# si$gularities) There is $o total societ*& "ut each social form em"o#ies certai$ eleme$ts& relatio$shi!s& a$# !ro#uctio$ values ,for exam!le 1ca!italism1-) :e must therefore #isti$guish "etwee$ the total structure of a #omai$ as a$ e$sem"le of virtual coexiste$ce& a$# the su"(structures that corres!o$# to #iverse actuali atio$s i$ the #omai$) 8f the structure as virtuali( t*& we must sa* that it is still u$#iffere$tiate# ,c-& eve$ though it is totall* a$# com!letel* #iffere$tial ,t-) 8f structures which are em"o#ie# i$ a !articular actual form ,!rese$t or !ast-& we must sa* that the* are #iffere$tiate#& a$# that for them to "e actuali e# is !recisel* to "e #iffere$tiate#) The structure is i$se!ara"le from this #ou"le as!ect& or from this com!lex that o$e ca$ #esig$ate u$#er the $ame of #iffere$tial ,t- D #iffere$tiatio$ ,c-& where t D c co$stitutes the u$iversall* #etermi$e# !ho$emic relatio$shi!)25

208

;ow Do := B=98G5+R= 7TBE9TEB.4+7A@

.ll #iffere$tiatio$& all actuali atio$ is carrie# out alo$g two !aths2 s!ecies a$# !arts) The #iffere$tial relatio$s are i$car$ate# i$ ?ualitativel* #isti$ct s!ecies& while the corres!o$#i$g si$gularities are i$car$ate# i$ the !arts a$# exte$#e# figures which characteri e each s!ecies2 he$ce& the la$guage s!ecies& a$# the !arts of each o$e i$ the vici$it* of the si$gularities of the li$guistic structure6 the s!ecificall* #efi$e# social mo#es of !ro#uctio$ a$# the orga$i e# !arts corres!o$#i$g to each o$e of these mo#es& etc) 8$e will $otice that the !rocess of actuali atio$ alwa*s im!lies a$ i$ter$al tem!oralit*& varia"le accor#i$g to what is actuali e#) 5ot o$l* #oes each t*!e of social !ro#uctio$ have a glo"al i$ter$al tem!oralit*& "ut its orga$i e# !arts have !articular rh*thms) .s regar#s time& the !ositio$ of structuralism is thus ?uite clear2 time is alwa*s a time of actuali atio$& accor#i$g to which the eleme$ts of virtual coexiste$ce are carrie# out at #iverse rh*thms) Time goes from the virtual to the actual& that is& from structure to its actuali atio$s& a$# $ot from o$e actual form to a$other) 8r at least time co$ceive# as a relatio$ of successio$ of two actual forms ma'es #o with ex!ressi$g a"stractl* the i$ter$al times of the structure or structures that are reali e# at #if( fere$t #e!ths i$ these two forms& a$# the #iffere$tial relatio$s "etwee$ these times) .$# !recisel* "ecause the structure is $ot actuali e# without "ei$g #iffere$tiate# i$ s!ace a$# time& he$ce without #iffere$tiati$g the s!ecies a$# the !arts which carr* it out& we must sa* i$ this se$se that structure produces these s!ecies a$# these !arts themselves) +t !ro#uces them as #iffere$tiate# s!ecies a$# !arts& such that o$e ca$ $o more o!!ose the ge$etic to the structural tha$ time to structure) Ge$esis& li'e time& goes from the virtual to the actual& from the structure to its actuali atio$6 the two $otio$s of multi!le i$ter$al time a$# static or#i$al ge$esis are i$ this se$se i$se!ara"le from the !la* of structures) 26:e must i$sist o$ this #iffere$ciati$g role) 7tructure is i$ itself a s*stem of eleme$ts a$# of #iffere$tial relatio$s& "ut it also #iffere$tiates the s!ecies a$# !arts& the "ei$gs a$# fu$ctio$s i$ which the structure is actuali e#) +t is #iffere$tial i$ itself& a$# #iffere$tiati$g i$ its effect) 9omme$ti$g o$ 4evi(7trauss0s wor'& Cea$ <ouillo$ #efi$e# the !ro"lem of structuralism2 ca$ o$e ela"orate 1a s*stem of #iffere$ces which lea#s $either to their sim!le /uxta!ositio$& $or to their artificial erasure@121 +$ this regar#& the wor' of Georges Dume il is exem!lar*& eve$ from the !oi$t of view of structuralism2 $o o$e has "etter a$al* e# the ge$eric a$# s!ecific #iffere$ces "etwee$ religio$s& a$# also the #iffere$ces i$ !arts a$# fu$ctio$s "etwee$ the go#s of a !articular& si$gle religio$) %or the go#s of a religio$& for exam!le& Cu!iter& Aars& Guiri$us& i$car$ate eleme$ts a$# #iffere$tial relatio$s& at the same time as the* fi$# their attitu#es a$# fu$ctio$s i$ !roximit* to the si$gularities of the s*stem or 1!arts of the societ*1 co$si#ere#) The* are thus esse$tiall* #iffere$tiate# "* the structure which is actuali e# or carrie# out i$ them& a$# which !ro#uces them "* "ei$g actuali e#) +t is true that each of them& co$si#ere# solel* i$ its actualit*& attracts a$# reflects the fu$ctio$ of the others& such that o$e ris's $o lo$ger #iscoveri$g a$*thi$g of this origi$ar* #iffere$ciatio$ which !ro#uces them from the virtual to the actual) >ut it is !recisel* here that the "or#er !asses "etwee$ the imagi$ar* a$# the s*m"olic2 the imagi$ar* te$#s to reflect a$# to resituate arou$# each term the total effect of a wholistic mecha$ism& whereas the s*m"olic structure assures the #iffere$tial of terms a$# the #iffere$tiatio$ of effects) ;e$ce the hostilit* of structuralism towar# the metho#s of the imagi$ar*2 4aca$0s criti?ue of Cu$g& a$# the criti?ue of >achelar# "* !ro!o$e$ts of 15ew 9riticism)1 The imagi$ario$ #u!licates a$# reflects& it !ro/ects a$# i#e$tifies& loses itself i$ a !la* of mirrors& "ut the #isti$ctio$s that it ma'es& li'e the assimilatio$s that it carries out& are surface effects that hi#e the otherwise su"tle #iffere$tial mecha$isms of s*m"olic thought) 9omme$ti$g o$ Dume il& =#mo$# 8rtigues has this to sa*2 1:he$ o$e a!!roaches the material imagi$atio$& the #iffere$tial fu$ctio$ #imi$ishes& o$e te$#s towar#s e?uivale$ces6 whe$ o$e a!!roaches the formative eleme$ts of societ*& the #iffere$tial fu$ctio$ i$creases& o$e te$#s towar#s #isti$ctive values
0va'ences1%2A

7tructures are u$co$scious& $ecessaril* overlai# "* their !ro#ucts or effects) .$ eco$omic structure $ever exists i$ a !ure form& "ut is covere# over "* the /uri#ical& !olitical a$# i#eological relatio$s i$ which it is i$car$ate#) 8$e ca$ o$l* read, fi$#& retrieve the structures through these effects) The terms a$# relatio$s which actuali e them& the s!ecies a$# !arts that reali e them& are as much forms of i$terfere$ce 0broui''age1 as forms of ex!ressio$) This is wh* o$e of 4aca$0s #isci!les& C)(.) Ailler& #evelo!s the co$ce!t of a 1meto$*mic causalit*&1 or .lthusser& the co$ce!t of a !ro!erl* structural causalit*& i$ or#er to accou$t for the ver* !articular !rese$ce of a structure i$ its effects& a$# for the wa* i$ which it #iffere$ciates these effects& at the same time as these latter assimilate a$# i$tegrate it) 29 The u$co$scious of the structure is a #iffere$tial u$co$scious) 8$e might "elieve the$ that structuralism goes "ac' to a !re(%reu#ia$ co$ce!tio$2 #oes$0t %reu# u$#ersta$# the u$co$scious as a mo#e of the co$flict of forces or of the o!!ositio$ of #esires& whereas 4ei"$i ia$ meta!h*sics alrea#* !ro!ose# the i#ea of a #iffere$tial u$co$scious of little !erce!tio$s@

209

;ow Do := B=98G5+R= 7TBE9TEB.4+7A@

>ut eve$ i$ %reu#0s writi$g& there is a whole !ro"lem of the origi$ of the u$co$scious& of its co$stitutio$ as 1la$guage&1 which goes "e*o$# the level of #esire& of associate# images a$# relatio$s of o!!ositio$) 9o$versel*& the #iffere$tial u$co$scious is $ot co$stitute# "* little !erce!tio$s of the real a$# "* !assages to the limit& "ut rather of variatio$s of #iffere$tial relatio$s i$ a s*m"olic s*stem as fu$ctio$s of #istri"utio$s of si$gularities) 4evi(7trauss is right to sa* that the u$co$scious is ma#e $either of #esires $or of re!rese$tatio$s& that it is 1alwa*s em!t*&1 co$sisti$g sole l* i$ the structural laws that it im!oses o$ re!rese$tatio$s a$# o$ #esires) 30

%or the u$co$scious is alwa*s a !ro"lem& though $ot i$ the se$se that woul# call its existe$ce i$to ?uestio$) Bather& the u$co$scious "* itself forms the !ro"lems a$# ?uestio$s that are resolve# o$l* to the exte$t that the corres!o$#i$g structure is i$sta$tiate# 0s,effectue1 a$# alwa*s accor#i$g to the wa* that it is i$sta$tiate#) %or a !ro"lem alwa*s gai$s the solutio$ that it #eserves "ase# o$ the ma$$er i$ which it is !ose#& a$# o$ the s*m"olic fiel# use# to !ose it) .lthuss( er ca$ !rese$t the eco$omic structure of a societ* as the fiel# of !ro"lems that the societ* !oses for itself& that it is #etermi$e# to !ose for itself& a$# that it resolves accor#i$g to its ow$ mea$s& that is& accor#i$g to the li$es of #iffere$tiatio$ alo$g which the structure is actuali e# ,ta'i$g i$to accou$t the a"sur#ities& ig$omi$ies a$# cruelties that these 1solutio$s1 i$volve "* reaso$ of the structure-) 7imilarl*& 7erge 4eclaire& followi$g 4aca$& ca$ #isti$guish !s*choses a$# $euroses& a$# #iffere$t 'i$#s of $euroses& less "* t*!es of co$flict tha$ "* mo#es of ?uestio$s that alwa*s fi$# the a$swer that the* #eserve as a fu$ctio$ of the s*m"olic fiel# i$ which the* are !ose#2 thus the h*sterical ?uestio$ is $ot that of the o"sessive)1 +$ all of this& !ro"lems a$# ?uestio$s #o $ot #esig$ate a !rovi( sio$al a$# su"/ective mome$t i$ the ela"oratio$ of our '$owle#ge& "ut o$ the co$trar*& #esig$ate a !erfectl* o"/ective categor*& full a$# com!lete 1o"/ectali( ties1 0objectites7F which are the structure0s ow$) The structural u$co$scious is at o$ce #iffere$tial& !ro"lemati i$g a$# ?uestio$i$g) .$#& as we shall see& it is fi$all* serial) 8: Fi4)h Cri)erion: Serial

.ll of the !rece#i$g& however& still seems i$ca!a"le of fu$ctio$i$g& for we have o$l* "ee$ a"le to #efi$e half of the structure) . structure o$l* starts to move& a$# "ecome a$imate#& if we restore its other half) +$#ee#& the s*m"olic eleme$ts that we have !reviousl* #efi$e#& ta'e$ i$ their #iffere$tial relatio$s& are orga$i e# $ecessaril* i$ series) >ut so orga$i e#& the* relate to a$other series& co$stitute# "* other s*m"olic eleme$ts a$# other relatio$s2 this refere$ce to a seco$# series is easil* ex!lai$e# "* recalli$g that si$gularities #erive from the terms a$# relatio$s of the first& "ut are $ot limite# sim!l* to re!ro#uci$g or reflecti$g them) The* thus orga$i e themselves i$ a$other series ca!a"le of a$ auto$omous #evelo!me$t& or at least the* $ecessaril* relate the first to this other series) 7o it is for !ho$emes a$# mor!hemes6 or for the eco$omic a$# other social series6 or for %oucault0s tri!le series& li$guistic& eco$omic a$# "iological& etc) The ?uestio$ of '$owi$g if the first series forms a "asis a$# i$ which se$se& if it is sig$if*i$g& the others o$l* "ei$g sig$ifie#& is a com!lex ?uestio$ the $ature of which we ca$$ot *et assess) 8$e must state sim!l* that ever* structure is serial& multi(serial& a$# woul# $ot fu$ctio$ without this co$#itio$)

210

;ow Do := B=98G5+R= 7TBE9TEB.4+7A@

:he$ 4evi(7trauss agai$ ta'es u! the stu#* of totemism& he shows the exte$t to which the !he$ome$o$ is !oorl* u$#erstoo# as lo$g as it is i$ter!rete# i$ terms of imagi$atio$) %or accor#i$g to its law& the imagination $ecessaril* co$ceives totemism as the o!eratio$ "* which a ma$ or a grou! are i#e$tifie# with a$ a$imal) >ut symbo'ica''y, it is ?uite a #iffere$t matter& $ot the imagi$ar* i#e$tificatio$ of o$e term with a$other& "ut the structural homolog* of two series of terms2 o$ the o$e ha$#& a series of a$imal s!ecies ta'e$ as eleme$ts of #iffere$ tial relatio$s6 o$ the other& a series of social !ositio$s themselves caught s*m"olicall* i$ their ow$ relatio$s) This co$fro$tatio$ occurs 1"etwee$ these two s*stems of #iffere$ces&1 these two series of eleme$ts a$# relatio$s)1

The u$co$scious& accor#i$g to 4aca$& is $either i$#ivi#ual $or collective& "ut i$tersu"/ective& which is to sa* that it im!lies a #evelo!me$t i$ terms of series2 $ot o$l* the sig$ifier a$# the sig$ifie#& "ut the two series at a mi$imum orga$i e themselves i$ ?uite a varia"le ma$$er accor#i$g to the #omai$ u$#er co$si#eratio$) Hl +$ o$e of 4aca$0s most famous texts& he comme$ts o$ 1The <urloi$e# 4etter1 "* =#gar .lle$ <oe& showi$g how the 1structure1 !uts i$to !la* two series& the !laces of which are occu!ie# "* varia"le su"/ects) %irst series2 the 'i$g who #oes $ot see the letter& the ?uee$ who is thrille# at havi$g so cleverl* hi##e$ it "* leavi$g it out i$ the o!e$& the mi$ister who sees ever*thi$g a$# ta'es !ossessio$ of the letter) 31 7eco$# series2 the !olice who fi$# $othi$g at the mi$ister0s hotel6 the mi$ister who is thrille# at havi$g so cleverl* hi##e$ the letter "* leavi$g it out i$ the o!e$6 Du!i$ who sees ever*thi$g a$# ta'es "ac' !ossessio$ of the letter) .lrea#* i$ a !revious text& 4aca$ exami$e# the case of T e Rat Man o$ the "asis of a #ou"le series& !ater$al a$# filial& i$ which each !ut i$to !la* four relatio$al terms accor#i$g to a$ or#er of !laces2 #e"t D frie$#& rich woma$ D !oor woma$)36

+t goes without sa*i$g that the orga$i atio$ of the co$stitutive series of a structure su!!oses a verita"le mise en scene a$#& i$ each case& re?uires !recise evaluatio$s a$# i$ter!retatio$s) There is $o ge$eral rule at all6 we touch here o$ the !oi$t at which structuralism im!lies& from o$e !ers!ective& a true creatio$& a$# from a$other& a$ i$itiative a$# a #iscover* that is $ot without its ris's) The #etermi$atio$ of a structure occurs $ot o$l* through a choice of "asic s*m"olic eleme$ts a$# the #iffere$tial relatio$s i$to which the* e$ter& $or merel* through a #istri"utio$ of the si$gular !oi$ts which corres!o$# to them) The #etermi$atio$ also occurs through the co$stitutio$ of a seco$# series& at least& that mai$tai$s com!lex relatio$s with the first) .$# if the structure #efi$es a !ro"lematic fiel#& a fiel# of !ro"lems& it is i$ the se$se that the $ature of the !ro"lem reveals its !ro!er o"/ectivit* i$ this serial co$stitutio$& which sometimes ma'es structuralism seem close to music) <hilli!e 7ollers writes a $ovel& #rame, !u$ctuate# 0r yt me1 "* the ex!ressio$s 1<ro"lem1 a$# 1Aissi$g1 0Man@ue1, i$ the course of which te$tative series are ela"orate# ,1a chai$ of maritime memories !asses through his right arm))) the left leg& o$ the other co$trar*& seeme# to "e ri##le# with mi$eral grou!i$gs1-)07 8r Cea$(<ierre %a*e0s attem!t i$ Ana'ogues, co$cer$i$g a serial co(existe$ce of $arrative mo#es)08

211

;ow Do := B=98G5+R= 7TBE9TEB.4+7A@

>ut what 'ee!s the two series from sim!l* reflecti$g o$e a$other& a$# he$ce forth& i#e$tif*i$g each of their terms o$e to o$e@ The whole of the structure woul# the$ fall "ac' i$to the state of a figure of imagi$atio$) The factor that alla*s such a threat is seemi$gl* ?uite stra$ge) +$#ee#& the terms of each series are i$ themselves i$se!ara"le from the sli!!ages 0deca'ages1 or #is!laceme$ts that the* u$#ergo i$ relatio$ to the terms of the other) The* are thus i$se!ara"le from the variatio$ of #iffere$tial relatio$s) +$ the case of the !urloi$e# letter& the mi$ ister i$ the seco$# series comes to the !lace that the ?uee$ ha# occu!ie# i$ the first o$e) +$ the filial series of T e Rat Man, the !oor woma$ comes to occu!* the frie$#0s !lace i$ relatio$ to the #e"t)0 9 8r agai$& i$ the #ou"le series of "ir#s a$# twi$s cite# "* 4evi(7trauss& the twi$s are the 1!eo!le from o$ high1 i$ relatio$ to the !eo!le from "elow& $ecessaril* comi$g to occu!* the !lace of the 1"ir#s from "elow&1 $ot of the "ir#s from o$ high) 41 This relative #is!laceme$t of the two series is $ot at all seco$#ar*6 it #oes $ot come to affect a term from the outsi#e a$# seco$#aril*& as if givi$g it a$ imagi$ar* #isguise) 8$ the co$trar*& the #is!laceme$t is !ro!erl* structural or s*m"olic2 it "elo$gs esse$tiall* to the !laces i$ the s!ace of the structure& a$# thus regulates all the imagi$ar* #isguises of "ei$gs a$# o"/ects that come seco$#aril* to occu!* these !laces) This is wh* structuralism "ri$gs so much atte$tio$ to "ear o$ meta!hor a$# meto$*m*) These are $ot i$ a$* wa* figures of the imagi$atio$& "ut are& a"ove all& structural factors) The* are eve$ t e two structural factors& i$ the se$se that the* ex!ress the two #egrees of free#om of #is!laceme$t& from o$e series to a$other a$# withi$ the same series) %ar from "ei$g imagi$ar*& the* !reve$t the series that the* a$imate from co$fusi$g or #u!licati$g their terms i$ imagi$ar* fashio$) >ut what are these relative #is!laceme$ts the$& if the* "elo$g a"solutel* to !laces i$ the structure@ 8I: Si%)h Cri)erion: The E&7)1 S,uare ;0a Case 8i*e<

+t a!!ears that the structure e$velo!s a wholl* !ara#oxical o"/ect or eleme$t) 4et us co$si#er the case of the letter& i$ =#gar .lle$ <oe0s stor*& as exami$e# "* 4aca$6 or the case of the #e"t& i$ T e Rat Man% +t is o"vious that this o"/ect is emi$e$tl* s*m"olic& "ut we sa* 1emi$e$tl*1 "ecause it "elo$gs to $o series i$ !articular2 the letter is $evertheless !rese$t i$ "oth of <oe0s series6 the #e"t is !rese$t i$ "oth Rat Man series) 7uch a$ o"/ect is alwa*s !rese$t i$ the corres!o$#i$g series& it traverses them a$# moves with them& it $ever ceases to circulate i$ them& a$# from o$e to the other& with a$ extraor#i$ar* agilit*) 8$e might sa* that it is its own meta!hor& a$# its own meto$*m*) The series i$ each case are co$stitute# "* s*m"olic terms a$# #iffere$tial relatio$s& "ut this o"/ect seems to "e of a$other $ature) +$ fact& it is i$ relatio$ to the o"/ect that the variet* of terms a$# the variatio$ of #iffere$tial relatio$s are #etermi$e# i$ each case) The two series of a structure are alwa*s #iverge$t ,"* virtue of the laws of #iffere$ciatio$-& "ut this si$gular o"/ect is the co$verge$ce !oi$t of the #iverge$t series as such) +t is 1emi$e$tl*1 s*m"olic& "ut !recisel* "ecause it is imma$e$t to the two series at o$ce) :hat else woul# we call it& if $ot 8"/ect M !, the ri##le 8"/ect or the great Ao"ile eleme$t@ :e ca$ $evertheless remai$ a "it #ou"tful2 what Cac?ues 4aca$ i$vites us to #iscover i$ two cases& the !articular role !la*e# "* a letter or a #e"t3is it a$ artifice& strictl* a!!lica"le to these cases& or rather is it a trul* ge$eral metho#& vali# for all the structura"le #omai$s& a criterio$ for ever* structure& as if a structure were $ot #efi$e# without assig$i$g a$ o"/ect M x that ceaselessl* traverses the series@ .s if the literar* wor'& for exam!le& or the wor' of art& "ut other oeuvres as well& those of societ*& those of ill$ess& those of life i$ ge$eral& e$velo!e# this ver* s!ecial o"/ect which assumes co$trol over their structure) .$# as if it were alwa*s a matter of fi$#i$g who is ;& 41 or of #is( coveri$g a$ ! shrou#e# withi$ the wor') 7uch is the case with so$gs2 the refrai$ e$com!asses a$ o"/ect M !, while the verses form the #iverge$t series through which this o"/ect circulates) +t is for this reaso$ that so$gs trul* !rese$t a$ ele(
42

212

;ow Do := B=98G5+R= 7TBE9TEB.4+7A@

me$tar* structure)

. #isci!le of 4aca$& .$#re Gree$& sig$als the existe$ce of the ha$#'erchief that circulates i$ Ot e''o, traversi$g all the series of the !la*) 43 :e also s!o'e of the two series of the <ri$ce of :ales& %alstaff or the father("uffoo$& ;e$r* +H or the ro*al father& the two images of the father) The crow$ is the o"/ect M ! that traverses the two series& with #iffere$t terms a$# u$#er #iffere$t relatio$s) The mome$t whe$ the !ri$ce tries o$ the crow$& his father $ot *et #ea#& mar's the !assage from o$e series to the other& the cha$ge i$ s*m"olic terms a$# the variatio$ of #iffere$tial relatio$s) The ol# #*i$g 'i$g is a$gere#& a$# "elieves that his so$ wa$ts to i#e$tif* with him !rematurel*) Net res!o$#i$g ?uite ca!a"l* i$ a s!le$#i# s!eech& the !ri$ce shows that the crow$ is $ot the o"/ect of a$ imagi$ar* i#e$tificatio$& "ut o$ the co$trar*& is the emi$e$tl* s*m"olic term that traverses all the series& the i$famous series of %alstaff a$# the great ro*al series& a$# that !ermits the !assage from o$e to the other at the heart of the same struc ture) .s we saw& there was a first #iffere$ce "etwee$ the imagi$ar* a$# the s*m"olic6 the #iffere$tiati$g role of the s*m"olic& i$ o!!ositio$ to the assimilati$g a$# reflecti$g role& #ou"li$g a$# #u!licati$g& of the imagi$ar*) >ut the seco$# #ivi#i$g li$e a!!ears more clearl* here2 agai$st the #ual character of the imagi$atio$& the Thir# which esse$tiall* i$terve$es i$ the s*m"olic s*stem& which #istri"utes series& #is!laces them relativel*& ma'es them commu$icate with each other& all the while !reve$ti$g the o$e from imagi$aril* falli$g "ac' o$ the other)

De"t& the letter& the ha$#'erchief or the crow$& the $ature of this o"/ect is s!ecifie# "* 4aca$2 it is alwa*s #is!lace# i$ relatio$ to itself) +ts !eculiar !ro!ert* is $ot to "e where o$e loo's for it& a$# co$versel*& also to "e fou$# where it is $ot) 8$e woul# sa* that it 1is missi$g from its !lace1 0i' man@ue a sap'ace1 ,a$#& i$ this& is $ot somethi$g real-6 furthermore& that it #oes $ot coi$ci#e with its ow$ resem"la$ce ,a$#& i$ this& is $ot a$ image-6 a$# that it #oes $ot coi$ci#e with its ow$ i#e$tit* ,a$#& i$ this& is $ot a co$ce!t-) 1:hat is hi##e$ is $ever what is missing from its p'ace, as the call sli! !uts it whe$ s!ea'i$g of a volume lost i$ the li"rar*) .$# eve$ if the "oo' "e o$ a$ a#/ace$t shelf or i$ the $ext slot& it woul# "e hi##e$ there& however visi"le it ma* a!!ear) %or o$l* somethi$g that ca$ cha$ge its !lace ca$ 'itera''y "e sai# to "e missi$g from it2 i)e)& the s*m"olic) %or the real& whatever u!heaval we su"/ect it to& is alwa*s i$ its !lace6 it carries it glue# to its heel& ig$ora$t of what might exile it from it)1 44 +f the series that the o"/ect M ! traverses $ecessaril* !rese$t relative #is!laceme$ts i$ relatio$ to each other& this is so "ecause the re'ative !laces of their terms i$ the structure #e!e$# first o$ the abso'ute !lace of each& at each mome$t& i$ relatio$ to the o"/ect M x that is alwa*s circulati$g& alwa*s #is!lace# i$ relatio$ to itself) 45 +t is i$ this se$se that the #is!laceme$t& a$# more ge$erall* all the forms of excha$ge& #oes $ot co$stitute a characteristic a##e# from the outsi#e& "ut the fu$#ame$tal !ro!ert* that allows the structure to "e #efi$e# as a$ or#er of !laces su"/ect to the variatio$ of relatio$s) The whole structure is #rive$ "* this origi$ar* Thir#& "ut that also fails to coi$ci#e with its ow$ origi$) Distri"uti$g the #iffere$ces through the e$tire structure& ma'i$g the #iffere$tial relatio$s var* with its #is!laceme$ts& the o"/ect M ! co$stitutes the #iffere$ciati$g eleme$t of #iffere$ce itself)

213

;ow Do := B=98G5+R= 7TBE9TEB.4+7A@

Games $ee# the em!t* s?uare& without which $othi$g woul# move forwar# or fu$ctio$) The o"/ect M x is $ot #isti$guisha"le from its !lace& "ut it is characteristic of this !lace that it co$sta$tl* #is!laces itself& /ust as it is characteristic of the em!t* s?uare to /um! ceaselessl*) 46 4aca$ i$vo'es the dummy- andm "ri#ge& a$# i$ the a#mira"le o!e$i$g !ages of T e Order of T ings, where he #escri"es a !ai$ti$g "* Helas?ue & %oucault i$vo'es the !lace of the 'i$g& i$ relatio$ to which ever*thi$g is #is!lace# a$# sli#es& Go#& the$ ma$& without ever filli$g it) 47 5o structuralism is !ossi"le without this #egree ero) <hilli!e 7ollers a$# Cea$<ierre %a*e li'e to i$vo'e the b'ind spot 0tac e aveug'e1, so #esig$ati$g this alwa*s mo"ile !oi$t which e$tails a certai$ "li$#$ess& "ut i$ relatio$ to which writi$g "ecomes !ossi"le& "ecause series orga$i e themselves therei$ as ge$ui$e 1liter( emes1 0'itteremes1 &48 +$ his effort to ela"orate a co$ce!t of structural or meto$*mic causalit*& C)(.) Ailler "orrows from %rege the !ositio$ of a (ero, #efi$e# as lac'i$g its ow$ i#e$tit*& a$# which co$#itio$s the serial co$stitutio$ of $um"ers) 400 .$# eve$ 4evi(7trauss& who i$ certai$ res!ects is the most !ositivist amo$g the structuralists& the least roma$tic& the least i$cli$e# to welcome a$ elusive eleme$t& recog$i e# i$ the 1ma$a1 or its e?uivale$ts the existe$ce of a 1floati$g sig$ifier&1 with a s*m"olic ero value circulati$g i$ the structure)50 +$ so #oi$g& he co$$ects with Ca'o"so$0s ero !ho$eme which #oes $ot "* itself e$tail a$* #iffere$tial character or !ho$etic value& "ut i$ relatio$ to which all the !ho$emes are situate# i$ their ow$ #iffere$tial relatio$s) +f it is true that structural criticism has as its o"/ect the #etermi$atio$ of 1vir( tualities1 i$ la$guage which !re(exist the wor'& the wor' is itself structural whe$ it sets out to ex!ress its ow$ virtualities) 4ewis 9arroll& Co*ce& i$ve$te# 1!ort( ma$teau1 wor#s& or more ge$erall*& esoteric wor#s& to e$sure the coi$ci#e$ce of ver"al sou$# series a$# the simulta$eit* of associate# stor* series)51 +$ .innegan,s /a:e, it is agai$ a 'etter which is 9osmos& a$# which reu$ites all the series of the worl#) +$ 4ewis 9arroll0s wor's& the !ortma$teau wor# co$$otes at least two "asic series ,s!ea'i$g a$# eati$g& ver"al series a$# alime$tar* series- that ca$ themselves "e su"#ivi#e#& such as the 7$ar') +t is i$correct to sa* that such a wor# has two mea$i$gs6 i$ fact& it is of a$other or#er tha$ wor#s !ossessi$g a se$se) +t is the $o$se$se which a$imates at least the two series& "ut which !rovi#es them with se$se "* circulati$g through them) +t is this $o$se$se& i$ its u"i?uit*& i$ its !er!etual #is!laceme$t& that !ro#uces se$se i$ each series& a$# from o$e series to a$other& a$# that ceaselessl* #islocates 0deca'er1 the series i$ relatio$ to each other) This wor# is the wor# M ! i$ so far as it #esig$ates the o"/ect M !, the prob'ematic o"/ect) .s wor# M !, it traverses a series #etermi$e# as that of the sig$ifier6 "ut at the same time& as o"/ect M !, it traverses the other series #etermi$e# as that of the sig$ifie#) 52 +t $ever ceases at o$ce to hollow out a$# to fill i$ the ga! "etwee$ the two series) 4evi(7trauss shows this i$ relatio$ to the 1ma$a&1 that he assimilates to the wor#s 1thi$gama/ig1 0true1 or 1thi$gie1 0mac in1% .s we have see$& this is how $o$se$se is $ot the a"se$ce of sig$ificatio$ "ut& o$ the co$trar*& the excess of se$se& or that which !rovi#es the sig$ifier a$# sig$ifie# with se$se) 7e$se here emerges as the effect of the structure0s fu$ctio$i$g& i$ the a$imatio$ of its com!o$e$t series) .$# $o #ou"t& !ortma$teau(wor#s are o$l* o$e #evice amo$g others that e$sure this circulatio$) The tech$i?ues of Ba*mo$# Boussel& as %oucault has a$al* e# them& are of a$other $ature& fou$#e# o$ #iffere$tial !ho$emic relatio$s& or o$ eve$ more com!lex relatio$s) 50 +$ Aallarme0s wor's& we fi$# s*stems of relatio$s "etwee$ series& a$# the movi$g !arts which a$imate them& of *et a$other t*!e) 8ur !ur!ose is $ot to a$al* e the whole set of #evices which have co$stitute# a$# are still co$stituti$g mo#er$ literature& ma'i$g use of a$ e$tire to!ogra!h*& a$ e$tire t*!ogra!h* of the 1"oo' *et to come1 0'ivre a venir1- our goal is o$l* to i$#icate i$ all cases the efficac* of this two(si#e# em!t* s?uare& at o$ce wor# a$# o"/ect

214

;ow Do := B=98G5+R= 7TBE9TEB.4+7A@

):hat #oes it co$sist of& this o"/ect M x@ +s it a$# must it remai$ the !er!etual o"/ect of a ri##le& theperpetuum mobi'e5H This woul# "e a wa* of recalli$g the o"/ective co$siste$c* that the categor* of the !ro"lematic ta'es o$ at the heart of structures) .$# i$ the lo$g ru$& it is goo# that the ?uestio$ +ow do we recogni(e structura'ism= lea#s to !ositi$g somethi$g that is $ot recog$i a"le or i#e$tifia"le) 4et us co$si#er 4aca$0s !s*choa$al*tic res!o$se2 54 the o"/ect M x is #etermi$e# as !hallus) >ut this !hallus is $either the real orga$& $or the series of associa"le or associate# images2 it is the s*m"olic !hallus) ;owever& it is i$#ee# sexualit* that is i$ ?uestio$& a ?uestio$ of $othi$g else here& co$trar* to the !ious a$# ever(re$ewe# attem!ts i$ !s*choa$al*sis to re$ou$ce or mi$imi e sexual refere$ces) >ut the !hallus a!!ears $ot as a sexual give$ or as the em!irical #etermi$atio$ of o$e of the sexes) +t a!!ears rather as the s*m"olic orga$ that fou$#s sexualit* in its entirety as s*stem or structure& a$# i$ relatio$ to which the !laces occu!ie# variousl* "* me$ a$# wome$ are #istri"ute#& as also the series of images a$# realities) +$ #esig$ati$g the o"/ect M x as !hallus& it is thus $ot a ?uestio$ of i#e$tif*i$g this o"/ect& of co$ferri$g to it a$ i#e$tit*& which is re!el( la$t to its $ature) Guite the co$trar*& for the s*m"olic !hallus is !recisel* that which #oes $ot coi$ci#e with its ow$ i#e$tit*& alwa*s fou$# there where it is $ot si$ce it is $ot where o$e loo's for it& alwa*s #is!lace# i$ relatio$ to itself& from t e side of t e mot er% +$ this se$se& it is certai$l* the letter a$# the #e"t& the ha$#'erchief or the crow$& the 7$ar' a$# the 1ma$a)1 %ather& mother& etc)& are s*m"olic eleme$ts hel# i$ #iffere$tial relatio$s) >ut the !hallus is ?uite a$other thi$g& the o"/ect M ! that #etermi$es the relative !lace of the eleme$ts a$# the varia"le value of relatio$s& ma'i$g a structure of the e$tiret* of sexualit*) The relatio$s var* as a fu$ctio$ of the #is!laceme$ts of the o"/ect M !, as relatio$s "etwee$ 1!artial #rives1 co$stitutive of sexualit*)55

8"viousl* the !hallus is $ot a h$al wor#& a$# is eve$ somewhat the locus of a ?uestio$& of a 1#ema$#1 that characteri es the em!t* s?uare of the sexual structure) Guestio$s& li'e a$swers& var* accor#i$g to the structure u$#er co$si#eratio$& "ut $ever #o the* #e!e$# o$ our !refere$ces& or o$ a$ or#er of a"stract causalit*) +t is o"vious that the em!t* s?uare of a$ eco$omic structure& such as commo#it* excha$ge& must "e #etermi$e# i$ ?uite a$other wa*) +t co$( sists of 1somethi$g1 which is re#uci"le $either to the terms of the excha$ge& $or to the excha$ge relatio$ itself& "ut that forms a$ emi$e$tl* s*m"olic thir# term i$ !er!etual #is!laceme$t& a$# as a fu$ctio$ of which the relatio$al variatio$s will "e #efi$e#) 7uch is va'ue as ex!ressio$ of a 2genera'i(ed la"or&1 "e*o$# a$* em!iricall* o"serva"le ?ualit*& a locus of the ?uestio$ that ru$s through or traverses the eco$om* as structure)56

. more ge$eral co$se?ue$ce follows from this& co$cer$i$g the #iffere$t 1or#ers)1 %rom a structuralist !ers!ective& it is $o #ou"t u$satisfactor* to resurrect the !ro"lem of whether there is a structure that #etermi$es all the others i$ the fi$al i$sta$ce) %or exam!le& which is first& value or the !hallus& the eco$omic fetish or the sexual fetish@ %or several reaso$s& these ?uestio$s are mea$i$gless) .ll structures are i$frastructures) The structural or#ers3li$guistic& familial& eco$omic& sexual& etc)3are characteri e# "* the form of their s*m"olic eleme$ts& the variet* of their #iffere$tial relatio$s& the s!ecies of their si$gularities& fi$all* a$#& a"ove all& "* the $ature of the o"/ect M ! that !resi#es over their fu$ctio$i$g) ;owever& we coul# o$l* esta"lish a$ or#er of li$ear causalit* from o$e structure to a$other "* co$ferri$g o$ the o"/ect M ! i$ each case the t*!e of i#e$tit* that it esse$tiall* re!u#iates) >etwee$ structures& causalit* ca$ o$l* "e a t*!e of structural causalit*) +$ each structural or#er& certai$l*& the o"/ect M x is $ot at all somethi$g u$'$owa"le& somethi$g !urel* u$#etermi$e#6 it is !erfectl* #eter( mi$a"le& i$clu#i$g withi$ its #is!laceme$ts a$# "* the mo#e of #is!laceme$t that characteri es it) +t is sim!l* $ot assig$a"le2 that is& it ca$$ot "e fixe# to o$e !lace& $or i#e$tifie# with a ge$re or a s!ecies) Bather& it co$stitutes itself the ultimate ge$re of the structure or its total !lace2 it thus has $o

215

D=7=BT +74.5D7 .5D 8T;=B T=KT7

i#e$tit* exce!t i$ or#er to lac' this i#e$tit*& a$# has $o !lace exce!t i$ or#er to "e #is!lace# i$ relatio$ to all !laces) .s a result& for each or#er of structure the o"/ect M x is the em!t* or !erforate# site that !ermits this or#er to "e articulate# with the others& i$ a s!ace that e$tails as ma$* #irectio$s as or#ers) The or#ers of the structure #o $ot commu$icate i$ a commo$ site& "ut the* all commu$icate through their em!t* !lace or res!ective o"/ect M x) This is wh*& #es!ite several of 4evi(7trauss0s hast* !ages& $o !rivilege ca$ "e claime# for eth$ogra!hic social structures& "* referri$g the !s*choa$al*tic sexual structures to the em!irical #etermi$atio$ of a more or less #e(sociali e# i$#ivi#ual) =ve$ li$guistic structures ca$$ot !ass as s*m"olic eleme$ts or as ultimate sig$ifiers) <recisel* to the exte$t that the other structures are $ot limite# sim!l* to a!!l*i$g "* a$alog* metho#s "orrowe# from li$guistics& "ut #iscover o$ their ow$ accou$t verita"le la$guages& "e the* $o$ver"al& alwa*s e$taili$g their sig$ifiers& their s*m"olic eleme$ts a$# #iffere$tial relatio$s) <osi$g& for exam!le& the !ro"lem of the relatio$s "etwee$ eth$ogra!h* a$# !s*choa$al*sis& %oucault is right to sa*2 1The* i$tersect at right a$gles6 for the sig$if*i$g chai$ "* which the u$i?ue ex!erie$ce of the i$#ivi#ual is co$stitute# is !er!e$#icular to the formal s*stem o$ the "asis of which the sig$ificatio$s of a culture are co$stitute#2 at a$* give$ i$sta$t& the structure !ro!er to i$#ivi#ual ex!erie$ce fi$#s a certai$ $um"er of !ossi"le choices ,a$# of exclu#e# !ossi"ilities- i$ the s*stems of the societ*6 co$versel*& at each of their !oi$ts of choice the social structures e$cou$ter a certai$ $um"er of !ossi"le i$#ivi#uals ,a$# others who are $ot-)157

.$# i$ each structure& the o"/ect M ! must "e #is!ose# to give a$ accou$t 1- of the wa* i$ which it su"or#i$ates withi$ its or#er the other or#ers of structure& that the$ o$l* i$terve$e as #ime$sio$s of actuali atio$6 2- of the wa* i$ which it is itself su"or#i$ate# to the other or#ers i$ their ow$ or#er ,a$# $o lo$ger i$terve$es exce!t i$ their ow$ actuali atio$-6 3- of the wa* i$ which all the o"/ects M x a$# all the or#ers of structure commu$icate with o$e a$other& each or#er #efi$i$g a #ime$sio$ of the s!ace i$ which it is a"solutel* !rimar*6 4- of the co$#itio$s i$ which& at a give$ mome$t i$ histor* or i$ a give$ case& a !articular #ime$sio$ corres!o$#i$g to a !articular or#er of the structure is $ot #e!lo*e# for itself a$# remai$s su"or#i$ate# to the actuali atio$ of a$other or#er ,the 4aca$ia$ co$ce!t of 1foreclosure1 woul# agai$ "e of #ecisive im!orta$ce here-) 8II: Final Cri)eria: Fro& )he Su9=e') )o Pra')i'e

+$ o$e se$se& !laces are o$l* fille# or occu!ie# "* real "ei$gs to the exte$t that the structure is 1actuali e#)1 >ut i$ a$other se$se& we ca$ sa* that !laces are alrea#* fille# or occu!ie# "* s*m"olic eleme$ts& at the level of the structure itself) .$# the #iffere$tial relatio$s of these eleme$ts are the o$es that #etermi$e the or#er of !laces i$ ge$eral) Thus there is a !rimar* s*m"olic filli$g(i$ 0remp'issement1, "efore a$* filli$g(i$ or occu!atio$ "* real "ei$gs) =xce!t that we agai$ fi$# the !ara#ox of the em!t* s?uare) %or this is the o$l* !lace that ca$$ot a$# must $ot "e fille#& were it eve$ "* a s*m"olic eleme$t) +t must retai$ the !erfectio$ of its em!ti$ess i$ or#er to "e #is!lace# i$ relatio$ to itself& a$# i$ or#er to circulate throughout the eleme$ts a$# the variet* of relatio$s) .s s*m"olic& it must "e for itself its ow$ s*m"ol& a$# eter$all* lac' its other half that woul# "e li'el* to come a$# occu!* it) ,This voi# is& however& $ot a $o$( "ei$g6 or at least this $o$("ei$g is $ot the "ei$g of the $egative& "ut rather the !ositive "ei$g of the 1!ro"lemat ic&1 the

216

;ow Do := B=98G5+R= 7TBE9TEB.4+7A@

o"/ective "ei$g of a !ro"lem a$# of a ?uestio$)- 51 This is wh* %oucault ca$ sa*2 1+t is $o lo$ger !ossi"le to thi$' i$ our #a* other tha$ i$ the voi# left "* ma$0s #isa!!eara$ce) %or t is void does not create a deficiency- it does not constitute a 'acuna t at must be fi''ed in% +t is $othi$g more a$# $othi$g less tha$ the u$fol#i$g of a s!ace i$ which it is o$ce more !ossi"le to thi$')150

5evertheless& if the em!t* s?uare is $ot fille# "* a term& it is $evertheless accom!a$ie# "* a$ emi$e$tl* s*m"olic i$sta$ce which follows all of its #is!laceme$ts& accom!a$ie# without "ei$g occu!ie# or fille#) .$# the two& the i$sta$ce a$# the !lace& #o $ot cease to lac' each other& a$# to accom!a$* each other i$ this ma$$er) The subject is !recisel* the age$c* 0instance1 which follows the em!t* !lace2 as 4aca$ sa*s& it is less su"/ect tha$ su"/ecte# 0assujetti13su"/ecte# to the em!t* s?uare& su"/ecte# to the !hallus a$# to its #is!laceme$ts) +ts agilit* is !eerless& or shoul# "e) Thus& the su"/ect is esse$tiall* i$tersu"/ective) To a$$ou$ce the #eath of Go#& or eve$ the #eath of ma$ is $othi$g) :hat cou$ts is ow% 5iet sche showe# alrea#* that Go# #ies i$ several wa*s6 a$# that the go#s #ie& "ut from laughter& u!o$ heari$g o$e go# sa* that he is the 8$l* 8$e) 7tructuralism is $ot at all a form of thought that su!!resses the su"/ect& "ut o$e that "rea's it u! a$# #istri"utes it s*stematicall*& that co$tests the i#e$tit* of the su"/ect& that #issi!ates it a$# ma'es it shift from !lace to !lace& a$ alwa*s $oma# su"/ect& ma#e of i$#ivi#uatio$s& "ut im!erso$al o$es& or of si$gularities& "ut !re( i$#ivi#ual o$es) 60 This is the se$se i$ which %oucault s!ea's of 1#is!ersio$16 a$# 4evi(7trauss ca$ o$l* #efi$e a su"/ective age$c* as #e!e$#i$g o$ the 8"/ect co$ #itio$s u$#er which the s*stems of truth "ecome co$verti"le a$#& thus& 1simulta$eousl* receiva"le to several #iffere$t su"/ects)1 61

;e$ceforth& two great acci#e$ts of the structure ma* "e #efi$e#) =ither the em!t* a$# mo"ile s?uare is $o lo$ger accom!a$ie# "* a $oma# su"/ect that acce$tuates its tra/ector*& a$# its em!ti$ess "ecomes a verita"le lac'& a lacu$a) 8r /ust the o!!osite& it is fille#& occu!ie# "* what accom!a$ies it& a$# its mo"ilit* is lost i$ the effect of a se#e$tar* or fixe# !le$itu#e) 8$e coul# /ust as well sa*& i$ li$guistic terms& either that the 1sig$ifier1 has #isa!!eare#& that the stream 0f'ot1 of the sig$ifie# $o lo$ger fi$#s a$* sig$if*i$g eleme$t that mar's it& or that the 1sig$ifie#1 has fa#e# awa*& that the chai$ of the sig$ifier $o lo$ger fi$#s a$* sig$ifie# that traverses it2 the two !athological as!ects of !s*chosis) 8$e coul# sa* further& i$ theo(a$thro!ological terms& that either Go# ma'es the #esert grow a$# hollows out a lacu$a i$ the earth& or that ma$ fills it& occu!ies the !lace& a$# i$ this vai$ !ermutatio$ ma'es us !ass from o$e acci#e$t to the other2 this "ei$g the reaso$ wh* ma$ a$# Go# are the two sic'$esses of the earth& that is to sa*& of the structure)

217

D=7=BT +74.5D7 .5D 8T;=B T=KT7

:hat is im!orta$t is '$owi$g accor#i$g to what factors a$# at what mome$ts these acci#e$ts are #etermi$e# i$ structures of o$e or#er or a$other) 4et us agai$ co$si#er the a$al*ses of .lthusser a$# his colla"orators2 o$ the o$e ha$#& the* show i$ the eco$omic or#er how the a#ve$tures of the em!t* s?uare ,Halue as o"/ect M !$ are mar'e# "* the goo#s& mo$e*& the fetish& ca!ital& etc)& that characteri e the ca!italist structure) 8$ the other ha$#& the* show how co$( tra#ictio$s are thus "or$ i$ the structure) %i$all*& the* show how the real a$# the imagi$ar*3that is& the real "ei$gs who come to occu!* !laces a$# the i#eologies which ex!ress the image that the* ma'e of it3are $arrowl* #etermi$e# "* the !la* of these structural a#ve$tures a$# the co$tra#ictio$s resulti$g from it) 5ot that the co$tra#ictio$s are at all imagi$ar*2 the* are !ro!erl* structural& a$# ?ualif* the effects of the structure i$ the i$ter$al time that is !ro!er to it) Thus it ca$$ot "e sai# that the co$tra#ictio$ is a!!are$t& "ut rather that it is #erive#2 it #erives from the em!t* !lace a$# from its "ecomi$g i$ the structure) As a genera' ru'e, t e rea', t e imaginary and t eir re'ations are a'ways engendered secondari'y by t e functioning of t e structure, w ic starts wit aving its primary effects in itse'f

This is wh* what we were earlier calli$g acci#e$ts #oes $ot at all ha!!e$ to the structure from the outsi#e) 8$ the co$trar*& it is a matter of a$ 1imma$e$t1 te$#e$c*& 63 of i#eal eve$ts that are !art of the structure itself& a$# that s*m"olicall* affect its em!t* s?uare or su"/ect) :e call them 1acci#e$ts1 i$ or#er "etter to em!hasi e $ot a co$ti$ge$t or exterior character& "ut this ver* s!ecial characteristic of the eve$t& i$terior to the structure i$ so far as the structure ca$ $ever "e re#uce# to a sim!le esse$ce)

;e$ceforth& a set of com!lex !ro"lems are !ose# for structuralism& co$cer$i$g structural 1mutatio$s1 ,%oucaultor 1forms of tra$sitio$1 from o$e structure to a$other ,.lthusser-) +t is alwa*s as a fu$ctio$ of the em!t* s?uare that the #iffere$tial relatio$s are o!e$ to $ew values or variatio$s& a$# the si$gularities ca!a"le of $ew #istri"utio$s& co$stitutive of a$other structure) The co$tra#ictio$s must *et "e 1resolve#&1 that is& the em!t* !lace must "e ri# of the s*m"olic eve$ts that ecli!se it or fill it& a$# "e give$ over to the su"/ect which must accom!a$* it o$ $ew !aths& without occu!*i$g or #eserti$g it) Thus& there is a structuralist ero8 $either Go# $or ma$& $either !erso$al $or u$iversal& it is without a$ i#e$tit*& ma#e of $o$(!erso$al i$#ivi#uatio$s a$# !re(i$#ivi#ual si$gularities) +t assures the "rea'(u! 0;,e,c'atement1 of a structure affecte# "* excess or #eficie$c*6 it o!!oses its own i#eal eve$t to the i#eal eve$ts that we have /ust #escri"e#) 64 %or a $ew structure $ot to !ursue a#ve$tures that agai$ are a$alogous to those of the ol# structure& $ot to cause fatal co$tra#ictio$s to "e re"or$& #e!e$#s o$ the resista$t a$# creative force of this hero& o$ its agilit* i$ followi$g a$# safeguar#i$g the #is!laceme$ts& o$ its !ower to cause relatio$s to var* a$# to re#istri"ute si$gularities& alwa*s casti$g a$other throw of the #ice) This mutatio$ !oi$t !recisel* #efi$es a !raxis& or rather the ver* site where !raxis must ta'e hol#) %or structuralism is $ot o$l* i$se!ara"le from the wor's that it creates& "ut also from a !ractice i$ relatio$ to the !ro#ucts that it i$ter!rets) :hether this !ractice is thera!eutic or !olitical& it #esig$ates a !oi$t of !erma$e$t revolutio$& or of !erma$e$t tra$sfer) These last criteria& from the su"/ect to !ractice& are the most o"scure3the criteria of the future) .cross the six !rece#i$g characteristics& we have sought o$l* to /uxta!ose a s*stem of echoes "etwee$ authors who are ver* i$#e!e$#e$t from each other& ex!lori$g ver* #iverse #omai$s& a$# as #iverse as the theor* that the* themselves !ro!ose regar#i$g these echoes) .t the #iffere$t levels of the structure& the real a$# the imagi$ar*& real "ei$gs a$# i#eologies&

