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Foundation Course: Science 2

SEMESTER 1 UNIT 1: SYN !SIS One way to differentiate between living and non-living things is by relating it to the way each uses energy. All matter tends to lose energy or it tries to attain its lowest energy state. Any system which is highly ordered has much energy. Under natural condition it will tend to lose this energy and so become disordered. This state is known as entropy. A disordered system has high entropy, and an organized one has low entropy. ree energy and entropy is inversely proportional. !iving things, being highly ordered, have low entropy and much free energy. "hile non-living things have high entropy and little free energy. !iving organisms maintain their low entropy by the constant addition of energy to themselves, in the form of sunlight or foods. This unit e#plore enzymes and it$s functions in cell metabolisms. %t also look at how the energy that maintain low entropy is obtained &photosynthesis and heterotrophic nutrition' and how energy is released & respiration' to permit organisms to carry out those seven processes that distinguish living from non-living. "E#RNIN$ UT% ME Energetics (Biology) ( 1 credit 15 hours)

At the end of this unit the students should be able to( %. %%. %%%. %+. +. +%. +%%. +%%%. state that enzymes are catalysts which reduce activation energy) e#plain how enzyme activity is affected by temperature, p*, substrate and enzyme concentrations) describe the active site-directed and non-active site-directed inhibition of enzyme action) e#plain the concept of a metabolic pathway as a se,uence of enzymecontrolled reactions) list the significance of AT- in metabolism as the immediate supply of energy for biological processes) state that photosynthesis consist of light and dark reactions. describe the conversion of monosaccharides to pyruvate during glycolysis. e#plain that during the complete o#idation of pyruvate in the .rebs cycle result in the production of carbon dio#ide, more reduced coenzyme &/A0* 1 * 1' and AT-) decribe the role of the electron-transport chain in generating AT- &o#idative phosphorylation') describe the situations in which the pyruvate formed in glycolysis may not undergo complete o#idation) formation of lactic acid in muscle) formation of ethanol in yeast) and list the basic principles of autotrophic and heterotrophic modes of nutrition.

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Foundation Course: Science 2

SEMESTER 1 T !I%S #N& TIME #"" %#TI N 4. 7. 6. :. 5iocatalysis -hotosynthesis 9ellular respiration /utrition Tot'l (N )"E&$E S(I""S 6 hours 8 hours 8 hours 7 hours 15 hours TE#%*IN$ + "E#RNIN$ E,!ERIEN%E

4.; 5iocatalysis 4.4 0efinition of enzymes 4.7 <nzymes classification according to %U5 convention 4.6 -roperties of enzymes and factors influencing <nzyme Activity 4.: =echanism Activation <nergy 4.8 9o-factors and inhibitors 7.; -hotosynthesis 7.4 !ight reaction 0escribe in detail the light reaction, which includes all processes involved. 0raw diagrams to e#plain the dark reaction of photosynthesis. 0escribe the limiting factors that influence the rate of photosynthesis. Str'tegy: Using multimedia software to e#plain the detailed process. >tate the definition of an enzyme and its classification. >tate the characteristics of enzymes. 0escribe how enzymes function. Str'tegy: !ecture followed by discussion. -ractical sessions on effect of enzyme and substrate concentrations on the hydrolysis of sucrose.

7.7

0ark reaction?9alvin cycle

7.6 actors limiting the rate of photosynthesis

Foundation Course: Science 2

SEMESTER 1 (N )"E&$E 6.; 9ellular Aespiration 6.4 Aerobiosis 6.4.4 Blycolysis 0escribe aerobiosis respiration including the detailed process of glycolisis and the production of AT-. 0escribe detailed process of .reb cycle including how and calculation on the number of /A0*, A0*, and BTmolecules produced. 0escribe the components and mechanism of action of electron transport system to produce AT-. 0escribe how anaerobiosis occurs in both plants and animals including the differences between them. 0escribe the use of fermentation in industry with the help of e#amples. :.; /utrition :.4 Autotroph 9hemosynthesis and photosynthesis :.7 *eterotroph *olozoic, saprophytic, and parasitic 0ifferentiate among the three types of nutrition. >tate e#amples of organisms for each types. /ote( <#amples could either be plants or animals 9ompare and contrast between chemosynthesis and photosynthesis. Str'tegy: 9ollecting information on e#amples of each types of nutrition. /ote( At least three e#amples are sufficient. /ote( 9alculation on the number of AT- molecules produced per glucose is not necessary. Str'tegy( Using multimedia software to e#plain the detailed process. S(I""S TE#%*IN$ + "E#RNIN$ E,!ERIEN%E

6.4.7 .rebs cycle?tricarbo#ylic acid cycle?citric acid)

6.4.6

<lectron transport system

6.7 Anaerobiosis

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Foundation Course: Science 2

SEMESTER 1 UNIT - : The !eriodic T'.le (1 credit 15 hours)

SYN !SIS This topic aims to enhance knowledge and understanding in periodic table. The scope of study encompasses the uses of the periodic table as a means of providing a unifying pattern for the properties of the elements and their compounds. "E#RNIN$ UT% ME

At the end of this unit the students should be able to( %. %%. recognise, recall of specific facts, terminology, principles, and practical techni,ues and