218

;ow Do := B=98G5+R= 7TBE9TEB.4+7A@

se$se a$# co$tra#ictio$& are 1effects1 that must "e u$#erstoo# at the co$clusio$ of a 1!rocess&1 of a !ro!erl* structural& #iffere$ciate# !ro#uctio$2 stra$ge static ge$esis for !h*sical ,o!tical& sou$#& etc)- 1effects)1 >oo's agai$st structuralism ,or those agai$st the 15ew 5ovel1- are strictl* without im!orta$ce6 the* ca$$ot !reve$t structuralism from exerti$g a !ro#uctivit* which is that of our era) 5o "oo' against a$*thi$g ever has a$* im!orta$ce6 all that cou$ts are "oo's for somethi$g& a$# that '$ow how to !ro#uce it

219

)1

Three <ro-p-Be"ated +ro."ems;

. milita$t !olitical activist a$# a !s*choa$al*st /ust so ha!!e$ to meet i$ the same !erso$&0 a$# i$stea# of each mi$#i$g his ow$ "usi$ess& the* ceaselessl* commu$icate& i$terfere with o$e a$other& a$# get mixe# u!3each mista'i$g himself for the other) .$ u$commo$ occurre$ce at least si$ce Beich) <ierre%elix Guattari #oes $ot let !ro"lems of the u$it* of the 7elf !reoccu!* him) The self is rather o$e more thi$g we ought to #issolve& u$#er the com"i$e# assault of !olitical a$# a$al*tical forces) Guattari0s formula& 1we are all grou!uscles&1 i$#ee# heral#s the search for a $ew su"/ectivit*& a grou! su"/ectivit*& which #oes $ot allow itself to "e e$close# i$ a whole "e$t o$ reco$stituti$g a self ,or eve$ worse& a su!erego-& "ut which s!rea#s itself out over several grou!s at o$ce) These grou!s are #ivisi"le& ma$ifol#& !ermea"le& a$# alwa*s o!tio$al) . goo# grou! #oes $ot ta'e itself to "e u$i?ue& immortal& a$# sig$ifica$t& u$li'e a #efe$se mi$istr* or homela$# securit* office& u$li'e war vetera$s& "ut i$stea# !lugs i$to a$ outsi#e that co$fro$ts the grou! with its ow$ !ossi"ilities of $o$se$se& #eath& a$# #is!ersal 1!recisel* as a result of its o!e$i$g u! to other grou!s)1 +$ tur$& the i$#ivi#ual is also a grou!) +$ the most $atural wa* imag( i$a"le& Guattari em"o#ies two as!ects of a$ a$ti(7elf2 o$ the o$e ha$#& he is li'e a catato$ic sto$e& a "li$# a$# har# "o#* i$va#e# "* #eath as soo$ as he ta'es off his glasses6 o$ the other ha$#& he lights u! a$# seethes with multi!le lives the mome$t he loo's& acts& laughs& thi$'s or attac's) Thus he is $ame# <ierre a$# %elix2 schi o!hre$ic !owers)

+$ this meeti$g of the milita$t a$# the !s*choa$al*st& there are at least three #iffere$t !ro"lems that emerge2 1- +$ what form #oes o$e i$tro#uce !olitics i$to !s*choa$al*tic theor* a$# !ractice ,it "ei$g u$#erstoo# that& i$ a$* case& !olitics is alrea#* i$ the u$co$scious-@6 2- +s there a reaso$ to i$tro#uce !s*choa$al*sis i$to milita$t revolutio$ar* grou!s& a$# if so& how@6 3;ow #oes o$e co$ceive a$# form s!ecific thera!eutic grou!s whose i$flue$ce woul# im!act !olitical grou!s& as well as !s*chiatric a$# !s*choa$al*tic grou!s@ The series of articles from 1955 to 1970 which Guattari !rese$ts here& a##resses these three #iffere$t !ro"lems a$# exhi"its a !articular evolutio$& whose two ma/or focal !oi$ts are the ho!es(a$#(#es!air after the 4i"eratio$& a$# the ho!es(a$#( #es!air followi$g Aa* 0683while i$("etwee$ the #ou"le age$t is har# at wor' !re!ari$g for Aa*)

220

.s for the first !ro"lem& Guattari earl* o$ ha# the i$tuitio$ that the u$co$scious is #irectl* relate# to a whole social fiel#& "oth eco$omic a$# !olitical& rather tha$ the m*thical a$# familial gri# tra#itio$all* #e!lo*e# "* !s*choa$al*sis) +t is i$#ee# a ?uestio$ of li"i#o as such& as the esse$ce of #esire a$# sexualit*2 "ut $ow it i$vests a$# #isi$vests flows of ever* 'i$# as the* tric'le through the social fiel#& a$# it effects cuts i$ these flows& sto!!ages& lea's& a$# rete$tio$s) To "e sure& it #oes $ot o!erate i$ a ma$ifest wa*& as #o the o"/ective i$terests of co$scious$ess or the chai$s of historical causalit*) +t #e!lo*s a late$t #esire coexte$sive with the social fiel#& e$taili$g ru!tures i$ causalit* a$# the emerge$ce of si$gularities& stic'i$g !oi$ts as well as lea's) The *ear 1936 is $ot o$l* a$ eve$t i$ historical co$scious$ess& it is also a com!lex of the u$co$scious) 8ur love affairs& our sexual choices& are less the "*(!ro#ucts of a m*thical Aomm*(Da##*& tha$ the excesses of a social(realit*& the i$terfere$ces a$# effects of flows i$veste# "* the li"i#o) :hat #o we $ot ma'e love with& i$clu#i$g #eath@ Guattari is thus a"le to re!roach !s*choa$al*sis for the wa* i$ which it s*stematicall* crushes the socio(!olitical co$te$ts of the u$co$scious& though the* i$ realit* #etermi$e the o"/ects of #esire) <s*choa$al*sis& sa*s Guattari& starts from a 'i$# of a"solute $arcissism "#as #ing$ a$# aims at a$ i#eal social a#a!tatio$ which it calls a cure6 this !roce#ure& however& alwa*s o"scures a si$gular social co$stellatio$ which i$ fact must "e "rought to light& rather tha$ sacrifice# to the i$ve$tio$ of a$ a"stract& s*m"olic u$co$scious) #as #ing IThe Thi$gJ is $ot some recurre$t hori o$ that co$stitutes a$ i$#ivi#ual !erso$ i$ a$ illusor* wa*& "ut a social "o#* servi$g as a "asis for late$t !ote$tialities ,wh* are these !eo!le lu$atics& a$# those !eo!le revolutio$aries@-) %ar more im!orta$t tha$ momm*& #a##*& a$# gra$#ma are all the characters hau$ti$g the fu$#ame$tal ?uestio$s of societ*& such as the class co$flict of our #a*) Aore im!orta$t tha$ recalli$g how& o$e fi$e #a*& 8e#i!us 1totall* cha$ge#1 Gree' societ*& is the e$ormous Spa'tung I#ivisio$& rift& fissureJ traversi$g the commu$ist !art* to#a*) ;ow #oes o$e overloo' the role the 7tate !la*s i$ all the #ea#(e$#s where the li"i#o is caught& a$# re#uce# to i$vesti$g i$ the i$timist images of the famil*@ .re we to "elieve that the castratio$ com!lex will fi$# a satisfactor* solutio$ as lo$g as societ* assig$s it the u$co$scious role of social re!ressio$ a$# regulatio$@ +$ a wor#& the social relatio$ $ever co$stitutes somethi$g "e*o$# or somethi$g a##e# after the fact& where i$#ivi#ual or familial !ro"lems occur) :hat is remar'a"le is how ma$ifest the eco$omic a$# !olitical social co$te$ts of the li"i#o "ecome& the more o$e co$fro$ts the most #esociali e# as!ects of certai$ s*$#romes& as i$ !s*chosis) 1>e*o$# the 7elf& the su"/ect ex!lo#es i$ fragme$ts throughout the u$iverse& the ma#ma$ "egi$s s!ea'i$g foreig$ la$guages& rewriti$g histor* as halluci$atio$& a$# usi$g war a$# class co$flict as i$strume$ts of !erso$al ex!ressio$ I)))J the #isti$ctio$ "etwee$ !rivate life a$# the various levels of social life $o lo$ger hol#s)1 ,9om!are this with %reu#& who #erives from war o$l* a$ u$#etermi$e# #eath(#rive& a$# a $o$(?ualifie# shoc' or excess of excitatio$ cause# "* a "ig "oom-) Bestori$g to the u$co$scious its historical !ers!ectives& agai$st a "ac'#ro! of #is?uiet a$# the u$'$ow$& im!lies a reversal of !s*choa$al*sis a$# certai$l* a re#iscover* of !s*chosis u$#er$eath the chea! tra!!i$gs of $eurosis) <s*choa$al*sis has i$#ee# /oi$e# forces with the most tra#itio$al !s*chiatr* to stifle the voices of the i$sa$e co$sta$tl* tal'i$g !olitics& eco$om ics& or#er& a$# revolutio$) +$ a rece$t article& Aarcel Caeger shows how 1the #iscourse !ro#uce# "* the i$sa$e #oes $ot o$l* co$tai$s the #e!th of their i$#ivi#ual !s*chic #isor#ers2 the #iscourse of ma#$ess also co$$ects with the #iscourse of !olitical& social& a$# religious histor* that s!ea's i$ each of

221

us) I)))J +$ certai$ cases& the use of !olitical co$ce!ts !rovo'es a state of crisis i$ the !atie$t& as though these co$ce!ts "rought to light the ver* co$tra#ictio$s i$ which the !atie$t has "ecome e$ta$gle#) I)))J 5o !lace is free& $ot eve$ the as*lum& from the historical i$scri!tio$ of the wor'ers0 moveme$t)10 These formulatio$s ex!ress the same orie$tatio$ that Guattari0s wor' #is!la*s i$ his first articles& the same effort to reevaluate !s*chosis)

:e see the #iffere$ce here with Beich2 there is $o li"i#i$al eco$om* to im!art& "* other mea$s& a su"/ective !rolo$gatio$ to !olitical eco$om*6 there is $o sexual re!ressio$ to i$ter$ali e eco$omic ex!loitatio$ a$# !olitical su"/ectio$) +$stea#& #esire as li"i#o is ever*where alrea#* !rese$t& sexualit* ru$s through the e$tire social fiel# a$# em"races it& coi$ci#i$g with the flows that !ass u$#er the o"/ects& !erso$s a$# s*m"ols of a grou!& a$# it is o$ #esire as li"i#o that these same o"/ects& !erso$s a$# s*m"ols #e!e$# for their #istri"utio$ a$# ver* co$stitutio$) :hat we wit$ess here& !recisel*& is the late$t character of the sexualit* of #esire& which "ecomes ma$ifest o$l* with the choice of sexual o"/ects a$# their s*m"ols ,if it $ee#s to "e sai# that the s*m"ols are co$sciousl* sexual-) 9o$se?ue$tl*& this is !olitical eco$om* as such& a$ eco$om* of flows& which is u$co$sciousl* li"i#i$al2 there is o$l* o$e eco$om*& $ot two6 a$# #esire or li"i#o is /ust the su"/ectivit* of !olitical eco$om*) 1+$ the e$#& the eco$omic is the motor of su"/ectivit*)1 5ow we see the mea$i$g of the $otio$ of institution, #efi$e# as a su"/ectivit* of flows a$# their i$terru!tio$ i$ the o"/ective forms of a grou!) The #ualities of the o"/ective a$# the su"/ective& of i$frastructure a$# su!erstructure& of !ro#uctio$ a$# i#eolog*& va$ish a$# give wa* to the strict com!leme$tarit* of the #esiri$g su"/ect of the i$stitutio$& a$# the i$stitutio$al o"/ect) ,Guattari0s i$stitutio$al a$al*ses shoul# "e com!are# with those 9ar#a$ #i# arou$# the same time i$ Socia'isme ou 3arbarie, "oth assimilate# i$ the same "itter criti?ue of the Trots'*ites)-4

The seco$# !ro"lem3is there a reaso$ to i$tro#uce !s*choa$al*sis i$to !olitical grou!s& a$# if so how@3exclu#es& to "e sure& a$* 1a!!licatio$1 of !s*choa$al*sis to historical a$# social !he$ome$a) <s*choa$al*sis has accumulate# ma$* such ri#iculous a!!licatio$s& 8e#i!us "ei$g foremost amo$g them) Bather& the !ro"lem is this2 the situatio$ that has ma#e ca!italism the thi$g to "e overthrow$ "* revolutio$ is the same situatio$ that ma#e the Bussia$ Bevolutio$& as well as the histor* imme#iatel* followi$g it& $ot to me$tio$ the orga$i atio$ of commu$ist

222

!arties& a$# $atio$al u$io$s& all i$to so ma$* authorities i$ca!a"le of effecti$g the #estructio$ of ca!italism) +$ this regar#& the !ro!er character of ca!italism& which is !rese$te# as a co$tra#ictio$ "etwee$ the #evelo!me$t of !ro#uctive forces a$# the relatio$s of !ro#uctio$& is esse$tiall* the re!ro#uctio$ !rocess of ca!ital) This !rocess& however& o$ which the !ro#uctive forces of ca!ital i$ the s*stem #e!e$#& is i$ fact a$ i$ter$atio$al !he$ome$o$ im!l*i$g a worl#wi#e #ivisio$ of la"or6 $evertheless& ca!italism ca$$ot shatter the $atio$al framewor's withi$ which it #evelo!s its relatio$s of !ro#uctio$& $or ca$ it smash the 7tate as the i$strume$t of the valuatio$ of ca!ital)5 The i$ter$atio$alism of ca!ital is thus accom!lishe# "* $atio$al a$# state structures that cur" ca!ital eve$ as the* ma'e it wor'6 these 1archaic1 structures have ge$ui$e fu$ctio$s) 7tate mo$o!ol* ca!italism& far from "ei$g a$ ultimate give$& is the result of a com!romise) +$ this 1ex!ro!riatio$ of the ca!italists at the heart of ca!ital&1 the "ourgeoisie mai$tai$s its stra$glehol# o$ the 7tate a!!aratus through its i$creasi$g efforts to i$stitutio$ali e a$# i$tegrate the wor'i$g class& i$ such a wa* that class co$flict is #ece$tere# with res!ect to the real !laces a$# #eci#i$g factors that go "e*o$# 7tates a$# !oi$t to the i$ter$a tio$al ca!italist eco$om*) +t is "* virtue of the same !ri$ci!le that 1a $arrow s!here of !ro#uctio$ is alo$e i$serte# i$ the worl#wi#e re!ro#uctio$ !rocess of ca!ital&1 while i$ thir#(worl# 7tates& the rest remai$s su"/ecte# to !reca!italist relatio$s ,ge$ui$e archaisms of a seco$# 'i$#-)

Give$ this situatio$& we see the com!licit* of $atio$al commu$ist !arties !romoti$g the i$tegratio$ of the !roletariat i$to the 7tate& such that 1the "ourgeoisie0s $atio$al se$se of i#e$tit* results i$ large measure from the !roletariat0s ow$ $atio$al se$se of i#e$tit*6 so& too& #oes the i$ter$al #ivisio$ of the "ourgeoisie result from the #ivisio$ of the !roletariat)1 Aoreover& eve$ whe$ the $ecessit* of revolutio$ar* struggle i$ the thir# worl# is affirme#& these struggles mostl* serve as chi!s i$ a $egotiatio$& i$#icati$g the same re$u$ciatio$ of a$ i$ter$atio$al strateg* a$# the #evelo!me$t of class co$flict i$ ca!italist cou$tries) +t comes #ow$ to this im!erative2 t e wor:ing c'ass must defend nationa' productive forces, struggle agai$st mo$o!olies& a$# a!!ro!riate a 7tate a!!aratus)

This situatio$ origi$ates i$ what Guattari calls 1the great 4e$i$ist ru!ture1 of 1917& which #etermi$e# for "etter or worse the ma/or attitu#es& the !ri$ci!al #iscourse& i$itiatives& stereot*!es& !ha$tasms& a$# i$ter!retatio$s of the revolutio$ar* moveme$t) This ru!ture was

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!rese$te# as the !ossi"ilit* of effecti$g a real "rea' i$ historical causalit* "* 1i$ter!reti$g1 the militar*& eco$omic& !olitical a$# social #isarra* as a victor* of the masses) .risi$g to re!lace the $ecessit* of a sacre# u$io$ of the ce$ter with the left was the !ossi"ilit* of a socialist rev olutio$) >ut this !ossi"ilit* was o$l* acce!te# "* tur$i$g the !art*& o$ce a mo#est cla$#esti$e grou!& i$to a$ em"r*o$ic 7tate a!!aratus a"le to #irect ever*thi$g& to fulfill a messia$ic vocatio$ a$# su"stitute itself for the masses) Two more or less lo$g(term co$se?ue$ces e$sue#) +$asmuch as the $ew 7tate co$fro$te# ca!italist 7tates& it e$tere# i$to relatio$s of force with them& a$# the i#eal of such relatio$s was a 'i$# of status ?uo2 what ha# "ee$ the 4e$i$ist tactic at the creatio$ of the 5=< was co$verte# i$to a$ i#eolog* of !eaceful coexiste$ce a$# eco$omic com!etitio$ with the :est) This i#ea of com!etitio$ s!elle# the rui$ of the revolutio$ar* moveme$t) .$# i$asmuch as the $ew 7tate assume# res!o$si"ilit* for the !roletariat the worl# over& it coul# #evelo! a socialist eco$om* o$l* i$ accor#a$ce with the realities of the glo"al mar'et a$# accor#i$g to o"/ectives similar to those of i$ter$atio$al ca!ital) The $ew 7tate all the more rea#il* acce!te# the i$tegratio$ of local commu$ist !arties i$to the relatio$s of ca!italist !ro#uctio$ si$ce it was i$ the $ame of the wor'i$g class #efe$#i$g the $atio$al forces of !ro#uctio$) +$ short& there is $o reaso$ to agree with the tech$ocrats whe$ the* sa* that two 'i$#s of regimes a$# 7tates co$verge# as the* evolve#6 $or with Trots'*& whe$ he su!!oses that "ureaucrac* corru!te# a health* !roletaria$ 7tate& with the cure co$sisti$g i$ a sim!le !olitical revolutio$) The outcome was alrea#* #eci#e# or "etra*e# i$ the wa* i$ which the 7tate(!art* responded to the cit*(7tates of ca!italism& eve$ i$ their relatio$s of mutual hostilit* a$# a$$o*a$ce) The clearest evi#e$ce of this is that wea' i$stitutio$s were create# i$ ever* sector i$ Bussia as soo$ as the 7oviets li?ui#ate# ever*thi$g earl* o$ ,for exam!le& whe$ the* im!orte# !re(assem"le# automo"ile factories& the* u$witti$gl* im!orte# certai$ t*!es of huma$ relatio$s& tech$ological fu$ctio$s& se!aratio$s "etwee$ i$tellectual a$# ma$ual wor'& a$# mo#es of co$sum!tio$ #ee!l* foreig$ to socialism-)

:hat gives this a$al*sis its force is the #isti$ctio$ Guattari !ro!oses "etwee$ subjugated groups a$# group-subjects% Grou!s are su"/ugate# $o less "* the lea#ers the* assig$ themselves& or acce!t& tha$ "* the masses) The hierarch*& the vertical or !*rami#al orga$i atio$& which characteri es su"/ugate# grou!s is mea$t to war# off a$* !ossi"le i$scri!tio$ of $o$se$se& #eath or #is!ersal& to #iscourage the #evelo!me$t of creative ru!tures& a$# to e$sure the self( !reservatio$ mecha$isms roote# i$ the exclusio$ of other grou!s) Their ce$trali atio$ wor's through structure& totali atio$& u$ificatio$& re!laci$g the co$#itio$s of a ge$ui$e collective 1uttera$ce1 with a$ assem"lage of stereot*!ical uttera$ces cut off "oth from the real a$# from su"/ectivit* ,this is whe$ imagi$ar* !he$ome$a such as 8e#i!ali atio$& su!eregoficatio$& a$# grou!(castratio$ ta'e !lace-) Grou!(su"/ects& o$ the other ha$#& are #efi$e# "* coefficie$ts of transversa'ity that war# off totalities a$# hierarchies) The* are age$ts of e$u$ciatio$&

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e$viro$me$ts of #esire& eleme$ts of i$stitutio$al creatio$) Through their ver* !ractice& the* ceaselessl* co$form to the limit of their ow$ $o$se$se& their ow$ #eath or ru!ture) 7till& it is less a ?uestio$ of two grou!s tha$ two si#es of the i$stitutio$& si$ce a grou!( su"/ect is alwa*s i$ #a$ger of allowi$g itself to "e su"/ugate#& i$ a !ara$oi# co$tractio$ where the grou! wa$ts to !er!etuate itself at all cost a$# live forever as a su"/ect) 9o$versel*& 1a !art* that was o$ce revolutio$ar* a$# $ow more or less su"/ugate# to the #omi$a$t or#er ca$ still occu!*& i$ the e*es of the masses& the !lace which the su"/ect of histor* has left em!t*& ca$ still "ecome i$ s!ite of itself the mouth!iece of a #iscourse $ot its ow$& eve$ if it mea$s "etra*i$g that #iscourse whe$ the evolutio$ of the relatio$s of force causes a retur$ to $ormalc*2 the grou! $o$etheless !reserves& almost i$volu$taril*& a !ote$tialit* of su"/ective ru!ture which a tra$sformatio$ of co$text will reveal)1 ,To ta'e a$ extreme exam!le2 the wa* i$ which the worst archaisms ca$ "ecome revolutio$ar*& i)e) the >as?ues& the +rish Be!u"lica$ .rm*& etc)-

+t is certai$l* true that if the !ro"lem of the grou!0s fu$ctio$i$g is $ot !ose# to "egi$ with& it will "e too late afterwar#s) Too ma$* grou!uscles that as *et i$s!ire o$l* !ha$tom masses alrea#* !ossess a structure of su"/ugatio$& com!lete with lea#ershi!& a mecha$ism of tra$smissio$& a$# a core mem"ershi!& aimlessl* re!ro#uci$g the errors a$# !erversio$s the* are tr*i$g to o!!ose) Guattari0s ow$ ex!erie$ce "egi$s with Trots'*ism a$# !rocee#s through =$tr*ism& the 4eftist 8!!ositio$ "4a Eoie communiste$, a$# the Aarch 22$# Aoveme$t) Throughout this tra/ector*& the !ro"lem remai$s o$e of #esire or u$co$scious su"/ectivit*2 how #oes a grou! carr* its ow$ #esire& co$$ect it to the #esires of other grou!s a$# to the #esires of the masses& !ro#uce the a!!ro!riate creative uttera$ces a$# co$stitute the co$#itio$s $ot of u$ificatio$& "ut of multi!licatio$ co$#ucive to uttera$ces i$ revolt@ The misrea#i$g a$# re!ressio$ of !he$ome$a of #esire i$s!ire structures of su"/ugatio$ a$# "ureaucrati atio$2 the milita$t st*le com!ose# of hateful love #etermi$i$g a limite# $um"er of exclusive #omi$a$t uttera$ces) The co$sta$c* with which revolutio$ar* grou!s have "etra*e# their tas' is well '$ow$) These grou!s o!erate through #etachme$t& electio$& a$# resi#ual selectio$2 the* #etach a su!!ose#l* ex!ert ava$t(gar#e6 the* elect a #isci!li$e#& orga$i e#& hierarchi e# !roletariat6 the* select a resi#ual su"(!roletariat to "e exclu#e# or ree#ucate#) >ut this tri!artite #ivisio$ re!ro#uces !recisel* the #ivisio$s which the "ourgeoisie i$tro#uce# i$to the !roletariat& a$# o$ which it has "ase# its !ower withi$ the framewor' of ca!italist relatio$s of !ro#uctio$) .ttem!ti$g to tur$ these #ivisio$s agai$st the "ourgeoisie is a lost cause) The revolutio$ar* tas' is the su!!ressio$ of the !roletariat itself& that is to sa*& the imme#iate su!!ressio$ of the #isti$ctio$s "etwee$ ava$t(gar#e a$# !roletariat& "etwee$ !roletariat a$# su"(!roletariat3the effective struggle agai$st all mecha$isms of #etachme$t& electio$& a$# resi#ual selectio$3such that su"/ective a$# si$gular !ositio$s ca!a"le of tra$sversal commu$icatio$ ma* emerge i$stea# ,cf) Guattari0s text& 140etu#ia$t& le fou et le Fata$gais1-)

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Guattari0s stre$gth co$sists i$ showi$g that the !ro"lem is $ot at all a"out choosi$g "etwee$ s!o$ta$eit* a$# ce$tralism) 5or "etwee$ guerrilla a$# ge$erali e# warfare) +t serves $o !ur!ose to recog$i e i$ o$e "reath the right to s!o$ta$eit* #uri$g a first stage& if it mea$s i$ the $ext "reath #ema$#i$g the $ecessit* of ce$trali atio$ for a seco$# stage2 the theor* of stages is the rui$ of ever* revolutio$ar* moveme$t) %rom the start we have to "e more ce$tralist tha$ the ce$tralists) 9learl*& a revolutio$ar* machi$e ca$$ot remai$ satisfie# with local a$# occasio$al struggles2 it has to "e at the same time su!er(ce$trali e# a$# su!er(#esiri$g) The !ro"lem& therefore& co$cer$s the $ature of u$ificatio$& which must fu$ctio$ i$ a tra$sversal wa*& through multi!licit*& a$# $ot i$ a vertical wa*& so a!t to crush the multi!licit* !ro!er to #esire) +$ the first !lace& this mea$s that a$* u$ificatio$ must "e t e unification of a war-mac ine and not a State apparatus ,a Be# .rm* sto!s "ei$g a war(machi$e to the exte$t that it "ecomes a more or less im!orta$t cog i$ a 7tate a!!aratus-) +$ the seco$# !lace& this mea$s that u$ificatio$ must occur through ana'ysis, that it must !la* t e ro'e of an ana'y(er with res!ect to the #esire of the grou! a$# the masses& a$# $ot the role of a s*$thesi er o!erati$g through ratio$ali atio$& totali atio$& exclusio$& etc) :hat exactl* a war(machi$e is ,as com!are# to a 7tate(a!!aratus-& a$# what exactl* a$ a$al*sis or a$ a$al* er of #esire is ,as o!!ose# to !seu#o(ratio$al a$# scie$tific s*$thesis-& are the two ma/or li$es of thought that Guattari0s "oo' !ursues& sig$ali$g i$ his view the theoretical tas' to "e u$#erta'e$ at the !rese$t time)

This !ursuit& however& is $ot a"out 1a!!l*i$g1 !s*choa$al*sis to grou! !he$ome$a) 5or is it a"out a thera!eutic grou! that woul# somehow 1treat1 the masses) +t0s a"out co$stituti$g i$ the grou! the co$#itio$s of a$ a$al*sis of #esire& for o$eself a$# for others6 it0s a"out !ursui$g the flows that co$stitute m*ria# li$es of flight i$ ca!italist societ*& a$# "ri$gi$g a"out ru!tures& im!osi$g i$terru!tio$s at the ver* heart of social #etermi$ism a$# historical causalit*6 it0s a"out allowi$g collective age$ts of e$u$ciatio$ to emerge& ca!a"le of formulati$g $ew uttera$ces of #esire6 it0s a"out co$stituti$g $ot a$ ava$t(gar#e& "ut grou!s a#/ace$t to social !rocesses& whose o$l* tas' is to a#va$ce a truth alo$g !aths it usuall* $ever ta'es3i$ a wor#& it0s a"out co$ ( stituti$g a revolutio$ar* su"/ectivit* a"out which there is $o more reaso$ to as' whether li"i#i$al& eco$omic& or !olitical #etermi$atio$s shoul# come first& si$ce this su"/ectivit* traverses tra#itio$all* se!arate or#ers6 it0s a"out gras!i$g that !oi$t of rupture where& !recisel*& !olitical eco$om* a$# li"i#i$al eco$om* are one and t e same% The u$co$scious is $othi$g else tha$ the or#er of grou! su"/ectivit* which i$tro#uces ex!losive machi$es i$to so(calle# sig$if*i$g structures as well as causal chai$s& forci$g them to o!e$ to li"erate their hi##e$ !ote$tialities as a future realit* i$flue$ce# "* the ru!ture) The Aarch 22$# Aoveme$t is exem!lar* i$ this res!ect& "ecause while it was i$sufficie$t as a war(machi$e& it $o$etheless fu$ctio$e# excee#i$gl* well as a$ a$al*tic a$# #esiri$g grou! which $ot o$l* hel# a #iscourse o$ the mo#e of trul* free asso( ciatio$& "ut which was a"le also 1to co$stitute itself as a$ a$al* er of a co$si#era"le mass of

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stu#e$ts a$# wor'ers&1 without a$* claims to hegemo$* or ava$t(gar#e status6 it was sim!l* a$ e$viro$me$t allowi$g for the tra$sfer a$# the removal of i$hi"itio$s) .$al*sis a$# #esire fi$all* o$ the same si#e& with #esire ta'i$g the lea#2 such a$ actuali atio$ of a$al*sis i$#ee# character ( i es grou!(su"/ects& whereas su"/ugate# grou!s co$ti$ue to exist u$#er the laws of a sim!le 1a!!licatio$1 of !s*choa$al*sis i$ a close# e$viro$me$t ,the famil* as a co$ti$uatio$ of the 7tate "* other mea$s-) The !olitical a$# eco$omic co$te$t of li"i#o as such& the li"i#i$al a$# sexual co$te$t of the !olitico(eco$omic fiel#3this whole turn of istory3"ecome ma$ifest o$l* i$ a$ o!e$ e$viro$me$t a$# i$ grou!(su"/ects& wherever a truth shows u!) >ecause 1truth is $ot theor*& a$# $ot orga$i atio$)1 +t0s $ot structure& a$# $ot the sig$ifier6 it0s the war(machi$e a$# its $o$se$se) 1:he$ the truth shows itself& theor* a$# orga$i atio$ will /ust have to #eal with it6 it0s $ot #esire0s role to !erform self(criticism& theor* a$# orga$i atio$ have to #o it)1

The tra$sformatio$ of !s*choa$al*sis i$to schi o(a$al*sis im!lies a$ evaluatio$ of the s!ecificit* of ma#$ess) This is /ust o$e of the !oi$ts Guattari i$sists o$& /oi$i$g forces with %oucault& who sa*s that ma#$ess will $ot "e re!lace# "* the !ositivist #etermi$atio$& treatme$t& a$# $eutrali atio$ of me$tal ill$ess& "ut that me$tal ill$ess will "e re!lace# "* somethi$g we have $ot *et u$#erstoo# i$ ma#$ess) 6 >ecause the real !ro"lems have to #o with !s*chosis ,$ot the $euroses of a!!licatio$-) +t is alwa*s a !leasure to elicit the moc'er* of !ositivists2 Guattari $ever tires of !roclaimi$g the legitimac* of a meta!h*sical or tra$sce$#e$tal !oi$t of view& which co$sists i$ !urgi$g ma#$ess of me$tal ill$ess& a$# $ot me$tal ill$ess of ma#$ess2 1:ill there come a #a* whe$ we will fi$all* stu#* <resi#e$t 7chre"er0s or .$to$i$ .rtau#0s #efi$itio$s of Go# with the same serious$ess a$# rigor as those of Descartes or Aale"ra$che@ %or how lo$g will we !er!etuate the s!lit "etwee$ the i$$er wor'i$gs of !ure theoretical criti?ue a$# the co$crete a$al*tical activit* of the huma$ scie$ces@1 ,+t shoul# "e u$#erstoo# that ma# #efi$itio$s are more serious a$# more rigorous tha$ the u$health*(ratio$al #efi$itio$s "* mea$s of which su"/ugate# grou!s relate to Go# i$ the form of reaso$)- Aore !recisel*& Guattari0s i$stitutio$al a$al*sis critici es a$ti(!s*chiatr* $ot o$l* for refusi$g to ac'$owle#ge a$* !harmacological fu$ctio$& $ot o$l* for #e$*i$g the i$stitutio$ a$* revolutio$ar* !ossi"ilit*& "ut es!eciall* for co$fusi$g me$tal alie$atio$ with social alie$atio$ a$# there"* su!!ressi$g the s!ecificit* of ma#$ess) 1:ith the "est i$te$tio$s& "oth moral a$# !olitical& the* ma$age# to refuse the i$sa$e their right to "e i$sa$e& the it,s-a''-society,s-fau't ca$ mas' a wa* of su!!ressi$g #evia$ce) The $egatio$ of the i$stitutio$ woul# the$ "e the #e$ial of the si$gular fact of me$tal alie$atio$)1 5ot that some ge$eral theor* of ma#$ess must "e !osite#& $or must a m*stical i#e$tit* of the revolutio$ar* a$# lu$atic "e i$vo'e#) ,9ertai$l*& it is useless to attem!t to forestall such a criticism& which will "e ma#e i$ a$* eve$t)- Bather& it0s $ot ma#$ess which must "e re#uce# to the or#er of the ge$eral& "ut the mo#er$ worl# i$ ge$eral or the e$tire social fiel# which must a'so "e i$ter!rete# i$ terms of the si$gularit* of the lu$atic& i$ its ver* ow$ su"/ective !ositio$)

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Ailita$t revolutio$aries ca$$ot "e co$cer$e# with #eli$?ue$c*& #evia$ce& a$# ma#( $ess3$ot as e#ucators or reformers& "ut as those who ca$ rea# the face of their !ro!er #iffere$ce o$l* i$ such mirrors) Ta'e for exam!le this "it of #ialogue with Cea$ 8ur*& at the start of this collectio$2 17omethi$g s!ecific to a grou! of milita$ts i$ the !s*chiatric #omai$ is "ei$g committe# to social struggle& "ut also "ei$g i$sa$e e$ough to e$tertai$ the !ossi"ilit* of being wit the i$sa$e6 "ut there are #efi$itel* !eo!le i$ !olitics who are i$ca!a"le of "elo$gi$g to such a grou!)))1

Guattari0s !ro!er co$tri"utio$ to i$stitutio$al !s*chothera!* resi#es i$ a certai$ $um"er of $otio$s ,whose formatio$ we ca$ actuall* trace i$ this collectio$-2 the #isti$ctio$ "etwee$ two 'i$#s of grou!s& the o!!ositio$ "etwee$ grou! !ha$tasms a$# i$#ivi#ual !ha$tasms& a$# the co$ce!tio$ of tra$sver( salit*) .$# these $otio$s have a !recise !ractical orie$tatio$2 i$tro#uci$g a milita$t !olitical fu$ctio$ i$to the i$stitutio$& co$stituti$g a 'i$# of 1mo$ster1 which is $either !s*choa$al*sis& $or hos!ital !ractice& eve$ less grou! #*$amics& a$# which is ever*where a!!lica"le& i$ the hos!ital& at school& i$ a milita$t grou!3a machi$e to !ro#uce a$# give voice to #esire) This is wh* Guattari claime# the $ame of i$stitutio$al a$al*sis for his wor' rather tha$ i$stitutio$al !s*chothera!*) +$ the i$stitutio$al moveme$t le# "* Tos?uelles a$# Cea$ 8ur* there i$#ee# "egi$s a thir# age of !s*chiatr*2 the i$stitutio$ as mo#el& "e*o$# the co$tract a$# the law) +f it is true that the ol# as*lum was gover$e# "* re!ressive law& i$sofar as the i$sa$e were /u#ge# 1i$ca!a"le1 a$# therefore exclu#e# from the co$tractual relatio$s that u$ite so(calle# reaso$a"le "ei$gs& %reu#0s stro'e of ge$ius was to show that "ourgeois families a$# the fro$tiers of the as*lum co$tai$e# a large grou! of !eo!le ,1$eurotics1- who coul# "e "rought u$#er a !articular co$tract& i$ or#er to lea# them& usi$g origi$al mea$s& "ac' to the $orms of tra#itio$al me#ici$e ,the !s*choa$al*tic co$tract as a !articular case of the li"eral(me#ical co$tractual relatio$-) The a"a$#o$me$t of h*!$osis was a$ im!orta$t ste! i$ this #evelo!me$t) +t seems to me that $o o$e has *et a$al* e# the role a$# effects of this co$tractual mo#el i$ which !s*choa$al*sis lo#ge# itself6 o$e of the !ri$ci!al co$se?ue$ces of this was that !s*chosis remai$e# o$ the hori o$ of !s*choa$al*sis& as a ge$ui$e source of cli$ical material& a$# *et was exclu#e# as "e*o$# the co$tractual fiel#) +t will come as $o sur!rise& as several texts i$ this collectio$ #emo$strate& that i$stitutio$al !s*chothera!* e$tails i$ its !ri$ci!al !ro!ositio$s a criti?ue of re!ressive law as well as the so(calle# li"eral co$tract& for which it ho!e# to su"stitute the mo#el of the i$stitutio$) This criti?ue was mea$t to "e exte$#e# i$ several #irectio$s at o$ce& i$asmuch as the !*rami#al orga$i atio$ of grou!s& their su"/ugatio$ a$# hierarchical #ivisio$ of la"or are "ase# o$ co$ ( tractual relatio$s $o less tha$ legalist structures) +$ the collectio$0s first text& #eali$g with #octor( $urse relatio$shi!s& 8ur* i$ter/ects2 1There is a ratio$alism i$ societ* that is $othi$g more tha$ a ratio$ali atio$ of "a# faith a$# rotte$ "ehavior) The view from the i$si#e is the relatio$shi! o$e has with the i$sa$e o$ a #a*(to(#a* "asis& provided a certain 2contract2 wit t e traditiona' as been voided% 7o& i$ a se$se& we ca$ sa* that '$owi$g what it is to "e i$ co$tact with the i$sa$e is

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at the same time "ei$g a !rogressive) I)))J 9learl*& the ver* terms #octor($urse "elo$g to the co$tract we sai# we ha# to voi#)1 There is i$ i$stitutio$al !s*chothera!* a 'i$# of !s*chiatric i$s!iratio$ a la 7ai$t( Cust& i$ the se$se that 7ai$t(Cust #efi$es the re!u"lica$ regime "* ma$* i$stitutio$s a$# few laws ,few co$tractual relatio$s also-) +$stitutio$al !s*chothera!* threa#s a #ifficult !assage "etwee$ a$ti(!s*chiatr*& which te$#s to fall "ac' i$to #es!erate co$tractual forms ,cf) a rece$t i$terview with 4ai$g-& a$# !s*chiatr* to#a*& with its tight !olice co$trols& its !la$$e# tria$gulatio$& which will ver* li'el* cause us to regret the close# as*lums of ol#& ah the goo# ol# #a*s& the goo# ol# st*le)

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:hat comes i$to !la* here are Guattari0s !ro"lems co$cer$i$g the $ature of cure#(curi$g grou!s ca!a"le of formi$g grou!(su"/ects& that is to sa*& ca!a"le of ma'i$g the i$stitutio$ the o"/ect of a ge$ui$e creatio$ where ma#$ess a$# revolutio$ each reflect& without com"i$i$g& the face of their #iffere$ce i$ the si$gular !ositio$s of a #esiri$g su"/ectivit*) %or exam!le& i$ the article e$title# 1:here #oes grou! !s*chothera!* "egi$@&1 there is the a$al*sis of >TEs ,"asic thera!eutic u$itsat 4a >or#e) ;ow #oes o$e war# off su"/ugatio$ from alrea#* su"/ugate# grou!s& with which tra#itio$al !s*choa$al*sis is i$ com!etitio$@ .$# !s*choa$al*tic associatio$s2 o$ what si#e of the i$stitutio$& i$ what grou!& #o the* fall@ . great !ortio$ of Guattari0s wor' !rior to Aa* 068 was #e#icate# to 1!atie$ts ta'i$g charge of their ow$ ill$ess& with the su!!ort of the e$tire stu#e$t moveme$t)1 . !articular #ream of $o$se$se a$# empty words, i$stitute# as such& agai$st laws or the co$tract of saturate# s!eech& a$# legitimi e# sc i(o-f'ow have ceaselessl* i$s!ire# Guattari i$ his e$#eavor to "rea' #ow$ the #ivisio$s a$# hierarchical or !seu#o(fu$ctio$al com!artme$tali atio$s3e#ucator& !s*chiatrist& a$al*st& milita$t))) =ver* text i$ this collectio$ is a$ article writte$ for a s!ecific occasio$) .$# the* have a twofol# goal2 the o$e is co$$ecte# to their origi$ at a certai$ /u$cture of i$stitutio$al !s*chothera!*& a certai$ mome$t of milita$t !olitical life& a certai$ as!ect of the %reu#ia$ school a$# 4aca$0s teachi$g6 the other loo's to their fu$ctio$& their !ossi"le fu$ctio$i$g i$ other circumsta$ces) This "oo' must "e ta'e$ i$ "its a$# !ieces& li'e a mo$tage or i$stallatio$ of the cogs a$# wheels of a machi$e) 7ometimes the cogs are small& mi$iscule& "ut #isor#erl*& a$# thus all the more i$#is!e$sa"le) This "oo' is a machi$e of #esire& i$ other wor#s& a war(machi$e& a$ a$al*ser) 7o& + woul# li'e to si$gle out two texts i$ !articular that seem es!eciall* im!orta$t i$ this collectio$2 a theoretical text& where the ver* !ri$ci!le of a machi$e is #isti$guishe# from the h*!othesis of structure a$# #etache# from structural ties ,1Aachi$e a$# 7tructure1-& a$# a schi o(text where the $otio$s of 1sig$(!oi$t1 a$#

F%hat O-r +risoners %ant &rom /s$$$F1


1sig$("lot1 are free# from the o"stacle of the sig$ifier)

7omethi$g $ew is ha!!e$i$g i$ a$# arou$# our !riso$s) +$mates are #eci#i$g what form the* wish to give their collective actio$ withi$ the co$text of each !articular !riso$ ,si$ce Toul& for exam!le2 the Tract D %i$al war$i$g at Aelu$& the wor' sto!!age at 5imes& the "rea' out a$# occu!atio$ of the roof to!s at 5a$c*-) 2 >ut i$ this great variet* there a!!ears to "e a series of !recise #ema$#s& which are $o lo$ger a##resse# to the !e$ite$tiar* a#mi$istratio$& "ut are #irect ( l* a##resse# to the !owers that "e a$# call #irectl* o$ the %re$ch !eo!le) These #ema$#s i$ commo$ esse$tiall* #eal with ce$sure2 the 1court1 a$# 1solitar* co$fi$eme$t1 as "rutal re!ressio$ without a$* !ossi"le #efe$se o$ the !riso$er0s !art6 the ex!loitatio$ of wor' i$ the !riso$s6 co$#itio$al free#om& the !olice recor#& i$ter#ictio$ from visiti$g a !lace6 a$# the call to esta"lish mo$itori$g commissio$s that are i$#e!e$#e$t of the gover$me$t a$# !riso$ a#mi$istratio$)

230

1:;.T 8EB <B+785=B7 :.5T)

The fact itself of !u$ishme$t a$# im!riso$me$t has $ot *et "ee$ calle# i$to ?uestio$6 still& a fro$t of !olitical struggle has alrea#* move# i$to the !riso$s) The reali atio$ that !riso$ is esse$tiall* a"out class& that it co$cer$s a"ove all the wor'i$g class& a$# that it also has to #o with the la"or mar'et ,re!ressio$ will "e all the more harsh& es!eciall* o$ the *ou$g& to the exte$t that u$em!lo*me$t is a threat a$# their la"or su!erfluous o$ the mar'et-3these reali atio$s are "ecomi$g more a$# more clear i$ the !riso$s) The esse$tial !ri$ci!le articulate# "* the i$mates at Aelu$ is that 1social rei$sertio$ of the !riso$ers coul# "e the wor' o$l* of the !riso$ers themselves)1

.$ active grass roots "ase i$si#e the !riso$ is $ot e$ough6 there must "e a grass roots "ase o$ the outsi#e& a$ activist "ase& su!!orti$g a$# !ro!agati$g the !riso$ers0 #ema$#s) The G+< is $ot& as Ar) <leve$ a$# the $ews!a!er Minute woul# have the !u"lic "elieve& a su"versive grou! i$s!iri$g the actio$s of !riso$ers from the exterior) 5or as the <resi#e$t of the Toul +$?uir* 9ommissio$ A) 7chmelc' co$te$#s& is the G+< a grou! of i$tellectual #reamers) +t aims to orga$i e activist exter$al hel!& which first must "e le# "* former i$mates a$# the families of i$mates& "ut the$ must recruit more a$# more wor'ers a$# #emocrats to the cause)

+$ this res!ect also& there is somethi$g u$!rece#e$te# goi$g o$) +$ Toul& 4ille& 5a$c*& a$# elsewhere& a $ew 'i$# of !u"lic gatheri$g is ta'i$g !lace& which has $othi$g to #o with the 1!u"lic co$fessio$&1 a$# which is $ot the classical tow$ meeti$g either2 former !riso$ers& who have settle# i$ the cities where the* !ai# their #e"t to societ*& are comi$g forwar# to sa* what was #o$e to them& what the* saw& !h*sical a"use& re!risals& lac' of me#ial care& etc) This is a persona'i(ed criti@ue, the exam!le of which was give$ "* Dr) Bose& whose re!ort too' u! the !riso$ers0 cause)3

This is what too' !lace i$ 5a$c*& i$ a$ extraor#i$ar* gatheri$g of more tha$ o$e thousa$# i$#ivi#uals& which the !ress !asse# over i$ sile$ce)

231

This is what too' !lace i$ Toul& where the !riso$ guar#s& from the last row& 'e!t shouti$g at the i$mates6 o$l* the former i$mates were a"le to shut them u!& whe$ without hesitatio$ each ex!lai$e# wh* he we$t to !riso$ a$# si$gle# out this or that !riso$ guar# to remi$# him of his "rutalit*) The !hrase 1+ '$ow him&1 with which the !riso$ guar#s wa$te# to i$timi#ate the i$mates& "ecame the !hrase the i$mates co(o!te# to sile$ce# the !riso$ guar#s)

The #a* is comi$g whe$ $ot o$e !riso$ guar# will "e a"le to "eat a !riso$er without "ei$g !u"licl* #e$ou$ce# a #a* or mo$th later "* his victim or a wit$ess& i$ the ver* cit* where it has ta'e$ !lace) %ormer !riso$ers& a$# curre$t !riso$ers ali'e& have cease# to "e afrai# a$# $o lo$ger feel ashame#)

%ace# with such a moveme$t& the gover$me$t has res!o$#e# o$l* with i$crease# re!ressio$ ,the 9B7 is ever rea#* to i$terve$e i$ the !riso$s- a$# a#mi$istrative reforms ,i$ which !riso$ers a$# former !riso$ers have $o right to ma'e themselves hear#-) The* are givi$g !ower "ac' to the !refects of !olice2 which o$ce agai$ amou$ts to $othi$g more tha$ the Ai$ister of Custice !assi$g the "uc' to the Ai$ister of the +$terior) The gulf "etwee$ the <leve$ reforms 4 a$# the more mo#erate #ema$#s of the !riso$ers ex!resses i$ all their $a'e#$ess the relatio$shi!s of class& viole$ce& a$# !ower)

5nte""e7t-a"s and +o*er;

232

+5T=44=9TE.47 .5D <8:=B

$i'hel Fou'aul): . Aaoist tol# me2 1+ ca$ see wh* 7artre is o$ our si#e& for what a$# wh* he is i$volve# i$ !olitics6 a$# *ou& + ca$ eve$ see wh* *ou #o it& si$ce *ou0ve alwa*s co$si#ere# im!riso$me$t a !ro"lem) >ut Deleu e& reall*& + #o$0t see it)1 ;is ?uestio$ too' me totall* "* sur!rise& "ecause it0s cr*stal clear to me) Gilles Deleu e: Aa*"e it0s "ecause for us the relatio$shi!s "etwee$ theor* a$# !raxis are "ei$g live# i$ a $ew wa*) 8$ the o$e ha$#& !raxis use# to "e co$ceive# as a$ a!!licatio$ of theor*& as a co$se?ue$ce6 o$ the other ha$#& a$# i$versel*& !raxis was su!!ose# to i$s!ire theor*& it was su!!ose# to create a $ew form of theor*) +$ a$* case& their relatio$shi! too' the form of a !rocess of totali atio$& i$ o$e sha!e or a$other) Aa*"e we0re as'i$g the ?uestio$ i$ a $ew wa*) %or us the relatio$shi!s "etwee$ theor* a$# !raxis are much more fragme$tar* a$# !artial) +$ the first !lace& a theor* is alwa*s local& relate# to a limite# #omai$& though it ca$ "e a!!lie# i$ a$other #omai$ that is more or less #ista$t) The rule of a!!licatio$ is $ever o$e of resem"la$ce) +$ the seco$# !lace& as soo$ as a theor* ta'es hol# i$ its ow$ #omai$& it e$cou$ters o"stacles& walls& collisio$s& a$# these im!e#ime$ts create a $ee# for the theor* to "e rela*e# "* a$other 'i$# of #iscourse ,it is this other #iscourse which eve$tuall* causes the theor* to migrate from o$e #omai$ to a$other-) <raxis is a $etwor' of rela*s from o$e theoretical !oi$t to a$other& a$# theor* rela*s o$e !raxis to a$other) . theor* ca$$ot "e #evelo!e# without e$cou$teri$g a wall& a$# a !raxis is $ee#e# to "rea' through) Ta'e *ourself& for exam!le& *ou "egi$ "* theoreticall* a$al* i$g a milieu of im!riso$me$t li'e the !s*chiatric as*lum of $i$etee$th(ce$tur* ca!italist societ*) The$ *ou #iscover how $ecessar* it is !recisel* for those who are im!riso$e# to s!ea' o$ their ow$ "ehalf& for them to "ecome a rela* ,or !erha!s *ou were alrea#* a rela* for them-& "ut these !eo!le are !riso$ers& the*0re in !riso$) This was the logic "ehi$# *our creati$g the G+< ,Grou! for +$formatio$ o$ <riso$s-2 to !romote the co$#itio$s i$ which the !riso$ers themselves coul# s!ea')2 +t woul# "e totall* misgui#e# to sa*& as the Aaoist seeme# to "e sa*i$g& that *ou were ma'i$g a move towar# !raxis "* a!!l*i$g *our theories) +$ *our case we fi$# $either a$ a!!licatio$& $or a reform !rogram& $or a$ i$vestigatio$ i$ the tra#itio$al se$se) +t is somethi$g else e$tirel*2 a s*stem of rela*s i$ a$ assem"lage& i$ a multi!licit* of "its a$# !ieces "oth theoretical a$# !ractical) %or us& the i$tellectual a$# theorist have cease# to "e a su"/ect& a co$scious$ess& that re!rese$ts or is re!rese$tative) .$# those i$volve# i$ !olitical struggle have cease# to "e re!rese$te#& whether "* a !art* or a u$io$ that woul# i$ tur$ claim for itself the right to "e their co$scie$ce) :ho s!ea's a$# who acts@ +t0s alwa*s a multi!licit*& eve$ i$ the !erso$ that s!ea's or acts) :e are all grou!uscles) There is $o more re!rese$tatio$) There is o$l* actio$& the actio$ of theor*& the actio$ of !raxis& i$ the relatio$s of rela*s a$# $etwor's)

$i'hel Fou'aul): +t seems to me that tra#itio$all*& a$ i$tellectual0s !olitical status resulte# from two thi$gs2 1- the !ositio$ as a$ i$tellectual i$ "ourgeois societ*& i$ the s*stem of ca!italist !ro#uctio$& i$ the i#eolog* which that s*stem !ro#uces or im!oses ,"ei$g ex!loite#& re#uce# to !overt*& "ei$g re/ecte# or 1curse#&1 "ei$g accuse# of su"versio$ or immoralit*& etc)-& a$# 2- i$tellectual #iscourse itself& i$ as much as it reveale# a !articular truth& u$coveri$g !olitical relatio$shi!s where $o$e were "efore !erceive#) These two forms of "ecomi$g !olitici e# were $ot stra$gers to o$e a$other& "ut the* #i#$0t $ecessaril* coi$ci#e either) Nou ha# the 1curse#1 i$tellectual& a$# *ou ha# the 1socialist1 i$tellectual) +$ certai$ mome$ts of viole$t reactio$& the !owers that "e willi$gl* co$fuse# these two !olitici atio$s with o$e a$other3after 1848& after the 9ommu$e& after 19402 the i$tellectual was re/ecte#& !ersecute# at the ver* mome$t whe$ 1thi$gs1 "ega$ to a!!ear i$ their $a'e# 1truth&1 whe$ *ou were $ot su!!ose# to #iscuss the 'i$g0s $ew clothes)

7i$ce the latest resurge$ce& however& i$tellectuals reali e that the masses ca$ #o without them a$# still "e '$owle#gea"le2 the masses '$ow !erfectl* well what0s goi$g o$& it is !erfectl* clear to them& the* eve$ '$ow "etter tha$ the i$tellectuals #o& a$# the* sa* so co$vi$ci$gl* e$ough) >ut a s*stem of !ower exists to "ar& !rohi"it& i$vali#ate

233

D=7=BT +74.5D7 .5D 8T;=B T=KT7

their #iscourse a$# their '$owle#ge3a !ower locate# $ot o$l* i$ the u!!er echelo$s of ce$sorshi!& "ut which #ee!l* a$# su"tl* !ermeates the whole $etwor' of societ*) The i$tellectuals are themselves !art of this s*stem of !ower& as is the i#ea that i$tellectuals are the age$ts of 1co$scious$ess1 a$# #iscourse) The role of the i$tellectual is $o lo$ger to situate himself 1slightl* ahea#1 or 1slightl* to o$e si#e1 so he ma* s!ea' the sile$t truth of each a$# all6 it is rather to struggle agai$st those forms of !ower where he is "oth i$strume$t a$# o"/ect2 i$ the or#er of 1'$owle#ge&1 1truth&1 1co$scious$ess&1 a$# 1#iscourse)1

7o it is that theor* #oes $ot ex!ress& tra$slate& or a!!l* a !raxis6 it is a !raxis3 "ut local a$# regio$al& as *ou sa*2 $o$(totali i$g) . struggle agai$st !ower& a struggle to "ri$g !ower to light a$# o!e$ it u! wherever it is most i$visi"le a$# i$si#ious) 5ot a struggle for some 1i$sight1 or 1reali atio$1 ,for a lo$g time $ow co$scious$ess as '$owle#ge has "ee$ ac?uire# "* the masses& a$# co$scious$ess as su"/ectivit* has "ee$ ta'e$& occu!ie# "* the "ourgeoisie-3"ut a struggle to u$#ermi$e a$# ta'e !ower si#e "* si#e with those who are fighti$g& a$# $ot off to the si#e tr*i$g to e$lighte$ them) . 1theor*1 is the regio$al s*stem of this struggle)

Gilles Deleu e: Nes& that0s what a theor* is& exactl* li'e a tool "ox) +t has $othi$g to #o with the sig$ifier))) . theor* has to "e use#& it has to wor') .$# $ot /ust for itself) +f there is $o o$e to use it& starti$g with the theorist himself who& as soo$ as he uses it ceases to "e a theorist& the$ a theor* is worthless& or its time has $ot *et arrive#) Nou #o$0t go "ac' to a theor*& *ou ma'e $ew o$es& *ou have others to ma'e) +t is stra$ge that <roust& who !asses for a !ure i$tellectual& shoul# articulate it so clearl*2 use m* "oo'& he sa*s& li'e a !air of glasses to view the outsi#e& a$# if it is$0t to *our li'i$g& fi$# a$other !air& or i$ve$t *our ow$& a$# *our #evice will $ecessaril* "e a #evice *ou ca$ fight with) . theor* wo$0t "e totali e#& it multi!lies) +t0s rather i$ the $ature of !ower to totali e& a$# *ou sa* it exactl*2 theor* is "* $ature o!!ose# to !ower) .s soo$ as a theor* ta'es hol# at this or that !oi$t& it ru$s u! agai$st the im!ossi"ilit* of havi$g the least !ractical co$se?ue$ce without there "ei$g a$ ex!losio$& at some #ista$t !oi$t if $ecessar*) That0s wh* the i#ea of reform is so stu!i# a$# h*!ocritical) =ither the reform is u$#erta'e$ "* those who claim to "e re!rese$tatives& whose "usi$ess it is to s!ea' for others& i$ their $ame& a$# this is how !ower a#/usts& #istri"uti$g itself alo$g rei$force# li$es of re!ressio$) 8r else the reform is #ema$#e# "* those who have a sta'e i$ it& a$# the$ it is $o lo$ger a reform "ut a revolutio$) . revolutio$ar* actio$& "* virtue of its !artial character& is #etermi$e# to call i$to ?uestio$ the totalit* of !ower a$# its hierarch*) This is $owhere clearer tha$ i$ the !riso$s2 the ti$iest& mee'est #ema$# "* the !riso$ers is e$ough to 'ill <leve$0s !seu#o reform "ill)(0 +f little chil#re$ ma$age# to ma'e their !rotests hear# i$ $urser* school& or eve$ sim!l* their ?uestio$s& it woul# "e e$ough to #erail the whole e#ucatio$al s*stem) +$ realit*& the s*stem i$ which we live cannot to'erate anyt ing, whe$ce *ou see its ra#ical fragilit* at ever* !oi$t& a$# at the same time its glo"al re!ressio$) +$ m* o!i$io$& *ou were the first to teach us a fu$#ame$tal lesso$& "oth i$ *our "oo's a$# i$ the !ractical #omai$2 the i$#ig$it* of s!ea'i$g for others) :hat + mea$ is& we laughe# at re!rese$tatio$& sa*i$g it was over& "ut we #i#$0t follow this 1theoretical1 co$versio$ through3$amel*& theor* #ema$#e# that those i$volve# fi$all* have their sa* from a !ractical sta$#!oi$t)

234

+5T=44=9TE.47 .5D <8:=B

$i'hel Fou'aul): .$# whe$ the !riso$ers "ega$ to s!ea'& the* ha# their ow$ theor* of !riso$& !u$ishme$t& a$# /ustice) :hat reall* matters is t is 'i$# of #iscourse agai$st !ower& the cou$ter(#iscourse ex!resse# "* !riso$ers or those we call crimi$als& a$# $ot a #iscourse on crimi$alit*) The !ro"lem of im!riso$me$t is a local a$# margi$al !ro"lem& "ecause $o more tha$ 100&000 !eo!le go through !riso$ i$ a$* *ear) >ut this margi$al !ro"lem sha'es !eo!le u!) + was sur!rise# to see how ma$* who were not i$ !riso$ i$tereste# i$ the !ro"lem& to see so ma$* !eo!le res!o$# who were i$ $o wa* !re#is!ose# to heari$g this #iscourse& a$# sur!rise# to see how the* too' it) ;ow #o *ou ex!lai$ it@ +s it $ot sim!l* that& ge$erall* s!ea'i$g& the !e$al s*stem is that form where !ower shows itself as !ower i$ the most tra$s!are$t wa*@ To !ut someo$e i$ !riso$& to 'ee! him there& #e!rive him of foo# a$# heat& 'ee! him from goi$g out& from ma'i$g love& etc)& is that $ot the most #elirious form of !ower imagi$a"le@ The other #a* + was tal'i$g with a woma$ who ha# "ee$ i$ !riso$& a$# she sai#2 1To thi$' that o$e #a* i$ !riso$ the* !u$ishe# me& a fort* *ear ol# woma$& "* forci$g me to eat stale "rea#)1 :hat is stri'i$g i$ this stor* is $ot o$l* the !uerilit* of the exercise of !ower& "ut the c*$icism with which it is exercise# as !ower& i$ a form that is archaic a$# i$fa$tile) The* teach us how to "e re#uce# to "rea# a$# water whe$ we0re 'i#s) <riso$ is the o$l* !lace where !ower ca$ "e exercise# i$ all its $a'e#$ess a$# i$ its most excessive #ime$sio$s& a$# still /ustif* itself as moral) 1+ have ever* right to !u$ish "ecause *ou '$ow ver* well how evil it is to steal& to 'ill)))1 This is what is so fasci$ati$g a"out !riso$s2 for o$ce !ower #oes $ot hi#e itself& #oes $ot mas' itself& "ut reveals itself as t*ra$$* #ow$ to the most i$sig$ifica$t #etail& c*$icall* a!!lie#6 a$# *et it0s !ure& it0s e$tirel* 1/ustifie#&1 "ecause it ca$ "e e$tirel* formulate# i$ a moralit* that frames its exercise2 its "rute t*ra$$* thus a!!ears as the sere$e #omi$atio$ of Goo# over =vil& of or#er over #isor#er)

Gilles Deleu e: 5ow that + thi$' a"out it& the i$verse is e?uall* true) +t0s $ot o$l* !riso$ers who are treate# li'e chil#re$& "ut chil#re$ who are treate# li'e !riso$ers) 9hil#re$ are su"/ecte# to a$ i$fa$tili atio$ which is $ot their ow$) +$ this se$se& schools are a little li'e !riso$s& a$# factories are ver* much li'e them) .ll *ou have to #o is loo' at Be$ault0s e$tra$ce) 8r a$*where2 *ou $ee# three vouchers to go ma'e !ee(!ee #uri$g the #a*) Nou u$covere# a text "* Cerem* >e$tham i$ the eightee$th(ce$tur*& a !ro!osal for !riso$ reform2 it is i$ the $ame of this $o"le reform that >e$tham esta"lishes a circular s*stem& where at o$e a$# the same time the re$ovate# !riso$ serves as a mo#el& a$# where without $otici$g it& o$e moves from the school to the factor*& from the factor* to the !riso$ a$# vice versa) There *ou have the esse$ce of reformism& of re!rese$tatio$ which has "ee$ reforme#) ;owever& whe$ !eo!le "egi$ to s!ea' a$# act i$ their ow$ $ame& the* #o$0t o!!ose o$e re!rese$tatio$& eve$ o$e which has "ee$ reforme#& to a$other re!rese$tatio$6 the* #o$0t o!!ose a$other mo#e of re!rese$tatio$ to !ower0s false mo#e of re!rese$tatio$) %or exam!le& + recall whe$ *ou sai# that there was $o !o!ular /ustice agai$st /ustice& it ha!!e$s at a$other level altogether) 4

$i'hel Fou'aul): +$ m* view& what comes to light "e$eath the hatre# which the !eo!le have for the /u#icial s*stem& /u#ges& tri"u$als& !riso$s& etc)& is $ot o$l* the i#ea of some other& "etter /ustice& "ut first a$# foremost the !erce!tio$ of a si$gular !oi$t where !ower is exercise# to the #etrime$t of the !eo!le) The a$ti(/u#icial struggle is a struggle agai$st !ower& a$# i$ m* o!i$io$ it0s $ot a struggle agai$st i$/ustice& agai$st the i$/ustice of the /u#icial s*stem& $or is it for a /u#icial i$stitutio$ that woul# wor' more efficie$tl*) 7till& is$0t it stri'i$g that ever* time there are riots& revolts a$#

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se#itio$s& the /u#icial a!!aratus has come u$#er fire& i$ the same wa* a$# at the same time as the fiscal a!!aratus& the arm*& a$# the other forms of !ower@ A* h*!othesis& "ut it0s /ust a h*!othesis& is that !o!ular tri"u$als& for exam!le& those #uri$g the Bevolutio$& have "ee$ a wa* for the lower mi##le class& i$ allia$ce with the masses& to recu!erate a$# har$ess the moveme$t u$leashe# "* the struggle agai$st the /u#icial s*stem) To har$ess it& the* !ro!ose# this s*stem of tri"u$als& which #efers to a /ustice that coul# "e /ust& to a /u#ge that coul# !ro$ou$ce a /ust se$te$ce) The ver* form of the tri"u$al "elo$gs to a$ i#eolog* of/ustice which is a "ourgeois i#eolog*)

Gilles Deleu e: +f we loo' at to#a*0s situatio$& !ower $ecessaril* has a glo"al or total visio$) :hat + mea$ is that ever* form of re!ressio$ to#a*& a$# the* are multi!le& is easil* totali e#& s*stemati e# from the !oi$t of view of !ower2 the racist re!ressio$ agai$st immigra$ts& the re!ressio$ i$ factories& the re!ressio$ i$ schools a$# teachi$g& a$# the re!ressio$ of *outh i$ ge$eral) :e must$0t loo' for the u$it* of these forms of re!ressio$ o$l* i$ reactio$ to Aa* 068& "ut more so i$ a co$certe# !re!aratio$ a$# orga$i atio$ co$cer$i$g our imme#iate future) 9a!italism i$ %ra$ce is #ro!!i$g its li"eral& !ater$alistic mas' of full em!lo*me$t6 it #es!eratel* $ee#s a 1reserve1 of u$em!lo*e# wor'ers) +t0s from this va$tage !oi$t that u$it* ca$ "e fou$# i$ the forms of re!ressio$ + alrea#* me$tio$e#2 the limi tatio$ of immigratio$& o$ce it0s u$#erstoo# that we0re leavi$g the har#est a$# lowest !a*i$g /o"s to them6 the re!ressio$ i$ factories& "ecause $ow it0s all a"out o$ce agai$ givi$g the %re$ch a taste for har# wor'6 the struggle agai$st *outh a$# the re!ressio$ i$ schools a$# teachi$g& "ecause !olice re!ressio$ must "e all the more active $ow that there is less $ee# for *ou$g !eo!le o$ the /o" mar'et) =ver* categor* of !rofessio$al is goi$g to "e urge# to exercise !olice fu$ctio$s which are more a$# more !recise2 !rofessors& !s*chiatrists& e#ucators of all stri!es& etc) ;ere we see somethi$g *ou !re#icte# a lo$g time ago& a$# which we #i#$0t thi$' !ossi"le2 the glo"al rei$forceme$t of the structures of im!riso$me$t) 7o& face# with such a glo"al !olitics of !ower& our res!o$se is local2 cou$ter(attac's& #efe$sive fire& a$ active a$# sometimes !reve$tative #efe$se) :e must$0t totali e what is totali a"le o$l* "* !ower& a$# which we coul# totali e o$l* "* restori$g the re!rese$tative forms of ce$tralism a$# hierarch*) 8$ the other ha$#& what we must #o is fi$# a wa* to create lateral co$$ectio$s& a s*stem of $etwor's& a grass roots "ase) .$# that is what is so #ifficult) +$ a$* case& realit* for us #oes $ot !ass through the usual !olitical cha$$els i$ the tra#itio$al se$se& i)e) com!etitio$ a$# the #istri"utio$ of !ower& li'e the so(calle# re!rese$tative authorities of the %re$ch 9ommu$ist <art* or the %re$ch Tra#e E$io$) Bealit* is what is actuall* goi$g o$ i$ a factor*& a school& a "arrac's& a !riso$& a !olice statio$) 9o$se?ue$tl*& actio$ there e$tails a t*!e of i$formatio$ of a$other $ature altogether tha$ what !asses for i$formatio$ i$ the !a!ers ,such as the t*!e of i$formatio$ we get from 4i"eratio$ <ress .ge$ts-)

$i'hel Fou'aul): Does$0t this #ifficult*& the trou"le we have fi$#i$g a#e?uate forms of struggle& #erive i$ large measure from the fact that we still #o$0t '$ow what !ower is@ .fter all& we ha# to wait till the $i$etee$th(ce$tur* "efore we '$ew what ex!loitatio$ was& a$# ma*"e we still #o$0t reall* '$ow what !ower is) Aa*"e "oth Aarx a$# %reu# are $ot e$ough to hel! us come to '$ow this thi$g which is so e$igmatic& at o$ce visi"le a$# i$visi"le& o!e$ a$# hi##e$& i$veste# ever*where& this thi$g we call !ower) The theor* of the 7tate& the tra#itio$al a$al*sis of 7tate a!!aratuses certai$l* #o $ot exhaust the fiel# i$ which !ower fu$ctio$s a$# is exercise#) This is to#a*0s great

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u$'$ow$2 who exercises !ower@ a$# where@ To#a*& we '$ow more or less who #oes the ex!loiti$g& where the !rofit goes& i$to whose ha$#s& a$# where it gets rei$veste#& whereas !ower))) :e '$ow ver* well that !ower is $ot i$ the ha$#s of those who gover$) >ut the $otio$ of 1ruli$g class1 is $either clear $or well #evelo!e#) There is a whole loosel* '$it grou! of $otio$s that $ee# a$al*sis2 1#omi$ate&1 1ma$age&1 1gover$&1 1state a!!aratus&1 1!art*&1 etc) 7imilarl*& we $ee# to lear$ /ust how far !ower exte$#s& through which rela*s& #ow$ to the smallest i$sta$ces of hierarch*& co$trol& surveilla$ce& !rohi"itio$s& co$strai$ts) <ower is "ei$g exercise# wherever we fi$# it) 5o o$e !erso$& !ro!erl* s!ea'i$g& hol#s it6 a$# *et it is alwa*s exercise# i$ o$e #irectio$ a$# $ot a$other& "* this grou! i$ this case& "* this other grou! i$ this other case) :e #o$0t reall* '$ow who has !ower& "ut we #o '$ow who #oes$0t) +f rea#i$g *our "oo's ,starti$g with Niet(sc e a$# i$ a$tici!atio$ of &apita'ism and Sc i(op renia$ has "ee$ so crucial for me& it0s "ecause the* seem to go a lo$g wa* towar# setti$g u! this !ro"lem2 usi$g ol# themes li'e mea$i$g a$# se$se& sig$ifier a$# sig$ifie#& etc)& to !ose the ?uestio$s of !ower& the i$e?ualit* of !owers& a$# their struggle) =ver* struggle #evelo!s arou$# a !articular focal !oi$t of !ower ,o$e of the i$$umera"le focal !oi$ts such as a "oss& a securit* guar#& a !riso$ war#e$& a /u#ge& a u$io$ re!rese$tative& a $ews!a!er0s e#itor(i$(chief-) .$# if !oi$ti$g out these focal !oi$ts of !ower& #e$ou$ci$g them as such& tal'i$g a"out them i$ a !u"lic forum& co$stitutes a struggle& it0s $ot "ecause !eo!le were u$aware of them& it0s "ecause s!ea'i$g u! o$ this to!ic& "rea'i$g i$to the $etwor' of i$stitutio$al i$formatio$& $ami$g a$# sa*i$g who #i# what& is alrea#* tur$i$g the ta"les o$ !ower& it0s a first ste! for other struggles agai$st !ower) +f ma'i$g a s!eech is alrea#* a struggle& li'e those ma#e "* the me#ical #octors who wor' i$ !riso$s or "* the i$mates themselves& it0s "ecause such a$ actio$ mome$taril* co$fiscates the !riso$0s !ower to s!ea'& which is i$ realit* co$trolle# exclusivel* "* the a#mi$istratio$ a$# its accessories& the reformers) The #iscourse of struggle is $ot o!!ose# to the u$co$scious& it0s o!!ose# to the secret) This seems a let #ow$& "ut what if the secret were worth much more@ . whole series of e?uivocatio$s co$cer$i$g what is 1hi##e$&1 1re!resse#&1 1u$s!o'e$&1 e$a"les a chea! 1!s*choa$al*sis1 of what shoul# "e the o"/ect of !olitical struggle) The secret is !erha!s more #ifficult to "ri$g to light tha$ the u$co$scious) The two themes which o$l* *ester#a* we came across o$ce agai$& that 1writi$g is the re!resse#1 a$# that 1writi$g is "* rights su"versive&1 i$ m* o!i$io$ "etra* several o!eratio$s which must "e severel* critici e#)

Gilles Deleu e: ."out the !ro"lem *ou /ust raise#2 that we see who #oes the ex!loiti$g& who !rofits& who gover$s& "ut !ower is still somethi$g rather #iffuse3 + woul# offer the followi$g h*!othesis2 eve$ Aarxism& es!eciall* Aarxism& has !ose# the !ro"lem i$ terms of i$terest ,it is a ruli$g class& #efi$e# "* its i$terests& that hol#s the !ower-) 7u##e$l*& we ru$ smac' i$to the ?uestio$2 how #oes it ha!!e$ that those who have little sta'e i$ !ower follow& $arrowl* es!ouse& or gra" for some !iece of !ower@ <erha!s it has to #o with investments, as much eco$omic as u$co$scious2 there exist i$vestme$ts of #esire which ex!lai$ that o$e ca$ if $ecessar* #esire $ot agai$st o$e0s i$terest& si$ce i$terest alwa*s follows a$# a!!ears wherever #esire !laces it& "ut #esire i$ a wa* that is #ee!er a$# more #iffuse tha$ o$e0s i$terest) :e must "e willi$g to hear Beich0s cr*2 5o& the masses were $ot foole#& the* wa$te# fascism at a !articular mome$tO There are certai$ i$vestme$ts of #esire that sha!e !ower& a$# #iffuse it& such that !ower is locate# as much at the level of a co! as that of a !rime mi$ister2 there is a"solutel* $o #iffere$ce i$ $ature "etwee$ the !ower wiel#e# "* a co! a$# that wiel#e# "* a !oliticia$) +t is !recisel* the $ature of the i$vestme$ts of #esire that ex!lai$s wh* !arties or u$io$s& which woul# or shoul# have revolutio$ar* i$vestme$ts i$ the $ame of class i$terest& all too ofte$ have i$vestme$ts which are reformist or totall* reactio$ar* at the level of #esire)

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$i'hel Fou'aul): .s *ou !oi$t out& the relatio$shi!s amo$g #esire& !ower& a$# i$terest are more com!lex tha$ we or#i$aril* imagi$e& a$# it is $ot $ecessaril* those who exercise !ower that have a$ i$terest i$ exercisi$g it6 those who have a$ i$terest i$ exercisi$g it #o$0t $ecessaril*& a$# the #esire of !ower !la*s a game "etwee$ !ower a$# i$terest which is ?uite si$gular) :he$ fascism comes i$to !la*& it ha!!e$s that the masses wa$t !articular !eo!le to exercise !ower& "ut those !articular !eo!le are $ot to "e co$fuse# with the masses& si$ce !ower will "e exercise# on the masses a$# at their ex!e$se& all the wa* to their #eath& sacrifice& a$# massacre& a$# *et the masses wa$t it& the* wa$t this !ower to "e exercise#) The !la* of #esire& !ower a$# i$terest is still relativel* u$'$ow$) +t too' a lo$g time to '$ow what ex!loitatio$ was) .$# #esire& it has "ee$ a$# !romises still to "e a le$gth* affair) +t0s !ossi"le that the struggles $ow u$#er wa*& a$# the local& regio$al& #isco$ti$uous theories "ei$g ela"orate# i$ the course of these struggles& a$# which are a"solutel* of a !iece with them& are /ust "egi$$i$g to u$cover the wa* i$ which !ower is exercise#)

Gilles Deleu e: 7o I come "ac' to the ?uestio$2 to#a*0s tevolutio$ar* moveme$t has multi!le focal !oi$ts& a$# this is$0t a wea'$ess& it is$0t a #eficie$c*& si$ce a !articular totali atio$ "elo$gs rather to !ower a$# its reactio$6 Hiet$am& for exam!le& is a formi#a"le local res!o$se) >ut how #o *ou view the $etwor's& the tra$sversal co$$ectio$s "etwee$ #isco$ti$uous active !oi$ts from o$e cou$tr* to a$other or withi$ the same cou$tr*@

$i'hel Fou'aul): This geogra!hic #isco$ti$uit* *ou0ve me$tio$e# !erha!s mea$s that the mome$t we struggle agai$st ex!loitatio$& the !roletariat $ot o$l* lea#s the struggle "ut #efi$es the targets& metho#s& !laces a$# i$strume$ts of struggle6 to ma'e a$ allia$ce with the !roletariat is to em"race its !ositio$s& its i#eolog*6 we effectivel* assume the motivatio$s of its fight) :e all melt together) >ut if we choose to struggle agai$st !ower& the$ all those who suffer the a"uses of !ower& all those who recog$i e !ower as i$tolera"le& ca$ e$gage i$ the struggle wherever the* ha!!e$ to "e a$# accor#i$g to their ow$ activit* or !assivit*) >* e$gagi$g i$ this struggle which is their ow$ ,the* are !erfectl* familiar with its targets& a$# the* themselves #etermi$e the metho#s-& these !eo!le e$ter the revolutio$ar* !rocess3as allies of the !roletariat& of course& si$ce !ower is exercise# i$ the wa* that mai$tai$s ca!italist ex!loitatio$) These !eo!le trul* serve the cause of the !roletariat revolutio$ "* fighti$g !recisel* at that !oi$t where the* suffer o!!res ( sio$) :ome$& !riso$ers& co$scri!ts& homosexuals& the sic' i$ hos!itals have& as we s!ea'& each "egu$ a s!ecific struggle agai$st the !articular form of !ower& co$strai$t& co$trol "ei$g exercise# over them) 7uch struggles "elo$g to the revolutio$ar* moveme$t to#a*& !rovi#e# the* are ra#ical& without com!romise or reformism& !rovi#e# the* #o $ot attem!t to rea#/ust the same !ower through& at most& a cha$ge of lea#ershi!) .$# these moveme$ts are co$$ecte# to the revolutio$ar* moveme$t of the !roletariat itself i$sofar as the !roletariat must fight ever* co$trol a$# co$strai$t which are the co$#uits of !ower ever*where)

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+$ other wor#s& the ge$eralit* of the struggle most certai$l* #oes $ot occur i$ the form *ou me$tio$e# "efore2 theoretical totali atio$ i$ the form of the 1truth)1 :hat co$stitutes the ge$eralit* of the struggle is the s*stem of !ower itself& all the forms i$ which it is exercise# a$# a!!lie#) Gilles Deleu e: .$# o$e ca$$ot ma'e the slightest #ema$# whatsoever o$ a$* !oi$t of a!!licatio$ without "ei$g co$fro$te# "* the #iffuse whole& such that as soo$ as *ou #o& *ou are $ecessaril* le# to a #esire to ex!lo#e it) =ver* !artial revolutio$ar* attac' or #efe$se i$ this wa* co$$ects u! with the struggle of the wor'i$g class

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Bemar2s (on :ean-&rangois (yotard ;

4*otar#0s "oo' is at o$ce #is!erse#& fl*i$g off i$ ever* #irectio$& a$# *et as self( co$tai$e# as a$ egg) The text is "oth full of ga!s a$# tight& "oth a#rift a$# moore#) #iscours, .igure8 the figures& eve$ the illustratio$s& are a$ i$tegral !art of the #iscourse6 the* sli! i$to the #iscourse& while the #iscourse tur$s "ac' o$ the o!eratio$s that ma'e figures !ossi"le) This "oo' is "uilt o$ two heteroge$eous ex!a$ses that #o $ot mirror o$e a$other& though the* #o assure a free circulatio$ of writi$g e$erg* ,or #esire@-) .$ egg& a varia"le i$terior i$ the mi##le& o$ a mo"ile surface) . schi o("oo' which through its com!lex tech$i?ue& achieves the highest #egree of clarit*) 4i'e ever* great "oo'& #ifficult to write& "ut $ot #ifficult to rea#)

The im!orta$ce of this "oo' is that it mar's the first ge$erali e# criti?ue of the signifier% +t tac'les this $otio$ which for so lo$g has exerte# a 'i$# of terrorism i$ literature& a$# has eve$ co$tami$ate# art or our com!rehe$sio$ of art) %i$all*& a little fresh air i$ those must* s!aces) The "oo' shows how the sig$ifi( er(sig$ifie# relatio$ is sur!asse# i$ two #irectio$s2 1- Towar#s the exterior& o$ the si#e of #esig$atio$& "* those figure(images& "ecause it is $ot wor#s that are sig$s& "ut the* ma'e sig$s with the o"/ects the* #esig$ate& whose i#e$tit* the* "rea' o!e$ to #iscover a hi##e$ co$te$t& a$other face which we will $ot "e a"le to see& "ut which *et will ma'e us 1see1 the wor# ,+ am thi$'i$g of those "eautiful !ages o$ #a$ce as #esig$atio$& a$# the visi"ilit* of the wor#& the wor# as visi"le thi$g& as #isti$ct from "oth its legi"ilit* a$# its au#itio$-6 "ut the sig$ifier(sig$ifie# relatio$ is agai$ sur!asse# i$ a$other wa*2 2- Towar#s the i$terior of #iscourse& "* a% pure figura' which u!sets the co#e# ga!s of the sig$ifier& wor's its wa* i$to them& a$# there la"ors u$#er the co$#itio$s of the i#e$tit* of their eleme$ts ,the !ages o$ the #ream wor'& which violates the or#er of s!eech a$# crum!les the text& creati$g $ew u$ities that are $ot li$guistic& li'e so ma$* re"uses u$#er hierogl*!hics-)

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4*otar#0s "oo' o$ ever* !age !artici!ates i$ a$ a$ti(#ialectic that !erforms a total reversal of the figure(sig$ifier relatio$) +t is $ot the figures that #e!e$# o$ the sig$ifier a$# its effects6 o$ the co$trar*& it is the sig$if*i$g chai$ that #e!e$#s o$ figural effects& creati$g varia"le co$figuratio$s of images with $o$(figurative figures& causi$g li$es to flow a$# "rea'i$g them accor#i$g to si$gular !oi$ts& crushi$g a$# twisti$g sig$ifiers as well as sig$ifie#s) .$# 4*otar# #oes $ot eve$ sa* all this& he shows it& he ma'es us see it& he ma'es it visi"le a$# mo"ile2 a #estructio$ of i#e$tities that carries us off o$ a !rofou$# /our$e*) 1

3e"e-=e and <-attari &ight 9a72$$$

$auri'e Na*eau: Gilles Deleu e a$# %elix Guattari woul# ver* much li'e to "egi$ this rou$#( ta"le "* ta'i$g *our ?uestio$s) + woul# /ust as' them to ex!lai$ "riefl* the thesis of their "oo'& a$# the$ tell us how the* carrie# out their colla"oratio$)

Feli% Gua))ari: This colla"oratio$ is $ot the !ro#uct of a sim!le meeti$g of two i$#ivi#uals) .si#e from a variet* of circumsta$ces& there was a whole !olitical co$text that le# u! to it) +$itiall*& it was less a ?uestio$ of !ooli$g our '$owle#ge tha$ a$ accumulatio$ of our u$certai$ties6 we were co$fuse# a"out the tur$ of eve$ts after Aa* 068)

:e "oth "elo$g to that ge$eratio$ whose !olitical co$scious$ess awo'e #uri$g the 4i"eratio$& i$ the e$thusiasm a$# $aivete a$# the co$s!irac* m*ths of fascism that came with it) .lso& the ?uestio$s left u$a$swere# "* the a"orte# revolutio$ i$ Aa* 068 #evelo!e# i$ a cou$ter( !oi$t that we fou$# trou"li$g2 we were worrie#& li'e ma$* others& a"out the future "ei$g !re!are# for us "* those si$gi$g the h*m$s of a $ewl* ma#e(over fascism that woul# ma'e *ou wish for the 5a is of the ol# #a*s)

241

D=7=BT +74.5D7 .5D 8T;=B T=KT7

8ur starti$g !oi$t was to co$si#er how #uri$g these crucial !erio#s& somethi$g alo$g the or#er of #esire was ma$ifeste# throughout the societ* as a whole& a$# the$ was re!resse#& li?ui#ate#& as much "* the gover$me$t a$# !olice as "* the !arties a$# so(calle# wor'ers u$io$s a$#& to a certai$ exte$t& the leftist orga$i atio$s as well).$# certai$l* we woul# have to go wa* "ac' i$ histor*O The histor* of "etra*e# revolutio$s& "etra*i$g the #esires of the masses& is ?uite sim!l* the histor* of the wor'ers moveme$t) :hose fault is that@ >eria0s@ 7tali$0s@ Fruschev0s@ This was $ot the !rogram& orga$i atio$& allia$ce we ho!e# for) Aarx was$0t rea# sufficie$tl* i$ the origi$al))) 8"viousl*) >ut this "rute fact remai$s2 the revolutio$ was !ossi"le& the socialist revolutio$ was withi$ reach) +t trul* exists a$# is $ot some m*th that has "ee$ i$vali#ate# "* the tra$sformatio$s of i$#ustrial societies)

Give$ the right co$#itio$s& the masses ex!ress a revolutio$ar* will) Their #esires clear awa* all o"stacles a$# o!e$ u! $ew hori o$s) >ut the last to reali e it are the orga$i atio$s a$# lea#ers who are su!!ose# to re!rese$t them) 9learl*O >ut the$ wh* #o the masses !a* them a$* mi$#@ 9oul# it "e the result of a$ u$co$scious com!licit*& a$ i$ter$ali atio$ of re!ressio$ that wor's i$ successive stages& from <ower to the "ureaucrats& from the "ureaucrats to the milita$ts& a$# from the milita$ts to the masses themselves@ This is what we wit$esse# after Aa* 068)

%ortu$atel*& the attem!t to recu!erate a$# "rai$wash the masses has s!are# some te$s of thousa$#s3ma*"e more 3who are $ow immu$e to the ill effects of "ureaucracies of all 'i$#s& a$# who i$te$# to retaliate agai$st the re!ressive #irt* tric's of !ower a$# its "osses& agai$st their ma$euvers of #ialogue& !artici!atio$& a$# i$tegratio$& which rel* o$ the com!licit* of tra#itio$al wor'ers orga$i atio$s)

.#mitte#l*& the curre$t attem!ts to re$ew forms of !o!ular struggle are #ifficult to wrest from the gri! of "ore#om a$# revolutio$ar* "o*(scouts who& to sa* the least& are $ot too co$cer$e# with a s*stematic li"eratio$ of #esireO 1DesireO That0s all *ou ever tal' a"outO1 This ruffles the feathers of the serious t*!es& the res!o$si"le milita$ts) :e are certai$l* $ot goi$g to suggest that #esire "e ta'e$ seriousl*) :e woul# much rather u$#ermi$e the s!irit of serious$ess& "egi$$i$g with the #omai$ of theoretical i$?uir*) . theor* of #esire i$ histor* shoul# "e !rese$te# as somethi$g $ot too serious) .$# from this sta$#!oi$t& !erha!s Anti-Oedipus is still too serious a "oo'& too i$timi#ati$g) The wor' of theor* shoul# $o lo$ger "e the "usi$ess of s!ecialists) The #esire of a theor* a$# its !ro!ositio$s shoul# stic' as closel* as !ossi"le to the eve$t a$# the ex!ressio$ of the masses) To achieve this& we must '$it a $ew "ree# of i$tellectual& a $ew "ree# of a$al*st& a $ew "ree# of milita$t2 "le$#i$g the #iffere$t t*!es a$# ru$$i$g them together)

242

:e starte# with the i#ea that #esire must $ot "e co$ceive# as a su"/ective su!erstructure that is more or less occlu#e#) Desire $ever sto!s i$vesti$g histor*& eve$ i$ its #ar'est !erio#s) The Germa$ masses ha# come to #esire 5a ism) .fter :ilhelm Beich& we ca$$ot avoi# comi$g to gri!s with this fact) E$#er certai$ co$#itio$s& the #esire of the masses ca$ tur$ agai$st their ow$ i$terests) :hat are those co$#itio$s@ That is the ?uestio$)

D=4=ER= .5D GE.0+T.B+ %+G;T >.9F)

To formulate a$ a$swer& we reali e# that we coul#$0t /ust hoo' a %reu#ia$ e$gi$e u! to the Aarxist(4e$i$ist trai$) :e first ha# to u$#o a stereot*!ical hierarch* "etwee$ a$ o!a?ue eco$omic i$frastructure a$# social(i#eological su!erstructures co$ceive# i$ such a wa* that the* co$fi$e the ?uestio$s of sex a$# ex!ressio$ to re!rese$tatio$& as far awa* from !ro#uctio$ as !ossi"le) The relatio$s of !ro#uctio$ a$# those of re!ro#uctio$ !artici!ate i$ the same !airi$g of !ro#uctive forces a$# a$ti(!ro#uctive structures) :e wa$te# to move #esire i$to the i$frastructure& o$ the si#e of !ro#uctio$& while we move# the famil*& the ego& a$# the i$#ivi#ual o$ the si#e of a$ti(!ro#uctio$) This is the o$l* wa* to e$sure that sexualit* is $ot com!letel* cut off from the eco$om*)

+$ our view& there exists a #esiri$g !ro#uctio$ !rior to a$* actuali atio$ i$ the familial #ivisio$ of the sexes a$# i$#ivi#uals or i$ the social #ivisio$ of la"or& a$# this !ro#uctio$ i$vests the #iverse forms of the !ro#uctio$ of !leasure as well as the structures i$te$#e# to re!ress them) Though it o"e*s #iffere$t regimes& the #esiri$g e$erg* fou$# i$ the revolutio$ar* as!ect of histor*3with the wor'i$g class& the scie$ces a$# the arts3is the same as that fou$# i$ the as!ect of ex!loitatio$ a$# how it relates to 7tate !ower) >oth as!ects !resu!!ose the u$co$scious !artici!atio$ of the o!!resse#)

+f it is true that the social revolutio$ is i$se!ara"le from a revolutio$ of #esire& the$ this cha$ges the ?uestio$) :e $ow must as'2 what co$#itio$s will e$a"le the revolutio$ar* ava$t(gar#e to free itself from its u$co$scious com!licit* i$ re!ressive structures& a$# u$#ermi$e <ower0s ma$i!ulatio$s of the #esire of the masses who 1fight for their servitu#e as though it were their salvatio$1@ +f the famil* a$# the i#eologues of the famil* have a crucial role to !la* here& as we "elieve the* #o& the$ o$e ca$$ot overestimate the fu$ctio$ of !s*choa$al*sis i$ this res!ect& si$ce it was the first to raise these ?uestio$s3a$# the first to stifle them& !rivilegi$g i$stea# the mo#er$ m*th of familial re!ressio$ through 8e#i!us a$# castratio$)

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D=7=BT +74.5D7 .5D 8T;=B T=KT7

To ma'e !rogress i$ this #irectio$& we feel it $ecessar* to a"a$#o$ a$ a!!roach to the u$co$scious through $eurosis a$# the famil*& a$# to a#o!t i$stea# a$ a!!roach more s!ecific to the schi o!hre$ic !rocess of #esiri$g( machi$es3a$# this !rocess has little to #o with i$stitutio$ali e# ma#$ess)

%rom that !oi$t o$& a milita$t struggle "ecomes im!erative agai$st re#uctive ex!la$atio$s& agai$st the a#a!tive tech$i?ues of suggestio$ "ase# o$ the 8e#i!al tria$gle) This e$tails givi$g u! o$ the com!ulsive gras!i$g after a total o"/ect& s*m"olic of ever* #es!otism) +t e$tails goi$g over to the si#e of real multi!licities& a$# ceasi$g to o!!ose huma$ "ei$gs to machi$e& whose relatio$shi! i$ fact co$stitutes #esire) +t e$tails !romoti$g a$ other logic2 a logic of real #esire which esta"lishes the !rimac* of histor* over structure) +t e$tails !romoti$g a whole other a$al*sis #ise$ta$gle# from s*m"olism a$# i$ter!retatio$& as well as a whole other milita$ c* with the mea$s to free itself from the fa$tasies of the #omi$a$t or#er)

Gilles Deleu e: .s for the tech$ical si#e of writi$g the "oo'& the two of us wor'i$g together was $ot a !ro"lem& "ut it #i# serve a !recise fu$ctio$& as we came to reali e) 8$e thi$g is rather shoc'i$g a"out "oo's of !s*chiatr* or eve$ !s*choa$al*sis& a$# that is the !ervasive #ualit* "etwee$ what a$ allege# me$tal !atie$t sa*s a$# what the #octor re!orts3"etwee$ the 1case1 a$# the comme$tar* o$ the case& the a$al*sis of the case) +t0s logos agai$st !athos2 the me$tal !atie$t is su!!ose# to sa* somethi$g& a$# the #octor sa*s what it mea$s i$ terms of s*m!toms or se$se) This allows what the !atie$t sa*s to "e crushe#) +t0s h*!ocriticall* selective)

5ow we #i#$0t thi$' for a mi$ute of writi$g a ma#ma$0s "oo'& "ut we #i# write a "oo' i$ which *ou $o lo$ger '$ow who is s!ea'i$g2 there is $o "asis for '$owi$g whether it0s a #octor& a !atie$t& or some !rese$t& !ast& or future ma#ma$ s!ea'i$g)

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This is !recisel* wh* we use# so ma$* writers a$# !oets2 *ou woul# have to "e reall* clever to #eci#e whether the* s!ea' as me$tal !atie$ts or #octors3me$tal !atie$ts a$# #octors of civili atio$) 7tra$gel* e$ough& if we trie# to get "e*o$# this tra#itio$al #ualit*& it0s "ecause there were two of us writi$g) 5either of us was the ma#ma$& a$# $either the #octor2 there ha# to "e two of us if we were to u$cover a !rocess that woul# $ot "e re#uci"le to the !s*chiatrist a$# his me$tal !atie$t& or to the me$tal !atie$t a$# his !s*chiatrist)
D=4=ER= .5D GE.0+T.B+ %+G;T >.9F)

This !rocess is what we call a f'ow% >ut& agai$& flow is a$ ever*#a*& u$?ualifie# $otio$ that we $ee#e#) +t ca$ "e a flow of wor#s& a flow of i#eas& a flow of shit& a flow of mo$e*) +t ca$ "e a fi$a$cial mecha$ism or a schi o!hre$ic machi$e2 it sur!asses all #ualit*) :e imagi$e# this "oo' as a flow("oo')

$auri'e Na*eau: +$#ee#& i$ *our first cha!ter& there is this $otio$ of a 1#esiri$g( machi$e&1 which is o"scure to the la*ma$ a$# $ee#s to "e #efi$e#) =s!eciall* si$ce it a$swers ever*thi$g& suffices for ever*thi$g)))

Gilles Deleu e: Nes& we0ve give$ the $otio$ of machi$e its maximum exte$sio$2 i$ relatio$ to flows) :e #efi$e the machi$e as a$* s*stem that i$terru!ts flows) 7o& sometimes we0re referri$g to tech$ological machi$es& i$ the or#i$ar* se$se of the wor#& a$# sometimes to social machi$es& a$# sometimes to #esiri$g( machi$es) +$ our view& the machi$e is $ot o!!ose# to huma$it* or $ature ,*ou woul# reall* have to !ersua#e us that the forms a$# relatio$s of !ro#uctio$ are $ot machi$es-) %urthermore& machi$e is $ot re#uci"le to mecha$ism) Aecha$ism serves to #esig$ate s!ecific !rocesses i$ certai$ tech$ological machi$es& or else a s!ecific orga$i atio$ of a livi$g "ei$g) >ut mac inism is totall* #iffere$t2 agai$& it is a$* s*stem that i$terru!ts flows& a$# it goes "e*o$# "oth the mecha$ism of tech$olog* a$# the orga$i atio$ of the livi$g "ei$g& whether i$ $ature& societ*& or huma$ "ei$gs) . #esiri$g(machi$e is a $o$(orga$ic s*stem of the "o#*& a$# this is what we mea$ whe$ we tal' a"out molecular machi$es or micro(machi$es)

245

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Aore s!ecificall*& i$ refere$ce to !s*choa$al*sis& we have two criticisms2 1- !s*choa$al*sis #oes $ot u$#ersta$# what #elirium is& "ecause it #oes $ot see how #elirium i$vests the social fiel# i$ its wi#est exte$sio$6 a$# 2- it #oes $ot u$#ersta$# that this is #esire& "ecause it fails to gras! that the u$co$scious is a factor*& a$# $ot a theatre) +f !s*choa$al*sis misu$#ersta$#s "oth #elirium a$# #esire& what is left@ These two criticisms are o$e a$# the same2 we0re i$tereste# i$ the !rese$ce of #esiri$g(machi$es& molecular micro(machi$es a$# the large molar social machi$es 3how the* i$teract a$# wor' in o$e a$other)

Ra7hael Pi>i*al: +f *ou0re goi$g to #efi$e *our "oo' i$ terms of #esire& + wa$t to '$ow how this "oo' re!o$#s to #esire) :hich #esire@ :hose #esire@

Gilles Deleu e: +t0s $ot as a "oo' that it coul# res!o$# to #esire& "ut o$l* i$ relatio$ to what surrou$#s it) . "oo' is $ot worth much o$ its ow$) +t0s alwa*s a ?uestio$ of flow2 there are ma$* !eo!le #oi$g similar wor' i$ other fiel#s) .$# there are the *ou$ger ge$eratio$s& too) + #ou"t the* will "u* the curre$t t*!e of #iscourse& at o$ce e!istemological& !s*choa$al*tical& a$# i#eological& which is "egi$$i$g to wear thi$ with ever*o$e)

:hat we0re sa*i$g is this2 ta'e a#va$tage of 8e#i!us a$# castratio$ while *ou still ca$& it wo$0t last forever) E$til $ow !s*choa$al*sis has "ee$ s!are#2 !s*chiatr* was attac'e#& alo$g with the !s*chiatric hos!ital) <s*choa$al*sis seeme# u$toucha"le a$# u$com!romise#) >ut we wa$t to show that !s*choa$al*sis is worse tha$ the hos!ital& !recisel* "ecause it o!erates i$ the !ores of ca!italist societ* a$# $ot i$ the s!ecial !laces of co$fi$eme$t) .$# that it0s !rofou$#l* reactio$ar* i$ theor* a$# !ractice& $ot /ust i#eologicall*) <s*choa$al*sis fulfils !recise fu$ctio$s i$ this societ*)

%elix thi$'s our "oo' is a##resse# to !eo!le who are $ow somewhere "etwee$ the ages of seve$ a$# fiftee$) +#eall* so& "ecause the fact is the "oo' is still too #ifficult& too cultivate#& a$# ma'es too ma$* com!romises) :e

246

were$0t a"le to ma'e it clearer a$# more #irect) ;owever& +0ll /ust !oi$t out that the first cha!ter& which ma$* favora"le rea#ers have sai# is too #ifficult& #oes $ot re?uire a$* !rior '$owle#ge) +$ a$* case& a "oo' res!o$#s to a #esire o$l* "ecause there are ma$* other !eo!le fe# u! with a curre$t t*!e of #iscourse) 7o& it is o$l* "ecause the "oo' !ar ( tici!ates i$ a larger reshuffli$g& a reso$a$ce "etwee$ research a$# #esire) . "oo' ca$ res!o$# to a #esire o$l* i$ a !olitical wa*& outsi#e the "oo') %or exam!le& a$ associatio$ of a$gr* users of !s*choa$al*sis woul#$0t "e a "a# !lace to start)
D=4=ER= .5D GE.0+T.B+ %+G;T >.9F)

Fran'ois Cha)ele): :hat stri'es me as im!orta$t here is the eru!tio$ of such a text amo$g "oo's of !hiloso!h* ,"ecause this "oo' is co$ceive# as a "oo' of !hiloso!h*-) Anti-Oedipus smashes ever*thi$g) +$ a$ exterior wa* at first& "* the ver* 1form1 of the text2 1curse wor#s1 are use# i$ the first se$te$ce& as though to !ro vo'e the rea#er) .t first *ou thi$' it ca$0t go o$& a$# the$ it #oes) There are $othi$g "ut 1cou!le# machi$es&1 a$# these 1cou!le# machi$es1 are !articularl* o"sce$e or scatological)

%urthermore& + felt this eru!tio$ as a$ eru!tio$ of materialism) +t0s "ee$ too lo$g si$ce we0ve wit$esse# such a thi$g) Aetho#olog*& + have to a#mit& is starti$g to "ug the shit out of me) The whole e$ter!rise of research a$# furtheri$g '$owle#ge is rui$e# "* the im!erialism of metho#olog*) + fell i$to the tra! m*self& so + '$ow what +0m tal'i$g a"out) .$*wa*& if + call it a materialist eru!tio$& +0m thi$'i$g !rimaril* of 4ucretius) + #o$0t '$ow if +0m flatteri$g *ou3!erha!s too much& or $ot e$ough)

Gilles Deleu e: +f it0s true& excelle$t) That woul# "e !erfect) +$ a$* case& there is $o metho#ological !ro"lem i$ our "oo') 5or a$* !ro"lem of i$ter!retatio$& "ecause the u$co$scious #oes$0t mea$ a$*thi$g) Aachi$es #o$0t mea$ a$*thi$g& the* merel* wor'& !ro#uce& "rea' #ow$) :hat we0re after is o$l* how somethi$g wor's i$ the real)

247

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5or is there a$ e!istemological !ro"lem2 we0re $ot worrie# a"out a retur$ to %reu#& or to Aarx) +f the* tell us we0ve misu$#erstoo# %reu#& we0ll sa*2 18oh well& we have too much else to #o)1 +t0s i$teresti$g how e!istemolog* has alwa*s "ee$ a cover for a$ im!ositio$ of !ower& a$ orga$i atio$ of !ower& a 'i$# of i#eological tech$ocrac* at the u$iversit* level) +$ our view& writi$g or thought has $o s!ecificit* whatsoever)

Roger Da*oun: E! to this !oi$t& the #iscussio$ has ta'e$ !lace at a 1molar1 level3to use a #ichotom* fu$#ame$tal to *our i$ter!retatio$3that is& the level of ma/or co$ce!tual schema) :e have *et to "rea' through to the 1molecular1 level& that is& the micro(a$al*ses that woul# allow us to gras! how *ou 1machi$e#1 *our wor' together) This woul# "e !articularl* useful for the a$al*sis3a schi o( a$al*sis& !erha!s@3of the !olitical !arts of *our text) +$ !articular& + woul# li'e to '$ow how fascism a$# Aa* 068& the #omi$a$t 1$ote1 of the "oo'& e$tere# i$to its ma'e(u!3$ot i$ a 1molar1 wa*& that0s too "a$al& "ut i$ a 1molecular1 wa*& i$ the ver* co$structio$ of the text)

7erge 4eclaire2 7i$ce *ou "ri$g it u!& + get the feeli$g that the "oo' is machi$e# i$ such a wa* that a$* i$terve$tio$ 1o$ a molecular level1 will "e #igeste# "* the machi$e of the "oo')

+ thi$' *our i$te$tio$ to write 1a "oo' i$ which ever* !ossi"le #ualit* woul# "e su!!resse#&1 a$ i$te$tio$ *ou /ust reaffirme#& has succee#e# "e*o$# *our wil#est #reams) The "oo' !uts *our more !erce!tive rea#ers i$ the situatio$ of a si$gle a$# u$i?ue !ers!ective that leaves them feeli$g a"sor"e#& #igeste#& "ou$#& eve$ $egate# "* the a#mira"le wor'i$gs of *our so(calle# machi$eO

7o& this is a #ime$sio$ that !u les me a$# somethi$g + woul# gla#l* as' *ou a"out2 :hat is the fu$ctio$ of this machi$e("oo'& si$ce it too seems& from the start& !erfectl* totali i$g& a"sor"i$g& i$ a wa* that i$tegrates& a"sor"s a$* ?uestio$ which we might tr* to raise@ %irst& it seems to !ut the rea#er i$ the situatio$ of feeli$g cor$ere#& "* the sim!le fact of s!ea'i$g a$# as'i$g a ?uestio$)

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:h* #o$0t we #o the ex!erime$t right $ow& if *ou #o$0t mi$#& let0s see what ha!!e$s)

D=4=ER= .5D GE.0+T.B+ %+G;T >.9F)

8$e of the esse$tial !ieces of the #esiri$g(machi$e& if + have u$#erstoo# *ou correctl*& is the 1!artial o"/ect)1 %or someo$e who has $ot *et ma$age# to stri! off the vestiges of !s*choa$al*sis& this co$ce!t sim!l* recalls a !s*choa$a ( l*tic co$ce!t& Flei$0s !artial o"/ect3eve$ if& as *ou claim with a touch of humor& *ou0re 1laughi$g at co$ce!ts)1

+$ *our use of the !artial o"/ect as a$ esse$tial !iece of the #esiri$g( machi$e& + $otice# somethi$g ver* im!orta$t2 *ou i$#ee# tr* to #efi$e it) Nou sa*2 the !artial o"/ect ca$ "e #efi$e# o$l* !ositivel*) That0s a sur!rise to me) ;ow #oes the !ositive ?ualificatio$ esse$tiall* #iffer from the $egative im!utatio$ that *ou critici e@

Aost im!orta$tl*& the least !s*choa$al*tic ex!erie$ce ma'es it clear that the !artial o"/ect ca$ "e #efi$e# o$l* 1"* #iffere$ce1 a$# 1i$ relatio$ to the sig$ifier)1

+$ this case& if + ma* sa* so& *our 1co$tra!tio$1 ca$ o$l* miss its o"/ect ,4oo'O The "a$ishe# lac' !o!s u! agai$O-2 eve$ though *our co$tra!tio$ is writte$& as a "oo' is& it claims to "e a text without a sig$ifier& a text to s!ea' the truth a"out the truth& stic'i$g close to some allege# real& to !ut it sim!l*) .s though that were !ossi"le& without a$* #ista$ce or a$* me#iatio$) . text from which all #ualit* ,i$ theor*- has "ee$ ex!u$ge#) 8F) . co$tra!tio$ of this sort ca$ have its use6 o$l* time will tell) .s for the goo# $ews it claims to "ri$g societ*& a$# much "etter tha$ !s*choa$al*sis ca$& + re!eat& *our co$tra!tio$ ca$ o$l* miss its o"/ect)

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+$ m* o!i$io$& *ou *ourselves have #isarme# *our #esiri$g(machi$e& which shoul# wor' o$l* "* "rea'i$g #ow$& through its failures a$# "ac'fires2 whereas tha$'s to this 1!ositive1 o"/ect a$# the a"se$ce of a$* #ualit*& as well as a$* lac'& it is goi$g to wor' li'e)) )a 7wiss cloc'O

%elix Guattari2 + #o$0t thi$' the o"/ect shoul# "e situate# !ositivel* or $egativel*2 *ou have to thi$' of it as !artici!ati$g i$ $o$(totali a"le multi!licities) The o"/ect is o$l* mista'e$l* i$scri"e# as a com!lete "o#* such as the "o#* !ro!er& or eve$ the fragme$te# "o#*) :he$ Cac?ues 4aca$ o!e$s u! the series of !artial o"/ects to the voice a$# the ga e& "e*o$# the "reast a$# the "uttoc's& he sig$als his refusal to close them off a$# re#uce them to the "o#*) The voice a$# the ga e esca!e the "o#*& for exam!le& as the* a$# au#iovisual machi$es "ecome i$creasi$gl* co$tiguous)

+0ll leave asi#e for $ow the ?uestio$ of how 4aca$0s !hallic fu$ctio$& i$ so far as it over(co#es each !artial o"/ect& #oes $ot give them "ac' a !articular i#e$tit*& a$# how& #istri"uti$g a lac' to each& #oes $ot call o$ a$other form of totali atio$& this time i$ the s*m"olic or#er) :hatever the case ma* "e& it seems to me that 4aca$ alwa*s strove to #ise$ta$gle the o"/ect of #esire from all totali i$g refere$ts that might threate$ it2 "egi$$i$g with the mirror(stage& the li"i#o esca!es the 1su"sta$( tialist h*!othesis1 a$# s*m"olic i#e$tificatio$ su!!la$ts a$ exclusive refere$ce to the orga$ism6 tie# #ow$ to the fu$ctio$ of s!eech a$# to the fiel# of la$guage& the #rive shatters the framewor' of those to!ics close# i$ o$ themselves& whereas the theor* of the o"/ect 1a1 !erha!s sows the #estructio$ of the sig$ifiers totalitaria$ism)

.s o"/ect 1a&1 the !artial o"/ect is #e(totali e# a$# #eterritoriali e#6 it has !erma$e$tl* #ista$ce# itself from a$* i$#ivi#uate# cor!oreit*6 a$# it is $ow i$ a !ositio$ to ti! i$ the #irectio$ of real si$gularities a$# o!e$ u! to the molecular machi$isms of ever* 'i$# that sha!e histor*)

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Gilles Deleu e: Nes& is$0t it stra$ge@ 4eclaire sa*i$g our machi$e wor's too well& that it is ca!a"le of #igesti$g a$*thi$g a$# ever*thi$g@ This is !recisel* our criticism of !s*choa$al*sis& so it0s stra$ge that a !s*choa$al*st woul# accuse us of that ver* thi$g) + me$tio$ it o$l* "ecause we have a !articular relatio$shi! to 4eclaire2 he wrote a text o$ 14a realite #u #esir12 which& !rior to our efforts& goes a lo$g wa* towar# a machi$ic u$co$scious& u$coveri$g certai$ ultimate eleme$ts of the u$co$scious that are $o lo$ger figurative or structural)
D=4=ER= .5D GE.0+T.B+ %+G;T >.9F)

>ut it seems we0re $ot i$ !erfect agreeme$t here& si$ce 4eclaire sa*s we have $o i#ea what the !artial o"/ect is) ;e sa*s it0s $ot im!orta$t to #efi$e it !ositivel* or $egativel* "ecause& $o matter what& it is alwa*s somethi$g else6 it is 1#iffere$t)1 >ut we0re $ot all that i$tereste# i$ the categor* of o"/ect& !artial or otherwise) +t is "* $o mea$s clear that #esire has a$*thi$g to #o with o"/ects) :e0re tal'i$g a"out machi$es& flows& levies& #etachme$ts& resi#ues) :e0re #oi$g a criti?ue of the !artial o"/ect) .$# certai$l* 4eclaire is right to sa* it #oes$0t matter whether the !artial o"/ect is #efi$e# !ositivel* or $egativel*) >ut he is right o$l* i$ theor*) >ecause if we exami$e how the !artial o"/ect wor's& if we as' ourselves what !s*choa$al*sis actuall* #oes with it& how !s*choa$al*sis ma'es it wor'& the$ '$owi$g whether it fulfils a !ositive or $egative fu$ctio$ is $o lo$ger a matter of i$#iffere$ce)

Nes or $o2 Does !s*choa$al*sis use the !artial o"/ect to grou$# its i#eas of lac'& a"se$ce& or the sig$ifier of a"se$ce& a$# to legitimate its o!eratio$s of castratio$@ =ve$ whe$ it i$vo'es $otio$s of #iffere$ce or the #iffere$t& !s*choa$al*sis uses the !artial o"/ect i$ a $egative wa* to wel# #esire to a fu$#ame$tal lac') This is our criti?ue2 !s*choa$al*sis has this !ious co$ce!tio$ of itself6 through lac' a$# castratio$& it ma'es itself out to "e a 'i$# of $egative theolog* which e$tails calli$g o$ i$fi$ite resig$atio$ ,the 4aw& the im!ossi"le& etc)-) This is what we o!!ose) .$# i$ its !lace we !ro!ose a !ositive co$ce!tio$ of #esire2 a #esire that !ro#uces& $ot a #esire that is lac'i$g) <s*choa$al*sts are too self(righteous)

Serge 0e'laire: I wo$0t re/ect *our criti?ue a$* more tha$ + ac'$owle#ge its !erti$e$ce) + /ust wa$t to !oi$t out that it seems to "e "ase# o$ the h*!othesis of a real which is somewhat))) totalitaria$2 $o sig$ifier& $o flaw& $o fissure& $o castratio$) +$ the e$#& o$e wo$#ers what ma'es the 1true #iffere$ce1 *ou i$vo'e "etwee$ !ages 61 a$# 99) .ccor#i$g to *ou& it must "e situate#)))let0s see& $ot "etwee$)))

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Gilles Deleu e: )))the imagi$ar* a$# the s*m"olic)))

7erge 0e'laire: ))) "ut "etwee$ the real o$ the o$e ha$#& which *ou !rese$t as the grou$#& the u$#erl*i$g eleme$t& a$# o$ the other ha$#& somethi$g li'e su!erstructures such as the imagi$ar* a$# the s*m"olic) +$ m* view& however& the ?uestio$ of 1true #iffere$ce1 is i$ fact a ?uestio$ raise# "* the !ro"lem of the o"/ect) Cust a mome$t ago& %elix& *ou "rought it u!& i$ refere$ce to 4aca$0s teachi$gs2 *ou situate# the o"/ect 1a1 i$ relatio$ to the 1ego&1 the !erso$& etc)

Feli% Gua))ari: ))) the !erso$ a$# the famil*)))

Serge 0e'laire: Nes& "ut the co$ce!t of the o"/ect 1a1 i$ 4aca$ "elo$gs i$ a fourfol# structure that i$clu#es the sig$ifier& which is #ual ,7+ a$# 72-& a$# the su"/ect ,crosse#(out 7-) True #iffere$ce& if we are goi$g to use this term& must "e situate# "etwee$ the sig$ifier o$ the o$e ha$#& a$# the o"/ect 1a1 o$ the other)

+ will co$ce#e that for !ious or im!ious reaso$s& whatever& at $o !oi$t is it a#visa"le to use the term sig$ifier) +$ a$* case& + #o$0t see how i$ this i$sta$ce *ou ca$ re/ect a$* a$# all #ualit* a$# !rivilege the o"/ect 1a1 as somehow self( sufficie$t& li'e a chea! su"stitute for a$ im!ious Go#) +$ m* view& there is $o thesis& $o !ro/ect& $o actio$ or 1co$tra!tio$1 that *ou ca$ #efe$# without i$tro#uci$g a lac' somewhere a$# ever*thi$g that it e$tails)

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Feli% Gua))ari: +0m $ot at all sure that the o"/ect 1a1 i$ 4aca$ is a$*thi$g other tha$ a va$ishi$g !oi$t& a lea'& a$ esca!e from the #es!otic character of sig$if*i$g chai$s)

D=4=ER= .5D GE.0+T.B+ %+G;T >.9F)

Serge 0e'laire: :hat i$terests me most a$# what + am tr*i$g to articulate i$ a wa* o"viousl* #iffere$t from *ours& is how #esire u$fol#s i$ the social machi$e) + #o$0t thi$' we ca$ #o without a !recise clarificatio$ of the o"/ect0s fu$ctio$) :e woul# have to s!ecif* its relatio$s to the other eleme$ts at wor' i$ the social machi$e& 1sig$if*i$g1 eleme$ts& !ro!erl* s!ea'i$g ,or if *ou !refer& s*m"olic a$# imagi$ar* eleme$ts-) These relatio$s are $ot u$i( #irectio$al) +$ other wor#s& the 1sig$if*i$g1 eleme$ts also have a$ effect o$ the o"/ect)

+f we wa$t to u$#ersta$# what is ha!!e$i$g with #esire i$ the social machi$e& we ca$$ot avoi# goi$g through the $arrow !ass which the o"/ect re!rese$ts at !rese$t) +t0s $ot e$ough to sa* ever*thi$g is #esire& *ou have to show how it ha!!e$s) 8$e last ?uestio$2 what0s the use of *our contraptionJ%

:hat relatio$ ca$ there "e "etwee$ the fasci$atio$ of a flawless machi$e a$# the ge$ui$e i$s!iratio$ of a revolutio$ar* !ro/ect@ This is the ?uestio$ +0m as'i$g& o$ the level of actio$)

Roger Da*oun: In a$* case& *our machi$e or 1co$tra!tio$1 wor's) +t wor's reall* well i$ literature2 for exam!le& it hel!s ca!ture the flow or 1schi o1 circulatio$ of .rtau#0s +e'iogaba'us- a$# it #elves #ee!er i$to the "i!olar schi oi# D !ara$oi# moveme$t of a$ author li'e Bomai$ Bolla$#6 it wor's for a !s*choa$al*sis of #reams& too3*ou '$ow& %reu#0s #ream& 1+rma0s i$/ectio$&1 which is theatrical i$ almost a tech$ical se$se& or ci$ematic& with all the stagi$g& close(u!s& etc) +t remai$s to "e see$ how well it o!erates i$ terms of chil#re$)))

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Henri Torru9ia: I wor' i$ a !s*chiatric war#& a$# + woul# li'e to u$#erli$e o$e of the ce$tral !oi$ts of *our thesis o$ schi o(a$al*sis) +$ m* view& the argume$ts *ou muster to affirm the !riorit* of social i$vestme$t a$# the !ro#uctive a$# revolutio$ar* esse$ce of #esire are trul* e*e(o!e$i$g) The* raise ge$ui$e theoretical& !ractical& a$# i#eological !ro"lems& so *ou have to "e !re!are# for a #efe$sive reactio$)

+$ a$* eve$t& em!lo*i$g a$ a$al*tic !s*cholog* i$ a !s*chiatric esta"lishme$t #ema$#s that 1each !erso$1 "e a"le to ?uestio$ the i$stitutio$al $etwor'6 otherwise& it0s a waste of time& a$# eve$ i$ the "est circumsta$ces& it #oes$0t go a$*where) +$ the curre$t climate& o$e coul# $ever ho!e to get a$*where) That "ei$g the case& whe$ever a$ esse$tial co$flict emerges somewhere& whe$ somethi$g goes awr*3which is !recisel* a$ i$#icatio$ that somethi$g at the level of #esiri$g !ro#uctio$ is a"le to ma$ifest itself a$# challe$ge the social fiel# a$# its i$stitutio$s3the$ we see a !a$ic reactio$ set i$& a$# resista$ce is orga$i e#) This resista$ce ta'es #iffere$t forms2 meeti$gs are calle# to s*$thesi e #evelo!me$ts& to coor#i$ate efforts& to sum thi$gs u!& etc) .$# i$ a much more su"tle wa*& the classical !s*choa$al*tic i$ter!retatio$ has its usual effect3crushi$g #esire& as *ou sa*)

Ra7hael Pi>i*al: +0# li'e to sa* somethi$g to 7erge 4eclaire2 *ou0ve s!o'e$ at le$gth& "ut *ou faile# to a##ress what Guattari is sa*i$g) >ecause the "oo' fu$#ame$tall* exami$es *our !rofessio$& the !ractice of a$al*sis& *ou u$#ersta$# the !ro"lem i$ a !artial wa*) Nou ac'$owle#ge the !ro"lem o$l* "* #row$i$g it i$ the /argo$ of *our theories& i$ which *ou accor# greater im!orta$ce to fetishism& that is& the !artial o"/ect) Nou hi#e "ehi$# this /argo$ to ?ui""le over #etails) =ver*thi$g i$ Anti-Oedipus that co$cer$s the "irth of the 7tate& the role of the 7tate& schi o!hre$ia& etc)& *ou !ass over i$ sile$ce) Nour #a*(to(#a* !ractice3 this& too& *ou !ass over i$ sile$ce) .$# the real !ro"lem of !s*choa$al*sis3the !atie$t3*ou !ass over i$ sile$ce) 8f course& you are $ot o$ trial here) ;owever& these are the issues *ou must a##ress2 the relatio$shi! of !s*choa$al*sis to the 7tate& to ca!italism& to histor*& a$# to schi o!hre$ia)

7erge 0e'laire: + agree with the aim *ou !ro!ose) + o$l* i$siste# o$ this o$e !recise !oi$t& the o"/ect& to em!hasi e "* a co$crete exam!le how their co$tra!tio$0s t*!e of fu$ctio$i$g is !ro#uce#)

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;avi$g sai# that& + #o$0t e$tirel* re/ect the criticism Deleu e a$# Guattari level agai$st the co$cealme$t& the crushi$g of the !s*choa$al*tic #iscover*2 i$#ee# $othi$g& or almost $othi$g& has "ee$ sai# a"out the relatio$ of !s* ( choa$al*tic !ractice or schi o!hre$ia to the !olitical or social fiel#) >ut it0s $ot e$ough to a$$ou$ce *our i$te$tio$ to #o so) +t must "e #o$e i$ a felicitous ma$$er) 8ur two authors ha# a go at it& a$# it0s their attem!t that we0re #is cussi$g here)
D=4=ER= .5D GE.0+T.B+ %+G;T >.9F)

4et me remi$# *ou of what + sai#) +$ m* view& the correct a!!roach to the !ro"lem !asses through a$ extremel* !recise corri#or2 the !lace of the o"/ect& a$# the fu$ctio$ of the #rive i$ a social formatio$)

.$# let me /ust sa* this a"out the argume$t31it wor's13a#va$ce# to #efe$# the felicit* of this machi$e& the "oo' u$#er #iscussio$) 8f course it wor'sO + was goi$g to sa* that to a certai$ exte$t& it wor's for me too) +t0s $o secret that almost a$* theoreticall* i$veste# !ractice has some cha$ce of wor'i$g& at least to "egi$ with) That is $ot i$ itself a criterio$ of success)

Roger Da*oun: 9ertai$l* a !ro"lem which *our "oo' raises is how it is goi$g to wor' !oliticall*& si$ce *ou co$ce!tuali e the !olitical #omai$ as a !rimar* 1machi$atio$)1 +t is /ust a ?uestio$ of exami$i$g the thorough$ess a$# #etail with which *ou a$al* e# the 2socius,2 es!eciall* its eth$ogra!hic a$# a$thro!ological as!ects)

<ierre 9lastres2 . !hiloso!her a$# a !s*choa$al*st& Deleu e a$# Guattari& have together !ro#uce# a reflectio$ o$ ca!italism) To thi$' a"out ca!italism& the* go through schi o!hre$ia& i$ which the* see the effect a$# the limit of our societ*) .$# to thi$' a"out schi o!hre$ia& the* go through 8e#i!al !s*choa$al*sis) >ut li'e .ttila the ;u$& there is $ot much left i$ their wa'e) >etwee$ these two& that is& "etwee$ the #escri!tio$ of familialism ,the 8e#i!al tria$gle- a$# the schi o(a$al*sis !ro/ect& *ou fi$# the largest cha!ter i$ Anti-Oedipus8 17avages& >ar"aria$s& a$# 9ivili atio$s&1 which is esse$tiall* a"out those societies which eth$ologists have tra#itio$all* stu#ie#) :hat is eth$olog* #oi$g there@

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+t e$sures the cohere$ce of their e$ter!rise "* shori$g u! their argume$t with $o$(:ester$ exam!les ,ta'i$g i$to accou$t !rimitive societies a$# "ar"aria$ em!ires-) +f the authors ha# "ee$ co$te$t to sa*2 ca!italism wor's i$ this !articular wa*& "ut other societies wor' #iffere$tl*3we woul# $ever have left the most "a$al form of com!ariso$) >ut this is $ot the case) The* show 1how the u$co$scious 0ca1 wor's #iffere$tl*)1 Anti-Oedipus is also a ge$eral theor* of societ* a$# societies) +$ other wor#s& Deleu e a$# Guattari have writte$ a"out 7avages a$# >ar"aria$s what eth$ologists u! to $ow have $ot)

+t is certai$l* true ,we #i#$0t write it& "ut we '$ew it- that the worl# of 7avages is a !lace where flows are e$co#e#2 $othi$g esca!es the co$trol of !rimitive societies& a$# if somethi$g li'e a ru$awa* trai$ occurs3it ha!!e$s 3these societies alwa*s fi$# a wa* to sto! it) +t is also true that im!erial formatio$s im!ose a$ over(e$co#i$g o$ the savage eleme$ts i$tegrate# i$to the em!ire& though without $ecessaril* #estro*i$g the e$co#i$g of the flows that !ersist at the local level for each eleme$t) The exam!le of the +$ca$ =m!ire !erfectl* illustrates Deleu e a$# Guattari0s !oi$t of view) The* sa* some i$teresti$g thi$gs a"out the s*stem of cruelt* as writi$g o$ the 7avage "o#*& a"out writi$g as a mo#e of the s*stem of terror amo$g the >ar"aria$s) + thi$' eth$ologists will feel !erfectl* at home i$ Anti-Oedipus% That #oes$0t mea$ ever*thi$g will "e acce!te# right awa*) + ca$ see there will "e some retice$ce& to sa* the least& a"out their !refere$ce for a theor* that !osits the !riorit* of a ge$ealog* of #e"t over the acce!te# structuralist theor* of excha$ge) :e might also as' whether the i#ea of =arth #oes$0t overwhelm the i#ea of territor*) +$ a$* case& Deleu e a$# Guattari are $ot laughi$g at eth$ologists2 the*0re as'i$g us real ?uestio$s& ?uestio$s to ma'e us thi$')

+s this some retur$ to a$ evolutio$ist i$ter!retatio$ of histor*@ . retur$ to Aarx& "e*o$# Aorga$@ 5ot at all) Aarxism coul# get its "eari$gs amo$g the >ar"aria$s ,the .siatic mo#e of !ro#uctio$-& "ut it $ever ?uite '$ew what to #o with 7avages) :h*@ >ecause if the Aarxist !ers!ective i$#ee# ex!lai$s the moveme$t from "ar"arism ,orie$tal #es!otism or feu#alism- to civili atio$ ,ca!italism-& it is !owerless to ex!lai$ the moveme$t from savager* to "ar ( "arism) There is $othi$g i$ territorial machi$es ,!rimitive societies- that woul# i$#icate or !refigure what comes $ext2 $o caste(s*stem& $o class& $o ex!loitatio$& $ot eve$ la"or ,if la"or is esse$tiall* alie$atio$-) 7o where #oes ;istor* come from@ .$# class(struggle@ Deterritoriali atio$& etc)@

Deleu e a$# Guattari have a$ a$swer to this ?uestio$& "ecause the* #o '$ow what to #o with 7avages) .$# their a$swer& i$ m* view& is the stro$gest a$# most rigorous #iscover* i$ Anti-Oedipus8 the 1 Nrstaat,2 the col# mo$ster& the

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$ightmare& the 7tate& which is the same ever*where a$# which 1has alwa*s existe#)1 Nes& the 7tate exists i$ the most !rimitive societies& eve$ i$ the smallest "a$# of $oma#ic hu$ters) +t exists& "ut it is ceaselessl* war#e# off) +t is ceaselessl* !reve$te# from "ecomi$g a realit*) . !rimitive societ* #irects all its efforts towar# !reve$ti$g its chief from "ecomi$g a chief ,a$# that ca$ go as far as mur#er-) +f histor* is the histor* of class struggle ,+ mea$& i$ societies that have classes-& the$ the histor* of classless societies is the histor* of their struggle agai$st the late$t 7tate) Their histor* is the effort to e$co#e the flows of !ower)
D=4=ER= .5D GE.0+T.B+ %+G;T >.9F)

8f course& Anti-Oedipus #oes$0t tell us wh* the !rimitive machi$e& here a$# there& faile# to e$co#e the flows of !ower& this #eath which 'ee!s risi$g from withi$) +$#ee# there is $o reaso$ wh* the tri"e shoul# !ermit its chief to act the !art at all ,there are !le$t* of exam!les to su!!ort this-) 7o& where #oes the 2Nrstaat2 come from@ ;ow #oes it emerge full* forme# a$# all at o$ce@ +t must come from the outsi#e& a$# we ca$ ho!e that the follow(u! to Anti-Oedipus will have more to sa* a"out it)

=$co#i$g& over(co#i$g& #eco#i$g& flows2 these categories esta"lish the theor* of societ*& whereas the i#ea of the 1 Nrstaat,2 war#e# off or trium!ha$t& esta"lishes the theor* of histor*) :hat we have here is a ra#icall* $ew thought& a revolutio$ar* reflectio$)

Pierre Rose: %or me& what !roves the !ractical im!orta$ce of Deleu e a$# Guat( tari0s "oo' is that it re!u#iates the virtues of comme$tar*) This "oo' wages war) +t0s a"out the situatio$ of the wor'i$g classes a$# <ower) Deleu e a$# Guattari use a$ o"li?ue a!!roach through a criti?ue of the a$al*tic i$stitutio$& "ut the ?uestio$ ca$$ot "e re#uce# to that)

1The u$co$scious is !olitics&1 sai# 4aca$ i$ 067) This was a$al*sis0s "i# for u$iversalit*) +t0s whe$ a$al*sis ta'es o$ !olitics& that it most "lata$tl* legitimates o!!ressio$) This is a sleight(of(ha$# which tra$sforms the su"versio$ of

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the alle#ge#l* '$owi$g 7u"/ect i$to su"missio$ "efore a $ew tra$sce$#e$tal tri$it*2 4aw& 7ig$ifier& a$# 9astratio$2 1Death is the life of the 7!irit& what0s the !oi$t of revolti$g@1 The ?uestio$ of <ower was erase# "* the co$servative iro$* of ;egelia$ism o$ the right& which u$#ermi$es the ?uestio$ of the u$co$scious& from Fo/eve to 4aca$)

.t least this legac* ha# high sta$#ar#s) Aore sor#i# is the tra#itio$ of the theor* of i#eologies& which hau$te# Aarxist theor* si$ce The 7eco$# +$ter$atio$al& that is& si$ce the thought of Cules Gues#e crushe# the thought of %ourier) This& too& is over)

:hat the Aarxists $ever ma$age# to overcome is the theor* of reflectio$& or what ha# "ee$ ma#e of it) 7till& the 4e$i$ist meta!hor of the 1little screw1 i$ 1the "ig machi$e1 is illumi$ati$g2 the reversal of <ower i$ !eo!le0s mi$#s is a tra$sformatio$ that is !ro#uce# i$ ever* gear a$# wheel of the social machi$e)

The Aaoist 1i#eological revolutio$13tha$'s to how it "rea's with the mecha$ical o!!ositio$ "etwee$ !olitical( eco$om* a$# i#eolog*3swee!i$g awa* the re#uctio$ of #esire to 1!olitics1 ,<arliame$t a$# !art* struggle-& as well as the re#uctio$ of !olitics to #iscourse ,s!eeches "* the lea#er-& i$ or#er to restore the realit* of multi!le wars o$ multi!le fro$ts& is the o$l* metho# that eve$ comes close to the criti?ue of the 7tate i$ Anti-Oedipus% There is $o wa* that a critical !ro/ect set i$ motio$ "* Anti-Oedipus ca$ "ecome a u$iversit* i$#ustr*& /ust a$other lucrative activit* for the whirli$g #ervishes of 3eing and Time% The effect of Anti-Oedipus has "ee$ wreste# from the i$strume$ts of <ower a$# #elivere# "ac' to the real2 the "oo' ca$ o$l* rei$force the assaults agai$st the !olice& /ustice& the arm*& a$# 7tate !ower& i$ the factor* a$# "e*o$#)

Gilles Deleu e: I thi$' what <ivi#al sai# /ust a mome$t ago& a$# what <ierre /ust sai#& is right o$ target) %or us& the esse$tial thi$g is the relatio$ of #esiri$g( machi$es a$# social machi$es& their #iffere$t regimes& a$# their imma$e$ce with res!ect to o$e a$other) +$ other wor#s& how is u$co$scious #esire i$veste# i$ a social& eco$omic a$# !olitical

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fiel#@ ;ow #oes sexualit*& or what 4eclaire might call choice of sexual o"/ects& merel* ex!ress these i$vestme$ts& whereas i$ realit* these i$vestme$ts are i$vestme$ts of flow@ ;ow #o our love affairs #erive from u$iversal histor* a$# $ot momm* a$# #a##*@ . whole social fiel# is i$veste# through a ma$ or a woma$ that we love& a$# this i$vestme$t ha!!e$s i$ a variet* of wa*s) 7o& we tr* to show how the flows i$vest #iffere$t social fiel#s& what the* are flowi$g o$& a$# "* what mea$s the* are i$veste#2 e$co#i$g& over(co#i$g& #eco#i$g)
D=4=ER= .5D GE.0+T.B+ %+G;T >.9F)

9a$ o$e sa* that !s*choa$al*sis has touche# o$ a$* of this i$ the slightest@ %or exam!le& its ri#iculous ex!la$atio$s of fascism2 it woul# have ever*thi$g #erive from images of the father a$# mother& or from familial a$# !ious sig$ifiers li'e the 5ame(of(the(%ather) 7erge 4eclaire sa*s that it is $o !roof that our s*stem wor's& "ecause a$*thi$g a$# ever*thi$g wor's) True e$ough) That0s what we0re sa*i$g2 8e#i!us a$# castratio$ wor' li'e a charm) >ut we wa$t to '$ow what are their effects2 the* wor' "ut at what !rice@ +t is certai$ that !s*choa$al*sis !acifies a$# mollifies& that it teaches us resig$atio$ we ca$ live with) >ut we0re sa*i$g it has usur!e# its re!utatio$ for !romoti$g& or eve$ !artici!ati$g i$& a$* effective li"eratio$) +t has smashe# the !he$ome$a of #esire o$to a familial stage& a$# cru$che# the whole eco$omic a$# !olitical #ime$sio$ of li"i#o i$to a co$formist co#e) .s soo$ as the 1me$tal !atie$t1 starts tal'i$g !olitics& goes i$to a !olitical #elirium& /ust loo' at what !s*choa$al*sis #oes with it) +t0s what %reu# #i# to 7chre"er)

<ierre 9lastre sai# all there was to sa* a"out eth$olog*& at least much to our a#va$tage) :hat we0re tr*i$g to #o is !ut li"i#o i$ relatio$ with a$ 1outsi#e)1 The flow of wome$ amo$g the !rimitives is i$ relatio$ with flows of her# a$imals& flows of arrows) 8$e #a* a grou! "ecomes $oma#ic) 8$e #a* warriors show u! i$ the village s?uare2 loo' at Faf'a0s 1Great :all of 9hi$a)1 :hat are the flows of a societ*@ :hich flows are ca!a"le of su"verti$g that societ*@ .$# where is #esire0s !lace i$ all this@ 7omethi$g alwa*s ha!!e$s to the li"i#o& a$# it ha!!e$s from far off o$ the hori o$& $ot from withi$) 7houl#$0t eth$olog*& as well as !s*choa$al*sis& "e i$ relatio$ with a$ outsi#e@ $auri'e Na*eau: :e shoul# !erha!s sto! here))) if we wa$t to !ri$t this i$terview i$ 4a Guin(aine ,we0ve !ro"a"l* fille# more !ages tha$ we have i$ a si$gle issueO-) 4et me tha$' Gilles Deleu e a$# %elix Guattari for the i$sights the*0ve give$ us i$to a "oo' that seems li'el* to revolutio$i e ma$* #isci!li$es& a$# which seems all the more im!orta$t whe$ we co$si#er the !articular wa* i$ which its authors a!!roach ?uestio$s that co$cer$ us all) 4et me also tha$' %ra$cois 9hatelet for havi$g orga$i e# a$# !resi#e# over this #e"ate a$#& of course& all the s!ecialists who agree# to !artici!ate to#a*

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,e"ene Cixo-s) or %riting in Stro.e;

%or several *ears $ow ;ele$e 9ixous has !ursue# a su"terra$ea$ "o#* of wor' which remai$s relativel* u$'$ow$ #es!ite the Ae#ici !ri e awar#e# her for ;nside i$ 1969)2 7he wrote a "eautiful "oo' o$ T e E!i'e of ?ames ?oyce, 5 i$ which fictio$& theor* a$# criticism are tightl* '$it) 8$ first im!ressio$& her wor' i$#ee# stems from a Co*cea$ tra#itio$2 a $arrative i$ !rocess& which i$clu#es itself or ta'es itself as a$ o"/ect& with a !lural 1author1 a$# a 1$euter1 su"/ect& $euter !lural& a$# the simulta$eit* of ever* 'i$# of sce$e2 historical a$# !olitical& m*thical a$# cultural& !s*choa$al*tic a$# li$guistic) >ut ma*"e this first im!ressio$& "ei$g o$l* a!!are$t& lea#s to a misu$#ersta$#i$g& li'e the i#ea that 9ixous is a$ excee#i$gl* #ifficult author or that her wor' follows the well '$ow$ tre$#s of co$tem!orar* literature) The real origi$alit* of a$ author is reveale# o$l* o$ce we ma$age to !ositio$ ourselves withi$ the !oi$t of view she herself has i$ve$te# a$# from which the wor' "ecomes eas* to rea#& lea# i$g the rea#er "* the ha$#) This is the m*ster*2 ever* trul* $ew wor' is sim!le& eas*& a$# /o*ful) 4oo' at Faf'a& loo' at >ec'ett)

:e see the 9ixous m*ster* i$ her last "oo' Neutre8 a$ author ac'$owle#ge# as #ifficult ge$erall* #ema$#s to "e rea# slowl*2 i$ this case& however& the wor' as's us to rea# it 1fast&1 a$# we are "ou$# to rea# it agai$& faster a$# faster) The #ifficulties which a slow rea#er woul# ex!erie$ce #issolve as the rea#i$g s!ee# i$creases) +$ m* view& 9ixous has i$ve$te# a $ew a$# origi$al 'i$# of writi$g& which gives her a !articular !lace i$ mo#er$ literature2 writ i$g i$ stro"e&4 where the stor* comes alive& #iffere$t themes co$$ect u!& a$# wor#s form various figures accor#i$g to the !reci!itous s!ee#s of rea#i$g a$# associatio$)

<aul Aora$#0s great sig$ifica$ce& so !oorl* u$#erstoo# to#a*& was to "ri$g s!ee# i$to literature arou$# 1925& "ri$gi$g it i$to st*le itself& i$ relatio$ to /a & the automo"ile& a$# the

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air!la$e) 9ixous is i$ve$ti$g other s!ee#s& sometimes cra * s!ee#s& i$ relatio$ to the co$tem!orar*) Neutre $ever tires of sa*i$g it2 mix colors i$ such a wa* that through moveme$t the* !ro#uce u$'$ow$ sha#es a$# hues) :riti$g !er seco$#& !er te$th of a seco$#2 1The rule is sim!le2 move from o$e tree to a$other either "* excha$gi$g the active "o#ies& or "* excha$gi$g the su!!leme$tar* terms& or "* excha$gi$g the $ames of the terms that fu$ctio$ i$ !airs) This all ha!!e$s so fast that it is #ifficult& from the exterior& to see which of the three o!eratio$s is i$ !rocess& a$# whether there is a tra$sfer from o$e tree to the other via "o#* or $ame) The moveme$t is such that the trees "* a stro"e effect !ro#uce a 'i$# of !ole that is smooth or "arel* striate# "* #ar' vertical cross(hatchi$g& the s!ecters of ge$eratio$s2 <a!er))) =ach !la*s the other2 %or exam!le& the stateme$t 05o$e is :ithout its 8ther2 7amso$ hau$ts it)01

7o what is the effect that 9ixous creates@ The material of Neutre is com!ose# of associate# eleme$ts2 .ctive eleme$ts ma#e of #esires6 !ho$ological eleme$ts ma#e of letters6 li$guistic eleme$ts ma#e of figures6 eleme$ts of criticism ma#e of citatio$s6 active eleme$ts ma#e of sce$es& etc) These eleme$ts com!rise a$ immo"ile grou!& com!lex a$# #ifficult to #eci!her& as lo$g as the s!ee# M 0) .t i$terme#iate s!ee#s& the eleme$ts form chai$s that s!lice i$to o$e a$other& a$# the$ s!lice i$to this or that grou!& which has #etermi$atio$s& thus ma'i$g u! #isti$ct stories or #isti$ct versio$s of a stor*) .$# at higher a$# higher s!ee#s& the eleme$ts reach a !er!etual sli!!age& a$ extreme rotatio$ which !reve$ts them from s!lici$g i$to a$* grou! whatsoever& #rivi$g them ever faster through each a$# ever* stor*) +$ a wor#& the rea#i$g fu$ctio$s accor#i$g to the rea#er0s s!ee#s of associatio$) %or exam!le& the extraor#i$ar* sce$e of the so$0s #eath& which varies accor#i$g to three #egrees at least) 8r else those hilarious !ages where o$e sees the letter % co$tami$ate all $eigh"ori$g wor#s a$# ?uic'l* overta'e them) This is !leasure which comes from a "oo'( as(#rug& a #is?uieti$g stra$ge$ess& i$ accor#a$ce with a %reu#ia$ $otio$ that 9ixous loves2 i$ ever* se$se& a rea#i$g of Neutre must "e fast a$# taut& as i$ a mo#er$ mecha$ism of #ecisive !recisio$)

Capita"ism and S7hi=ophrenia;

8i))orio $ar'he))i: Nour "oo' Anti-Oedipus is su"title# &apita'ism and Sc i(op renia% :h* is that@ :hat were the fu$#ame$tal i#eas *ou starte# from@

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Gilles Deleu e: <erha!s the most fu$#ame$tal i#ea is that the u$co$scious 1!ro#uces)1 :hat this mea$s is that we must sto! treati$g the u$co$scious& as ever*o$e has #o$e u! to $ow& li'e some 'i$# of theatre where a !rivilege# #rama is re!rese$te#& the #rama of 8e#i!us) :e "elieve the u$co$scious is $ot a theatre& "ut a factor*) .rtau# sai# somethi$g reall* "eautiful i$ this regar#) ;e sai# the "o#*& a$# es!eciall* the aili$g "o#*& is li'e a$ overheate# factor* 7o& $o more theatre) 7a*i$g the u$co$scious 1!ro#uces1 mea$s that it0s a 'i$# of mecha$ism that !ro#uces other mecha$isms) +$ other wor#s& we "elieve the u$co$scious has $othi$g i$ commo$ with theatrical re!rese$tatio$& "ut with somethi$g calle# a 1#esiri$g(machi$e)1 4et0s "e clear a"out the wor# 1mecha$ism)1 The "iological theor* of mecha$ism was $ever a"le to u$#ersta$# #esire a$# remai$s totall* i$ the #ar' i$ this area "ecause #esire ca$$ot "e i$tegrate# i$to mecha$ical mo#els) :he$ we tal' a"out #esiri$g(machi$es& or the u$co$scious as a mecha$ism of #esire& we mea$ somethi$g com!letel* #iffere$t) Desiri$g co$sists i$ i$terru!tio$s& letti$g certai$ flows through& ma'i$g with#rawals from those flows& cutti$g the chai$s that "ecome attache# to the flows) This s*stem of the u$co$scious& or #esire that flows& i$terru!ts& "egi$s flowi$g agai$3it0s totall* literal6 a$# co$trar* to what tra#itio$al !s*choa$al*sis tells us& it is !erfectl* mea$i$gless) :ithout a$* se$se& there is $othi$g to i$ter!ret) +$ter!retatio$ is mea$i$gless here) The !ro"lem is '$owi$g how the u$co$scious wor's) +t is '$owi$g how 1#esiri$g(machi$es1 wor'& a$# '$owi$g how to use those machi$es)Guattari a$# + "ega$ with the assum!tio$ that #esire coul# "e u$#erstoo# o$l* as a categor* of 1!ro#uctio$)1 7o we ha# to rei$tro#uce !ro#uctio$ i$to #esire itself) Desire #oes $ot #e!e$# o$ lac'& it0s $ot a lac' of somethi$g& a$# it #oes$0t refer to a$* 4aw) Desire !ro#uces) 7o it0s the o!!osite of a theatre) .$ i#ea li'e 8e#i!us& the theatrical re!rese$tatio$ of 8e#i!us& mutilates the u$co$scious a$# gives $o ex!ressio$ to #esire) 8e#i!us is the effect of social re!ressio$ o$ #esiri$g !ro#uctio$) =ve$ with a chil#& #esire is $ot 8e#i!al& it fu$ctio$s li'e a mecha$ism& !ro#uces little machi$es& esta"lishi$g co$$ectio$s amo$g thi$gs) :hat this mea$s i$ #iffere$t terms& !erha!s& is that #esire is revolutio$ar*) This #oes$0t mea$ that it wa$ts revolutio$) +t0s eve$ "etter) Desire is revolutio$ar* "* $ature "ecause it "uil#s #esiri$g(machi$es which& whe$ the* are i$serte# i$to the social fiel#& are ca!a"le of #eraili$g somethi$g& #is!laci$g the social fa"ric) Tra#itio$al !s*choa$al*sis& however& has tur$e# ever*thi$g u!si#e #ow$ i$ its little theatre) +t0s exactl* as if somethi$g that reall* "elo$gs to huma$it*& to a factor*& to !ro#uctio$& were tra$slate# "* mea$s of a re!rese$tatio$ at the 9ome#ie %ra$caise) 7o there *ou have our !oi$t of #e!arture2 the u$co$scious as !ro#uci$g these little machi$es of #esire& which we call #esiri$g(machi$es) 8i))orio $ar'he))i: 7o what a"out &apita'ism and Sc i(op renia=%

Feli% Gua))ari: :e wa$te# to em!hasi e the extremes) =ver*thi$g i$ huma$ existe$ce is "rought "ac' to the most a"stract categories) 9a!ital a$#& o$ the other extreme& or rather& the other !ole of $o$se$se& ma#$ess3a$# withi$ ma# ( $ess& schi o!hre$ia) +$ our view& it was these two !oles0 commo$ ta$ge$t of $o$se$se that seeme# to have a relatio$) .$# $ot /ust a co$ti$ge$t relatio$ ma'i$g it !ossi"le to sa* that mo#er$ societ* #rives !eo!le cra *) Auch more tha$ that2 if we wa$t to ex!lai$ alie$atio$& or the re!ressio$ which the i$#ivi#ual suffers i$ the ca!italist s*stem& if we wa$t to u$#ersta$# the real mea$i$g of the !olitics of the a!!ro!riatio$ of sur!lus value& we must "ri$g i$to !la* those same co$ce!ts to which o$e tur$s to a$al* e schi o!hre$ia) :e !rivilege# these extreme !oles& "ut it goes without sa*i$g that all the i$terme#iate terms must also "e exami$e#2 ever*thi$g from the wa* i$ which $eurosis is co$fro$te# to the stu#* of chil#hoo# or !rimitive societies) .ll the themes which the huma$ scie$ces #eal with are fair game) >ut rather tha$ esta"lish some coexiste$ce of all the huma$ scie$ces& o$e i$ relatio$ to the other& we #eci#e# to relate ca!italism a$# schi o!hre$ia i$ a$ attem!t to e$com!ass these fiel#s as a whole6 that wa* we avoi#e# limiti$g ourselves to the various !athwa*s that allow *ou to !ass "etwee$ them)

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8i))orio $ar'he))i: Di# *our research come out of co$crete ex!erie$ce@ Do *ou see a$* !ractical #evelo!me$t@ +f so& i$ which fiel#s@

Feli% Gua))ari: To a$swer the first !art of *our ?uestio$& the research comes out of !s*chiatric !ractice& !s*choa$al*sis& a$# i$ !articular& the stu#* of !s*chosis)

:e feel that the semiotic chai$s& the #escri!tio$s of %reu#ia$ theor*& a$# !s*chiatr* are relativel* i$a#e?uate to ex!lai$ what is reall* goi$g o$ i$ me$tal ill$ess) :e $otice# this as soo$ as a $ew 'i$# of liste$i$g to me$tal ill$ess "ecame !ossi"le)

%reu# #evelo!e# his co$ce!ts& to "egi$ with at least& withi$ the framewor' of a !articular 'i$# of access he ha# to $euroses& a$# h*steria i$ !articular) ;e himself com!lai$e# towar# the e$# of his life a"out $ot havi$g ha# access to a$other fiel#& a"out $ot havi$g ha# a$* other wa* to a!!roach !s*chosis) ;e was a"le to a!!roach !s*chotic !atie$ts o$l* acci#e$tall* a$# from the outsi#e) +t shoul# "e a##e#& too& that withi$ the framewor' of re!ressive hos!itali atio$& *ou #o$0t have access to schi o!hre$ia) Nou have access to me$tal !atie$ts loc'e# i$ a s*stem that !reve$ts them from ex!ressi$g the ver* esse$ce of ma#$ess) The* ex!ress o$l* a reactio$ to the re!ressio$ to which the* are su"/ecte#& which the* are force# to e$#ure) .s a result& !s*choa$al*sis is !racticall* im!ossi"le with cases of !s*chosis) .$# thi$gs will co$ti$ue this wa* as lo$g as !s*chotic !atie$ts are tra!!e# i$ the re!ressive hos!itah s*stem) ;owever& rather tha$ tra$s!ose the #escri!tive chai$s of $eurosis o$to !s*chosis& we trie# to #o the o!!osite) +$ other wor#s& we trie# to reexami$e the co$ce!ts use# to #escri"e $eurosis i$ the light of the i$#icatio$s we receive# from co$tact with !s*chosis)

Gilles Deleu e: :e "ega$ with the feeli$g& a$# + #o mea$ a feeli$g& a$# the '$owle#ge& that somethi$g was $ot right with !s*choa$al*sis) +t has "ecome i$termi$a"le& s!i$$i$g its wheels a$# goi$g $owhere) Cust loo' at the !s*choa$ (

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al*tic cure) :ell& the cure has "ecome a$ e$#less !rocess i$ which "oth the !atie$t a$# the #octor chase each other rou$# a$# rou$#& a$# this circle& whatever mo#ificatio$s are a!!lie#& remai$s 8e#i!al) +t0s li'e 18F& tal'O1 >ut it0s alwa*s a"out the same thi$g2 momm* a$# #a##*) The refere$ce tur$s o$ a$ 8e#i!al axis) The* ca$ i$sist all the* wa$t that it0s $ot a"out a real mother a$# father& that it0s a"out some higher structure& whatever *ou li'e& some s*m"olic or#er& a$# that it shoul#$0t "e i$ter!rete# as imagi$ar*& "ut the #iscourse remai$s the same2 the !atie$t is there to tal' a"out momm* a$# #a##*& a$# the a$al*st liste$s i$ terms of momm* a$# #a##*) There are !ro"lems that trou"le# %reu# towar# the e$# of his life2 somethi$g is $ot right with !s*choa$al*sis& somethi$g is stuc') %reu# thought that it was "ecomi$g e$#less& the cure loo'e# i$termi$a"le& it was goi$g $owhere) .$# 4aca$ was the fist to i$#icate how far thi$gs ha# to "e revam!e#) ;e "elieve# the !ro"lem coul# "e resolve# i$ a !rofou$# retur$ to %reu#) :e o$ the other ha$# "ega$ with the feeli$g that !s*choa$al*sis was goi$g rou$# a$# rou$# i$ a circle& a familial circle& so to s!ea'& re!rese$te# "* 8e#i!us) .$# to#a* a rather worrisome situatio$ has #evelo!e#) .lthough !s*choa$al*sis has cha$ge# its metho#s& it has $o$etheless come i$to li$e with the most classical !s*chiatr*) .s Aichel %oucault has so a#mira"l* show$& it was i$ the $i$etee$th(ce$tur* that !s*chiatr* fu$#ame$tall* li$'e# ma#$ess to the famil*) <s*choa$al*sis has tei$ter!tete# this co$$ectio$& "ut what is so stri'i$g is that the co$$ectio$ has sta*e# i$ !lace) .$# eve$ a$ti(!s* ( chiatr*& which !oi$ts i$ $ew a$# revolutio$ar* #irectio$s& !reserves this famil*(ma#$ess refere$ce) =ver*o$e tal's a"out familial !s*chothera!*) 7o& ever*o$e co$ti$ues to locate the fu$#ame$tal refere$ce of me$tal #era$geme$t i$ familial #etermi$atio$s of the momm*(#a##* t*!e) .$# eve$ if these #etermi$atio$s are i$ter!rete# i$ a s*m"olic wa* 3the father s*m"olic fu$ctio$& the mother s*m"olic fu$ctio$3it #oes$0t cha$ge a thi$g)

5ow + su!!ose ever*o$e is familiar with the ama i$g text "* that lu$atic& as the* call him& <resi#e$t 7chre"er& a !ara$oi# or a schi o!hre$ic& it #oes$0t matter) ;is memoirs are a 'i$# of racial& racist& historical #elirium) ;is #elirium e$com!asses whole co$ti$e$ts& cultures& a$# races) :hat ta'es *ou "* sur!rise is the !olitical& historical& a$# cultural co$te$t of his #elirium) :he$ *ou rea# %reu#0s comme$tar*& this whole as!ect of the #elirium has #isa!!eare#2 it has "ee$ crushe# "* the refere$ce to a father that 7chre"er $ever me$tio$s) <s*cho a$al*sts will sa* that it is !recisel* "ecause he $ever me$tio$s it that it0s so im!orta$t) :ell& we sa* that we0ve $ever see$ a schi o!hre$ic #elirium that is $ot first a$# foremost racial& racist& a$# !olitical& that is $ot ru$$i$g off i$ ever* #irectio$ of histor*& that #oes $ot i$vest cultures& that #oes $ot tal' a"out co$ti$e$ts& 'i$g#oms& etc) :e sa* that the !ro"lem of #elirium is $ot relate# to the famil*& that it co$cer$s momm* a$# #a##* o$l* seco$#aril*& if it co$cer$s them at all) The real !ro"lem of #elirium is the extraor#i$ar* tra$sitio$s "etwee$ two !oles2 the o$e is a reactio$ar* !ole& so to s!ea'& a fascist !ole of the t*!e2 1+ am a su!erior race&1 which shows u! i$ ever* !ara$oi# #elirium6 a$# the other is a revolutio$ar* !ole2 li'e Bim"au#& whe$ he sa*s2 1+ am a$ i$ferior race& alwa*s a$# forever)1 2 =ver* #elirium i$vests ;istor* "efore i$vesti$g some ri#iculous momm*(#a##*) .$# so& eve$ where thera!* or a cure is co$cer$e#3!rovi#e# this is i$#ee# a me$tal ill$ess 3if the historical refere$ces of the #elirium are ig$ore#& if *ou /ust go rou$# a$# rou$# "etwee$ a s*m"olic father a$# a$ imagi$ar* father& *ou $ever esca!e familialism a$# *ou remai$ loc'e# withi$ the framewor' of the most tra#itio$al !s*chiatr*)

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8i))orio $ar'he))i: Do *ou thi$' li$guistic stu#ies ca$ co$tri"ute somethi$g to the i$ter!retatio$ of schi o!hre$ic la$guage@

Feli% Gua))ari: 4i$guistics is a ra!i#l* ex!a$#i$g scie$ce still ver* much i$ search of itself) Nou sometimes see a$ a"usive use of co$ce!ts& too hastil* em!lo*e#& give$ that the*0re still "ei$g formulate#) There is o$e $otio$ i$ !ar ( ticular we felt it $ecessar* to rethi$'2 the sig$ifier) :e "elieve the $otio$ !oses several !ro"lems i$ #iffere$t li$guistics) <erha!s the sig$ifier is less !ro"lematic for !s*choa$al*sis& "ut as far as we0re co$cer$e#& we thi$' it $ee#s further #evelo!me$t) %ace# with the !ro"lems of co$tem!orar* societ* we have to "e i$ a !ositio$ to ?uestio$ the tra#itio$al culture which has "ee$ #ivi#e# u!& so to s!ea'& amo$g the huma$ scie$ces& scie$ce& scie$tism ,a fashio$a"le wor# for a while $ow-& a$# !olitical res!o$si"ilit*) =s!eciall* after Aa* 068& a revisio$ of this se!aratio$ seems im!orta$t a$# $ecessar*) %rom this !ers!ective& u$til rece$tl*& the various #isci!li$es have e$/o*e# a 'i$# of auto$om*) The !s*choa$al*sts have their ow$ coo'i$g ute$sils& a$# the !oliticia$s have their ow$& etc) The $ecessit* to reexami$e this #ivisio$ is $ot "or$ from some co$cer$ for eclecticism a$# #oes $ot $ecessaril* lea# to some sort of co$fusio$) The same wa* that it is $ot #ue to co$fusio$ that a schi o!hre$ic /um!s from o$e register to the $ext) +t is the realit* he fi$#s himself co$fro$te# with that #rives him to it) The schi o!hre$ic& without a$* e!istemological guara$tee& so to s!ea'& stic's closel* to realit* a$# this realit* causes him to move from o$e level to the $ext& from a ?uestio$i$g of sema$tics a$# s*$tax to the revisio$ of the themes of histor*& etc) :ell& from this !ers!ective& !eo!le i$ the huma$ scie$ces a$# i$ !olitics shoul#& i$ a se$se& go a little schi o) .$# $ot to em"race that illusor* image which the schi o!hre$ic gives us whe$ he is tra!!e# i$ re!ressio$& accor#i$g to which he is su!!ose#l* 1autistic&1 with#raw$ i$to himself& etc) 8$ the co$trar*& to have the same a"ilit* to em"race all the #isci!li$es together) +$ the aftermath of Aa* 068& the ?uestio$ is !recisel* this2 either we attem!t to u$if* our com!rehe$sio$ of !he$ome$a such as& + #o$0t '$ow& "ureaucrati atio$ i$ !olitical orga$i atio$s& or "ureaucrati atio$ i$ 7tate ca!italism& with our com!rehe$sio$ of #ista$t a$# #is!arate !he$ome$a such as& for exam!le& o"sessio$& or the #escri!tio$s give$ "* re!etitive autism3or else& if we stic' to the i#ea that thi$gs are se!arate& that each of us is a s!ecialist a$# shoul# mi$# his ow$ "usi$ess while ma'i$g a#va$ces i$ his fiel#& ex!losio$s that totall* esca!e our !owers of #escri!tio$ a$# com!rehe$sio$& from a !olitical as well as a$thro!ological !oi$t of view& will $o$etheless show u! i$ the worl#) +$ this se$se& the !oi$t of calli$g i$to ?uestio$ the #ivisio$ of the various #isci!li$es& as well as the self(satisfactio$ of !s*choa$al*sts& li$guists& eth$ologists& a$# teachers of !e#agog*& is $ot the #issolutio$ of these scie$ces) The !oi$t is to refit these scie$ces so the* "etter measure u! to their o"/ect of i$?uir*) . whole li$e of research co$#ucte# !rior to Aa* 068 "* some small& !rivilege# grou!s su##e$l* fou$# itself at the ce$ter of #e"ate& a$# that 7!ri$g& i$stitutio$al revolutio$ was the or#er of the #a*) <s*choa$al*sts are i$creasi$gl* 1i$ter!olate#1 i$ !u"lic #iscourse6 the* have "ee$ force# to "roa#e$ their #isci!li$e) The same goes for !s*chiatrists) This is a totall* $ew !he$ome$o$) :hat #oes it mea$@ +s it /ust a fa#@ 8r as some i$ the !olitical s!here co$te$#& is it a wa* of #iverti$g milita$t revolutio$aries from their o"/ectives@ >ut is it $ot rather a call& however co$fuse#& for a !rofou$# revisio$ of co$ce!tuali atio$ as it is !ractice# to#a*@

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8i))orio $ar'he))i: 9oul# !s*chiatr* !la* this role a$# "ecome& so to s!ea'& the $ew huma$ scie$ce& the huma$ scie$ce !ar excelle$ce@

Feli% Gua))ari: Bather tha$ !s*chiatr*& wh* $ot the schi o!hre$ics& the cra ies themselves@ +t seems to me that those who wor' i$ the fiel# of !s*chiatr*& at least right $ow& are har#l* o$ the cutti$g e#geO

Gilles Deleu e: .$# there0s $o reaso$ a$*wa* wh* !s*chiatr* rather tha$ a$* other #isci!li$e shoul# "ecome the huma$ scie$ce !ar excelle$ce) The whole i#ea of some 1huma$ scie$ce !ar excelle$ce1 is misgui#e#) :h* coul#$0t "i"( lio!hilia "e the huma$ scie$ce !ar excelle$ce@ 8r how a"out textual criticism@ The fact is too ma$* scie$ces woul# li'e to !la* such a role) The !ro"lem is $ot #etermi$i$g which scie$ce will "e the huma$ scie$ce !ar excelle$ce6 the !ro"lem is #etermi$i$g how a certai$ $um"er of 1machi$es1 e$#owe# with revolutio$ar* !ote$tial are goi$g to fit together) %or exam!le& the literar* machi$e& the !s*choa$al*tic machi$e& a$# !olitical machi$es2 either the* will fi$# a u$if*i$g !oi$t& as the* have #o$e so u! to $ow& i$ a !articular s*stem of a#a!tatio$ to ca!italist regimes& or else the* will fi$# a shatteri$g u$it* i$ a revolutio$ar* utili atio$) :e must$0t !ose the !ro"lem i$ terms of !riorit*& we have to !ose it i$ terms of use or utili atio$) 7o& the ?uestio$ is2 to what use are the* !ut@ +$ our view& !s*chiatr* has u! to $ow co$ceale# a !articular use of familialism& of the familial !ers!ective& a$# this utili atio$ seems reactio$ar*& eve$ $ecessaril* so& $o matter how revolutio$ar* those !eo!le are $ow wor'i$g i$ the fiel# of !s*chiatr*)

8i))orio $ar'he))i: 4evi(7trauss sa*s that !hiloso!hical or scie$tific thought o!erates "* !ro!osi$g a$# o!!osi$g co$ce!ts& whereas m*thic thought o!erates through images ta'e$ from the se$si"le worl#) .rieti& i$ his "oo' ;nterpretation of Sc i(op renia, affirms that those sufferi$g from me$tal ill$ess have recourse to a$ i$telligi"le logic& to a 1cohere$t logical s*stem1 eve$ if it has $othi$g to #o with the logic fou$#e# o$ co$ce!ts) .rieti tal's a"out 1!aleo( logic1 a$# claims that this 1cohere$t logical s*stem1 resem"les m*thical thought& the thought of so(calle# !rimitive societies& that it o!erates i$ the same wa*& "* 1associati$g se$si"le ?ualities)1 ;ow #o *ou ex!lai$ this !he$ome$o$@ +s schi o!hre$ia a #efe$sive strateg* !resse# i$to the refusal of our logical s*stem@ .$# if so& #oes$0t the a$al*sis of schi o!hre$ic la$guage offer a$ i$valua"le i$strume$t for the huma$ scie$ces i$ the stu#* of our societ*@

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Gilles Deleu e: I u$#ersta$# *our ?uestio$& it s !rett* tech$ical) + # li'e to hear what Guattari thi$'s)

Feli% Gua))ari: I #o$0t reall* li'e the wor# 0!aleo(logic0 "ecause it still im!lies a 1!relogical me$talit*1 a$# other #efi$itio$s of the 'i$# that o!e$e# the wa* for a literal segregatio$& $ot to me$tio$ its associatio$s with the chil#ish$ess of me$tal !atie$ts)

Gilles Deleu e: .$# 0logic0 is a co$ce!t that #oes$0t i$terest us i$ the least) +t0s too vague a term) =ver*thi$g is logical& or $othi$g is) .s for the ?uestio$& its tech$ical as!ect& + woul# ?uestio$ whether what schi o!hre$ics& !rimitives& or chil#re$ are reall* a"out is a logic of se$si"le ?ualities)

+$ our ow$ research& what we0re #oi$g $ow& this ?uestio$ #oes$0t come u!) :hat stri'es me is how easil* ever*o$e forgets that a formulatio$ such as 0the logic of se$si"le ?ualities0 is alrea#* too theoretical) :hat we $eglect is 1!ure live# ex!erie$ce)1 :hether we0re tal'i$g a"out the live# ex!erie$ce of the chil#& the live# ex!erie$ce of the !rimitive& or the live# ex!erie$ce of the schi o!hre$ic& 0live# ex!erie$ce0 #oes$0t mea$ se$si"le ?ualities) 4ive# ex!erie$ce is 1i$te$sive12 ; fee'%%% 0+ feel0 mea$s that somethi$g is ha!!e$i$g i$ me& + am ex!erie$ci$g a$ i$te$sit*& a$# i$te$sit* is $ot the same thi$g as se$si"le ?ualities6 i$ fact& it0s totall* #iffere$t) This ha!!e$s all the time with schi o!hre$ics) . schi o!hre$ic sa*s2 1+ feel +0m "ecomi$g a woma$1 or 1+ feel +0m "ecomi$g Go#)1 7e$si"le ?ualities have $othi$g to #o with it) +t seems that .rieti sta*s at the level of a logic of se$si"le ?ualities& "ut that #oes$0t corres!o$# at all to what schi o!hre$ics sa*) :he$ a schi o!hre$ic sa*s2 1+ feel +0m "ecomi$g a woma$&1 1+ feel +0m "ecomi$g Go#&1 1+ feel +0m "ecomi$g Coa$ of .rc&1 what #oes it mea$ i$ realit*@ 7chi o!hre$ia is a shoc'i$g a$# ver* ver* acute ex!erie$ce& a$ i$volu$tar* ex!erie$ce& of i$te$sit* a$# the !assi$gs of i$te$sities) :he$ a schi o!hre$ic sa*s2 1+ feel +0m "ecomi$g a woma$&1 1+ feel +0m "ecomi$g Go#&1 it0s li'e the "o#* is crossi$g a threshol# of i$te$sit*) >iologists tal' a"out the egg a$# the schi o!hre$ic "o#* as a 'i$# of egg6 the catato$ic "o#* is $othi$g more tha$ a$ egg) :ell& whe$ a schi o!hre$ic sa*s2 1+0m "ecomi$g Go#&1 1+0m "ecomi$g a woma$&1 it0s li'e crossi$g what "iologists call a gra#ie$t& traversi$g a threshol# of i$te$sit*) . schi o!hre$ic is still crossi$g it& goi$g a"ove it& "e*o$# it& etc) This whole !he$ome$o$ is what tra#itio$al a$al*sis fails to ta'e i$to accou$t) That0s wh* the !harmacological research "ei$g #o$e o$ schi o!hre$ia coul# "e so rich& although it is !oorl* utili e# at !rese$t) <harmacological stu# ies a$# #rug research !ose the !ro"lem i$ terms of variatio$s i$ i$te$sit* of the meta"olism) The 1+ feel)))1 must "e co$si#ere# i$ the light of !assi$g se$satio$s& #egrees of i$te$sit*) 7o& the #iffere$ce "etwee$ our co$ce!tio$ a$# .rieti0s& with all #ue res!ect to .rieti0s wor'& resi#es i$ the fact that we i$ter!ret schi o!hre$ia i$ terms of i$te$sive ex!erie$ce)

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8i))orio $ar'he))i: >ut what #o *ou mea$ "* the 1i$telligi"ilit*1 of schi o!hre$ic #iscourse@

Feli% Gua))ari: :hat we wa$t to '$ow is whether cohere$ce #erives from& sa*& a$ or#er of ratio$al ex!ressio$& or some sema$tic or#er& or whether it #erives from a$ or#er which o$e might call machi$ic) .fter all& we #o the "est we ca$ with re!rese$tatio$& ever*o$e #oes the "est he ca$ with it2 "oth the research scie$tist& tr*i$g to reco$stitute somethi$g i$ the or#er of ex!ressio$& a$# the schi o!hre$ic) >ut the schi o!hre$ic #oes$0t have the !ossi"ilit* of ma'i$g i$telligi"le what he is tr*i$g to reco$stitute& with the mea$s rea#* to ha$#& those he has at his #is!osal) +$ this se$se& we0re sa*i$g that the #escri!tio$s ma#e withi$ the framewor' of !s*choa$al*sis& a$# which we call 8e#i!al& to sim!lif* thi$gs& co$stitute a re!ressive re!rese$tatio$) =ve$ the most im!orta$t authors& those who have go$e the farthest i$ the ex!loratio$ of !s*chosis a$# chil#hoo#& or those who s!otte# the !ro"lem of the !assages of i$te$sive ?ua$tities3eve$ t ey e$# u! #escri"i$g ever*thi$g i$ 8e#i!al terms all over agai$) . famous researcher& a$# + mea$ someo$e reall* im!orta$t& still s!o'e of micro(8e#i!alism i$ a case of !s*chosis& #es!ite the fact that he ha# $otice#3 at the level of its fu$ctio$i$g& i$ othet wor#s& the level of !artial im!ulses3a la$#sca!e remi$isce$t of ;iero$*mous >osch& com!ose# of a$ i$fi$it* of fragme$ts& "its a$# !ieces& where the i#ea of the father& the mother& a$# the hol* tri$it* was $ot to "e fou$#) :hat this suggests& o$ o$e level at least& is that such a re!rese$tatio$ is ta'e$ literall* from a si$gle #omi$a$t i#eolog*)

Hittorio Aarchetti2 There exist t*!ical alteratio$s i$ schi o!hre$ic la$guage) .re there i#e$tical alteratio$s i$ la$guage s!ecific to certai$ social categories such as the militar* or !olitics@

%elix Guattari2 Defi$itel*) :e ca$ eve$ s!ea' of a 1!ara(!hre$ic1 militar* la$guage& the la$guage of milita$t !olitical activists to#a*) >ut we woul# have to ge$erali e) The categories use# "* !s*chiatrists& !s*choa$al*sts& a$# research scie$tists rel* o$ a la$guage of re!rese$tatio$al closure) To such a$ exte$t& that whatever esca!es the !ro#uctio$ of #esiri$g(machi$es is alwa*s re#irecte# "ac' to restrictive& exclusive s*$theses& with a co$ti$ual retur$ to #ualist categories& a$# a !er!etual se!aratio$ of levels) .$ e!istemological reform woul# "e i$sufficie$t to re#ress such a situatio$& "ecause the whole "ala$ce of !ower is at sta'e& eve$ at the level of class co$flict) That mea$s it is !oi$tless to remi$# certai$ !s*choa$al*sts& or research scie$tists& to !a* atte$tio$) +$ so far as what is at sta'e is $ot a se!arate or#er& as it woul# "e i$ the case of a !ulsio$al or#er& for i$sta$ce& "ut rather the ver* totalit* of social mecha$isms a$# their fu$ctio$i$g& as much i$ the or#er of #esire as i$ the or#er of revolutio$ar* struggle or scie$ce a$# i$#ustr*3i$ so far as all this is at sta'e& the s*stem i$ its totalit* woul# have to secrete its mo#els& its casts& a$# its stereot*!e#

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ex!ressio$s all over agai$) :e ought to as' ourselves whether the ex!ressio$ of !oliticia$s& scie$tists& a$# the militar* is $ot i$ fact !recisel* a 'i$# of a$ti(!ro#uctio$& a 'i$# of re!ressio$ wor'i$g at the level of ex!ressio$& whose goal is to sto! the wor' of ?uestio$i$g& which $ever sto!s i$ fact& "ut overflows a$# the$ is sim!l* lost i$ the real moveme$t of thi$gs)

8i))orio $ar'he))i: 5iet sche& .rtau#& Ha$ Gogh& Boussel& 9am!a$a2 what #oes me$tal ill$ess mea$ i$ their case@

Gilles Deleu e: +t mea$s ma$* thi$gs) Cas!ers a$#& more rece$tl*& 4ai$g have #is!la*e# !e$etrati$g i$sight o$ this to!ic& eve$ if the* are still !rett* much misu$#erstoo#) =sse$tiall*& the* sa* that what is calle# madness is com!ose#& roughl* s!ea'i$g& of two thi$gs2 there is a "reach& a teari$g o!e$& li'e a su##e$ light& a wall that is !u$che# through& a$# the$ there is this other& ver* #iffere$t #ime$sio$ which coul# "e calle# colla!se) + remem"er a letter "* Ha$ Gogh2 1:e have to u$#ermi$e the wall&1 he sa*s) =xce!t '$oc'i$g #ow$ the wall is reall* #ifficult& a$# if *ou #o it i$ a wa* that is too "rutal& *ou '$oc' *ourself out& *ou fall #ow$& *ou colla!se) .$# Ha$ Gogh a##e#2 1Cust file awa* at it& slowl*& !atie$tl*)1 7o there is this "reach& a$# a !ossi"le colla!se) Cas!ers& whe$ he tal's a"out the schi o!hre$ic !rocess& em!hasi es the coexiste$ce of two eleme$ts2 a 'i$# of i$trusio$& the arrival of somethi$g for which there is $o !ossi"le ex!ressio$& somethi$g wo$#erful& so wo$#erful i$ fact that it is #ifficult to articulate6 "ut it is so re!resse# i$ our societ*3a$# here *ou have the seco$# eleme$t3 that it ru$s the ris' of coi$ci#i$g with colla!se) ;ere *ou see the autistic schi o!hre$ic& who $o lo$ger moves& a$# who ca$ remai$ motio$less for *ears) +$ the case of 5iet sche& Ha$ Gogh& .rtau#& Boussel& 9am!a$a& etc)& the two eleme$ts certai$l* coexist) . fa$tastic "reach& a hole i$ the wall) Ha$ Gogh& 5erval3a$# so ma$* others3have '$oc'e# #ow$ the wall of the sig$ifier& the wall of momm*(#a##*& the* we$t "e*o$# it a$# s!ea' to us i$ a voice which is our future) >ut the seco$# eleme$t is $o$etheless !rese$t i$ this !rocess& a$# it is the #a$ger of colla!se) 5o o$e has the right to #eri#e& to treat with fli!!a$c*& the fact that the teari$g o!e$& the "reach sli!s i$to or coi$ci#es with a 'i$# of colla!se) This #a$ger must "e co$si#ere# fu$#ame$tal) The two eleme$ts are co$$ecte#) +t is mea$i$gless to sa* that .rtau# was $ot schi o!hre$ic3worse& it0s shameful a$# stu!i#) .rtau# was clearl* schi o!hre$ic) ;e achieve# a 1wo$#erful "rea'through&1 he '$oc'e# #ow$ the wall& "ut at what !rice@ The !rice of a colla!se that must "e ?ualifie# as schi o!hre$ic) The "rea'through a$# the "rea'#ow$ are two #iffere$t mome$ts) +t woul# "e irres!o$si"le to tur$ a "li$# e*e to the #a$ger of colla!se i$ such e$#eavors) >ut the*0re worth it)

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D=7=BT +74.5D7 .5D 8T;=B T=KT7

8i))orio $ar'he))i: + hear# a"out these i$ter$s i$ a !s*chiatric hos!ital who& agai$st the wishes of the #irector of the cli$ic& ha# the ha"it of !la*i$g car#s i$ the room of a !atie$t who ha# "ee$ i$ a !rofou$# catato$ic state for *ears2 a vegeta"le) 5ot a wor#& $ot a gesture& $ot the least moveme$t) 8$e #a*& while the i$ter$s are !la*i$g car#s& the !atie$t& whose hea# ha# "ee$ tur$e# towar# the wi$#ow "* the $urse& su##e$l* sa*s2 1+t0s the #irectorO1 ;is !er!etual sile$ce e$sues a$# he #ies a few *ears later without ever sa*i$g a$other wor#) That is his message to the worl#2 1+t0s the #irectorO1

Gilles Deleu e: . "eautiful stor*) +$ the light of schi oa$al*sis& a$# that0s what we0re after& we shoul# $ot as' so much what the !hrase 1+t0s the #irectorO1 mea$s& as what ha!!e$e# such that the autistic !atie$t& with#raw$ i$to his "o#*& was a"le to co$stitute& with the arrival of the #irector& a little machi$e that serve# his !ur!oses& eve$ for a short time)

Feli% Gua))ari: I) seems to me far from o"vious that the !atie$t i$ the stor* actuall* saw the #irector) %rom the sta$#!oi$t of the stor*& it woul# eve$ "e "etter if the !atie$t #i#$0t see him) The sim!le fact that there was a mo#ifica( tio$& a cha$ge of ha"its #ue to the !rese$ce of the *ou$g i$ter$s& the tra$sgressio$ of the #irector0s law o$ accou$t of the car# game& coul# have !rovo'e# the !atie$t to foregrou$# the hierarchical figure of the #irector& to articulate sim!l* a$ a$al*tic i$ter!retatio$ of the situatio$) This re!rese$ts a "eautiful illustratio$ of the tra$sfer& the tra$slatio$ of the a$al*tic fu$ctio$) +t0s $ot a !s*choa$al*st& or whoever *ou li'e& a !s*cho(sociologist& who is i$ter!reti$g the structure of the situatio$) +t is literall* a cr*i$g out& a 'i$# of sli! of the to$gue& that i$ter!rets the se$se of the alie$atio$ which $ot the schi o!hre$ic& "ut the !eo!le for whom it is such a "ig #eal sim!l* to !la* car#s i$ the !rese$ce of !atie$ts fi$# themselves i$)

8i))orio $ar'he))i: Nes& "ut the !atie$t is still !rese$t to himself whe$ he cries out& eve$ if he has$0t see$ the #irector))) Feli% Gua))ari: <rese$t to himselfO +0m $ot at all sure a"out that) ;e coul# have see$ a cat or somethi$g) +$ the !ractice of i$stitutio$al !s*chothera!*& it is well '$ow$ that the most o$e#(out schi o!hre$ic ca$ su##e$l* #re#ge u! the most i$cre#i"le stories a"out *our !rivate life& thi$gs *ou woul# $ever have "elieve# a$*o$e '$ew& a$# the$ will !rocee# to articulate& i$ the cru#est ma$$er !ossi"le& truths *ou thought were secret) +t0s $o m*ster*) The schi o!hre$ic has i$sta$t access to such i$sight& "ecause he is #irectl* fla*e#& so to s!ea'& o$ the hoo's that co$stitute the grou! i$ its su"/ective u$it*) ;e fi$#s himself i$ a 1clairvo*a$t1 situatio$ with res!ect to those i$#ivi#uals who& cr*stalli e# i$ their logic& i$ their s*$tax& i$ their ow$ i$terests& are a"solutel* "li$#

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1D=7+B+5G(A.9;+5=71

1o-r Spe7ia" F3esiring-4a7hinesF8 %hat !re TheyG


)

The rea#ers of 4es Temps Modernes will fi$# a stra$ge re!ort here) <ierre >e$i( chou has reveale# some of the results from his i$?uir* o$ masochists ,the 1real1 masochists& those who have others i$flict severe a$# ofte$ "loo#* treatme$t o$ themselves-) %or this i$?uir*& however& he #oes $ot a##ress the masochists themselves6 he #oes $ot have them tal') The* woul# gla#l* tal') :ere the* to tal'& however& the* woul# e$ter a !reforme#& !refa"ricate# circuit2 the circuit of their m*ths a$# fa$tasies& i$clu#i$g the circuit of that !s*choa$al*sis whose i#eas ever*o$e to#a* is more or less familiar with& a circuit i$ which each of us '$ows more or less i$ a#va$ce what is ex!ecte# of us& a$sweri$g 18e#i!us1 or 1momm*(#a##*1 as soo$ as we are as'e#3that worl# of i$teriorit* which we fi$# so tiresome)

<ierre >e$ichou su"stitutes a$ e$tirel* #iffere$t tri$it* for the !s*choa$al*tic father(mother( ego2 co!(!rostitute(clie$t) :e must $ot too hastil* co$clu#e that the* are the same) .$# rather tha$ the su"/ect s!ea'i$g& a$# the !s*choa$al*st writi$g for eve$tual !u"licatio$ i$ a scie$tific /our$al& the su"/ect #oes $ot s!ea'& #oes $ot have the right to s!ea'6 he o$l* writes& he writes his wishes a$# #ema$#s& he !asses a $ote i$ which he critici es the last sessio$& or !la$s for the $ext o$e) >ut o$ the other ha$#& the !rostitute& the co! s!ea') <ierre >e$ichou0s i$?uir* !rovi#es what is so lac'i$g i$ !s*choa$al*sis to#a*2 a $ew relatio$ with the 8utsi#e)

This is all we are as'i$g of the !s*choa$al*tic relatio$2 a$ i$versio$& a caricature& a$ extreme tighte$i$g) Aasochism is that !erversio$ !ar excelle$ce which ta'es the form of a co$tract& eve$ if it is withi$ the terms of the co$tract for it to "e excee#e# each time& to "e su"verte# "* the ca!rice or su!erior authorit* of the all !owerful 1Aistress)1 ,<)>) i$sta$ces the mo$thl* !a*me$t that e$titles the clie$t to a certai$ $um"er of sessio$s)- .$# so& /ust as i$ !s*(

271

choa$al*sis& the co$tract here ta'es o$ a #ime$sio$ that has its e?uivale$t $owhere else2 it is $ot !ossi"le to #isti$guish "etwee$ the co$tracti$g !arties a$# the o"/ect which the co$tract s!ecifies) .s <ierre >e$ichou remar's2 1sexual #eviatio$& proper'y spea:ing, is the o$l* #omai$ i$ which a #irect relatio$ o"tai$s) The !rostitute #oes more tha$ !rovi#e a$ o"/ect6 she is the o"/ect) . livi$g material that liste$s& recor#s& a$swers& ?uestio$s& #eci#es6 a #rug that itself !rescri"es its ow$ #ose6 a roulette wheel that chooses its ow$ $um"er a$# color3alwa*s the other $um"er a$# color& of course) 7he has see$ ever*thi$g& hear# ever*thi$g))) .$# u$#erstoo# $othi$g@ :hat #oes it matter& she tal's& she '$ows what she0s tal'i$g a"out& she has 0ex!erie$ce)01 Does the !erverse relatio$ #eface the !s*choa$al*tic relatio$& or #oes the !s*choa$al*tic relatio$ #eface the !erverse relatio$@

%or a lo$g time !s*chiatr* was a $ormali i$g #isci!li$e& s!ea'i$g i$ the $ame of reaso$& authorit*& a$# law& i$ a #ou"le relatio$ with the as*lums a$# the courts) The$ a $ew i$ter!reti$g #isci!li$e came alo$g2 !s*choa$al*sis) Aa#$ess& !erversio$& $eurosis3!s*choa$al*sts wa$te# to '$ow 1what #i# it mea$&1 from the i$si#e) To#a* we are calli$g for the rights of a $ew fu$ctio$( alism2 $o lo$ger what it mea$s& "ut how it wor's& how it fu$ctio$s) .s if #esire ha# $othi$g to sa*& "ut rather was the assem"lage of ti$* machi$es& desiring- mac ines, alwa*s i$ a !articular relatio$ with the "ig social machi$es a$# the tech$ological machi$es) Nour !articular #esiri$g(machi$es2 what are the*@ +$ a #ifficult a$# "eautiful text& Aarx calle# for the $ecessit* to thi$' huma$ sexualit* $ot o$l* as a relatio$ "etwee$ the huma$ sexes& masculi$e a$# femi$i$e& "ut as a relatio$ 1"etwee$ huma$ sex a$# $o$(huma$ sex)1 ;e was clearl* $ot thi$'i$g of a$imals& "ut of what is $o$(huma$ i$ huma$ sexualit*2 the machi$es of #esire) <erha!s !s*choa$al*sis ha# gotte$ $o further tha$ a$ a$thro!omor!hic i#ea of sexualit*& eve$ i$ its co$ce!tio$ of fa$tas* a$# #reams) .$ exem!lar* i$vestigatio$ li'e <ierre >e$ichou0s& i$ givi$g us real masochistic machi$es ,real !ara$oi# machi$es& real schi o!hre$ic machi$es& etc)-& ma!s out the roa# to such a fu$ctio$alism as we are calli$g for2 the a$al*sis of 1$o$(huma$ sex1 i$ huma$ 'i$#)

,$4$;s (etters1

8ur !riso$s are fille# !rimaril* with lo$ers of ever* 'i$#& the u$em!lo*e#& a$# *ou$g 1small( time croo's1 with or without wor') .s ma$* officials a#mit i$ !rivate& these *ou$g !eo!le have $o "usi$ess "ei$g i$ !riso$6 the .r!ailla$ges re!ort& 2 still secret& co$firms as much) . cou$ter(

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1D=7+B+5G(A.9;+5=71

ex!ert will #are sa* to ;)A)2 1<riso$ is not a solutio$ to *our !ro"lem)1 :e woul# li'e to as' this cou$ter( ex!ert2 for whom a$# for which !ro"lem is !riso$ a 1solutio$1@ . !recise s*stem com!rise# of !olice officers& crimi$al recor#s& a$# !arole officers lowers the cha$ces of esca!i$g a first co$victio$6 these *ou$g !eo!le are #esti$e# to retur$ to !riso$ almost as soo$ as the* leave) 8$e co$victio$ after a$other gets them la"ele# 1har#e$e# crimi$als)1

Nou$g !eo!le to#a* wal' a fi$e li$e i$#ee# "etwee$ a !ersiste$t tem!tatio$ to commit suici#e a$# the "irth of a certai$ form of !olitical co$scious$ess !eculiar to !riso$) +t0s $ot a"out ma'i$g vague recrimi$atio$s agai$st societ*& or fate& or ma'i$g $ew resolutio$s6 it0s a"out a$al* i$g their live# ex!erie$ce2 the !erso$ifie# mecha$isms that ceaselessl* !ush them i$to reform school& the hos!ital& the arm*& co$fi$eme$t)

273

;)A)0s 4=TT=B7 The $ee# to write to famil* a$# frie$#s is "or$ of isolatio$& a$# their !olitical reflectio$ is $ourishe# "* a $ew ge$re of writi$g i$ which the tra#itio$al #isti$ctio$s "etwee$ !u"lic a$# !rivate& the sexual a$# the social& collective #ema$#s a$# !erso$al lifest*le are "lurre#) +$ ma$* of ;)A)0s letters& the writi$g !rogressivel* cha$ges& u$#er Aa$#rax& 1Aa$#rax the Aag$ifice$t&1 a$# "ears wit$ess to com!leme$tar* or o!!ose# !erso$alities restlessl* stirri$g i$ the !riso$er& all of them !artici!ati$g i$ the same 1effort to reflect)1 The suici#al !erso$alit* wo$ out6 there coul# have "ee$ a$other outcome& if !e$ite$tiar* me#ici$e were $ot /ust a sim!le exte$sio$ of !olici$g) ;)A)0s corres!o$#e$ce is exem!lar* "ecause its heartfelt reflectio$s ex!ress what exactl* a !riso$er is thi$'i$g)These letters 'ee! tur$i$g over all 'i$#s of o"sessio$s2 write me& if *ou o$l* '$ew what a wor# from *ou mea$s)))& i$clu#e a stam!& it0s $o use givi$g our mo$e* to <) a$# T)& + write li'e a !ig with m* ha$# "ro'e$& the* "ro'e m* cast a$# wo$0t re!lace it& 1it0s !erha!s goo# !eo!le who have #o$e me the most harm&1 Aa$#rax& +0m losi$g it))) %B==D8A& se$# me "oo's& T eAnti-)syc i-

atrist, a$# 7artre0s Saint *enet, Actor R MartyrSSSSSSSSSSSThese letters tal' a"out all

sorts of #esires to flee& a$# to live) 5ot some im!ossi"le esca!e) >ut fleei$g the tra!s of the !olice who le# him "ac' to !riso$) To flee to +$#ia& where he wa$te# to go "efore his last arrest) . s!iritual flight& li'e Frish$a) 8r eve$ i$ !riso$& fleei$g right there& fleei$g himself& as he u$#oes certai$ !erso$alities that i$ha"it him& fleei$g li'e a schi o!hre$ic& i$ a$ a$#(!s*chiatric wa*) %leei$g li'e Ge$et& whe$ he0s 1sta*i$g cool1 a"out the feeli$gs of !ersecutio$ he se$ses ris( i$g withi$ himself& a$# which he '$ows are !rovo'e# "* !ersecutio$s that are all too real) 9ommu$it*(flights& where the 1commu$it*1 is #efi$e# i$ o!!ositio$ to 1little hi!!* societies that #o $othi$g "ut imitate our fascist societ*)1 8r active flights& i$ the !olitical se$se& li'e Cac'so$&0 where o$e flees while loo'i$g for a wea!o$& while attac'i$g2 1+ #o$0t have a law*er a$# + #o$0t '$ow if +0ll as' for o$e) + #o$0t wa$t a law*er who whi$es a$# !lea#s for cleme$c*) + wa$t a law*er who0s go$$a scream a$# raise hell))))1 1+ feel li'e +0m suffocati$g& + wo$0t as' the tri"u$al to show a$* merc*& +0ll scream i$/ustice& +0ll !roclaim the !olice are corru!t)))& + have to go $ow "ecause +0m half(cra *& a$# the*0ll use these letters to loc' me awa* for goo#)))1 .$# if $othi$g else is !ossi"le& to flee "* committi$g suici#e2 1+0ll wait for the ver#ict u$less life "ecomes too #ifficult to "ear a$# + #eci#e $ot to wait a$* lo$ger) +t0s somethi$g + co$tem!late ever*#a*& "ut it0s /ust as #ifficult to live as to #ie) :ell& +0m goi$g to "e# a$# will co$ti$ ue m* "oo' "* 4ai$g& "ecause +0m reall* #ow$ to#a*1 ,writte$ the #a* "efore his suici#e-) There is ever* cha$ce that the war#e$ a$# the guar#s co$si#ere# it "lac'mail& "a# rea#i$g material& or sim!l* !la* acti$g)

274

;)A)0s 4=TT=B7 ;)A) was homosexual) There are some who "elieve that a homosexual has it easier i$ !riso$& si$ce ever*"o#* "ecomes homosexual i$ !riso$) The o!!osite is true2 !riso$ is the last !lace where o$e ca$ "e 1$aturall*1 homosexual& "ecause o$e is caught i$ a s*stem of harassme$t a$# !rostitutio$& i$ which t e administration vo'untari'y p'ays a part in order to divide t e prison popu'ation against itse'f% ;)A)& however& was a!!reciate# a$# love# "* the !riso$ers without havi$g to hi#e his homosexualit*) .$# it is !recisel* #ue to a re!ort "* a guar#& followi$g a$ i$ci#e$t& that ;)A) was se$t to solitar* co$fi$eme$t3 for "ei$g 1caught i$ the act)1 :e have to as' ourselves what right the !riso$ has to /u#ge a$# !u$ish homosexualit*)

;)A) thi$'s the* $ever give him a mome$t0s !eace& i$#ee#& that !u$ishme$t o$ !u$ishme$t is rele$tlessl* #elivere#) >ut !riso$ has a$ eve$ more secret !riso$& solitar* co$fi$eme$t& which the <leve$ 1reform1 is careful to overloo')0 Duri$g a !revious co$victio$ for attem!te# larce$*& whe$ ;)A) ha# serve# his time& the* a##e# fort*(five more #a*s of co$fi$eme$t ,for $o$(!a* ( me$t of his court fees-& a$# the$ whe$ he was leavi$g the !remises& he was reta'e$ i$to custo#* o$ a com!lai$t file# "* a guar# who& havi$g "eate$ him& swears he was attac'e# "* the !riso$er) 8r how a"out this2 havi$g ta'e$ some #rugs for a !s*chothera!eutic treatme$t& a$# "ei$g at the hos!ital for some other reaso$ ,viral he!atitis-& ;)A) was !ursue# "* someo$e who tele!ho$es& as'i$g him to co! a few "ric's of o!ium& a$# 'ee!s calli$g& i$sisti$g& till he fi$all* #e$ou$ces ;)A) to the !olice) This is how the* tur$ a #rug user& former or curre$t& i$to a 1#a$gerous #ealer1 for !olice statistics a$# the e#itorials of reactio$ar* $ews!a!ers li'e Aurore% ;e was imme#iatel* arreste#& give$ a $ew !reve$tive #ete$tio$6 a $ew !rovocatio$& "ei$g 1caught i$ the act1 of homosexualit* la$#s him i$ solitar*& where he 'ills himself) :hat is at sta'e here is $ot o$l* a social s*stem i$ ge$eral with its exclusio$s a$# co$#em$atio$s& "ut the #eli"erate a$# !erso$ifie# !rovocatio$s "* mea$s of which this s*stem fu$ctio$s a$# e$sures its or#er& "* mea$s of which the s*stem creates its exclu#e# a$# co$#em$e#& i$ co$formit* with a !olitics share# "* <ower& the !olice& a$# the a#mi$istratio$) . s!ecific $um"er of !eo!le are #irectl* a$# !erso$all* res!o$si"le for the #eath of ;)A)

,ot and Coo"1

The !ai$ter0s mo#el is commo#it*) .ll sorts of commo#ities2 a!!arel& toiletries& "ri#al accessories& erotica& foo#) .$# the !ai$ter is alwa*s !rese$t i$ his !ai$ti$gs& a "lac' silhouette

275

;)A)0s 4=TT=B7 who seems to watch2 !ai$ter a$# love& !ai$ter a$# #eath& !ai$ter a$# foo#& !ai$ter a$# car))) >ut from o$e mo#el to the other& the* are all measure# "* the u$i?ue mo#el of 9ommo#it* movi$g with the !ai$ter) =ach !ai$ti$g is "uilt o$ a #omi$a$t color& a$# the !ai$ti$gs form a series) +t is as if the series "ega$ with the !ai$ti$g Rouge de cadmium a$# fi$ishe# with Eert Eeromese, re!rese$ti$g the same !ai$ti$g& "ut this time exhi"ite# i$ the #ealer0s sho!2 the !ai$ter a$# his !ai$ti$g have themselves "ecome commo#ities) 7till& we coul# imagi$e other "egi$$i$gs a$# other e$#i$gs) +$ a$* case& from o$e !ai$ti$g to the other& $ot o$l* is the !ai$ter strolli$g through the sho!s& "ut the values of excha$ge are i$ circulatio$6 it is a /our$e* of colors& a$# a /our$e* i$ each !ai$ti$g& a circulatio$ of i$to$atio$s)

5othi$g is $eutral or !assive) .$# *et the !ai$ter #oes$0t mea$ a$*thi$g "* his wor'2 $either a!!ro"atio$ $or a$ger) 5or #o the colors mea$ a$*thi$g2 gree$ is $ot ho!e6 *ellow is $ot sa#$ess6 re# is $ot ha!!i$ess or /o*) 8$l* hot or cool& hot and cool) .rt as machi$er*2 %roma$ger !ai$ts& that is to sa*& he '$ows how to o!erate his !ai$ti$gs) The !ai$ti$g(machi$e of a$ artist( e$gi$eer) The artist( e$gi$eer of a civili atio$2 how #oes he o!erate his !ai$ti$gs@

5ews!a!er !hotogra!h i$ ha$#& the !ai$ter has !lotte# the !ositio$s2 street& store& !eo!le) +t0s $ot a"out gras!i$g the atmos!here& "ut rather a$ ever(sus!e$#e# imma$e$ce& the u$iform !ossi"ilit* that somethi$g li'e a $ew Fe$$e#* assassi$atio$ coul# come out of $owhere& i$ a s*stem of i$#iffere$ce where the values of excha$ge circulate) The !hotogra!h ca!tures a $um"er of colorless cliches& a$# the !ai$ter chooses the o$e he li'es) >ut he will have chose$ the !hoto "ase# o$ a #iffere$t choice2 the si$gle #omi$a$t color that flows from the !ai$t(tu"e ,the two choices com!lime$t each other-) The !ai$ter !ro/ects the image o$to the ca$vas a$# !ai$ts the !ro/ecte# image& /ust li'e the tech$i?ue of creati$g ta!estries) The !ai$ter !ai$ts i$ the #ar'$ess for hours) This $octur$al activit* reveals a$ eter$al truth a"out !ai$ti$g2 a !ai$ter has $ever !ai$te# o$ a "la$' ca$vas& re!ro#uci$g a$ o"/ect that fu$ctio$s as a mo#el) Bather& he has alwa*s !ai$te# a$ image& a simulacrum& a sha#ow of the o"/ect& !ro#uci$g a ca$vas whose ver* fu$ctio$i$g reverses the relatio$shi! "etwee$ mo#el a$# co!*) 9o$se?ue$tl*& there is $o lo$ger mo#el or co!*) The co!*& a$# the co!* of the co!*& is !ushe# to the !oi$t where it reverses itself& a$# !ro#uces the mo#el2 <o! .rt or !ai$ti$g for a 1higher realit*)1

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;)A)0s 4=TT=B7 ;avi$g chose$ a color& the !ai$ter a!!lies it straight from the tu#e& mixi$g it o$l* with i$c white) This color& i$ relatio$ to the !hoto& coul# "e hot li'e Rouge & ine vermi''ionne or Eio'et de 3ayeu!, or cool li'e Eert Aubusson or Eio'et d,Egypte% ;e starts with the lightest areas ,where there is the most white- a$# co$structs his !ai$ti$g o$ a gra#ie$t that #oes$0t allow for "ac'( trac'i$g& #ri!s& or "le$#s) .$ irreversi"le asce$#i$g series of flat ti$ts rises towar# the !ure color s?uee e# from the tu"e& or re/oi$s this !ure color6 as though the !ai$ti$g i$ the e$# were goi$g to crawl "ac' i$to the tu"e)

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7till& this #oes$0t full* ex!lai$ how the !ai$ti$g o!erates& "ecause a color is o$l* !ote$tiall* hot or cool& a$# this !ote$tial will "e actuali e# o$l* i$ relatio$ to the other colors) %or exam!le& a seco$# color affects a !articular !art of the !hoto2 a !e#estria$) 5ot o$l* is this color lighter or #ar'er tha$ the #omi$a$t color& "ut "ei$g hot or cool i$ its ow$ right& it ca$ heat it u! or cool it #ow$) . circuit of excha$ge a$# commu$icatio$ is set u! i$ the !ai$ti$g& a$# from o$e !ai$ti$g to a$other) 4oo' at Eio'et de 3ayeu! with its hot asce$#i$g gra#ie$t2 a chil# i$ the "ac'grou$# is !ai$te# a cool gree$& a$# so& "* co$trast& "egi$s heati$g u! the !ote$tiall* hot violet) >ut this is$0t e$ough to a$imate the violet) +$ the foregrou$#& a ma$ !ai$te# a hot *ellow will 'i$#le or re( 'i$#le the violet a$#& with the gree$ acti$g as i$terme#iar*& will actuali e the violet0s !ote$tial over a$# a"ove the gree$) >ut $ow the cool gree$ is out of the loo!& isolate#& as though exhausti$g its fu$ctio$ all at o$ce) +t must itself "e sustai$e#& i$serte# "ac' i$to the !ai$ti$g& rea$imate# or reactivate# withi$ the !ai$ti$g as a whole) +t #oes this through a thir# character( color2 the cool "lue "ehi$# the *ellow) 7ometimes these seco$#ar* a$# circulator* colors are grou!e# arou$# o$e si$gle color& which the* #ivi#e u! i$to "a$#s or arcs) .$# sometimes the !hoto resists "ei$g tra$sforme# i$to a livi$g !ai$ti$g) +t leaves a resi#ue& as i$ Eio'et de 3ayeu!, where o$e of the character(colors i$ the foregrou$#e# grou! remai$s u$#etermi$e#) This color will "e treate# li'e "lac'& with a #ual !ote$tial that ca$ "e actuali e# i$ bot #irectio$s6 or it ca$ 1#rift1 towar# cool "lue as easil* as move towar# hot re#) The resi#ue is re(i$/ecte# i$to the !ai$ti$g& such that the !ai$ti$g o!erates usi$g the refuse of the !hoto& /ust as the !hoto o!erates usi$g the colors that ma'e u! the !ai$ti$g):e have to co$si#er a$other eleme$t which is !rese$t i$ all the !ai$ti$gs from the start& a$ eleme$t that /um!s from o$e !ai$ti$g to a$other2 the "lac' !ai$ter i$ the foregrou$#) The !ai$ter who !ai$ts i$ the "lac'$ess is himself "lac'2 his silhouette is massive6 the curves of his "o#* are salie$t6 his chi$ is har# a$# heav*& a$# his hair is "rai#e# li'e a ro!e) ;e o"serves the commo#ities) ;e waits) >ut the "lac' #oes$0t exist6 the "lac' !ai$ter #oes$0t exist) The "lac' #oes$0t eve$ have a !ote$tial i$ the same wa* a hot or cool color #oes) +ts !ote$tial is "elow the surface2 "lac' is "oth hot a$# cool2 cool whe$ !ulle# towar# "lue& a$# hot whe$ !ulle# towar# re#) Though !rese$t with such force& this "lac' has $o existe$ce) +$stea#& it serves a !rimor#ial fu$ctio$ i$ the !ai$ti$g) :hether hot or cool& it will "e the a$tithesis of the #omi$a$t color& or the same as this color2 for exam!le& to reheat what was cool) Ta'e the !ai$ti$g Eert Aubusson8 the "lac' !ai$ter watches a$# loves the seate# mo#el& a #ea# cool gree$ woma$) 7he is "eautiful i$ #eath) >ut to ma'e her #eath hot& some *ellow must "e extracte# from the gree$& a$# to #o this& "lue must "e #raw$ out as the com!lime$t of *ellow) 7o& the "lac' !ai$ter must "e coole# off agai$ i$ or#er to reheat the gree$ #eath) ,7ee& too& i$ Rouge de cadmium c'air, how the *ou$g marrie# mo#els are ver* #iscreetl* give$ #eath0s(hea#s& or i$ Eio'et de Mars, the #ea# "athi$g "eauties are elega$t vam!ires caught i$ a varia"le relatio$ with the "lac' silhouette-) +$ a wor#& the "lac' !ai$ter has two fu$ctio$s i$ the !ai$ti$g& accor#i$g to two #iffere$t circuits2 1- he is a !ara$oi#& immo"ile& heav* silhouette /ust as fixate# o$ commo#it* as commo#it* is fixate# o$ him6 "ut 2- he is also a mo"ile schi oi# sha#ow !er!etuall* #is!lace# with res!ect to himself& traversi$g the whole gra#ie$t of hot a$# cool& reheati$g the cool a$# cooli$g #ow$ the hot2 a $ever(e$#i$g tri! while sta$#i$g still)

The !ai$ti$g a$# its series #o$0t mea$ a$*thi$g& the* fu$ctio$) .$# the* fu$ctio$ usi$g at least four eleme$ts ,though there are ma$* others-2 1- the irreversi"le asce$#i$g gra#ie$t of the #omi$a$t color which traces i$ the !ai$ti$g a whole s*stem of connections mar'e# with white !oi$ts6 2- the $etwor' of seco$#ar* colors& which forms disjunctions of the hot a$# the cool& a

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reversi"le excha$ge of tra$sformatio$s& reactio$s& i$versio$s& i$fere$ces& heati$gs a$# cooli$gs6 3- the "lac' !ai$ter as ma/or conjunction which co$tai$s i$ itself the #is/u$ctive& a$# which #istri"utes the co$$ectio$s6 a$# 4-& whe$ $ecessar*& the residue of the !hoto that re(i$/ects i$to the !ai$ti$g ever*thi$g that was a"out to esca!e) . life force circulates here& a stra$ge a$# vital force)

There are two coexisti$g circuits& each e$ta$gle# i$ the other) There is the circuit of the !hoto& or the !hotos& which serves as the su!!ort of the commo#ities6 there is the circulatio$ of excha$ge value& a$# whose im!orta$ce lies i$ mo"ili i$g what remai$s i$#iffere$t) This i$#iffere$ce occurs at three levels of the !ai$ti$g2 1- the i$#iffere$ce of the commo#it* i$ the "ac'grou$#& which is e?uivale$t to love& #eath or $ourishme$t& to the $a'e# or the clothe#& to a still life& or to a machi$e6 2- the i$#iffere$ce of the !e#estria$s& some statio$ar*& oth ers sli!!i$g awa*& such as the "lue ma$ or the gree$ woma$ i$ Eio'et de Mars, or the ma$ who is eati$g as he !asses "* the $ewl*we#s6 3- the i$#iffere$ce of the "lac' !ai$ter i$ the foregrou$#& his i$#iffere$t e?uivale$ce to ever* commo#it* a$# !asser("*) >ut !erha!s these res!ective circuits of i$#iffere$ce& each o$e mirrori$g the other& excha$gi$g with the other& i$tro#uce somethi$g li'e a #eclaratio$2 the feeli$g that somethi$g is $ot right& that somethi$g 'ee!s #isru!ti$g the a!!are$t e?uili"rium of circuits& that each thi$g is 'ee!i$g to itself i$ the com!artme$tali e# #e!th of the !ai$ti$g2 the commo#it* 'ee!s to commo#ities& the huma$s to the huma$& a$# the !ai$ter to himself) This is the circuit of #eath& where ever*o$e is hea#i$g towar#s the grave& or is alrea#* there) +t is at this ru!ture !oi$t& ever*where !rese$t& that the other circuit co$$ects u!& re/oi$i$g the !ai$ti$g& reorga$i i$g it& tur$i$g the #iscrete !la$es i$to the ri$gs of a s!iral that causes the "ac'grou$# to come forwar#& a$# the various eleme$ts to react with each other i$ a s*stem of simulta$eous i$#uctio$s) >ut $ow it is a vital circuit& with its "lac' su$& its asce$#i$g color a$# its ra#ia$t hots a$# cools) .$# still the circuit of life is $ourishe# "* the circuit of #eath a$# carries it alo$g& ultimatel* to trium!h over it)

+t is har# to as' a !ai$ter& 0:h* #o *ou !ai$t@0 The ?uestio$ ma'es $o se$se) >ut what a"out2 ;ow #o *ou !ai$t@ ;ow #oes the !ai$ti$g fu$ctio$@ .$# su##e$l*2 :hat #o *ou get out of !ai$ti$g@ +magi$e that %roma$ger a$swers2 1+ !ai$t i$ the #ar'& a$# what +0m after is ot a$# coo', a$# + wa$t to get it from the colors& through the colors)1 . coo'& too& ca$ "e after ot a$#

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coo', or a /u$'*) Aa*"e the !ai$ti$gs are %roma$ger0s foo#& or his #rugs) ;ot a$# cool2 that0s what ca$ "e extracte# from color as much as from a$*thi$g else ,li'e writi$g& #a$ce& music& or the me#ia-) 9o$versel*& there are other thi$gs to "e extracte# from color as well& a$# this extractio$ is $ever eas*& $o matter what it is) :hat this mea$s is that the o!eratio$ of extracti$g& or extricati$g somethi$g #oes$0t ha!!e$ all "* itself) .s Ac4uha$ has show$& 2 whe$ the me#ium is hot& $othi$g circulates or commu$icates exce!t through the cool& which co$trols ever* active i$teractio$& i$clu#i$g !ai$ter with mo#el& s!ectator with !ai$ter& a$# mo#el with co!*) :hat cou$ts is the !er!etual reversals of hot a$# cool& accor#i$g to which the hot ca$ cool #ow$ the cool a$# the cool reheat the hot2 it0s li'e heati$g a$ ove$ with s$ow "alls)

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:hat is revolutio$ar* a"out this !ai$ti$g@ <erha!s it0s the ra#ical absence of "itter$ess& tragic grief& a$# a$guish3all that a$$o*i$g cra! i$ the !seu#o(great !ai$ters who are su!!ose#l* the wit$esses of their times) .ll those fascist a$# sa#istic fa$tasies that ma'e a !ai$ter seem li'e a$ i$cisive critic of the mo#er$ worl#& whe$ i$ fact he is o$l* reveli$g i$ his ow$ rese$tme$t a$# com!lace$c*& $ot to me$tio$ the com!lace$c* of his !atro$s) Though such a !ai$ti$g ma* "e a"stract& it is $o$e the less #irt*& #isgusti$g& a$# sa#) 4i'e the game('ee!er sa*s to the !ai$ter2 1.ll these tu"es a$# vi"ratio$s of corrugate# iro$ are reall* stu!i#& a$# too se$time$tal6 the* exhi"it wa* too much self(!it* a$# vai$ i$securit*)1 %roma$ger #oes the o!!osite2 he exhi"its somethi$g vital a$# !owerful) <erha!s this ex!lai$s wh* he is $ot li'e# "* co$$oisseurs& a$# wh* his wor' #oes$0t sell) ;is !ai$ti$gs are full of sho! wi$#ows& a$# his silhouette is ever*where2 a$# *et he offers $o mirror to reflect our ga e) ;e !ai$ts agai$st the fa$tas* which mutilates life& which tur$s life towar# #eath& a$# the !ast& eve$ whe$ it0s #o$e i$ a mo#er$ st*le2 to this %roma$ger o!!oses a life(givi$g !rocess that has "ee$ wreste# from the gri! of #eath& a$# from the !ast) %roma$ger u$#ersta$#s the !oiso$ous $ature of his mo#el& the ruse of commo#it*& the !e#estria$0s i$evita"le stu!i#it*& a$# the hatre# that follows a !ai$ter as soo$ as he "ecomes !olitical& a$# the hatre# he himself ca$ feel) ;owever& out of this !oiso$ous $ature& this ruse& this ugli$ess a$# hatre#& %roma$ger refuses to create a $arcissistic mirror for some h*!ocritical& ge$erali e# reco$ciliatio$& exciti$g !it* for himself a$# for the worl#) 8ut of ever*thi$g ugl*& re!ug$a$t& hateful a$# #etesta"le& he '$ows how to extract the hots a$# the cools that create a life for tomorrow) :e have to imagi$e the cool revolutio$ as $ecessaril* reheati$g to#a*0s over( heate# worl#) +s this h*!er(realism@ :h* $ot& if it wrests a 1more( real1 from a mela$chol* a$# o!!ressive realit* to create /o*& to cause a$ ex!losio$& to start a revolutio$) %roma$ger loves the #ea# gree$ woma$(commo#it*& a$# gives her life "* ma'i$g his "lac'$ess more "lue) Aa*"e he eve$ loves the fat violet woma$ awaiti$g& a$# mour$i$g& who '$ows what clie$t) ;e loves ever*thi$g he !ai$ts) This !resu!!oses $o a"stractio$& a$# $o agreeme$t either& "ut #ema$#s much extracti$g a$# extractive force) +t0s stra$ge to what exte$t the acts of a revolutio$ar* are gover$e# "* what he loves i$ the ver* worl# he wa$ts to #estro*) The o$l* revolutio$ar* is a /o*ful revolutio$ar*& a$# the o$l* !ai$ti$g that is estheticall* a$# !oliticall* revolutio$ar* is /o*ful) %roma$ger lives a$# accom!lishes what 4awre$ce sa*s2 1+$ m* o!i$io$& either there is /o* i$ a !ai$ti$g& or it0s $ot a !ai$ti$g) The most som"er !ai$ti$gs of <iero #ella %ra$cesca& 7o#oma a$# Go*a& "reath out this i$#escri"a"le /o* fou$# i$ real !ai$ti$g) Ao#er$ critics tal' a lot a"out the ugli$ess of !ai$ti$gs& "ut + have $ever see$ a real !ai$ti$g that + thought was ugl*) The su"/ect ca$ "e ugl*& it ca$ have a terrif*i$g ?ualit*& a #es!erate& almost re!ug$a$t ?ualit*& as i$ =l Greco0s !ai$ti$gs) >ut all of this is stra$gel* swe!t awa* "* the /o* of the !ai$ti$g) 5o artist& eve$ the most #es!erate& has ever !ai$te# somethi$g without ex!erie$ci$g the stra$ge /o* which the creatio$ of the image "egets153that is to sa*& the tra$sformatio$ which the image u$#ergoes i$ the !ai$ti$g& a$# the cha$ge that the !ai$ti$g !ro#uces i$ the image) 1

0omadi7 Tho-ght;

+f we wa$t to '$ow what 5iet sche is or is "ecomi$g to#a*& we '$ow ver* well whom we shoul# as'3the *ou$g !eo!le $ow rea#i$g 5iet sche& those who are /ust #iscoveri$g 5iet sche) Those of us here to#a* are& for the most !art& alrea#* too ol#) :hat is a *ou$g !erso$ #iscoveri$g i$ 5iet sche that was clearl* $ot #iscovere# "* earlier ge$eratio$s@ ;ow is it that *ou$g musicia$s to#a* feel some co$$ectio$ with 5iet sche i$ their music& although the* #o $ot at all ma'e music

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that is 5iet schea$ i$ a$* se$se that 5iet sche woul# u$#ersta$#@ ;ow is it that *ou$g !ai$ters& *ou$g film ma'ers feel some co$$ectio$ with 5iet sche@ :hat is goi$g o$@ :hat we wa$t to '$ow is how t ey have receive# 5iet sche) 8$ the outsi#e& the o$l* thi$g we ca$ reall* ex!lai$ is how 5iet sche reserve# for himself a$# for his rea#ers& "oth co$tem!orar* a$# future ge$eratio$s& a !articular right to misi$ter!ret) 5ot /ust a$* right& to "e sure& "ecause it has its ow$ secret rules3"ut a !articular right to misi$ter!ret& which + will ex!lai$ i$ a mi$ute& a$# which ma'es comme$ti$g o$ 5iet sche ver* u$li'e comme$ti$g o$ Descartes or ;egel) + as' m*self2 who is the *ou$g 5iet schea$ to#a*@ +s it whoever is wor'i$g o$ 5iet sche@ <erha!s) 8r is it whoever& volu$taril* or i$vol( u$taril*3it #oes$0t matter which& utters thi$gs which are si$gularl* 5iet schea$ i$ the course of a$ actio$& !assio$& or ex!erie$ce@ This is also the case) . "eautiful rece$t text& o$e of the most !rofou$#l* 5iet schea$ to m* '$owle#ge& is Bichar# Desha*es0s Eivre, c,estpas survivre, which he wrote /ust "efore "ei$g wou$#e# "* a gre$a#e #uri$g a #emo$stratio$)2 <erha!s the two cases are $ot mutuall* exclusive) <erha!s o$e ca$ write o$ 5iet sche& a$# the$ i$ the course of ex!erie$ce !ro#uce 5iet schea$ uttera$ces)

/ at is Niet(sc e today= +$ that ?uestio$& we ca$ feel the #a$gers l*i$g i$ wait for us) . #emagogic #a$ger ,1*ou$g !eo!le are o$ our si#e)))1-( . !ater$alistic #a$ger ,a#vice to a *ou$g rea#er of 5iet sche)))-) .$# a"ove all& the #a$ger of a$ a!!alli$g s*$thesis) The tri$it* of 5iet sche& %reu#& a$# Aarx is thought to "e the #aw$ of our mo#er$ culture) 5ever mi$# that "* #oi$g so *ou #efuse the ex!losive$ess of each from the start) <erha!s Aarx a$# %reu# are the #aw$ of our culture& "ut 5iet sche is somethi$g else e$tirel*& the #aw$ of a cou$terculture) +t seems clear that our societ* #oes $ot fu$ctio$ accor#i$g to co#es) 8ur societ* has other fou$#atio$s "* virtue of which it fu$ctio$s) ;owever& if o$e exami$es $ot the letter of Aarx or %reu#& "ut the "ecomi$g of Aarxism a$# the "ecomi$g of %reu#ia$ism& we see& !ara#oxicall*& Aarxists a$# %reu#ia$s e$gage# i$ a$ attem!t to reco#e Aarx a$# %reu#2 i$ the case of Aarxism& *ou have a reco#i$g "* the 7tate ,1the 7tate has ma#e *ou ill& the 7tate will cure *ou13this ca$$ot "e the same 7tate-6 a$# i$ the case of %reu#ia$ism& *ou have a reco#i$g "* the famil* ,*ou fall ill from the famil* a$# recover t roug the famil*3this is $ot the same famil*-) :hat at the hori o$ of our culture i$ fact co$stitutes Aarxism a$# !s*choa$al*sis as those two fu$#ame$tal "ureaucracies& the o$e !u"lic& the other !rivate& is their effort to reco#e as "est the* ca$ !recisel* that which o$ the hori o$ ceaselessl* te$#s to come u$co#e#) This is $ot at all what 5iet sche is a"out) ;is !ro"lem is elsewhere) %or 5iet sche& it is a"out getti$g somethi$g through i$ ever* !ast& !rese$t& a$# future co#e& somethi$g which #oes $ot a$# will $ot let itself "e reco#e#) Getti$g it through o$ a $ew "o#*& i$ve$ti$g a "o#* o$ which it ca$ !ass a$# flow2 a "o#* that woul# "e ours& the "o#* of =arth& the "o#* of writi$g)))

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:e are familiar with the great i$strume$ts of e$co#i$g6 societies are $ot that #iffere$t i$ this res!ect6 there are o$l* so ma$* mea$s of e$co#i$g at their #is!osal) The three !ri$ci!le mea$s are2 the law& the co$tract& a$# the i$stitutio$) %or exam!le& the relatio$shi! to "oo's which !eo!le have or have ha# exhi"its all three) There are "oo's of law2 here the relatio$ of the rea#er to the "oo' !asses through the law) +$ !articular& moreover& the* are calle# co#es& ca$o$s& or sacre# "oo's) .$# the other sort of "oo' *ou have !asses through the co$tract& the "ourgeois co$tractual relatio$) This other "oo' is the "asis of secular literature a$# "oo'(selli$g2 + !urchase& a$# *ou give me somethi$g to rea#3a co$tractual relatio$ i$ which ever*o$e is caught2 author& !u"lisher& rea#er) .$# there is the thir# sort of "oo'& the !olitical "oo'& !refera"l* revolutio$ar*& which is !rese$te# as a "oo' of i$stitutio$s& either !rese$t or to come) Nou fi$# ever* !ossi"le com"i$atio$ of the three2 co$tractual or i$stitutio$al "oo's co$si#ere# sacre#& etc) This is "ecause ever* t*!e of co#e is so !rese$t& a$# so u$#erlies ever* other co#e& that we fi$# each i$ the other) Ta'e a$ e$tirel* #iffere$t exam!le2 ma#$ess) The attem!t to e$co#e ma#$ess has "ee$ carrie# out i$ three forms) %irst& the forms of law& i)e) the hos!ital& the as*lum3this is the re!ressive co#e& loc'i$g someo$e awa*& "ut the ol# st*le of loc'i$g someo$e awa*& which is #es( ti$e# to "ecome a last ho!e& whe$ !eo!le will sa*2 1those were the goo# ol# #a*s whe$ the* use# to loc' us awa*& "ecause much worse is i$ store for us)1 .$# the$ *ou have this "rillia$t move which was !s*choa$al*sis2 it was u$#erstoo# that there were !eo!le who esca!e# the "ourgeois co$tractual relatio$ as it was ma$ifeste# i$ me#ici$e& a$# those !eo!le were the #istur"e#& "ecause the* coul#$0t "e co$tractual !arties& the* were /uri#icall* 1i$ca!a"le)1 %reu#0s stro'e of ge$ius was to get at least some of the #istur"e#& i$ the largest se$se of the wor#& the $eurotics& to !ass through the co$tractual relatio$& !rovi$g that a co$tract with such !eo!le coul# "e #o$e ,thus he a"a$#o$s h*!$osis-) This is fi$all* the $ovelt* of !s*choa$al*sis2 %reu# was the first to i$tro#uce i$to !s*chiatr* the "ourgeois co$tractual relatio$ which u! to that !oi$t ha# "ee$ exclu#e# from !s*chiatr*) .$# the$ there are the still more rece$t attem!ts to e$co#e ma#$ess& whose !olitical im!licatio$s& a$# at times revolutio$ar* am"itio$s& are clear6 such attem!ts are calle# i$stitutio$al) +$ this case& we fi$# the tri!le mea$s of e$co#i$g2 either it will "e the law& or if it is $ot the law& it will "e the co$tractual relatio$6 if $ot the co$tractual relatio$& it will "e the i$stitutio$) .$# it is tha$'s to these e$co#i$gs that our "ureaucracies flourish)

%ace# with the wa* i$ which our societies come u$co#e#& co#es lea'i$g awa* o$ ever* si#e& 5iet sche #oes $ot tr* to !erform a reco#i$g) ;e sa*s2 this has$0t *et go$e far e$ough& *ou0re $othi$g "ut chil#re$ ,1the e?uali atio$ of =uro!ea$ i$#ivi#uals is the great irreversi"le !rocess2 we shoul# accelerate it still more)1- +$ terms of what he writes a$# thi$'s& 5iet sche0s e$ter!rise is a$ attem!t at u$co#i$g& $ot i$ the se$se of a relative u$co#i$g which woul# "e the #eco#i$g of co#es !ast& !rese$t& or future& "ut a$ a"solute e$co#i$g3to get somethi$g through which is $ot e$co#a"le& to mix u! all the co#es) +t is $ot so eas* to mix u! all the co#es& eve$ at the level of

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the sim!lest writi$g& a$# la$guage) The similarit* + see here is with Faf'a& what Faf'a #oes with Germa$& i$ accor#a$ce with the li$guistic situatio$ of the Cews i$ <rague2 he "uil#s a war( machi$e i$ Germa$ agai$st Germa$6 through sheer i$#etermi$atio$ a$# so"riet*& he gets somethi$g through i$ the Germa$ co#e which ha# $ever "ee$ hear# "efore) 5iet sche& for his !art& wa$ts to "e or sees himself as <olish with res!ect to Germa$) ;e sei es o$ Germa$ to "uil# a war(machi$e which will get somethi$g through that will "e u$co#a"le i$ Germa$) That0s what st*le as !olitics mea$s) Aore ge$erall*& how #o we characteri e such thought& which claims to get its flows through& u$#er$eath the laws "* challe$gi$g them& a$# u$#er$eath co$tractual relatio$s "* co$tra#icti$g them& a$# u$#er$eath i$stitutio$s "* !aro#*i$g them@ 4et me come "ac' ?uic'l* to the exam!le of !s*choa$al*sis) +$ what res!ect #oes a !s*choa$al*st as origi$al as Aela$ie Flei$ still remai$ withi$ the !s*choa$al*tic s*stem@ 7he ex!lai$s it herself ?uite well2 the !artial o"/ects that she tells us a"out& with their ex!losio$s& their flows& etc)& are o$l* fa$tas*) The !atie$ts "ri$g live# ex!erie$ces& i$te$sel* live# ex!erie$ces& to Aela$ie Flei$ a$# she tra$slates them i$to fa$tas*) There *ou have a co$tract& s!ecificall* a co$tract2 give me *our live# ex!erie$ces& a$# + will give *ou fa$tasies) .$# the co$tract im!lies a$ excha$ge& a$ excha$ge of mo$e* a$# wor#s) +$ this res!ect& a !s*choa$al*st li'e :i$$icott trul* occu!ies the limit of !s*choa$al*sis& "ecause he feels that this !roce#ure is $o lo$ger a!!ro!riate after a certai$ !oi$t) There comes a !oi$t where it is $o lo$ger a"out tra$slati$g& or i$ter!reti$g& tra$slati$g i$to fa$tasies& i$ter!reti$g i$to sig$ifiers a$# sig$i( fie#s3$o& $ot i$ the least) There comes a !oi$t where *ou will have to share& have to !ut *ourself i$ the !atie$t0s shoes& go all the wa*& a$# share his ex!erie$ce) +s it a"out a 'i$# of s*m!ath*& or em!ath*& or i#e$tificatio$@ >ut surel* it0s more com!licate# tha$ that) :hat we feel is rather the $ecessit* of a relatio$ that woul# "e $either legal& $or co$tractual& $or i$stitutio$al) That0s how it is with 5iet sche) :e rea# a$ a!horism or a !oem from T us Spo:e Iarat ustra% >ut materiall* a$# formall*& texts li'e that ca$$ot "e u$#erstoo# "* the esta"lishme$t or the a!!licatio$ of a law& or "* the offer of a co$tractual relatio$& or "* the fou$#atio$ of a$ i$stitutio$) <erha!s the o$l* co$ceiva"le e?uivale$t is somethi$g li'e 1"ei$g i$ the same "oat)1 7omethi$g of <ascal tur$e# agai$st <ascal) :e0re i$ the same "oat2 a sort of life"oat& "om"s falli$g o$ ever* si#e& the life"oat #rifts towar# su"terra$ea$ rivers of ice& or towar# rivers of fire& the 8re$oco& the .ma o$& ever*o$e is !ulli$g a$ oar& a$# we0re $ot eve$ su!!ose# to li'e o$e a$other& we fight& we eat each other) =ver*o$e !ulli$g a$ oar is shari$g& shari$g somethi$g& "e*o$# a$* law& a$* co$tract& a$* i$stitutio$) Drifti$g& a #rifti$g moveme$t or 1#eterritoriali atio$12 + sa* all this i$ a vague& co$fuse# wa*& si$ce this is a$ h*!othesis or a vague im!ressio$ o$ the origi$alit* of 5iet sche0s texts) . $ew 'i$# of "oo')

7o what are the characteristics of a 5iet schea$ a!horism that give this im!ressio$@ There is o$e i$ !articular that Aaurice >la$chot has "rought to light i$ T e ;nfinite &onversation= +t is

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the relatio$ with the outsi#e) +$#ee#& whe$ we o!e$ at ra$#om o$e of 5iet sche0s texts& it is o$e of the first times we $o lo$ger !ass through a$ i$terior& whether it is the i$terior of the soul or co$scious$ess& the i$terior of esse$ce or the co$ce!t& i$ other wor#s& that which has alwa*s co$( stitute# the !ri$ci!le of !hiloso!h*) :hat co$stitutes the st*le of !hiloso!h* is that the relatio$ to the exterior is alwa*s me#iate# a$# #issolve# "* a$ i$terior& i$ a$ i$terior) 8$ the co$trar*& 5iet sche grou$#s thought& a$# writi$g& i$ a$ imme#iate relatio$ with the outsi#e) :hat is this2 a "eautiful !ai$ti$g or a "eautiful #rawi$g@ There is a frame) .$ a!horism has a frame& too) >ut whatever is i$ the frame& at what !oi$t #oes it "ecome "eautiful@ .t the mome$t o$e '$ows a$# feels that the moveme$t& that the li$e which is frame# comes from elsewhere& that it #oes $ot "egi$ withi$ the limits of the frame) +t "ega$ a"ove& or $ext to the frame& a$# the li$e traverses the frame) .s i$ Go#ar#0s film& *ou !ai$t the !ai$ti$g wit the wall) %ar from "ei$g the limitatio$ of the !ictorial surface& the frame is almost the o!!osite& !utti$g it i$to imme#iate relatio$ with the outsi#e) ;owever& hoo'i$g u! thought to the outsi#e is& strictl* s!ea'i$g& somethi$g !hiloso!hers have $ever #o$e& eve$ whe$ the* were tal'i$g a"out !olitics& eve$ whe$ the* were tal'i$g a"out ta'i$g a wal' or fresh air) +t is $ot e$ough to tal' a"out fresh air& to tal' a"out the exterior if *ou wa$t to hoo' thought u! #irectl* a$# imme#iatel* to the outsi#e)

1)))The* show u! li'e #esti$*& without cause or reaso$& without co$si#eratio$ or !retext& there the* are with the s!ee# of light$i$g& too terri"le& too su##e$& too co$?ueri$g& too ot er even to "e a$ o"/ect of hatre#)))1 This is 5iet sche0s famous text o$ the fou$#ers of 7tates& 1those artists with e*es of "ro$ e1 BT e *enea'ogy of Mora's, ++& 17-) 8r is it Faf'a& writi$g T e *reat /a'' of & ina=% 1+t0s im!ossi"le to u$#ersta$# how the* ma#e it all the wa* to the ca!ital& which is $o$etheless ?uite far from the fro$tier) >ut there the* are& a$# ever* mor$i$g seems to i$crease their $um"er) I)))J +m!ossi"le to co$verse with them) The* #o$0t '$ow our la$guage) I)))J =ve$ their horses are meat(eatersO1 4 :ell the$& what + am sa*i$g is that texts li'e these are traverse# "* a moveme$t which comes from the outsi#e& which #oes $ot "egi$ i$ the !age of the "oo'& $or i$ the !rece#i$g !ages& which #oes $ot fit i$ the frame of the "oo'& a$# which is totall* #iffere$t from the imagi$ar* moveme$t of re!rese$tatio$s or the a"stract move me$t of co$ce!ts as the* are wo$t to ta'e !lace through wor#s a$# i$ the rea#er0s hea#) 7omethi$g lea!s from the "oo'& ma'i$g co$tact with a !ure outsi#e) +t is this& + "elieve& which for 5iet sche0s wor' is the right to misi$ter!ret) .$ a!horism is a !la* of forces& a state of forces which are alwa*s exterior to o$e a$other) .$ a!horism #oes$0t mea$ a$*thi$g& it sig$ifies $othi$g& a$# $o more has a sig$ifier tha$ a sig$ifie#) Those woul# "e wa*s of restori$g a text0s i$teriorit*) .$ a!horism is a state of forces& the last of which& mea$i$g at o$ce the most rece$t& the most actual& a$# the !rovisio$al(ultimate& is t e most e!terna'% 5iet sche !osits it ?uite clearl*2 if *ou wa$t to '$ow what + mea$& fi$# the force that gives what + sa* mea$i$g& a$# a $ew mea$i$g if $ee# "e) ;oo' the text u! to this force) +$ this wa*& there are $o !ro"lems of i$ter!retatio$ for 5iet sche&

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there are o$l* !ro"lems of machi$i$g2 to machi$e 5iet sche0s text& to fi$# out which actual exter$al force will get somethi$g through& li'e a curre$t of e$erg*) +$ this res!ect& we come across the !ro"lem raise# "* some of 5iet sche0s texts which have a fascist or a$ti(7emitic reso$a$ce))) .$# si$ce we are #iscussi$g 5iet sche to#a*& we must ac'$owle#ge that he has i$s!ire# a$# i$s!ires still ma$* a *ou$g fascist) There was a time whe$ it was im!orta$t to show how 5iet sche was use#& twiste#& a$# com!letel* #istorte# "* the fascists) This was #o$e i$ the revue Acep a'e, with Cea$ :ahl& >ataille& a$# Flossows'i) To#a*& however& this is !erha!s $o lo$ger the !ro"lem) +t is $ot at the level of the text that we must fight) 5ot "ecause we are i$ca!a"le of fighti$g at that level& "ut "ecause such a fight is $o lo$ger useful) Bather& we must fi$#& assig$& /oi$ those exter$al forces which give to a$* !articular 5iet schea$ !hrase its li"erati$g mea$i$g& its se$se of exteriorit*) +t is at the level of metho# that the ?uestio$ of 5iet sche0s revolutio$ar* character is raise#2 it is the 5iet schea$ metho# that ma'es 5iet sche0s text $ot somethi$g a"out which we have to as'2 1is this fascist& "ourgeois& or revolutio$ar* i$ itself@13"ut a fiel# of exteriorit* where fascist& "ourgeois& a$# revolutio$ar* forces co$fro$t o$e a$other) .$# if we !ose the !ro"lem i$ this wa*& the a$swer that $ecessaril* co$forms with the metho# is2 fi$# the revolutio$ar* force ,who is su!erma$@- alwa*s calli$g o$ $ew forces which come from the exterior& a$# which traverse a$# i$tersect with the 5iet schea$ text i$ the frame of the a!horism) T ere is *our legitimate misi$ter!retatio$2 to treat the a!horism li'e a !he$ome$o$ awaiti$g $ew forces that will 1su"/ugate1 it or ma'e it wor' or ex!lo#e)

The a!horism is $ot o$l* relatio$ with the outsi#e) +ts seco$# characteristic is relatio$ with the i$te$sive) .$# the*0re the same thi$g) Flossows'i a$# 4*otar# have sai# all there is to sa* o$ the matter) :hat + sai# a"out 'ived e!periences a mome$t ago& how the* must$0t "e tra$slate# i$to re!rese$tatio$s or fa$tasies& how the* must$0t "e ma#e to !ass through the co#es of law& co$tract& or i$stitutio$& the* must$0t "e cashe# i$3it0s ?uite the o!!osite2 the* must "e treate# as flows which carr* us alwa*s farther out& ever further towar# the exterior6 this is !recisel* i$te$sit*& or i$te$sities) The live# ex!erie$ce is $ot su"/ective& or $ot $ecessaril*) +t is $ot of the i$#ivi#ual) +t is flow a$# the i$terru!tio$ of flow& si$ce each i$te$sit* is $ecessaril* i$ relatio$ to a$other i$te$sit*& i$ such a wa* that somethi$g gets through) This is what is u$#er$eath the co#es& what esca!es them& a$# what the co#es wa$t to tra$slate& co$vert& cash i$) >ut what 5iet sche is tr*i$g to tell us "* this writi$g of i$te$sities is2 #o$0t excha$ge the i$te$sit* for re!rese$tatio$s) The i$te$sit* se$#s *ou "ac' $either to sig$i( fie#s which woul# "e li'e the re!rese$tatio$s of thi$gs& $or to sig$ifiers which woul# "e li'e the re!rese$tatio$s of wor#s) 7o i$ what #oes i$te$sit* co$sist& as "oth age$t a$# o"/ect of u$co#i$g@ This is where 5iet sche is at his most m*sterious) The i$te$sit* has to #o with !ro!er $ames& a$# these are $either re!rese$tatio$s of thi$gs ,or !erso$s-& $or re!rese$tatio$s of wor#s) :hether the* are collective or i$#ivi#ual $ames& the !re(7ocratics& the Boma$s& the Cews& 9hrist& the .$ti(9hrist& Culius

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9aesar& >orgia& Rarathoustra& all the !ro!er $ames which come a$# go i$ 5iet sche0s texts are $either sig$ifiers or sig$ifie#s& "ut #esig$ate i$te$sities o$ a "o#* which ca$ "e the "o#* of the =arth& the "o#* of the "oo'& as well as 5iet sche0s ow$ sufferi$g "o#*2 ; am every name in istory%%% There is a 'i$# of $oma#ism& a !er!etual migratio$ of the i$te$sities #esig$ate# "* !ro!er $ames& a$# these i$ter!e$etrate o$e a$other as the* are live# o$ a full "o#*) The i$te$sit* ca$ "e live# o$l* i$ relatio$ to its mo"ile i$scri!tio$ o$ a "o#*& a$# to the movi$g exteriorit* of a !ro!er $ame& a$# this is what it mea$s for a !ro!er $ame to "e alwa*s a mas'& the mas' of a$ o!erator)

The relatio$ of the a!horism to humor a$# iro$* is the thir# !oi$t) :hoever rea#s 5iet sche without laughi$g& a$# laughi$g heartil* a$# ofte$ a$# sometimes h*stericall*& is almost $ot rea#i$g 5iet sche at all) This is true $ot o$l* for 5iet sche& "ut for all the authors who com!rise the same hori o$ of our cou$ter(culture) :hat shows us our ow$ #eca#e$ce a$# #ege$erac* is the wa* we feel the $ee# to rea# i$ them a$guish& solitu#e& guilt& the #rama of commu $icatio$& the whole trage#* of i$teriorit*) =ve$ Aax >ro# tells us how the au#ie$ce woul# laugh h*stericall* whe$ Faf'a use# to rea# T e Tria'% .$#

>ec'ett& + mea$& it is #ifficult $ot to laugh whe$ *ou rea# him& movi$g from o$e /o*ful mome$t to the $ext) 4aughter& $ot the sig$ifier) :hat s!ri$gs from great "oo's is schi o(laughter or revolutio$ar* /o*& $ot the a$guish of our !athetic $arcissism& $ot the terror of our guilt) 9all it the 1come#* of the su!erhuma$&1 or the 1clow$i$g of Go#)1 There is alwa*s a$ i$#escri"a"le /o* that s!ri$gs from great "oo's& eve$ whe$ the* s!ea' of ugl*& #es!erate& or terrif*i$g thi$gs) The tra$smutatio$ alrea#* ta'es effect with ever* great "oo'& a$# ever* great "oo' co$stitutes the health of tomorrow) Nou ca$$ot hel! "ut laugh whe$ *ou mix u! the co#es) +f *ou !ut thought i$ relatio$ to the outsi#e& Dio$*sia$ mome$ts of laughter will eru!t& a$# this is thi$'i$g i$ the clear air) +t ofte$ ha!!e$s that 5iet sche comes face to face with somethi$g sic'e$i$g& ig$o"le& #isgusti$g) :ell& 5iet sche thi$'s it0s fu$$*& a$# he woul# a## fuel to the fire if he coul#) ;e sa*s2 'ee! goi$g& it0s still $ot #isgusti$g e$ough) 8r he sa*s2 excelle$t& how #isgusti$g& what a marvel& what a master!iece& a !oiso$ous flower& fi$all* the 1huma$ s!ecies is getti$g i$teresti$g)1 %or exam!le& this is how 5iet sche loo's at a$# #eals with what he calls u$ha!!* co$scious$ess) Thus& there are the ;egelia$ comme$tators& those comme$tators of

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i$teriorit*& who reall* have $o se$se of humor) The* sa*2 *ou see& 5iet sche ta'es the u$ha!!* co$scious$ess seriousl*6 he ma'es it o$e of the mome$ts i$ the "ecomi$g(s!irit of s!iritualit*) The* !ass over ?uic'l* what 5iet sche ma'es of s!iritualit* "ecause the* se$se the #a$ger) 7o we see that while 5iet sche e$titles legitimate misi$ter!retatio$s& there are also misi$ter!retatio$s which are totall* illegitimate& those which are ex!lai$e# "* the s!irit of serious$ess& "* the s!irit of gravit*& "* the mo$'e* of Rarathoustra& i$ other wor#s& "* the cult of i$teriorit*) 4aughter i$ 5iet sche alwa*s har's "ac' to the exter$al moveme$t of humors a$# iro$ies& a$# this is the moveme$t of i$te$sities& as Flossows'i a$# 4*otar# have ma#e clear2 the wa* i$ which there is a !la* of high a$# low i$te$sities& the o$e i$ the other& such that a low i$te$sit* ca$ u$#ermi$e the highest i$te$sit* a$# eve$ "e as high as the highest& a$# vice versa) This !la* of levels of i$te$sit* co$trols the !ea's of iro$* a$# the valle*s of humor i$ 5iet sche& a$# it is #evelo!e# as the co$siste$c* or the ?ualit* of what is live# i$ relatio$ to the exterior) .$ a!horism is the !ure matter of laughter a$# /o*) +f *ou ca$$ot fi$# somethi$g to ma'e *ou laugh i$ a$ a!horism& a #istri"utio$ of iro$* a$# humor& a !artitio$ of i$te$sities& the$ *ou have fou$# $othi$g)

There is o$e last !oi$t) 4et0s come "ac' to that great text& T e *enea'ogy of Mora's, o$ the 7tate a$# the fou$#ers of em!ires2 1The* show u! li'e #esti$*& without cause or reaso$))))1 +$ this we recog$i e the me$ of that social !ro#uctio$ '$ow$ as .siatic) 8$ the fou$#atio$ of !rimitive rural commu$ities& the #es!ot sets u! his im!erial machi$e which over(co#es ever*thi$g& with a "ureaucrac*& a$ a#mi$istratio$ that orga$i es ma/or e$ter!rises a$# a!!ro!riates the sur!lus wor' for itself ,1wherever the* a!!ear& i$ $o time at all *ou fi$# some( thi$g $ew& a sovereig$ machi$er* that has come alive& i$ which ever* !art& ever* fu$ctio$ is #efi$e# a$# #etermi$e# with res!ect to the whole)))1-( >ut we ca$ as' ourselves whether this text #oes $ot "ri$g together two forces that are i$ other wa*s #isti$ct3which Faf'a& for his !art& 'e!t se!arate a$# eve$ o!!ose# i$ T e *reat /a'' of & ina% >ecause whe$ we see' to lear$ how !rimitive segme$tar* commu$ities gave wa* to other formatio$s of sovereig$t*& a ?uestio$ which 5iet sche raises i$ the seco$# essa* of his *enea'ogy, we see two !he$ome$a !ro#uce# which are strictl* correlative& "ut ?uite #iffere$t) +t is true that rural commu$ities at their ce$ter are caught a$# tra$sfixe# i$ the #es!ot0s "ureaucratic machi$e& with its scri"es& its !riests& its "ureaucrats6 "ut o$ the !eri!her*& the commu$ities em"ar' o$ a$other 'i$# of a#ve$ture& #is!la* a$other 'i$# of u$it*& a $oma#ic u$it*& a$# e$gage i$ a $oma#ic war(machi$e& a$# the* te$# to come u$co#e# rather tha$ "ei$g co#e# over) =$tire grou!s ta'e off o$ a $oma#ic a#ve$ture2 archeologist have taught us to co$si#er $oma#ism $ot as a$ origi$ar* state& "ut as a$ a#ve$ture that eru!ts i$ se#e$tar* grou!s6 it is the call of the outsi#e& it is moveme$t) The $oma# a$# his war(machi$e sta$# o!!osite the #es!ot a$# his a#mi$istrative machi$e& a$# the extri$sic $oma#ic u$it* o!!osite the i$tri$sic #es!otic u$it*) .$# *et the* are so i$terrelate# or

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i$ter#e!e$#e$t that the #es!ot will set himself the !ro"lem of i$tegrati$g& i$ter$ali i$g the $oma#ic war(machi$e& while the $oma# attem!ts to i$ve$t a$ a#mi$istratio$ for his co$ ?uere# em!ire) Their ceaseless o!!ositio$ is such that the* are i$extrica"le from o$e a$other)

+m!erial u$it* gave "irth to !hiloso!hical #iscourse& through ma$* a$ avatar& the same avatars which lea# us from im!erial formatio$s to the Gree' cit*(state) =ve$ i$ the Gree' cit*( state& !hiloso!hical #iscourse mai$tai$s a$ esse$tial relatio$ to the #es!ot or the sha#ow of a #es!ot& to im!erialism& to the a#mi$istratio$ of thi$gs a$# !erso$s ,*ou will fi$# am!le evi#e$ce i$ the "oo's "* 7trauss a$# Fo/eve o$ t*ra$$*-) 5 <hiloso!hical #iscourse has alwa*s mai$tai$e# a$ esse$tial relatio$ to the law& the i$stitutio$& a$# the co$tract& all of which are the 7overeig$0s !ro"lem& traversi$g the ages of se#e$tar* histor* from #es!otic formatio$s to #emocracies) The 1sig$ifier1 is i$ fact the latest !hiloso!hical avatar of the #es!ot) .$# if 5iet sche #oes $ot "elo$g i$ !hiloso!h*& !erha!s it is "ecause he is the first to co$ceive of a$other 'i$# of #iscourse& a cou$ter(!hiloso!h*& i$ other wor#s& a #iscourse that is first a$# foremost $oma#ic& whose uttera$ces woul# "e !ro#uce# $ot "* a ratio$al a#mi$istrative machi$e3!hiloso!hers woul# "e the "ureaucrats of !ure reaso$3"ut "* a mo"ile war(machi$e) <erha!s this is what 5iet sche mea$s whe$ he sa*s that a $ew !olitics "egi$s with him ,Flossow'i calls it the co$s!irac* agai$st his ow$ class-) :e '$ow all too well that $oma#s are u$ha!!* i$ our regimes2 we use a$* mea$s $ecessar* to !i$ them #ow$& so the* lea# a trou"le# life) .$# 5iet sche live# li'e a $oma#& re#uce# to this sha#ow& wa$#eri$g from o$e fur$ishe# room to a$other) >ut also& the $oma# is $ot $ecessaril* someo$e who moves arou$#2 some /our$e*s ta'e !lace i$ the same !lace& the*0te /our$e*s i$ i$te$sit*& a$# eve$ historicall* s!ea'i$g& $oma#s #o$0t move arou$# li'e migra$ts) 8$ the co$trar*& $oma#s are motio$less& a$# the $oma#ic a#ve$ture "egi$s whe$ the* see' to sta* i$ the same !lace "* esca!i$g the co#es) .s we '$ow& the revolutio$ar* !ro"lem to#a* is to fi$# some u$it* i$ our various struggles without falli$g "ac' o$ the #es!otic a$# "ureaucratic orga$i atio$ of the !art* or 7tate & a!!aratus2 we wa$t a war(machi$e that woul# $ot recreate a 7tate a!!aratus& a $oma#ic u$it* i$ relatio$ with the 8utsi#e& that woul# $ot recreate the #es!otic i$ter$al u$it*) This is !erha!s 5iet sche at his most !rofou$#& a measure of his "rea' with !hiloso!h*& as it a!!ears i$ the a!horism2 to have ma#e a war( machi$e of thought& to have ma#e thought a $oma#ic !ower) .$# eve$ if the /our$e* goes $owhere& eve$ if it ta'es !lace i$ the same !lace& im!erce!ti"le& u$loo'e# for& u$#ergrou$#& we must as'2 who are to#a*0s $oma#s& who are to#a*0s 5iet schea$s@ Dis'ussion

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An*re Fle'heu%: :hat + woul# li'e to '$ow is how IDeleu eJ thi$'s he ca$ !ass over #eco$structio$& + mea$& how he thi$'s a mo$a#ic rea#i$g of each a!horism from a$ em!irical sta$ce a$# as though from the outsi#e coul# suf( fice3which from a ;ei#eggeria$ !oi$t of view seems extremel* sus!ect) + wo$#er whether the !ro"lem of the 1alrea#* there&1 co$stitute# "* la$guage& the reig$i$g or#er& what *ou call the #es!ot& allows us to u$#ersta$# 5iet sche0s writi$g as a 'i$# of erratic rea#i$g& which woul# itself #erive from a$ erratic writi$g& with 5iet sche a!!l*i$g to himself what he calls auto(criti?ue& the curre$t e#itio$s of his wor' reveali$g him to "e a$ exce!tio$al st*list& a$# co$se?ue$tl*& each a!horism is $ot a close# s*stem& "ut is im!licate# i$ a total structure of rela*s) <erha!s *our thi$'i$g o$ the status of a$ u$#eco$structe# outsi#e is co$$ecte# to the status of the e$ergetic i$ 4*otar#)

A* seco$# ?uestio$ is relate# to the first2 i$ a$ era that has see$ the state orga$i atio$& or the ca!italist orga$i atio$& whatever *ou call it& issue a challe$ge which is what ;ei#egger calls ratio$ali atio$ "* tech$olog*& #o *ou ho$estl* "elieve $oma#ism& as *ou #escri"e it& to "e a serious res!o$se@

Gilles Deleu e: +f I u$#ersta$# *ou correctl*& *ou0re sa*i$g that there is reaso$ to sus!ect m* lo*alties to the ;ei#eggeria$ !oi$t of view) +0m gla# there is) .s for the metho# of textual #eco$structio$& + '$ow what it is& a$# + a#mire it& "ut it has $othi$g to #o with m* ow$ metho#) + #o$0t reall* #o textual comme$tar*) %or me& a text is $othi$g "ut a cog i$ a larger extra(textual !ractice) +t0s $ot a"out usi$g #eco$structio$& or a$* other textual !ractice& to #o textu al comme$tar*6 it0s a"out seei$g what o$e ca$ #o with a$ extra(textual !ractice that exte$#s the text) Nou as' me whether + "elieve i$ $oma#s as a$ a$swer) Nes& + #o) Ge$ghis Fah$ is $othi$g to s$ee e at) :ill he come "ac' from the #ea#@ + #o$0t '$ow& "ut if he #oes it will "e i$ some other form) Cust as the #es!ot i$ter$ali es the $oma#ic war(machi$e& ca!italist societ* $ever sto!s i$ter$ali i$g a revolutio$ar* war(machi$e) +t0s $ot o$ the !eri!her* that the $ew $oma#s are "ei$g "or$ ,"ecause there is $o more !eri!her*-6 + wa$t to fi$# out what sort of $oma#s& eve$ motio$less a$# statio$ar* if $ee# "e& our societ* is ca!a"le of !ro#uci$g)

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An*re Fle'heu%: Nes& "ut *ou omitte# i$ *our !rese$tatio$ what *ou referre# to as i$teriorit*)))

Gilles Deleu e: Nou0re !u$$i$g o$ the wor# 1i$teriorit*1))) An*re Fle'heu%: The i$$er /our$e*@

Gilles Deleu e: I sai# 1motio$less /our$e*)1 +t0s $ot a$ i$$er /our$e*& it0s a /our$e* o$ a "o#*& a$# collective "o#ies if $ecessar*)

$ie6e Taa): Gilles Deleu e& if + have u$#erstoo# *ou correctl*& *ou o!!ose laughter& humor& a$# iro$* to u$ha!!* co$scious$ess) :oul# *ou agree that the laughter of Faf'a& >ec'ett& a$# 5iet sche #oes $ot exclu#e the wee!i$g of these writers& !rovi#e# that their tears #o $ot s!ri$g from some i$$er or i$ter$ali e# source& "ut are sim!l* the !ro#uctio$ of flows o$ the surface of a "o#*)))@

Gilles Deleu e: + thi$' *ou0re right)

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$ie6e Taa): 8$e more ?uestio$) :he$ *ou o!!ose iro$* a$# humor to u$ha!!* co$scious$ess& *ou $o lo$ger ma'e a #isti$ctio$ "etwee$ humor a$# iro$*& as *ou #i# i$ T e 4ogic of Sense, where o$e was surface a$# the other #e!th) .re *ou $ot afrai# that iro$* is #a$gerousl* close to u$ha!!* co$scious$ess@

Gilles Deleu e: +0ve u$#ergo$e a cha$ge) The surface(#e!th o!!ositio$ $o lo$ger co$cer$s me) :hat i$terests me $ow is the relatio$shi!s "etwee$ a full "o#*& a "o#* without orga$s& a$# flows that migrate)

$ie6e Taa): >ut the$ rese$tme$t woul# $ot "e exclu#e#& woul# it@

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Gilles Deleu e: Nes& it woul#O1

On Capita"ism and 3esire;

A')uel: +$ *our #escri!tio$ of ca!italism& *ou sa*2 1There is$0t the slightest o!eratio$& the slightest i$#ustrial or fi$a$cial mecha$ism that fails to ma$ifest the #eme$tia of the ca!italist s*stem a$# the !athological character of its ratio$alit* ,$ot a false ratio$alit* at all& "ut a true ratio$alit* of this !atholog*& this ma#$ess& "ecause the machi$e wor's& there ca$ "e $o #ou"t-) There is $o #a$ger of it goi$g i$sa$e& "ecause through a$# through it is alrea#* i$sa$e& from the get( go& a$# that0s where its ratio$alit* comes from)1 Does this mea$ that after this 1a"$ormal1 societ*& or outsi#e it& there ca$ "e a 1$ormal1 societ*@

Gilles Deleu e: :e #o$0t use the wor#s 1$ormal1 a$# 1a"$ormal)1 =ver* societ* is at o$ce ratio$al a$# irratio$al) The* are $ecessaril* ratio$al i$ their mecha$isms& their gears a$# wheels& their s*stems of co$$ectio$& a$# eve$ "* virtue of the !lace the* assig$ to the irratio$al) .ll this !resu!!oses& however& co#es or axioms which #o $ot result "* cha$ce& "ut which #o $ot have a$ i$tri$sic ratio$alit* either) +t0s /ust li'e theolog*2 ever*thi$g a"out it is ?uite ratio$al if *ou acce!t si$& the immaculate co$ce!tio$& a$# the i$car$atio$) Beaso$ is alwa*s a regio$ carve# out of the irratio$al3$ot sheltere# from the irratio$al at all& "ut traverse# "* it a$# o$l* #efi$e# "* a !articular 'i$# of relatio$shi! amo$g irratio$al factors) E$#er$eath all reaso$ lies #elirium& a$# #rift) =ver*thi$g a"out ca!italism is ratio$al& exce!t ca!ital or ca!italism) . stoc'(mar'et is a !erfectl* ratio$al mecha$ism& *ou ca$ u$#ersta$# it& lear$ how it wor's6 ca!italists '$ow how to use it6 a$# *et what a #elirium& it0s $uts) This is what we mea$ whe$ we sa* that the ratio$al is alwa*s the ratio$alit* of a$ irratio$al) 7omethi$g that has $ot "ee$ #iscusse# i$ Aarx0s &apita' is the exte$t to which he is fasci$ate# "* ca!italist mecha$isms& !recisel* "ecause& at o$e a$# the same time& it is #eme$te# and it wor's) 7o the$ what is ratio$al i$ a societ*@ 8$ce i$terests have "ee$ #efi$e# withi$ the co$fi$es of a societ*& the ratio$al is the wa* i$ which !eo!le !ursue those i$terests a$# attem!t to reali e them) >ut u$#er$eath that& *ou fi$# #esires& i$vestme$ts of #esire that are $ot to "e co$fuse# with i$vestme$ts of i$terest& a$# o$ which i$terests #e!e$# for their #etermi$atio$ a$# ver* #istri"utio$2 a$ e$ormous flow& all 'i$#s of li"i#i$al(u$co$scious flows that co$stitute the #elirium of this societ*) +$ realit*& histor* is the histor* of #esire) To#a*0s ca!italist or tech$ocrat #oes $ot #esire i$ the same wa* a slave tra#er or a "ureaucrat

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from the ol# 9hi$ese em!ire woul# have) :he$ !eo!le i$ a societ* #esire re!res sio$& for others and for t emse'ves- whe$ there are !eo!le who li'e to harass others& a$# who have the o!!ortu$it* to #o so& the 1right1 to #o so& this exhi"its the !ro"lem of a #ee! co$$ectio$ "etwee$ li"i#i$al #esire a$# the social fiel#) There exists a 1#isi$tereste#1 love for the o!!ressive machi$e2 5iet sche has some "eautiful thi$gs to sa* a"out this !erma$e$t trium!h of slaves& a"out the wa* the em"ittere#& the #e!resse#& or the wea' ma$age to im!ose their wa* of life o$ us)

A')uel: :hat& !recisel*& is !ro!er to ca!italism i$ what *ou0ve /ust #escri"e#@

Gilles Deleu e: <erha!s it0s that& i$ ca!italism& #esire a$# i$terest& or #esire a$# rea so$& are #istri"ute# i$ a totall* $ew wa*& a !articularl* 1a"$ormal1 wa*) 9a!ital& or mo$e*& has reache# such a stage of #elirium that there woul# "e o$l* o$e e?uivale$t i$ !s*chiatr*2 what the* call the termi$al state) +t0s too com!licate# to #escri"e here& "ut let me /ust sa* this2 i$ other societies& *ou have ex!loitatio$& *ou have sca$#als a$# secrets& "ut it0s all !art of the 1co#e)1 There are eve$ ex!licitl* secret co#es) +$ ca!italism& it0s com!letel* #iffere$t2 $othi$g is secret& at least i$ !ri$ci!le a$# accor#i$g to the co#e ,that0s wh* ca!italism is 1#emocratic1 a$# 1!u"lici es1 itself& eve$ i$ the /uri#ical se$se of the term-) .$# *et $othi$g is admissib'e% 4egalit* itself is i$a#missi"le) +$ co$trast to other societies& the regime of ca!italism is "oth !u"lic a$# i$a#missi"le) This ver* s!ecial #elirium is !ro!er to the regime of mo$e*) Cust loo' at what the* call sca$#als to#a*2 the $ews!a!ers tal' a"out them i$cessa$tl*& ever*o$e !rete$#s either to #efe$# themselves or to go o$ the attac'6 "ut the search for a$*thi$g illegal comes u! em!t*( ha$#e#& give$ the $ature of the regime of ca!ital) =ver*thi$g is legal2 the !rime mi$ister0s tax retur$s& real(estate #eals& lo""*ists& a$# ge$erall* the eco$omic a$# fi$a$cial mecha$isms of ca!ital3 ever*thi$g exce!t the little screw(u!s6 still more to the !oi$t& ever*thi$g is !u"lic "ut not ing is admissib'e% +f the left were 1reaso$a"le&1 it woul# "e satisfie# with vulgari i$g eco$omic a$# fi$a$cial mecha$isms) There0s $o $ee# to ma'e the !rivate !u"lic& /ust a#mit what is alrea#* !u"lic) The$ a #eme$tia without !rece#e$t woul# "e fou$# i$ all the hos!itals) +$stea#& the* 'ee! tal'i$g a"out 1i#eolog*)1 +#eolog* has $o im!orta$ce here2 what matters is $ot i#eolog*& a$# $ot eve$ the 1eco$omic D i#eological1 #isti$ctio$ or o!!ositio$6 what matters is the organi(ation of power% >ecause the orga$i atio$ of !ower& i)e) the wa* i$ which #esire is alrea#*

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i$ the eco$omic& the wa* li"i#o i$vests the eco$omic& hau$ts the eco$omic a$# fosters the !olitical forms of re!ressio$)

A')uel: +#eolog* is smo'e a$# mirrors@

Gilles Deleu e: That0s $ot what + mea$) 7a*i$g that 1i#eolog* is smo'e a$# mirrors1 is still the tra#itio$al thesis) 8$ o$e si#e *ou !ut the serious stuff& the eco$om*& the i$frastructure& a$# the$ o$ the other si#e *ou !ut the su!erstructure& to which i#eolog* "elo$gs) .$# thus *ou restrict the !he$ome$a of #esire to i#eolog*) +t0s a !erfect wa* to ig$ore how #esire wor's o$ the i$frastructure& i$vests it& "elo$gs to it& a$# how #esire there"* orga$i es !ower2 it orga$i es the s*stem of re!ressio$) :e0re $ot sa*i$g that i#eolog* is smo'e a$# mirrors ,or a$* other co$ce!t that serves to #esig$ate a$ illusio$-) :e0re sa*i$g2 there is $o i#eolog*& the co$ce!t itself is a$ illusio$) That0s wh* it suits the 9ommu$ist <art* a$# ortho#ox Aarxism so well) Aarxism has give$ such em!hasis to the theme of i#eologies !recisel* to cover u! what was goi$g o$ i$ the E77B2 a $ew orga$i atio$ of re!ressive !ower) There is $o i#eolog*& there are o$l* orga$i atio$s of !ower& o$ce *ou acce!t that the orga$i atio$ of !ower is the u$it* of #esire a$# the eco$omic i$frastructure) 4et0s ta'e two exam!les) =#ucatio$2 the 4eftists of Aa* 068 waste# a lot of time i$sisti$g that !rofessors !u"licl* critici e themselves as age$ts of "ourgeois i#eolog*) +t0s stu!i#& a$# it fuels the masochistic im!ulses of aca#emics) The* a"a$#o$e# the struggle agai$st the com!etitive exami$atio$ a$# o!te# i$stea# for !olemic& or the great !u"lic a$ti(i#eological co$fessio$) Duri$g which time& the most har#(li$e !rofs were a"le to reorga$i e their !ower without too much #ifficult*) The !ro"lem of e#ucatio$ is $ot i#eological i$ $ature& it0s a !ro"lem of the orga$i atio$ of !ower2 the s!ecificit* of e#ucatio$al !ower ma'es it a!!ear i#eological& "ut that0s a re#(herri$g) <ower i$ grammar school& $ow that mea$s somethi$g& ever* chil# is su"/ecte# to it) The seco$# exam!le2 9hristia$it*) The 9hurch is all too ha!!* to "e treate# as a$ i#eolog*) The* wa$t to #iscuss it3it e$courages ecume$ism) >ut 9hristia$it* has $ever "ee$ a$ i#eolog*) +t is a ver* origi$al& s!ecific orga$i atio$ of !ower which has ta'e$ #iverse forms from the Boma$ =m!ire through the Ai##le .ges& a$# which was a"le to i$ve$t the i#ea of a$ i$ter$atio$al !ower) +t0s far more im!orta$t tha$ i#eolog*)

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Feli% Gua))ari: The same goes for tra#itio$al !olitical structures) +t0s alwa*s the same ol# tric'2 a "ig i#eological #e"ate i$ the ge$eral assem"l*& a$# the ?uestio$s of orga$i atio$ are reserve# for s!ecial committees) These loo' seco$#ar*& havi$g "ee$ #etermi$e# "* !olitical o!tio$s) :hereas& i$ fact& the real !ro"lems are !recisel* the !ro"lems of orga$i atio$& $ever ma#e ex!licit or ratio$ali e#& "ut recast after the fact i$ i#eological terms) The real #ivisio$s emerge i$ orga$i atio$2 a !articular wa* of treati$g #esire a$# !ower& i$vestme$ts& grou!(8e#i!uses& grou!(su!er(egos& !he$ome$a of !erversio$))) 8$l* the$ are the !olitical o!!ositio$s "uilt u!2 a$ i$#ivi#ual chooses o$e !ositio$ over a$other& "ecause i$ the scheme of the orga$i atio$ of !ower& he has alrea#* chose$ a$# hates his o!!o$e$t)

A')uel: Nour overall a$al*sis of the 7oviet E$io$ or ca!italism is co$vi$ci$g& "ut what a"out the !articulars@ +f ever* i#eological o!!ositio$ "* #efi$itio$ mas's co$flicts of #esire& how woul# *ou a$al* e& for exam!le& the #iverge$ce of three Trots'*ite s!li$ter(grou!s@ :hat co$flicts of #esire& if a$*& #o *ou see there@ +$ s!ite of their !olitical ?uarrels& each grou! seems to fulfil the same fu$ctio$ for its mem"ers2 it offers them the securit* of a hierarch*& a social milieu o$ a re#uce# scale& a$# a #efi$itive ex!la$atio$ of the worl#))) + #o$0t see the #iffere$ce)

Feli% Gua))ari: <rovi#e# we recog$i e that a$* resem"la$ce to a$ existi$g grou! is !urel* fortuitous& we ca$ imagi$e that o$e of the grou!s i$itiall* #efi$es itself "* its fi#elit* to the rigi# !ositio$s of the commu$ist left #uri$g the creatio$ of the Thir# +$ter$atio$al) 5ow *ou a#o!t a whole axiomatics& #ow$ to the !ho$ological level3the !ro$u$ciatio$ of certai$ wor#s& the gesture that accom!a$ies it& $ot to me$tio$ the structures of orga$i atio$& the co$ce!tio$ of the relatio$shi!s to "e mai$tai$e# with allies o$ the left& with ce$trists a$# a#versaries))) This u$iverse ca$ corres!o$# to a !articular figure of 8e#i!ali atio$& ver* much li'e the i$ta$gi"le a$# reassuri$g u$iverse of the o"sessive who loses his "eari$gs as soo$ as *ou #is!lace a familiar o"/ect) This i#e$tificatio$ with recurre$t images a$# figures is mea$t to achieve a certai$ 'i$# of efficac* that characteri e# 7tali$ism3exce!t for its i#eolog*& !recisel*) +$ other res!ects& the* 'ee! the overall framewor' of the metho#& "ut the*0re rece!tive to cha$ge2 19omra#es& we must recog$i e that if the e$em* remai$s the same& the co$#itio$s have cha$ge#)1 7o the s!li$ter grou! is more o!e$) +t0s a com!romise2 the i$itial image has "ee$ crosse# out while "ei$g mai$tai$e#& a$# other $otio$s have "ee$ a##e#) Aeeti$gs a$# trai$i$g

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sessio$s multi!l*& "ut so #o exter$al i$terve$tio$s) .s Ra ie sa*s& the #esiri$g will has a wa* of harassi$g stu#e$ts a$# milita$ts)

.s for the "asic !ro"lems& all these grou!s sa* more or less the same thi$g) :here the* ra#icall* #iffer is sty'e8 a !articular #efi$itio$ of the lea#er or !ro!aga$#a& a !articular co$ce!tio$ of #isci!li$e& or the fi#elit*& mo#est*& a$# asceticism of a milita$t) ;ow #o *ou !ro!ose to accou$t for these #iffere$ces if *ou #o$0t go rummagi$g arou$# i$ the social machi$e0s eco$om* of #esire@ %rom the a$archists to the Aaoists& the #iversit* is i$cre#i"l* wi#e& a$al*ticall* as well as !oliticall*) .$# #o$0t forget& "e*o$# the shri$'i$g fri$ge of s!li$ter grou!s& that mass of !eo!le who #o$0t '$ow what to choose2 the leftist moveme$t& the attractio$ of u$io$s& straightforwar# revolt& i$#iffere$ce))) :e must tr* to ex!lai$ the role these s!li$ter grou!s !la* i$ crushi$g #esire& li'e machi$es gri$#i$g a$# tam!i$g it #ow$) +t0s a #ilemma2 to "e "ro'e$ "* the social s*stem& or to fall i$to *our !reor#ai$e# !lace i$ these little churches) +$ this res!ect& Aa* 068 was a$ asto$ishi$g revelatio$) Desiri$g !ower accelerate# to a !oi$t where it ex!lo#e# all the s!li$ter grou!s) The* regrou!e# later o$ whe$ the* !artici!at e# i$ the "usi$ess of restori$g or#er with other re!ressive forces2 the 9GT I9ommu$ist :or'ers0 E$io$J& the <9 I9ommu$ist <art*J& the 9B7 Ithe riot !oliceJ& or =#gar %aure) +0m $ot sa*i$g that to "e !rovocative) +t goes without sa*i$g that the milita$ts were courageous to fight agai$st the !olice) >ut if we leave the s!here of struggle& the s!here of i$terests& to co$si#er i$stea# the fu$c tio$ of #esire& *ou must a#mit that the recruiters of certai$ s!li$ter grou!s a!!roache# the *outh i$ a s!irit of re!ressio$2 the* wa$te# to co$tai$ the #esire which ha# "ee$ li"erate# to re(cha$$el it)

.ctuel2 7ure& "ut what is a li"erate# #esire@ + see how it coul# wor' o$ a$ i$#ivi#ual or grou! level2 artistic creatio$& smashi$g wi$#ows& "ur$i$g thi$gs& or eve$ sim!l* havi$g a$ org*& or letti$g ever*thi$g go to hell through sheer la i$ess) >ut the$ what@ :hat woul# "e a collectivel* li"erate# #esire o$ the scale of a social grou!@ 9a$ *ou give a$* !recise exam!les@ .$# what #oes that mea$ for the 1totalit* of societ*&1 if *ou #o$0t re/ect that term as %oucault #oes)

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%elix Guattari2 :e chose as our refere$ce a state of #esire at its most critical a$# acute2 the #esire of the schi o!hre$ic) .$# the schi o!hre$ic who is a"le to !ro#uce somethi$g& "e*o$# or "e$eath the schi o!hre$ic who has "ee$ loc'e# u!& "eate$ #ow$ with #rugs a$# social re!ressio$) +$ our o!i$io$& some schi o!hre$ics #irectl* ex!ress a free #eci!heri$g of #esire) >ut how #oes o$e co$ceive of a collective form of #esiri$g eco$om*@ :ell& $ot locall*) + have a har# time imagi$i$g a small grou! which has "ee$ li"erate# sta*i$g together as it is traverse# "* the flows of a re!ressive societ*& as though o$e li"erate# i$#ivi#ual after a$other coul# /ust "e a##e# o$) >ut if #esire co$stitutes the ver* texture of societ* i$ its totalit*& i$clu#i$g its mecha$isms of re!ro#uctio$& a moveme$t of li"eratio$ ca$ 1cr*stalli e1 i$ that societ*) +$ Aa* 068& from the first s!ar's to the local clashes& the u!heaval was "rutall* tra$smitte# to the whole societ*3i$clu#i$g grou!s that ha# $othi$g at all to #o with the revolutio$ar* moveme$t2 #octors& law*ers& mercha$ts) Heste# i$terest !revaile# i$ the e$#& "ut o$l* after a mo$th of "ur$i$gs) :e0re hea#e# for ex!losio$s of this t*!e& *et more !rofou$#)

.ctuel2 Aight there have alrea#* occurre# i$ histor* a vigorous& lasti$g li"eratio$ of #esire& "e*o$# "rief !erio#s of cele"ratio$& war& a$# car$age& or revolutio$s for a #a*@ 8r #o *ou "elieve i$ a$ e$# to histor*2 after mille$$ia of alie$atio$& social evolutio$ will o$e #a* tur$ arou$# i$ a fi$al revolutio$ to li"erate #esire forever@

%elix Guattari2 5either) 5ot i$ a #efi$itive e$# to histor*& a$# $ot i$ !rovisio$ al excess) =ver* civili atio$ a$# ever* e!och have ha# their e$#s to histor*) +t0s $ot $ecessaril* i$sightful or li"erati$g) The mome$ts of excess& the cele"ratio$s are har#l* more reassuri$g) There are milita$t revolutio$aries who feel a se$se of res!o$si"ilit* a$# sa*2 excess& cele"ratio$& *es31at the first stage of revolutio$)1 >ut there is alwa*s a seco$# stage2 orga$i atio$& o!eratio$& all the serious stuff)))

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5or is #esire li"erare# i$ sim!le mome$ts of cele"ratio$) Cust loo' at the #iscussio$ "etwee$ Hictor a$# %oucault& i$ the issue of 4es Temps Modernes #evote# to the Aaoists) 2 Hictor co$se$ts to excess& "ut o$l* at 1the first stage)1 .s for the rest& the serious stuff& Hictor calls for a $ew 7tate a!!aratus& $ew $orms& !o!ular /ustice "* tri"u$al& i$vo'i$g a$ authorit* exterior to the masses& a thir# !art* ca!a"le of resolvi$g the co$tra#ictio$s of the masses) :e come u! agai$st the same ol# schema agai$ a$# agai$2 the* #etach a !seu#o ava$t(gar#e a"le to "ri$g a"out s*$theses& to form a !art* as a$ em"r*o$ic 7tate a!!aratus6 the* lev* recruits from a well( e#ucate#& well("ehave# wor'i$g class6 a$# the rest& 'umpen pro'etariat, is a resi#ue $ot to "e truste# ,alwa*s the ol# co$#em$atio$ of #esire-) These ver* #isti$ctio$s o$l* tra! #esire to serve a "ureaucratic caste(s*stem) %oucault res!o$#s "* #e$ou$ci$g the thir# !art*& sa*i$g that if such a thi$g as !o!ular /ustice #oes exist& it certai$l* wo$0t come from a tri"u$al) ;e clearl* #emo$strates how the 1ava$t(gar#e D !roletariat D $o$(!roletaria$ !le"s1 #isti$ctio$ is origi$all* a #isti$ctio$ which the "ourgeoisie i$tro#uces i$to the masses& to crush the !he$ome$a of #esire a$# margi$ali e it) The whole ?uestio$ tur$s o$ a 7tate a!!aratus) :h* woul# *ou loo' to a !art* or 7tate a!!aratus to li"erate #esires@ +t0s "i arre) :a$ti$g im!rove# /ustice is li'e wa$ti$g goo# /u#ges& goo# co!s& goo# "osses& a clea$er %ra$ce& etc) .$# the$ we are tol#2 how #o *ou !ro!ose to u$if* isolate# struggles without a 7tate a!!aratus@ The revolutio$ clearl* $ee#s a war(machi$e& "ut that0s $ot a 7tate a!!aratus) +t also $ee#s a$ a$al*tic force& a$ a$al* er of the #esires of the masses& a"solutel*3"ut $ot a$ exter$al mecha$ism of s*$thesis) :hat is li"erate# #esire@ . #esire that esca!es the im!asse of i$#ivi#ual !rivate fa$tas*2 it0s $ot a"out a#a!ti$g #esire& sociali i$g a$# #isci!li$i$g it& "ut hoo'i$g it u! i$ such a wa* that its !rocess is u$i$terru!te# i$ the social "o#*& so its ex!ressio$ ca$ "e collective) The most im!orta$t thi$g is $ot authoritaria$ u$ificatio$& "ut a 'i$# of i$fi$ite swarmi$g2 #esires i$ the $eigh"orhoo#& the schools& factories& !riso$s& $urser* schools& etc) +t0s $ot a"out a ma'e(over& or totali atio$& "ut hoo'i$g u! o$ the same !la$e at its ti!!i$g !oi$t) .s lo$g as we stic' to the alter$ative "etwee$ the im!ote$t s!o$ta$eit* of a$arch* a$# the hierarchical a$# "ureaucratic e$co#i$g of a !art*( orga$i atio$& there ca$ "e $o li"eratio$ of #esire)

A')uel: Do *ou thi$' that ca!italism i$ its "egi$$i$gs was a"le to su"sume social #esires@

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Gilles Deleu e: 8f course) 9a!italism has alwa*s "ee$& a$# still is a remar'a"le #esiri$g( machi$e) %lows of mo$e*& flows of the mea$s of !ro#uctio$& flows of ma$(!ower& flows of $ew mar'ets2 it0s all #esire i$ flux) Nou /ust have to exami$e the ma$* co$ti$ge$cies that gave "irth to ca!italism to reali e how i$se!ara"le from the !he$ome$a of #esire are its i$frastructure a$# eco$om*& a$# the exte$t to which it is a criss(crossi$g of #esires) .$# #o$0t forget fascism)

+t too 1su"sumes social #esires&1 i$clu#i$g the #esires of re!ressio$ a$# #eath) ;itler a$# the fascist machi$e gave !eo!le har#(o$s) >ut if *our ?uestio$ wa$ts to as'2 was ca!italism i$ its "egi$$i$gs revolutio$ar*& #i# the i$#ustrial revolutio$ ever coi$ci#e with a social revolutio$@ The a$swer is $o) .t least + #o$0t thi$' so) %rom its "irth ca!italism has "ee$ co$$ecte# with a savage re!ressio$) +t ver* ?uic'l* ac?uire# its orga$i atio$ a$# 7tate a!!aratus) Di# ca!italism e$tail the #issolutio$ of !revious co#es a$# !owers@ ."solutel*) >ut it ha# alrea#* set u! the gears of its !ower& i$clu#i$g its 7tate !ower& i$ the fissures of !revious regimes) +t0s alwa*s li'e that2 there is ver* little !rogress) =ve$ "efore a social formatio$ gets goi$g& its i$strume$ts of ex!loitatio$ a$# re!ressio$ are alrea#* there& aimlessl* s!i$$i$g their wheels& "ut rea#* to swi$g i$to high gear) The first ca!italist are waiti$g there li'e "ir#s of !re*& waiti$g to swoo! o$ the wor'er who has falle$ through the crac's of the !revious s*stem) This is what is mea$t "* !rimitive accumulatio$)

A')uel: In m* view& the risi$g "ourgeoisie was imagi$i$g a$# !re!ari$g its revolutio$ throughout the =$lighte$me$t) The "ourgeoisie i$ its ow$ e*es was a revolutio$ar* class 1to the "itter e$#&1 si$ce it came to !ower "* "ri$gi$g #ow$ the .$cie$t Begime) :hatever the moveme$ts that existe# amo$g the !easa$tr* a$# the wor'i$g class& the "ourgeois revolutio$ is a revolutio$ carrie# out "* the "ourgeoisie3the two terms are s*$o$*mous) 7o& it is a$achro$istic to /u#ge the "ourgeoisie "* the socialist Eto!ias of the $i$etee$th( a$# twe$tieth(ce$turies6 it lea#s to the i$tro#uctio$ of a categor* that $ever existe#)

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Gilles Deleu e: ;ere agai$& what *ou0re sa*i$g fits the schema of a !articular 'i$# of Aarxism2 it su!!oses that the "ourgeoisie is revolutio$ar* at some !oi$t i$ histor*& a$# eve$ that it was or is $ecessar* to go through a ca!italist stage& through a "ourgeois revolutio$ar* stage) That0s a 7tali$ist !oi$t of view& "ut it0s har# to ta'e seriousl*) :he$ a social formatio$ exhausts itself a$# "egi$s to lea' o$ ever* si#e& all sorts of thi$gs come u$co#e#& all sorts of u$!olice# flows "egi$ circulati$g2 for exam!le& the migratio$s of !easa$ts i$ feu#al =uro!e are !he $ome$a of 1#eterritoriali atio$)1 The "ourgeoisie im!oses a $ew co#e& "oth eco$omic a$# !olitical& so *ou might thi$' it was revolutio$ar*) 5ot i$ the least) Da$iel Gueri$ has sai# some !rofou$# thi$gs a"out the Bevolutio$ of 1789)3 The "ourgeoisie $ever mistoo' its real e$em*) +ts real e$em* was $ot the !revious s*stem& "ut that which ha# esca!e# the co$trol of the !revious s*stem& a$# the "ourgeoisie was resolve# to co$trol it i$ its tur$) The "ourgeoisie owe# its !ower to the #issolutio$ of the ol# s*stem6 "ut it coul# exercise this $ew !ower o$l* "* co$si#eri$g the other revolutio$aries as e$emies) The "ourgeoisie was $ever revolutio$ar*) +t ha# the revolutio$ carrie# out for it) +t ma$i!ulate#& cha$$ele#& re!resse# a$ e$ormous surge of !o!ular #esire) The !eo!le marche# to their #eath at Halm*)

A')uel: The* certai$l* marche# to their #eath at Her#u$)

Feli% Gua))ari: =xactl*) This is !recisel* what i$terests us) :here #o these eru!tio$s& these u!risi$gs& these e$thusiasms come from@ The* ca$0t "e ex!lai$e# "* a social ratio$alit*& a$# the mome$t the*0re "or$& the*0re reroute#& ca!ture# "* !ower) . revolutio$ar* situatio$ ca$$ot "e ex!lai$e# sim!l* "* the a$al*sis of i$terests !rese$t at the time) +$ 1903& the Bussia$ 7ocial( Democratic !art* is #iscussi$g its allia$ces& the orga$i atio$ of the !roletariat& a$# the role of the ava$t(gar#e) .ll of the su##e$& while the 7ocial(Democrats are 1!re!ari$g1 for revolutio$& the*0re roc'e# "* the eve$ts of 1905 a$# have to /um! a"oar# a movi$g trai$) . cr*stalli atio$ of #esire o$ a wi#e social scale ha# occure#& whose "asis la* i$ still i$com!rehe$si"le situatio$s) The same is true of 1917) +$ this case& the !oliticia$s agai$ /um!e# a"oar#& a$# the* gai$e# co$trol of it) Net $o revolutio$ar* te$#e$c* was willi$g or a"le to assume the $ee# for a 7oviet orga$i atio$ that woul# have allowe# the masses to ta'e real charge of their i$terests a$# #esires) Aachi$es calle# !olitical orga$i atio$s were !ut i$ circulatio$& a$# the* fu$ctio$e# accor#i$g to the mo#el Dimitrov ha# #evelo!e# at the 7eve$th +$ter$atio$al 9o$gress3alter$ati$g "etwee$ !o!ular fro$ts a$# sectaria$ retractio$s3a$# the* alwa*s lea# to the same re!ressive results) :e saw it

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agai$ i$ 1936& 1945& a$# 1968) >* their axiomat( ics& these mass machi$es refuse to li"erate revolutio$ar* e$erg*) Be# flag i$ ha$#& this !olitics i$ its u$#erha$#e# wa* remi$#s o$e of the !olitics of the <resi#e$t or the clerg*) .$# i$ our view& this corres!o$#s to a certai$ !ositio$ vis( a(vis #esire& a !rofou$# wa* of e$visio$i$g the ego& the i$#ivi#ual& a$# the famil*) This raises a sim!le #ilemma2 either we fi$# some $ew t*!e of structure to facilitate the fusio$ of collective #esire a$# revolutio$ar* orga$i atio$6 or we co$ti$ue o$ the !rese$t course& hea#i$g from o$e re!ressio$ to the $ext& towar# a fascism that will ma'e ;itler a$# Aussoli$i loo' li'e a /o'e)

A')uel: 7o the$ what is the $ature of this !rofou$#& fu$#ame$tal #esire that we see co$stitutes huma$it* a$# huma$ "ei$gs as social a$imals& "ut which is co$sta$tl* "etra*e#@ :h* is it alwa*s rea#* to "e i$veste# i$ those machi$es of the #omi$a$t machi$e& li'e o!!ose# !olitical !arties which are $o$etheless the same@ 9oul# this mea$ that #esire is co$#em$e# to a !ure ex!losio$ without co$se?ue$ce& or to !er!etual "etra*al@ 8$e last ?uestio$2 ca$ there ever "e such a thi$g as a collective a$# lasti$g ex!ressio$ of li"erate# #esire at some !oi$t i$ histor*@ +f so& how@

Gilles Deleu e2 +f we '$ew the a$swer to that& we woul#$0t "e #iscussi$g it& we woul# /ust go out a$# #o it) 7till& li'e %elix sai#& revolutio$ar* orga$i atio$ must "e the orga$i atio$ of a war( machi$e a$# $ot of a 7tate a!!aratus& the orga$i atio$ of a$ a$al* er a$# $ot of a$ exter$al s*$thesis) +$ ever* social s*stem& *ou will alwa*s fi$# li$es of esca!e& as well as stic'i$g !oi$ts to cut off these esca!es& or else ,which is $ot the same thi$g- em"r*o$ic a!!aratuses to recu!erate them& to reroute a$# sto! them& i$ a $ew s*stem waiti$g to stri'e) + woul# li'e to see the crusa#es a$al* e# from this !ers!ective) >ut i$ ever* res!ect& ca!italism has a ver* !articular character2 its li$es of esca!e are $ot /ust #ifficulties that arise& the* are the ver* co$#itio$s of its o!eratio$) 9a!italism is fou$#e# o$ a ge$erali e# #eco#i$g of ever* flow2 flows of wealth& flows of la"or& flows of la$guage& flows of art& etc) +t #i# $ot create a$* co#e& it create# a 'i$# of accou$ti$g& a$ axiomatics of #eco#e# flows& as the "asis of its eco$om*) +t ligatures the !oi$ts of esca!e a$# moves ahea#) +t is alwa*s ex!a$#i$g its ow$ "or#ers& a$# alwa*s fi$#s itself i$ a situatio$ where it must close off $ew esca!e routes at its "or#ers& !ushi$g them "ac' o$ce more) +t has resolve# $o$e of its fu$#ame$tal !ro"lems) +t ca$0t eve$ foresee the mo$etar* i$crease i$ a cou$tr* over a *ear) +t is e$#lessl* crossi$g its ow$ limits which 'ee! rea!!eari$g farther out) +t

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!uts itself i$ alarmi$g situatio$s with res!ect to its ow$ !ro#uctio$& its social life& its #emogra!hics& its !eri!her* i$ the Thir# :orl#& its i$terior regio$s& etc) The s*stem is lea'i$g all over the !lace) The* s!ri$g from the co$sta$tl* #is!lace# limits of the s*stem) .$# certai$l*& the revolutio$ar* esca!e ,the active esca!e& which Cac'so$ i$vo'es whe$ he sa*s2 1+0ve $ever sto!!e# fleei$g& "ut as + flee& +0m loo'i$g for a wea!o$1-0 is $ot the same thi$g as other 'i$#s of esca!e& the schi o(esca!e& the #rug(esca!e) This is !recisel* the !ro"lem faci$g margi$al grou!s2 to ma'e all the li$es of esca!e co$$ect u! o$ a revolutio$ar* !la$e) +$ ca!italism& the$& these li$es of esca!e ta'e o$ a $ew character& a$# a $ew 'i$# of revolutio$ar* !ote$tial) 7o& *ou see& there is ho!e)

A')uel: Nou me$tio$e# the crusa#es /ust $ow) Do *ou see the crusa#es as o$e of the first ma$ifestatio$s of collective schi o!hre$ia i$ the :est@

Feli% Gua))ari: The crusa#es were i$#ee# a$ extraor#i$ar* schi o!hre$ic moveme$t) 7u##e$l*& thousa$#s a$# thousa$#s of !eo!le& #uri$g a !erio# that was alrea#* #ivi#e# a$# trou"le#& were totall* fe# u! with their life6 s!o$ta$eous !reachi$g rose u! ever*where& a$# whole villages of me$ set out) +t is o$l* afterwar#s that a frighte$e# !a!ac* trie# to give this moveme$t #irectio$ "* lea#i$g it off to the ;ol* 4a$#) This strateg* ha# two a#va$tages2 it gets ri# of the wa$#eri$g ga$gs& a$# it shores u! the 9hristia$ out!osts threate$e# "* the Tur's i$ the 5ear(=ast) +t #i#$0t alwa*s wor'2 the He$etia$ 9rusa#e wou$# u! i$ 9o$sta$ti$o!le& a$# the 9hil#re$0s 9rusa#e veere# off to the 7outh of %ra$ce a$# ?uic'l* lost a$* s*m!ath* !eo!le ha# for it) =$tire villages were ca!ture# a$# "ur$e# "* these 1crusa#i$g1 chil#re$& whom the regular armies fi$all* ha# to rou$# u!& either 'illi$g them or selli$g them i$to slaver*)))

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A')uel: Do *ou see a$* !arallel here with co$tem!orar* moveme$ts& such as the roa#& or hi!!* colo$ies& fleei$g the factor* a$# the office@ +s there a !o!e to co( o!t them@ The Cesus( revolutio$@

Feli% Gua))ari: . recu!eratio$ "* 9hristia$it* is $ot out of the ?uestio$) +t0s alrea#* a realit*& to a certai$ exte$t& i$ the E$ite# 7tates though much less so here i$ %ra$ce or =uro!e) >ut *ou ca$ see a late$t recu!eratio$ "e$eath the $aturist moveme$t& the i#ea that we coul# with#raw from !ro#uctio$ a$# reco$stitute a small societ* out of the wa*& as though we were$0t all "ra$#e# a$# corralle# "* the ca!italist s*stem)

A')uel: :hat role ca$ still "e attri"ute# to the 9hurch i$ a cou$tr* li'e ours@ The 9hurch was at the ce$ter of !ower i$ :ester$ societ* well i$to the eightee$th(ce$tur*6 it "ou$# a$# structure# the social machi$e "efore the $atio$(7tate emerge#) The tech$ocrac* has #e!rive# it to#a* of its ol# fu$ctio$& so the 9hurch& too& a!!ears a#rift& a ru##erless shi! #ivi#e# agai$st itself) 8$e ca$ as' whether the 9hurch& !ressure# "* curre$ts of !rogressive 9atholicism& is $ot "ecomi$g less co$fessio$al tha$ certai$ !olitical orga$i atio$s)

Feli% Gua))ari: :hat a"out ecume$ism@ +s that $ot the 9hurch0s wa* of la$#i$g o$ its feet@ The 9hurch has $ever "ee$ stro$ger) + #o$0t see a$* reaso$ to o!!ose the 9hurch to tech$ocrac*6 the 9hurch has its ow$ tech$ocrac*) ;istoricall* s!ea'i$g& 9hristia$it* a$# !ositivism have alwa*s gotte$ alo$g ?uite well together) There is a 9hristia$ motor "ehi$# the #evelo!me$t of the !ositive scie$ces) .$# *ou ca$0t reall* claim that the !s*chiatrist re!lace# the !riest& $or that the co! re!lace# him) =ver*o$e is $ee#e# i$ re!ressio$O :hat has "ecome out#ate# i$ the 9hurch is its i#eolog*& $ot its orga$i atio$ of !ower)

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A')uel: 4et0s a##ress this other as!ect of *our "oo'2 the criti?ue of !s*chiatr*) 9a$ o$e sa* that %ra$ce is alrea#* u$#er surveilla$ce "* !s*chiatr* at the local level@ .$# /ust how far #oes this i$flue$ce exte$#@

Feli% Gua))ari: <s*chiatric hos!itals are esse$tiall* structure# li'e a state "ureaucrac*& a$# !s*chiatrists are "ureaucrats) %or a lo$g time the 7tate ha# "ee$ satisfie# with a !olitics of coercio$ a$# #i# $othi$g for almost a ce$tur*) +t was o$l* after the 4i"eratio$ that a$* sig$s of a$xiet* a!!eare#2 the first !s*chiatric revolutio$& the o!e$i$g of the hos!itals& free treatme$t& i$stitutio$al !s*chothera!*& etc) This le# to the great Eto!ia$ !olitics of 1locali e#1 care2 limiti$g the $um"er of i$ter$me$ts& a$# se$#i$g teams of !s*chiatrists out i$to the !o!ulatio$ li'e missio$aries i$to the "ush) >ut $ot e$ough !eo!le "elieve# i$ the reform& a$# without the will to carr* it out& it got "ogge# #ow$) 5ow *ou have a few mo#el services for official visits& a$# a few hos!itals here a$# there i$ the more u$#er#evelo!e# regio$s) 7till& we0re hea#e# for a ma/or crisis& o$ the scale of the u$iversit* crisis& a #isaster at ever* level2 e?ui!me$t& !erso$$el trai$i$g& thera!*& etc)

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The i$stitutio$al surveilla$ce of chil#re$ has "ee$& o$ the whole& u$#erta'e$ with greater success) +$ this case& the i$itiative esca!e# 7tate structure a$# fi$a$ci$g& falli$g i$stea# u$#er #iverse associatio$s& such as chil#hoo# !rotectio$ age$cies or !are$tal associatio$s))) >ecause the* were su"si#i e# "* social securit*& the esta"lishme$ts !roliferate#) The chil# is imme#iatel* ta'e$ i$ charge "* a $etwor' of !s*chiatrists& tagge# at a$ earl* age& a$# followe# for life) 8$e ca$ ex!ect solutio$s of this t*!e for a#ult !s*chiatr*) %ace# with the curre$t im!asse& the 7tate will tr* to #e$atio$ali e i$stitutio$s a$# re!lace them with i$stitutio$s gover$e# "* the law of 1901 a$# most certai$l* ma$i!ulate# "* !olitical !owers a$# reactio$ar* famil* grou!s) :e0re i$#ee# hea#e# towar# the !s*chiatric surveilla$ce of %ra$ce& if the !rese$t crisis #oes$0t li"erate its revolutio$ar* !ote$tials) The most co$servative i#eolog* 85 9.<+T.4+7A .5D D=7+B=is s!rea#i$g ever*where& a$ i$si!i# tra$s!ositio$ of the most 8e#i!al co$ce!ts) +$ the chil#re$0s war#s& the* call the #irector 1u$cle&1 a$# the $urse 1mother)1 + have eve$ hear# thi$gs li'e2 game grou!s follow a mater$al !ri$ci!le& a$# wor'sho!s a !ater$al !ri$ci!le) The !s*chiatr* of surveilla$ce loo's !rogressive "ecause it o!e$s u! the hos!ital) >ut if that im!lies a surveilla$ce of the $eigh"orhoo#& we will ?uic'l* come to regret the close# as*lums of *ester#a*) +t0s li'e !s*choa$al*sis2 it fu$ctio$s "e*o$# the co$fi$es of walls& "ut it0s much worse as a re!ressive force& it0s much more #a$gerous)Gilles Deleu e: ;ere is a case) . woma$ comes i$ for a co$sultatio$& ex!lai$i$g that she0s ta'i$g tra$?uili ers) 7he as's for a glass of water) The$ she sa*s2 1Nou see& +0m a culture# woma$& +0ve #o$e gra#uate wor'& + love to rea#& a$# all of a su##e$ + ca$0t sto! cr*i$g) + ca$0t sta$# the su"wa*))) .$# the$ + start cr*i$g as soo$ as + rea# a$*thi$g))) + watch TH& + see those images from Hiet$am2 + ca$0t sta$# it)1 The #octor #oes$0t sa* too much) The woma$ co$ti$ues2 1+0ve "ee$ wor'i$g a little for the Besista$ce2 + act as a mail("ox)1 The #octor as's her to ex!lai$) 18f course& +0m sorr*& *ou #o$0t u$#ersta$#& #o *ou@ + go i$to a cafe a$# as'2 is there a$*thi$g for Be$e@ The$ the* give me a letter to se$#)1 :he$ the #octor hears 0Be$e&0 he wa'es u!2 1:h* #i# *ou sa* 0Be$e0@1 This is the first time he has as'e# a ?uestio$) E! to this !oi$t& she has "ee$ tal'i$g a"out the su"wa*& ;iroshima& Hiet$am& a$# the effect it has o$ her& o$ her "o#*& how it ma'es her feel li'e cr*i$g) >ut the #octor o$l* sa*s2 1:ell& well& 0Be$e)0 :hat #oes 0Be$e0 mea$ to *ou@1 The $ame 0Be$e0 im!lies someo$e who is re"or$ 0re-neK% . re$aissa$ce) Besista$ce@3forget a"out it& he !asses that over i$ sile$ce) >ut re$aissa$ce& that fits the u$iversal schema& the archet*!e2 1Nou wa$t to "e re"or$&1 he sa*s) The #octor has fou$# his "eari$gs2 at last he0s o$ trac') .$# he forces her to tal' a"out her mother a$# her father) This is a$ esse$tial as!ect of

our "oo'& a$# it0s totall* co$crete) <s*chiatrists a$# !s*choa$al*sts have $ever mm f !ai# atte$tio$ to #elirium) .ll *ou have to #o is liste$ to someo$e i$ a state of #elirium2 the Bussia$s worr* him& a$# the 9hi$ese6 +0ve got $o saliva left& + was so#omi e# i$ the su"wa*& there are micro"es a$# s!ermato oa ever*where6 it0s %ra$co0s fault& the Cews0 fault& the Aaoists0 fault) Their #elirium covers the whole social fiel#) :h* coul#$0t this "e a"out the sexualit* of a su"/ect& the relatio$ it has to the i#ea of 9hi$ese& :hites& >lac's@ 8r to whole civili atio$s& the crusa#es& the su"wa*@ <s*chiatrists a$# !s*choa$al*sts have $ever hear# a wor# of it& a$# the*0re o$ the #efe$sive "ecause the*0re !ositio$ is i$#efe$si"le) The* crush the co$te$ts of the u$co$scious with !re(fa"ricate# stateme$ts li'e2 1Nou 'ee! sa*i$g 9hi$ese& "ut what a"out *our father@ 3;e0s $ot 9hi$ese) 37o *our lover is 9hi$ese@1 +t0s li'e the re!ressive wor' "* the /u#ge i$ the 85 9.<+T.4+7A .5D D=7+B=.$gela Davis case& who assure# us2 1;er "ehavior is ex!lica"le o$l* "* the fact that she was i$ love)1 >ut what if& o$ the co$trar*& .$gela Davis0s li"i#o was a revolutio$ar*& social li"i#o@ :hat if she was i$ love "ecause she was a revolutio$ar*@

This is what we wa$t to tell !s*chiatrists a$# !s*choa$al*sts2 *ou have $o i#ea what #elirium is6 *ou0ve got it all wro$g) The se$se of our "oo' is this2 we0ve reache# a stage where ma$* !eo!le feel that the !s*choa$al*tic machi$e $o lo$ger wor's& a$# a whole ge$eratio$ is "egi$$i$g to have ha# it with all!ur!ose schemas2 8e#i!us a$# castratio$& the imagi$ar* a$# the s*m"olic 3the* s*stematicall* efface the social& !olitical& a$# cultural co$te$t from ever* !s*chic #istur"a$ce)

A')uel: Nour associatio$ of ca!italism with schi o!hre$ia is the ver* fou$#atio$ of *our "oo') .re there cases of schi o!hre$ia i$ other societies@ Feli% Gua))ari: 7chi o!hre$ia is i$#issocia"le from the ca!italist s*stem& which is origi$all* co$ceive# as a$ esca!e& a lea'2 a$ exclusive ill$ess) +$ other societies& esca!e a$# margi$alit* exhi"it other as!ects) The asocial i$#ivi#ual of so( calle# !rimitive societies is $ot loc'e# u!6 !riso$s a$# as*lums are rece$t $otio$s) The*0re chase# awa* or exile# o$ the margi$ of the village a$# #ie there& u$less the* ca$ "e i$tegrate# i$to a $eigh"ori$g village) =ach s*stem& moreover& has its ow$ !articular ill$ess2 the h*steria of so(calle# !rimitive societies& the !ara$oi##e!ressives of great =m!ires))) The ca!italist eco$om* fu$ctio$s through #eco#i$g a$# #eterritoriali atio$2 it has its extreme ill$esses& that is& its schi o!hre$ics who come u$co#e# a$# "ecome #eterritoriali e# to the extreme& "ut it also has its extreme co$se?ue$ces& its revolutio$aries

)1

&i#e +ropositions on +sy7hoana"ysis;

+ woul# li'e to !rese$t five !ro!ositio$s o$ !s*choa$al*sis) The first is this2 !s*choa$al*sis to#a* !rese$ts a !olitical #a$ger all of its ow$ that is #iffere$t from the im!licit #a$gers of the ol# !s*chiatric hos!ital) The latter co$stitutes a !lace of locali e# ca!tivit*6 !s*choa$al*sis& o$ the other ha$#& wor's i$ the o!e$ air) The !s*choa$al*st has i$ a se$se the same !ositio$ that Aarx accor#e# to the mercha$t i$ feu#al societ*2 wor'i$g i$ the o!e$ !ores of societ*& $ot o$l* i$ !rivate offices& "ut also i$ schools& i$stitutio$s& #e!artme$talism& etc) This fu$ctio$ !uts us i$ a u$i?ue !ositio$ with res!ect to the !s*choa$al*tic !ro/ect) :e recog$i e that !s*choa$al*sis tells us a great #eal a"out the u$co$scious6 "ut& i$ a certai$ wa*& it #oes so o$l* to re#uce the u$co$scious& to #estro* it& to re!ulse it& to imagi$e it as a sort of !arasite o$ co$scious$ess) %or !s*choa$al*sis& it is fair to sa* there are alwa*s too ma$* #esires) The %reu#ia$ co$ce!tio$ of the chil# as !ol*mor!hous !ervert shows that there are alwa*s too ma$* #esires) +$ our view& however& there are $ever e$ough #esires) :e #o $ot& "* o$e metho# or a$other& wish to re#uce the u$co$scious2 we !refer to !ro#uce it2 there is $o u$co$scious that is alrea#* there6 the u$co$scious must "e !ro#uce# !oliticall*& sociall*& a$# historicall*) The ?uestio$ is2 i$ what !lace& i$ what circumsta$ces& i$ the sha#ow of what eve$ts& ca$ the u$co$scious "e !ro#uce#) <ro#uci$g the u$co$scious mea$s ver* !recisel* the !ro#uctio$ of #esire i$ a historical social milieu or the a!!eara$ce of stateme$ts a$# ex!ressio$s of a $ew 'i$#)

A* seco$# !ro!ositio$ is that !s*choa$al*sis is a com!lete machi$e& #esig$e# i$ a#va$ce to !reve$t !eo!le from tal'i$g& therefore from !ro#uci$g stateme$ts that suit them a$# the grou!s with which the* have certai$ affi$ities) .s soo$ as o$e "egi$s a$al*sis& o$e has the im!ressio$ of tal'i$g) >ut o$e tal's i$ vai$6 the e$tire !s*choa$al*tical machi$e exists to su!!ress the co$#itio$s of a real ex!ressio$) :hatever o$e sa*s is ta'e$ i$to a sort of tour$i?uet& a$ i$ter!retive machi$e6 the !atie$t will $ever "e a"le to get to what he reall* has to sa*)

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Desire or #elirium ,which are i$ a #ee! se$se the same thi$g-& #esire(#elirium is "* its $ature a li"i#i$al i$vestme$t of a$ e$tire historical milieu& of a$ e$tire social e$viro$me$t) :hat ma'es o$e #elirious are classes& !eo!les& races& masses& mo"s) <s*choa$al*sis& !ossesse# of a !re(existi$g co#e& su!eri$te$#s a sort of #estructio$) This co#e co$sists of 8e#i!us& castratio$& the famil* roma$ce6 the most secret co$te$t of #elirium& i)e) this #iverge$ce from the social a$# historical milieu& will "e #estro*e# so that $o #elirious stateme$t& corres!o$#i$g to a$ overflow i$ the u$co$scious& will "e a"le to get through the a$al*tical machi$e) :e sa* that the schi o!hre$ic has to #eal $ot with his famil*& $or with his !ar e$ts& "ut with !eo!les& !o!ulatio$s& a$# tri"es) :e sa* that the u$co$scious is $ot a matter of ge$eratio$s or famil* ge$ealog*& "ut rather of worl# !o!ulatio$& a$# that the !s*choa$al*tical machi$e #estro*s all this) + will cite /ust two exam!les2 the cele"rate# exam!le of <resi#e$t 7chre"er whose #elirium is e$tirel* a"out races& histor*& a$# wars) %reu# #oes$0t reali e this a$# re#uces the !atie$t0s #elirium exclusivel* to his relatio$shi! with his father) .$other exam!le is the :olfma$2 whe$ the :olfma$ #reams of six or seve$ wolves& which is "* #efi$itio$ a !ac'& i)e) a certai$ 'i$# of grou!& %reu# imme#iatel* re#uces this multi!licit* "* "ri$gi$g ever*thi$g "ac' to a si$gle wolf who is $ecessaril* the father) The e$tire collective li"i#i$al ex!ressio$ ma$ifeste# i$ the #elirium of the :olfma$ will "e u$a"le to ma'e& let alo$e co$ceive of the stateme$ts that are for him the most mea$i$gful)

A* thir# !ro!ositio$ is that !s*choa$al*sis wor's i$ this wa* "ecause of its automatic i$ter!retatio$ machi$e) This i$ter!retatio$ machi$e ca$ "e #escri"e# i$ the followi$g wa*2 whatever *ou sa*& *ou mea$ somethi$g #iffere$t) :e ca$0t sa* e$ough a"out the #amage these machi$es cause) :he$ someo$e ex!lai$s to me that what + sa* mea$s somethi$g other tha$ what + sa*& a s!lit i$ the ego as su"/ect is !ro#uce#) This s!lit is well '$ow$2 what + sa* refers to me as the su"/ect of a$ uttera$ce or stateme$t& what + mea$ refers to me as a$ ex!ressi$g su"/ect) This s!lit is co$/ure# "* !s*choa$al*sis as the "asis for castratio$ a$# !reve$ts all !ro#uctio$ of stateme$ts) %or exam!le& i$ certai$ schools for !ro"lem chil#re$& #eali$g with character or eve$ !s*cho!atholog*& the chil#& i$ his wor' or !la* activities& is !lace# i$ a relatio$shi! with his e#ucator& a$# i$ this co$text the chil# is u$#erstoo# as the su"/ect of a$ uttera$ce or stateme$t6 i$ his !s*chothera!*& he is !ut i$to a relatio$shi! with the a$al*st or the thera!ist& a$# there he is u$#erstoo# as a$ ex!ressi$g su"/ect) :hatever he #oes i$ the grou! i$ terms of his wor' a$# his !la* will "e com!are# to a su!erior authorit*& that of the !s*chothera!ist who alo$e will have the /o" of i$ter!reti$g& such that the chil# himself is s!lit6 he ca$$ot wi$ acce!ta$ce for a$* stateme$t a"out what reall* matters to him i$ his relatio$shi! or i$ his grou!) ;e will feel li'e he0s tal'i$g& "ut he will $ot "e a"le to sa* a si$gle wor# a"out what0s most esse$tial to him) +$#ee#& what !ro#uces stateme$ts i$ each o$e of us is $ot ego as su"/ect& it0s somethi$g e$tirel* #iffere$t2 multi!licities& masses a$# mo"s& !eo!les a$# tri"es& collective arra$geme$ts6 the* cross through us& the* are withi$ us& a$#

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the* seem u$familiar "ecause the* are !art of our u$co$scious) The challe$ge for a real !s*choa$al*sis& a$ a$ti(!s*choa$al*tical a$al*sis& is to #iscover these collective arra$geme$ts of ex!ressio$& these collective $etwor's& these !eo!les who are i$ us a$# who ma'e us s!ea'& a$# who are the source of our stateme$ts) This is the se$se i$ which we set a whole fiel# of ex!erime$tatio$& of !erso$al or grou! ex!erime$tatio$& agai$st the i$ter!retive activities of !s*choa$al*sis)

A* fourth !ro!ositio$& to "e ?uic'& is that !s*choa$al*sis im!lies a fairl* !eculiar !ower structure) The rece$t "oo' "* 9astel& 4e )syc ana'ysme, #emo$strates this !oi$t ver* well) The !ower structure occurs i$ the co$tract& a formi#a"le li"eral "ourgeois i$stitutio$) +t lea#s to 1tra$sfere$ce1 a$# culmi$ates i$ the a$al*st0s sile$ce) .$# the a$al*st0s sile$ce is the greatest a$# the worst of i$ter!retatio$s) <s*choa$al*sis uses a small $um"er of collective stateme$ts& which are those of ca!italism itself regar#i$g castratio$& loss& a$# famil*& a$# it tries to get this small $um"er of collective stateme$ts s!ecific to ca!italism to e$ter i$to the i$#ivi#ual stateme$ts of the !atie$ts themselves) :e claim that o$e shoul# #o /ust the o!!osite& that is& start with the real i$#ivi#ual stateme$ts& give !eo!le co$#itio$s& i$clu#i$g the material co$#itio$s& for the !ro#uctio$ of their i$#ivi#ual stateme$ts& i$ or#er to #iscover the real collective arra$geme$ts that !ro#uce them)

A* last !ro!ositio$ is that& for our !art& we !refer $ot to !artici!ate i$ a$* effort co$siste$t with a %reu#o(Aarxist !ers!ective) .$# this for two reaso$s) The first is that& i$ the e$#& a %reu#o(Aarxist effort !rocee#s i$ ge$eral from a retur$ to origi$s& or more s!ecificall* to the sacre# texts2 the sacre# texts of %reu#& the sacre# texts of Aarx) 8ur !oi$t of #e!arture must "e com!letel* #iffere$t2 we refer $ot to sacre# texts that must "e& to a greater or lesser exte$t& i$ter!rete#& "ut to the situatio$ as is& the situatio$ of the "ureaucratic a!!aratus i$ !s*choa$al*sis& which is a$ effort to su"vert these a!!aratuses) Aarxism a$# <s*choa$al*sis& i$ two #iffere$t wa*s& s!ea' i$ the $ame of a 'i$# of memor*& of a culture of memor*& a$# also s!ea' i$ two #iffere$t wa*s i$ the $ame of the re?uireme$ts of a #evelo!me$t) :e "elieve o$ the co$trar* that o$e must s!ea' i$ the $ame of a !ositive force of forgetti$g& i$ the $ame of what is for each i$#ivi#ual his ow$ u$#er#evelo!me$t& what Davi# 9oo!er a!tl* calls our i$$er thir# worl#) 7eco$#l*& what se!arates us from a$* %reu#o(Aarxist effort is that such !ro/ects see' !rimaril* to reco$cile two eco$omies2 !olitical eco$om* a$# li"i#i$al or

310

#esiri$g eco$om*) +$ Beich& too& we fi$# the o"serva$ce of this #ualit* of this effort at reco$ciliatio$)

8ur !oi$t of view is o$ the co$trar* that there is "ut o$e eco$om* a$# that the !ro"lem of a real a$ti(!s*choa$al*tical a$al*sis is to show how u$co$scious #esire i$vests the forms of this eco$om*) +t is eco$om* itself that is !olitical eco$om* a$# #esiri$g eco$om*) Dis'ussion A participant as:s a @uestion about memory in .reudo-Mar!ism and t e positive force offorgetting%

+$ s!ite of m* i$c'atio$ $ot to go "ac' to the texts& + thi$' of two remar' a"le texts "* 5iet sche that ma'e a #isti$ctio$ "etwee$ forgetti$g as a force of i$ertia a$# forgetti$g as a$ active force) %orgetti$g as a$ active force is the !ower to fi$ish with somethi$g to o$e0s satisfactio$) +$ this case& it is o!!ose# to a me#itatio$ o$ the !ast that "i$#s us& o$ that which "i$#s us to the !ast& eve$ to #evelo! it& eve$ to ta'e it further) +f o$e therefore #isti$guishes two forms of forgetti$g& of which o$e is a sort of reactive i$ertia a$# the other a force of !ositive forgetti$g& it is o"vious that the revolutio$ar* forgetti$g& the forgetti$g that + was thi$'i$g of is the seco$# forgetti$g2 o$l* it co$sititutes a real activit* or o$e that ca$ "e !art of real !olitical activities) +$ much the same wa*& a revolutio$ar* "rea's free "* forgetti$g a$# remai$s u$move# "* the re!roach his critics co$sta$tl* ma'e2 1+t has existe#& therefore it will alwa*s exist)1

Bevolutio$ar* forgetti$g ca$ "e tie# to a$other commo$ theme& that of a$ active esca!e that is itself o!!ose# to a !assive esca!e of a$ e$tirel* #iffere$t 'i$#) :he$& for exam!le& Cac'so$& i$ his !riso$& sa*s& 1*es& + ca$ ver* well esca!e& "ut #uri$g m* esca!e& +0m loo'i$g

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for a wea!o$&1 this is active revolutio$ar* esca!e as o!!ose# to other esca!es that are ca!italist or !erso$al& etc) A participant as:s for a c'arification of t e notion of forgetting wit re'ations ip between .reudianism andMar!ism% respect to t e

+$ Aarxism& a certai$ culture of memor* a!!eare# right at the "egi$$i$g6 eve$ revolutio$ar* activit* was su!!ose# to !rocee# to this ca!itali atio$ of the memor* of social formatio$s) +t is& if o$e !refers& Aarx0s ;egelia$ as!ect& i$clu#e# i$ #as Fapita'% +$ !s*choa$al*sis& the culture of memor* is eve$ more a!!are$t) Aoreover& Aarxism& li'e !s*choa$al*sis& is shot through with a certai$ i#eolog* of #evelo!me$t2 !s*chic #evelo!me$t from a !s*choa$al*tic !oi$t of view of !s*choa$al*sis& social #evelo!me$t or eve$ the #evelo!me$t of !ro#uctio$ from a Aarxist !oi$t of view) >efore& for exam!le& i$ certai$ forms of rhe wor'er0s struggle i$ the 19th ce$tur* that Aarxism crushe# right from the start ,+0m $ot thi$'i$g o$l* of the Eto!ia$s-& the call to struggle was& o$ the co$trar*& ma#e o$ the "asis of the $ee# to forget& of a$ active force of forgetti$g2 $o culture of remem"eri$g& $o culture of the !ast& "ut a call to forgetti$g as the co$#itio$ of ex!erime$tatio$) To#a*& i$ certai$ .merica$ grou!s& $o o$e co$si#ers a retur$ to %reu# or Aarx6 here agai$ is a sort of culture of forgetti$g as the co$#itio$ of a$* $ew ex!erime$tatio$) The use of forgetti$g as a$ active force& i$ or#er to go "ac' to ero& i$ or#er to get awa* from the aca#emic heav*(ha$#e#$ess that has left so #ar' a stam! o$ %reu#o( Aarxism& is somethi$g ver* im!orta$t i$ !ractical terms) :hereas "ourgeois culture has alwa*s s!o'e$ from withi$ its #evelo!me$t a$# i$ the $ame of the #evelo!me$t that it as's us to !ursue a$# !er!etuate& to#a*0s cou$ter(culture reclaims the i#ea that& if we have somethi$g to sa*& it0s $ot accor#i$g to our #evelo!me$t& whatever that ma* "e& "ut accor# i$g to our u$#er#evelo!me$t) Bevolutio$ has $othi$g to #o with a$ attem!t to i$scri"e o$eself i$ a moveme$t of #evelo!me$t a$# i$ the ca!itali atio$ of memor*& "ut i$ the !reservatio$ of the force of forgetti$g a$# the force of u$#er#evelo!me$t as !ro!erl* revolutio$ar* forces) A participant B*% ?ervis$ points out a difference of content between t e %ive <ro!ositio$s and .$ti(9=#i!us& for e!amp'e, t e disappearance of t e notion of 2sc i(o-ana'ysis2in favor of t at of an 2anti-psyc oana'ytica' ana'ysis2 and e notes a distinct evo'ution8 t ere is no 'onger an effort to criti@ue &Edipus, but rat er psyc oana'ysis% / at is t e reason for t is evo'ution=

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:hat Cervis sa*s is !erfectl* true) 5either Guattari $or m*self are ver* attache# to the !ursuit or eve$ the cohere$ce of what we write) :e woul# ho!e for the co$trar*& we woul# ho!e that the follow(u! to Anti-&Edipus "rea's with what !rece#e# it& with the first volume& a$# the$& if there are thi$gs that #o$0t wor' i$ the first volume& it #oes$0t matter) + mea$ that we are $ot amo$g those authors who thi$' of what the* write as a whole that must "e cohere$t6 if we cha$ge& fi$e& so there0s $o !oi$t i$ tal'i$g to us a"out the !ast) >ut Cervis sa*s two thi$gs that are im!orta$t2 at !rese$t we #o $ot attac' 9=#i!us so much as the i$stitutio$& the !s*choa$al*tical machi$e i$ its e$tiret*) +t goes without sa*i$g that the !s*choa$al*tical machi$e com!rises #ime$sio$s "e*o$# 9=#i!us& a$# co$se?ue$tl* we have reaso$s to "elieve that this is $o lo$ger the esse$tial !ro"lem) Cervis a##s that the reaso$ is the #irectio$ of our !rese$t wor' is more !olitical& a$# that this mor$i$g we have also re$ou$ce# the use of the term 0schi o(a$al*sis)0 + woul# li'e to ma'e several remar's o$ this !oi$t& i$ the most mo#est fashio$ !ossi"le) :he$ a term is i$tro#uce# a$# has the least "it success& as has "ee$ the case for 1#esiri$g(machi$e1 or 1schi o(a$al*sis&1 either o$e circulates it& which is alrea#* rather !er$icious& a sort of co(o!tatio$& or o$e re$ou$ces it a$# see's other terms to u!set the or#er) There are wor#s that %elix a$# + $ow feel it urge$t $ot to use2 0schi o(a$al*sis&0 0#esiri$g(machi$e03it0s awful& if we use them& we0re caught i$ the tra!) :e #o$0t '$ow ver* well what the* mea$& we $o lo$ger "elieve i$ the wor#s6 whe$ we use a wor#& we wa$t to sa*& if this wor# #oes$0t agree with *ou& fi$# a$other& there0s alwa*s a wa*) :or#s are totall* i$tercha$gea"le) .s for the co$te$t of what we #o& it0s true that the first volume of Anti&Edipus was #evote# to esta"lishi$g certai$ 'i$#s of #ualities) There was& for exam!le& a #ualit* "etwee$ !ara$oia a$# schi o!hre$ia& a$# we felt we ha# #iscovere# a #ualit* of s*stems2 a !ara$oiac s*stem a$# a schi o!hre$ic s*stem) 8r the #ualit* we trie# to esta"lish "etwee$ the molar a$# the molecular) :e ha# to go that route) +0m $ot sa*i$g that we0ve go$e "e*o$# all that& "ut it $o lo$ger i$terests us) .t !rese$t& what we woul# li'e to tr* to show is how o$e is grou$#e# i$ the other& that the o$e is tie# to the other) +$ other wor#s& how the little out"rea's of schi o!hre$ia ultimatel* orga$i e themselves at the heart of vast !ara$oiac or#ers) There are sometimes sur!risi$g exam!les i$ !olitics) +0ll ta'e the ver* rece$t exam!le of what0s ha!!e$i$g i$ .merica2 there is the Hiet$am :ar& which is imme$se& a$# re!rese$ts the setti$g i$ motio$ of a giga$tic !ara$oiac machi$e& the famous militar* i$#ustrial com!lex& a$ e$tire s*stem of sig$s& !olitical !rograms& a$# eco$omic !rograms) =ver*o$e sa*s& 1"ravo&1 exce!t a small $um"er& ever* cou$tr* sa*s& 1ver* well&1 a$# $o o$e is outrage#) 5o o$e is outrage#& exce!t for a small $um"er of i$#ivi#uals #e$ou$ce# as leftists) The$& all of su##e$ there0s a mi$or i$ci#e$t& $o "ig #eal& a matter of s!*i$g& theft& of !olice a$# !s*chiatr*& "etwee$ o$e .merica$ !olitical !art* a$# a$other) 7u##e$l*& there is a$ out"rea'& a$ esca!e& a lea') .$# all the goo# !eo!le who acce!t the war i$ Hiet$am& who acce!t this large !ara$oiac machi$e& are "egi$$i$g to sa* 1The !resi#e$t of the E$ite# 7tates is $o lo$ger followi$g the rules of the game)1 . little schi o!hre$ic out"rea' has grafte# itself o$to the large !s*choa$al*tical s*stem& the $ews!a!ers are losi$g their mi$#s or seem to "e losi$g them) :h* $ot the stoc' ?uotes from the mar'et@ :hat reall* matters to us are the esca!e routes i$ the s*stems& the co$#itio$s u$#er which these !aths form or i$cite revolutio$ar* actio$s& or remai$ a$ec#otal) Bevolutio$ar* !ro"a"ilities #o $ot co$sist i$ the co$tra#ictio$s of the ca!italist s*stem& "ut rather i$ efforts at esca!e3alwa*s u$ex!ecte#&

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alwa*s re$ewe#3that u$#ermi$e it) :e have "ee$ critici e# for usi$g the wor# schi o( a$al*sis& for co$fusi$g the schi o!hre$ic a$# the revolutio$ar*) .$# *et we were extremel* careful to #isti$guish them)

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. s*stem li'e ca!italism esca!es i$ ever* #irectio$6 it esca!es& a$# the$ ca!italism fills i$ the ga!s& it ties '$ots& it esta"lishes li$'s to !reve$t the esca!es from "ei$g too $umerous) . sca$#al here& a$ esca!e of ca!ital there& etc) .$# there are also esca!es of a$other sort2 there are commu$ities& those o$ the margi$& the #eli$?ue$ts& the a##icts& the esca!es of #rug a##icts& esca!es of all 'i$#s& there are schi o!hre$ic esca!es& there are !eo!le who esca!e i$ a ver* #iffere$t wa*) 8ur !ro"lem ,we are $ot com!letel* stu!i#& we are $ot sa*i$g that this woul# "e sufficie$t for a revolutio$- is as follows2 give$ a s*stem that esca!es i$ ever* #irectio$ a$# that& at the same time& co$ti$uall* !reve$ts& re!resses& or "loc's esca!e(routes "* ever* availa"le mea$s& what ca$ we #o so that these esca!es ma* $o lo$ger "e i$#ivi#ual attem!ts or small commu$ities& "ut ma* i$stea# trul* co$stitute a revolutio$ar* machi$e@ .$# for what reaso$& u$til $ow& have revolutio$s go$e so "a#l*@ There is $o revolutio$ without a ce$tral& ce$trali i$g war(machi$e) Nou ca$0t "rawl& a$# *ou #o$0t fight with *our fists2 there must "e a war(machi$e that orga$i es a$# u$ites) >ut u$til $ow& there has( $0t existe# i$ the revolutio$ar* fiel# a machi$e that #i#$0t re!ro#uce somethi$g else2 a state a!!aratus& the ver* i$stitutio$ of re!ressio$) ;e$ce the !ro"lem of revolutio$2 how ca$ a war(machi$e accou$t for all the esca!es that ha!!e$ i$ the !rese$t s*stem without crushi$g them& #isma$tli$g them& a$# without re!ro#uci$g a state a!!aratus@ 7o whe$ Cervis sa*s that our #iscussio$ is getti$g more a$# more !olitical& + thi$' he0s right& "ecause as much as we i$siste#& i$ the first !art of our wor'& o$ large #ualities& to#a* we0re loo'i$g for the $ew mo#e of u$ificatio$ i$ which& for exam!le& the schi o!hre$ic #iscourse& the i$toxicate# #iscourse& the !erverte# #iscourse& the homosexual #iscourse& all the margi$al #iscourses ca$ su"sist& so that all these esca!es a$# #iscourses ca$ graft themselves o$to a war(machi$e that wo$0t re!ro#uce a 7tate or <art* .!!aratus) %or that ver* reaso$ we $o lo$ger wa$t to tal' a"out schi oa$al*sis& "ecause that woul# amou$t to !rotecti$g a !articular t*!e of esca!e& schi o!hre$ic esca!e) :hat i$terests us is a sort of li$' that lea#s us "ac' to the #irect !olitical !ro"lem& a$# the #irect !olitical !ro"lem for us is more or less this2 u$til $ow& revolutio$ar* !arties have co$stitute# themselves as s*$theses of i$terests rather tha$ fu$ctio$i$g as a$al* ers of mass a$# i$#ivi#ual #esires) 8r else& what amou$ts to the same2 revolutio$ar* !arties have co$stitute# themselves as em"r*o$ic 7tate a!!aratuses& i$stea# of formi$g war(machi$es irre#uci"le to such a!!aratuses)

&a7es and S-r'a7es

S)e4an C er6ins61: Ae& a !ai$ter@ +0m $o !ai$ter) .$# we0re $ot goi$g to #o a !reface either) :e0ll #o some surfaces& $ot a !rese$tatio$) 7li!(sli#e) Nou #o the #rawi$gs) +0ll #o the "its of writi$g) 5o tra#i$g !laces& $o excha$gi$g a$*thi$g& it0s $o excha$ge& $ot at all)))

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Gilles Deleu e: 8h awright) +0ve got the #rawi$gs))) here) 2 The worse the* are& the "etter the* wor') 4oo'& the*0re surface(mo$sters) 4i'e "row$ish(violet& a$# ever* surface color) ;ow #oes violet wor'@

S)e4an C er6ins61: ;ow #oes therror* wor'@ ;ow #oes a surface(mo$ster wor'@

Gilles Deleu e: Therror* is violet) Therror* is !ai$ti$g(#esire(writi$g usi$g ma$* other thi$gs& too& o$ the "or#ers& i$ the cor$ers& at the ce$ters& a$# elsewhere) +t0s that oscillati$g moveme$t2 the %low %lux Fla$& a)')a) 1the great thought(rac'et1 a$# its orga$(mem"ers 1the co$ce!t s?uatters)1 This is its !rogram2

%irst& the su!!ort(free co$structio$ of therrothera!* i$ co$/u$ctio$ with the active #estructio$ of the ill$esses of our #a*2 !s*cho!om!& h*!ocho$#iaches& schi o!haguses& go$or!hre$ia& $eurotosis& $eurot*!hus& mortems& sexosis& !ha$( tasmologists& scatato$ics& etc) .$# the worst of all2 glorif*i$g #e!ressio$) 7eco$#& the !ro#uctio$ of cam!aig$s a$# sloga$s li'e2 1Aore of the u$co$scious& !ro#uce more& still more& a$# more after that)1 15othi$g to i$ter!ret)1 1+t0s all goo#& "ut reall*)1

1Aa'e ever* %re$ch citi e$ carr* a visa a$# a wor' !ermit& accom!a$ie# "* regular !olice sha'e#ow$s)1

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18f two moveme$ts& the more #eterritoriali e# !revails over the less #eterritoriali e#)1

18f fift* moveme$ts& the most #etetritoriali e# wi$s)1

:hat we call the most #etertitoriali e# moveme$t is the #elirious vector) +t0s violet) The u$co$scious is violet& or it will "e)

S)e4an C er6ins61: :hat !recautio$s shoul# "e ta'e$ whe$ !ro#uci$g a co$ce!t@

Gilles Deleu e2 Nou !ut *our "li$'er o$& a$# chec' i$ *our rearview mirror to ma'e sure a$other co$ce!t is$0t comi$g u! "ehi$# *ou6 o$ce *ou0ve ta'e$ these !recautio$s& *ou !ro#uce the co$ce!t)0 :hat are the !recautio$s to "e ta'e$ whe$ movi$g from o$e theoretical fiel# to a$other@

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S)e4an C er6ins61: 5othi$g is sim!ler) Nou arm *ourself with a co$ce!t carr*i$g case i$ leatherette) Nou ta'e a ca$vas that *ou *ourself will "ol#l* !rime& i$ other wor#s& a ca$vas without !rimer) Nou sa$#wich it "etwee$ the two !ieces of a woo#e$ frame& which has "ee$ sawe# i$ such a wa* that it attaches to "oth si#es of the ca$vas) 7o the frame is a raise# "or#er o$ either si#e& formi$g two "asi$s) %irst *ou !ai$t o$ o$e si#e& accor#i$g to the #irectio$s ,vectors- *ou0ve chose$& for exam!le& "egi$$i$g from the cor$ers& li'e the car#i$al !oi$ts2 e)g)& *ou !ai$t 5orth(=ast& 5orth(7outh& 7outh(=ast& 5orth(:est& etc) <ai$t with re# or "lue& or with re# a$# "lue& either mixe# off the ca$vas& or mixe# o$ the ca$vas& es!e ciall* if *ou wa$t to !ro#uce #iffere$t sha#es of "row$ or violet) 5ext *ou go arou$# the "ac' to see what ha!!e$e# o$ the other si#e& si$ce the color has #iffuse# through the u$!rime# ,$o$( occlu#e#- ca$vas) Nou ma* or ma* $ot choose to 'ee! a$ e*e o$ the #iffusio$ with a mirror !lace# "ehi$# the ca$vas) 5ow *ou !ai$t the other si#e& usi$g a #iffere$t "rush& with stro'es i$ other #irectio$s a$# cor$ers) Nou ca$ also rotate the ca$vas& or cha$ge its situatio$2 sus!e$# it& !ut it o$ the wall& o$ the floor& etc)

+$cessa$t #iffusio$ from o$e si#e to the other) =ach si#e mo#ifies the other2 re#& "lue& "lue(re# D re#("lue& etc)& givi$g rise to #iffere$t sha#es of violet ,a$# $egative "row$-) =ach si#e !e$etrates the other2 violet is <=5=TB.N cou$tr*& where *ou "ecome the color(#iffuser& the si#e(switcher& the time(!asser2 the !ai$ter or the !ai$ti$g& the $oma#)

This is how *ou get #eterritoriali e# moveme$ts of color& a$# ma$* other thi$gs "esi#e& a$# thus *ou !ro#uce i$te$sities) Nou have travele# arou$# somethi$g that has $o thic'$ess)

+ forgot to me$tio$2 get a ca$vas that is much larger tha$ the frame& so *ou have a "or#er& a margi$ that is at least two feet wi#e) This margi$ has several roles to !la*2

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%irst& a o$e of over!ro#uctio$6 seco$#& a$ i$sta$ce of a$ti(!ro#uctio$6 thir#& the "o#*( ca$vas #ista$ce6 fourth& reci!rocal smu#ges a$# "lots2 who is !ai$ti$g a$# who is "ei$g !ai$te#@ ,The margi$ will "ecome smu#ge# a$# "lotte# i$ #iverse wa*s& accor#i$g to the 'i$# of wor' "ei$g #o$e& the colors em!lo*e#& the !ositio$s of the ca$vas& a$# the vectors *ou0ve chose$) Nour "o#* will "ecome smu#ge# a$# "lotte#& too) +$ a wa*& it is also a margi$)-6 fifth& tram( !li$gs a$# wal's6 it0s a threshol# for the !ai$ter& the ca$vas& a$# the visitor ali'e)

+t sometimes ha!!e$s that a$ i$fi$itesimal !art of the ca$vas will remai$ u$!ai$te#& forgotte$6 a$# sometimes *ou forget to forget) There0s a hole) Thi$' of the Hetu#a of the +talia$ Be$aissa$ce& that0s $ot it) Thi$' of the 5ava/o wome$ who $ever com!letel* fi$ish a ta!estr*2 the* leave a hole& the* sa*& "ecause the* si$' all their heart i$to the wor'& a$# the* #o$0t wa$t their heart to "e e$ta$gle# i$ !erfectio$) That0s still $ot it) 8r we sa* that the hole circulati$g o$ the ca$vas is a realit* that o!e$s o$ a$other realit*& "ut that0s /ust meta!h*sics a$# !ossi"le(worl#s)

Gilles Deleu e: :hat it is is a$ i$terior "or#er that echoes the exterior "or#ers) Together the* ma'e u! the #iffere$ce of i$te$sit* "etwee$ which ever*thi$g ha!!e$s a$# commu$icates2 $eglecti$g the margi$ a$# forgetti$g the hole6 a$# thus the* echo o$e a$other) %orgetti$g to !ai$t& $eglecti$g to !ai$t& the ca$vas "etwee$ i$si#e(outsi#e& a ca$vas(#rum& hear# as a sig$ of !ai$ti$g& a$ a(sig$if*( i$g sig$) The hole("or#er is !h*sical realit*) +t is Bealit*) 8h& what "eautiful thi$gs !h*sicists are sa*i$g these #a*s& co$cer$i$g "or#er(!he$ome$a a$# hole( $oume$a) :e woul# have to "e scholars to u$#ersta$# it) 4o$g live <auli& lo$g live %ermi) >ut we ca$0t u$#ersta$# it) 7o what& that0s eve$ "etter& we0ll #o the same) The hole(!articles a$# the "or#er(!articles are i$ motio$)4

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S)e4an C er6ins61: :e0re $ot fi$ishe#) .fter *ou !ai$t the ca$vases& *ou create a sim!le curre$c*2 from o"/ects& ver"s& gestures& materials& etc) The$ *ou ar"itraril* esta"lish ar"itraril* e?uivale$t relatio$shi!s "etwee$ the ca$vases a$# the stuff *ou will use as mo$e*) (

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%or exam!le& +0ll ma'e a few o"/ects or ute$sils2 woo# i$ cotto$& li'e a "a"* #oll6 a## metal ligatures to ma'e cloth ha$#s6 a## "lue metallic !lastic& "evele# a$# s!lit6 stuff hair i$ the s!lits& ceme$t it with cla*2 some of them are !rett* "ig& a$# others reall* small) + !ut them all i$ a suitcase& a metal lu$ch"ox& a$# ta'e them to some 'i#s !la*i$g i$ a !u"lic gar#e$) The* alwa*s get a 'ic' out of them) The series a$# #iffere$t si es ma'e them laugh) 7o the$ + arra$ge all the little famil*(mo$e*(o"/ects i$ relatio$ to the violet ca$vases) The* are fetishes or 'e*(hol#ers for the ca$vas(hol#ers& the ca$vas(te$ts& the ca$vas(ico$s) 5ow it ma'es a large circuit) Nou have the restricte# circuit2 frame(ca$vas("or#er(hole6 a$# *ou have the larger circuit2 its e?uivale$ce with a$other s*stem of sig$s& i)e) the little o"/ect(ute$sils) +#eall*& *ou woul# !a* for the ca$vases with the little o"/ects& a$# ma'e the little o"/ects wit the ca$vases) Nou woul# have to steal o$e or the other or "oth at o$ce) The ?uestio$ ca$ "e as'e#2 :ere m* ute$sils a$# m* ca$vases $othi$g "ut mo$e* all alo$g@ That0s what0s terri"le2 the virtualit* of mo$e*)

+re'a7e to ,o7?-enghem;s

L'Apres-Maides faunesA

The <reface) 5o o$e esca!es it) 5ot the author& $ot the !u"lisher& $ot the !reface writer& who is the real victim) There is $o $ee# for a !reface) This 0ga*0 "oo' coul# also have "ee$ calle#2 ;ow the existe$ce of homosexualit* came to "e #ou"te#6 or& $o o$e ca$ sa* 1+ am homosexual)1 7ig$e#& ;oc?ue$ghem) ;ow #i# he arrive at this@ :as it a !erso$al evolutio$& tracea"le i$ the successio$ a$# the ma$* to$es of the texts collecte# here@ :as it a collective evolutio$ i$ co$$ectio$ with a grou!(u$#erta'i$g& a "ecomi$g of %;.B@ +t goes without sa*i$g that it is $ot #ue to a cha$ge such as "ecomi$g heterosexual& that ;oc?ue$ghem has come to #ou"t the vali#it* of certai$ $otio$s a$# #eclaratio$s) +t is o$l* "* remai$i$g homosexual forever, remai$i$g a$# "ei$g homosexual more a$# more& "ei$g a "etter a$# "etter homosexual& that o$e ca$ sa* 1well& $o o$e is reall* homosexual)1 :hich is a thousa$# times "etter tha$ the hac'$e*e#& i$si!i# i#ea that ever*o$e is homosexual or will "e2 we0re all u$co$scious late$t ?ueers) ;oc( ?ue$ghem #oes $ot use the term evo'ution, $or eve$ revo'ution, "ut vo'utions% +magi$e a$ extremel* mo"ile s!iral2 ;oc?ue$ghem is there o$ several levels simulta$eousl*& o$ several tur$s at o$ce2 sometimes with a motorc*cle& some( times high out of his mi$#& sometimes so#omi e# or so#omi i$g& a$# sometimes i$ #rag) 8$ o$e level& he ca$ sa*2 *es& +0m a homosexual6 o$ a$other level2 $o& that0s $ot it6 a$# o$ a$other level& it is somethi$g else altogether) This curre$t "oo' #oes $ot re!eat his former wor'& +omose!ua' #esire-A it has a com!letel* #iffere$t orga$i atio$ a$# mo"ili atio$) +t0s a total tra$sformatio$)

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%irst volutio$2 i$ o!!ositio$ to !s*choa$al*sis& agai$st !s*choa$al*tic re#uctio$s a$# i$ter!retatio$s) +$ !ri$ci!le& ;oc?ue$ghem is $ot o!!ose# to homosexualit* as a relatio$shi! with father& mother& a$# 8e#i!us6 he eve$ writes a letter to mother) >ut it #oes$0t wor') <s*choa$al*sis has $ever "ee$ a"le to tolerate #esire) +t has to re#uce #esire& ma'e it sa* somethi$g else) 7ome of the more ri#iculous !ages %reu# ever wrote are those o$ 1fellatio12 such a "i arre a$# 1shoc'i$g1 #esire ca$ have $o worth of its ow$6 it must "e tracea"le to a cow u##er& a$# from there to the mother0s "reast) %reu# thi$'s we woul# get more !leasure suc'i$g o$ a cow u##er) +$ter!ret& regress& !ush towar# regressio$) +t /ust ma'es ;oc?ue$ghem laugh) :ho '$ows& ma*"e there is such a thi$g as 8e#i!al homosexualit*& a momm*(homosexualit*& guilt& !ara$oia& whatever) >ut !recisel*& the whole i$ter!retatio$ si$'s li'e a lea# "alloo$& weighe# #ow$ "* what it hi#es& a$# "* what the famil* cou$selor a$# !s*choa$al*st woul# 'ee! out of sight2 it falls off the s!iral& it fails the test of light$ess a$# mo"ilit*) ;oc?ue$ghem i$stea# !osits the s!ecificit* a$# the irre#uci"ilit* of a homosexual #esire& a flow without origi$ or goal& a matter of ex!erime$tatio$ a$# $ot i$ter!retatio$) +t is $ot the !ast "ut the !rese$t that #etermi$es whether o$e is homosexual& o$ce we a#mit that chil#hoo# was alrea#* a !rese$ce that #i# $ot refer to a !ast) >ecause #esire $ever re!rese$ts a$*thi$g& a$# it #oes$0t refer "ac' to somethi$g waiti$g i$ the wi$gs of the familial or !erso$al theatre) Desire ma'es co$$ectio$s& it assem"les& it machi$es) =)g) ;oc?ue$ghem0s "eautiful text o$ the motorc*cle2 the motorc*cle is a$other sex) <erha!s the homosexual #oes $ot sta* with the same sex& "ut #iscovers i$$umera"le sexes) >ut first ;oc?e$ghem attem!ts to #efi$e this irre#uci"le& s!ecific homosexual #esire3$ot through a regressive i$feriorit*& "ut through a$ 8utsi#e& a relatio$shi! with the 8utsi#e& whose characteristics are !rese$t2 the !articular moveme$t of cruisi$g& the mo#e of e$cou$ter& the 1a$ular1 structure& the mo"ilit* a$# excha$gea"ilit* of roles& a$# a !articular "etra*al ,!lotti$g agai$st o$e0s ow$ class& as Flossows'i sa*s@2 1The* tol# us we were me$& the* treat us li'e wome$6 *es& towar# our e$emies& we are treacherous& u$#erha$#e#& a$# show "a# faith2 *es& we ca$ ?uit o$ *ou i$ a$* social situatio$& at a$* mome$t& we are u$relia"le a$# !rou# of itO1-

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7eco$# volutio$2 ;omosexualit* #oes $ot !ro#uce #esire without at the same time formulati$g uttera$ces) >ecause !ro#uci$g #esire a$# formulati$g $ew uttera$ces are the same thi$g) 8f course& ;oc?ue$ghem #oes $ot sou$# li'e Gi#e& or <roust& eve$ less li'e <e*refitte2 "ut st*le is !olitics3so are ge$eratio$al #iffere$ces& a$# the #iffere$t wa*s of sa*i$g 1+1 ,cf) the worl# of #iffere$ce "etwee$ >urroughs the father a$# >urroughs the so$& whe$ the* sa* 1+1 a$# tal' a"out #rugs-) . $ew st*le& a $ew !olitics) This is the im!orta$ce of To$* Duvert to#a*2 a $ew to$e) ;omosexualit* to#a* !ro#uces its uttera$ces from withi$ a $ew st*le& a$# these uttera$ces #o $ot a$# must $ot revolve arou$# homosexualit* itself) :ere it sim!l* a ?uestio$ of sa*i$g 1ever* ma$ is a ?ueer&1 it woul# "e totall* #evoi# of i$terest) 7uch a lame !ro!ositio$ amuses o$l* fools) >ut the margi$al !ositio$ of homosexualit* ma'es it !ossi"le& a$# $ecessar*& for it to have somethi$g to sa* a"out w at is not homosexualit*2 1the e$tire gamut of huma$ sexual !ro"lems first a!!eare# whe$ the homosexual moveme$ts "ega$)1 %or ;oc?ue$ghem& the uttera$ces of homosexualit* are of two sorts) %irst& a"out sexualit* i$ ge$eral2 far from "ei$g !halloce$tric& the homosexual #e$ou$ces the same !he$ome$o$ i$ the su"missio$ of wome$ a$# i$ the te!ressio$ of homosexualit*) This !he$ome$o$ is co$stitutive of !halloce$trism& which o!erates i$#irectl* as the heterosexual mo#el of our societ*) <halloce$trism forces the sexualit* of "o*s o$ girls& to whom it assig$s the role of !la*i$g se#uctress a$# se#uce#) %rom that !oi$t o$& whether there exists a m*sterious com!licit* amo$g girls who !refer girls& or "o*s who !refer "o*s& or "o*s who !refer motorc*cles to girls& or girls who& etc)& the im!orta$t thi$g is not to i$tro#uce a$* !seu#o(sig$ifier or s*m"olic relatio$ i$to these !lots a$# com!licities ,1a moveme$t li'e %;.B a!!ears to have i$timate ties with ecological moveme$ts))) even if t is is ine!pressib'e in t e 'ogic ofpo'itics2$% The seco$# sort of uttera$ce is com!lime$tar* to the first6 it #eals with the social fiel# i$ ge$eral a$# the !rese$ce of sexualit* i$ the social fiel# as a whole2 homosexualit* e$acts a micro(!olitics of #esire "* esca!i$g the heterosexual mo#el& "* esca!i$g "oth the locali atio$ of this mo#el i$ a t*!e of relatio$shi! a$# its #iffusio$ i$ ever* sector of societ*) ;omosexualit* is thus a"le to reveal or #etect the whole arra* of !ower relatio$s to which societ* su"mits sexualit* ,i$clu#i$g the case of the more or less late$t homosexualit* that is #iffuse# throughout virile militar* or fascist grou!s-) <recisel*& homosexualit* is li"eratio$al $ot "* #isru!ti$g all !ower relatio$s& "ut whe$ as a margi$al !he$ome$o$& it has $o socia' uti'ity8 1societ* fails from the outset to i$scri"e its !ower relatio$s i$ homosexualit*& such that the roles ma$( woma$& active(!assive& master(slave& are u$sta"le a$# reversi"le at ever* mome$t i$ homosexualit*)1Thir# volutio$2 we thought ;oc?ue$ghem was setti$g u! o$ the margi$& #iggi$g himself i$) >ut what is this margi$@ .$# the s!ecificit* of homosexual #esire& the cou$ter(uttera$ces of homosexualit*@ :hat are the*@ .$other ;oc( ?ue$ghem& o$ a #iffere$t level of the s!iral& #e$ou$ces homosexualit* as a wor#) ;omosexualit* as nomina'ism% .$# i$ fact there is $o !ower i$ wor#s& o$l* wor#s i$ the service of !ower2 la$guage is $ot i$formatio$ or commu$icatio$& "ut !rescri!tio$& or#er& a$# comma$#) Nou will "e o$ the margi$) +t0s the ce$ter that ma'es the margi$) 1 The a"stract #ivisio$ of #esire allows for the regime$tatio$ of those who esca!e it& "ri$gi$g withi$ the law that which esca!es the 4aw) The categor* i$ ?uestio$& a$# the wor# itself& are relativel* rece$t i$ve$tio$s) +t is the growi$g im!erialism of a societ* wa$ti$g to assig$ a social status to ever*thi$g u$classifia"le that create# this !articulari atio$ of i$e?ualit*))) Divi#i$g the "etter to co$?uer& the !seu#o(scie$tific thought of !s*chiatr* has tra$sforme# "ar"arous i$tolera$ce i$to i$tolera$ce that is civili e#)1 >ut here is where somethi$g stra$ge ha!!e$s2 the less homosexualit* is a state of affairs& a$# the more homosexualit* is a mere wor#& the more it must "e ta'e$ literall* a$# its !ositio$ "e ta'e$ as s!ecific& its uttera$ces as irre#uci"le& acti$g as if))) 8ut of #efia$ce) .lmost from a se$se of #ut*) . $ecessar* #ialectic mome$t) <assage a$# !rogress) :e will act li'e ?uee$s "ecause *ou wa$t it) :e will excee# *our tra!s) :e will ta'e *ou at *our wor#2 1+t is "* ma'i$g shame all the more shameful that we !rogress) :e claim femi$i$it* for ourselves& that femi$i$it* which wome$ re/ect& even as we dec'are t ese ro'es to be meaning'ess%%% :e ca$$ot esca!e the co$crete form of this struggle& which is homosexualit*)1 7till a$other mas'& still a$other "etra*al) . ;egelia$ ;oc?ue$ghem is

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reveale#2 the $ecessar* mome$t that must "e !asse# through6 a Aarxist ;oc?ue$ghem& too2 the ?ueer as a !roletariat of =ros ,1it is !recisel* "ecause he lives "* acce!ti$g the most !articular situatio$ that what he thi$'s has u$iversal value1-) The rea#er is shoc'e#) +s this a ;ommage to #ialectics& to the =cole 5ormale 7u!erieure@ +s this ;omo( ;egelia$(Aarxism@ >ut ;oc?e$ghem is alrea#* elsewhere& o$ a$other !lace i$ the s!iral& sa*i$g what was i$ his hea# or his heart& a$# what ca$$ot "e se!arate# from a 'i$# of evolutio$) :ho amo$g us has alrea#* 'ille# Aarx or ;egel withi$ himself& a$# the i$famous #ialectic@

%ourth volutio$& a$# the last #a$ce for the time "ei$g& the last "etra*al2 we must follow the successio$ of ;oc?ue$ghem0s texts& his !ositio$ with res!ect to %;.B a$#& withi$ %;.B as a s!ecific grou!& the relatio$ to A4%3the i#ea that the #is!ersal of grou!s is $ever tragic) %ar from closi$g itself i$ o$ 1the same&1 homosexualit* is goi$g to o!e$ itself u! to all sorts of !ossi"le $ew relatio$s& micrological or micro!s*chic& esse$tiall* reversi"le& tra$sversal relatio$s& with as ma$* sexes as there are assem"lages& $ot eve$ exclu#i$g $ew relatio$s "etwee$ me$ a$# wome$2 the mo"ilit* of !articular 7XA relatio$s& the !ote$c* of cross( #ressi$g& %ourier0s thirt*(six thousa$# forms of love& or the Y(sexes ,$either o$e $or two sexes-) +t is $o lo$ger a"out "ei$g a ma$ or woma$& "ut i$ve$ti$g sexes& such that a homosexual ma$ ca$ fi$# i$ a woma$ those !leasures which a ma$ woul# give him a$# vice versa ,to this exclusive homosexualit* of the 7ame& <roust alrea#* o!!ose# a more multi!le a$# 0locali e#0 homosexualit* which i$clu#es all 'i$#s of tra$ssexual commu$icatio$s& such as flowers a$# "ic*cles-) +$ a "eautiful !assage o$ cross(#ressi$g& ;oc?ue$ghem tal's a"out a tra$smutatio$ from o$e or#er to a$other as though it were a$ i$te$sive co$ti$uum of su"sta$ces2 1There is $o i$terme#iar* "etwee$ ma$ a$# woma$& or the u$iversal me#iator is o$e !art of a worl# tra$sferre# i$to a$other as o$e moves from o$e u$iverse to a$other& !arallel to the first& or !er!e$#icular& or #iago$al6 or rather it0s a millio$ #is!lace# gestures& tra$sferre# characteristics& eve$ts)))1 %ar from closi$g itself i$ o$ the i#e$tit* of a sex& this homosexualit* o!e$s itself u! to a loss of i#e$tit*& to the 1s*stem actuali i$g $o$(exclusive co$$ectio$s of !ol*vocal #esire)1 :e see how the to$e has cha$ge# at this !recise !oi$t o$ the s!iral2 the homosexual is $o lo$ger #ema$#i$g to "e recog$i e#& $o lo$ger ta'es himself to "e a su"/ect #e!rive# of his rights ,let us live i$ !eace& after all& ever*o$e0s a little ga*))) homosexualit*(#ema$#& homosexualit*(recog$itio$& homosexualit* of the same& 8e#i!al form& .rca#ie st*le-)3 The $ew homosexual is a"out "ei$g i$ such a wa* that he ca$ fi$all* sa*2 $o"o#* is homosexual& it #oes$0t exist) Nou treat us li'e homosexuals& 8F& "ut we0re alrea#* elsewhere) There is $o more homosexual su"/ect& "ut homosexual !ro#uctio$s of #esire& a$# homosexual assem"lages that !ro#uce uttera$ces& !roliferati$g ever*where& e)g) 7XA a$# cross(#ressi$g& i$ sexual relatio$s as well as i$ !olitical struggles) There is $o more a$gr*& #ivi#e# Gi#e(su"/ect& $or eve$ a <roust(su"/ect feeli$g guilt*& eve$ less a !athetic <e*refitte(7elf) :e u$#ersta$# "etter how ;oc( ?ue$ghem ca$ "e ever*where o$ the s!iral

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a$# sa* all at o$ce2 homosexual #esire is s!ecific& there are homosexual uttera$ces& "ut homosexualit* is $othi$g& it0s /ust a wor#& a$# *et let0s ta'e it literall*& let0s !ass $ecessaril* through it& to ma'e it *iel# all the other$ess it co$tai$s3a$# this other$ess is $ot the u$co$scious of !s*choa$al*sis& "ut the !rogressio$ of a future sexual "ecomi$g)

! +"anter;s !rt1

The film0s lo$g o!e$i$g shot to the music of 9ou!eri$) :e see the camera move& sto! i$ this !articular #ecor& that !articular s!ot& "efore this exam!le of architecture)

:e see the #irector laugh& s!ea'& !oi$t to somethi$g6 the film crew wor's o$ a !articular arra$geme$t of eleme$ts) :e fear this is /ust o$e more exam!le of that wa* of i$tro#uci$g& i$to the film& the film i$ the ma'i$g) 4uc'il*& it is$0t) The o!e$i$g is $ot lo$g at all) The camera0s mo"ilit* i$ this film a!!ears to "e somethi$g $ew) +t is a wa* of !la$ti$g) 5ot "ur*i$g the camera o$ its feet& "ut ra!i#l* !la$ti$g it& /ust "elow the surface of the soil or terrai$& a$# the$ carr*i$g it elsewhere to !la$t it over agai$) .$ art of rice2 the camera is sta""e# i$ the soil& the$ sta""e# agai$& farther awa*& i$ a lea!) 5o ta'i$g root& /ust sta"s) +$ the film itself& the camera& the crew a$# the #irector will !o! u! su##e$l* right $ext to the cou!le ma'i$g love2 this is $ot a 1literar*1 effect& $or a reflectio$ of the film(ma'i$g !rocess i$ the film6 rather& the camera is see$ "ecause it was !la$te# here& sta""e# there& to "e imme#iatel* !ic'e# u! a$# !la$te# elsewhere)

The film& ever*thi$g which the film shows& follows this !roce#ure without the least artifice) The film a$# its o!e$i$g are the same mo"ile stor* i$ two mo#es) . so$ 'ills himself& a$# the father& as though u$hi$ge#& will !ass through a series of metamor!hoses2 a sa#istic

325

<B=%.9= T8 ;89GE=5G;=A

small(time croo'& a #istur"i$g wise ma$& a $oma#ic wal'er& a *ou$g ma$ i$ love) The actor who !la*s the father& <atrice Dall*& #is!la*s a #ee! so"riet*& a$ almost hum"le ma$$er& which i$te$sifies the viole$ce of the metamor!hoses) The !retext is a sort of i$?uir* i$to the so$0s #eath) The realit* is the "ro'e$ chai$ of metamor!hoses& which o!erates $ot "* tra$sformatio$& "ut "* lea!s a$# "ou$#s) 8$e "eautiful sce$e is with Boger <la$cho$& the wise ma$& /um!i$g arou$# a *ou$g woma$& tr*i$g to !ersua#e her of somethi$g i$ the 7ai$t( 7ul!ice0s s?uare) :ith asto$ishi$g moveme$ts& <la$cho$ re!eate#l* !la$ts himself "efore her) .$other is with <ierre Culie$& the $ervous sa#ist& who !ulls the !la*er i$ ever* #irectio$& height& #e!th& le$gth& carvi$g u! s!ace as with a '$ife)

+t0s li'e a stor* !la$te# i$ <aris& $ot at all heav* a$# static& "ut with light sta"s that corres!o$# to each camera !ositio$) The stor* comes from elsewhere2 it comes from 7outh .merica& from the 7a$tiago(>orges(>io* 9easres e$sem"le& "ri$gi$g with it that !ower of metamor!hosis which o$e fi$#s i$ the $ovels of .sturias& a$# it ema$ates from other la$#sca!es2 the 7ava$$ah& the !am!as& a fruit com!a$*& a fiel# of cor$ or rice) The !recise !oi$t at which the stor* is i$serte# or stuc' i$ <aris is a small "oo'store& 1The Two .meric( as&1 the father0s "usi$ess) >ut there is $o a!!licatio$ i$ the stor*& $o s*m"olism& $o literar* game& as though a$ +$#ia$ stor* were "ei$g tol# i$ <aris) +$stea#& the stor* is !recisel* share# "* the two worl#s& a cit* fragme$t a$# a !am!as fragme$t& each of which is ?uite mo"ile6 the o$e is stuc' i$ the other a$# carries it awa*) :hat a!!ears co$ti$uous i$ the o$e woul# "e #is( co$ti$uous i$ the other& a$# vice versa) + am thi$'i$g of the a#mira"le wa* i$ which 7a$tiago filme# the i$terior of the Aeu#o$ 8"servator*2 a metallic a$# #eserte# cit* has "ee$ !la$te# i$ a forest) The tam(tams lea! from 9ou!eri$0s music& the !arrots screech i$ the 8#eo$ hotel& a$# the <arisia$ "oo'seller is trul* a$ +$#ia$)

326

9i$ema has alwa*s "ee$ closer to architecture tha$ to theatre) . !articular relatio$ of architecture a$# of the camera hol#s ever*thi$g together here) The metamor!hoses have $othi$g to #o with fa$tas*2 the camera lea!s from o$e !oi$t to a$other& arou$# a$ architectural whole& /ust as <la$cho$ lea!s arou$# the huge sto$e fou$tai$) The "oo'store0s characters lea! from o$e to the other arou$# Haler*& the heroi$e who '$ows how to stri'e architectural !oses) 7ta$#i$g or "e$#i$g& lea$i$g or u!right& she watches the metamor!hoses from Aeu#o$6 she is at o$ce the victim a$# the i$stigator of the game6 she is the ce$ter for the "oo'seller0s lea!s) .ctrice 5oelle 9hatelet2 what tale$t a$# "eaut*& what stra$ge 1gravit*1 i$ the #etaile# love sce$e) :hat a"out the wa* i$ which she& too& though #iffere$tl* tha$ the "oo'seller& mai$tai$s her relatio$shi! with the other worl#@ :hat she sa*s i$ architecture& i$ her loo'& a$# i$ her !ositio$& he sa*s i$ moveme$ts& i$ music& a$# i$ the camera) +t is stra$ge that the critics #i#$0t care for this film& eve$ if it were o$l* a$ ex!erime$t i$ ci$ema e$#owe# with a $ew mo"ilit*) 7a$tiago0s !revious film& ;nvasion, was alrea#* movi$g i$ this #irectio$) ,The tie"rea'er2 wh* is the "oo'seller $ame# 7!i$o a@ Aa*"e "ecause the two .mericas& the two worl#s& the cit* a$# the !am!as& are li'e two attri"utes of a$ a"solutel* share# su"sta$ce) .$# this has $othi$g to #o with !hiloso!h*& it is the su"sta$ce of the film itself)-

0otes

5ntrod-7tion
1) +$ 1989& Deleu e reviewe# a$# orga$i e# his wor' as a whole& i$clu#i$g his "oo's& accor# i$g to a series of ge$eral themes2 1+) %rom ;ume to >ergso$ D ++) 9lassical 7tu#ies D +++) 5iet schea$ 7tu#ies D +H) 9ritical a$# 9li$ical D H) =sthetics D H+) 9i$ema 7tu#ies D H++) 9o$tem!orar* 7tu#ies D H+++) The 4ogic of 7e$se D +K) .$ti(8e#i!us D K) Differe$ce a$# Be!etitio$ D K+) . Thousa$# <lateaus1

3esert 5s"ands
1) Cea$ Girau#oux& Su(anne et 'e )acifi@ue ,<aris2 Grasset& 1922-6 ree#ite# i$ Oeuvres romanes@ues comp'etes, vol 1 ,<aris2 Gallimar# <leia#e& 1990-)

:ean ,yppo"ite;s Logic and Existence


1) cf) Revue p i'osop i@ue de 'a .rance et de ;,etranger, vol) 9K4+H& $o) 7(9& /uillet(se!tem"re 1954& !!) 457(460) ;*!!olite0s 4ogi@ue et E!istence was !u"lishe# "* <E% i$ 1953) Cea$ ;*!( !olite ,1907(1968-& !hiloso!her a$# ;egel s!ecialist& was Deleu e0s teacher for the 1'hag$e1 !rogram at 4ouis(le(Gra$# high school) .fter "ecomi$g a !rofessor at the 7or"o$$e& ;*!!olite later su!ervise#& with George 9a$guilhem& the #ip'ome d,Etudes Superieures which Deleu e receive# for his wor' o$ ;ume) Deleu e0s #issertatio$ woul# "e !u"lishe# "* <E% as Empirisme et subjectivite i$ 1953& i$ the collectio$ 1=!imethe1 hea#e# "* ;*!!olite) 8$ several occasio$s& whe$ i$terviewe#& Deleu e refers to his

327

a#miratio$ as a stu#e$t for ;*!!olite& to whom Empirisme et subjectivite is #e#eicate#) >e*o$# !a*i$g homage& this is the first Deleu ia$ text that ex!licitl* formulates the h*!othesis of a$ 1o$tolog* of !ure #iffere$ce1 which will co$sti( tute& as we '$ow& o$e of the 'e* theses i$ #ifference et repetition% I=#itor0s $oteJ 2) Cea$ ;*!!olite& *enesis and Structure of +ege',s ) enomono'ogy of Spirit ,=va$sto$2 5orthwester$ E$iversit* <ress& 1974-) 3) Cea$ ;*!!olite& 4ogic and E!istence ,.l"a$*2 7E5N <ress& 1997-)

9ergson) 1C59-1941
1) Aaurice Aerleau(<o$t*& e#) 4es ) i'osop es ce'ebres% =#itio$s #0.rt 4ucie$ Aa e$o#& 1956) <!) 292(299) The followi$g *ear Deleu e e#ite#& for the <resses E$iversitaires #e %ra$ce& a collectio$ of selecte# texts "* >ergso$& u$#er the title Memoire et vie- some of the refere$ce $otes s!ecif* this e#itio$) The !agi$atio$ refers to the curre$t e#itio$ of >ergso$0s i$#ivi#ual wor's !u"lishe# "* the <E% i$ the Gua#rige collectio$) A% 4a )ensee et 'e mouvant ++)

D% Matiere et memoire +& !) 74)

9% 4, Evo'ution creatrice +++)

S% )MN%

P%

)ME5%

>% MM, +++)

8)
O%

Z8++)
)ME;%

56%

)ME'''%

11)

Z9+H)

12)

Z9T+)

328

13) MM +++)

14) D:H+& !) 196(197)

15) )M+K& !) 259(260)

16)

17) MM +++)

18) Z5 H)

19) AA +++)

20) AA +H& !) 269)

21) AA ++& !) 115 a$# +++& !) 188)

22) MM +++)

23) <AH+& !) 206(207)

24) <AH+& !) 208)

25) Z9 +H)

26) D:ill)

27) 7:H+)

329

2C$

9ergson;s Con7eption o' 3i''eren7e

1) %rom 4es Etudes bergsoniennes, vol) +H& 1956& !) 77(112) .ll the refere$ces are Deleu e0s a""reviate# citatio$s for >ergso$0s wor's i$ %re$ch) +$ their or#er of a!!eara$ce& rhe* are2 A A M Matiere etMemoire B5TOP$- )% M% Q 4a )ensee et 'e Mouvant B5O95$- E% S% Q 4Energie spriritue''e B5O5O$- M% R Q 4es #eu! sources de 'a mora'e et de 'a re'igion B5ODA$- E% &% Q 4Evo'ution creatrice B5O6>$- #% ;% M Essai sur 'es donnees immediates de 'a conscience B5TTO$- #% S% Q #uree et simu'taneite B5OAA$% The !age $um"ers corres!o$# to the e#itio$s Deleu e use# a$# are $ote# i$ the text) The !agi$atio$ refers to the curre$t e#itio$s of >ergso$0s wor' from <E% i$ the Gua#rige collectio$) 2) AA& !) 19& !) 62(63)

3) )M, !) 52(53)

4) )M, !) 197)

5) )M, !) 207)

6) )M, 23)

7) ES, p% 4)

8) ES, first cha!ter)

9) MR, !) 263)

10) AB& !) 292)

55% E&, p% 217)

12) <A& !) 61)

13) E&, !) 107)

14) E&, !) 107)

330

58T=7

29) E&, p% 184&264(265)MR, !) 225)


1) E&, p% 107) 2) E&, p% 316 s?) 3) E&, !) 232&235) 4) MM, !) 182) 5) )M, !) 61) 6) )M, !) 208) 7) <A !) 179) 8) <A& !) 199) 9) MM, !) 59) 10) ZVD& first cha!ter) 11) #;, !) 90) 12) MM, !) 219) 13) )M, p% 163& 167) 14) E&, !) 267& 270) 15) )M, !) 81) 16) ZV5& !) 67) 17) <9& cha!) 1) 18) Z9& !) 127) 19) E&, !) 86) 20) E&, !) 88) 21) A<& !) 313) 22) E&, !) 53 s?) 23) )M, !) 58) 24) <9& !) 54) 25) A<& !) 316) 26) MR, !) 314) 27) A<& !!) 313(315) 28) ES, p% 13)
30)

ES, !) 11

31) )+ #o $ot "elieve& however& that >ergso$ was i$flue$ce# "* <lato o$ this !oi$t) 9loser to him was Ga"riel Tar#e& who characteri e# his
ow$ !hiloso!h* as a !hiloso!h* of #iffere$ce a$# #isti$guishe# it from !hiloso!hies of o!!ositio$) >ut >ergso$0s co$ce!tio$ of esse$ce a$# the !rocess of #iffere$ce is ver* #iffere$t from Tar#e0s) 1) MR, !) 111)

331

58T=7

2)

E&, !) 88 s?)

3)

)M, !) 198)

4)

)M, !) 207)

5)

MR, !) 317)

6)

)M, !!) 259(260)

7)

MM, !) 247)

8)

MM, !) 249)

9)

MM, !) 74)

10) <A& !) 210)

11) ES, !) 137)

12) ES, !) 137)

13) MM, !!) 172(173)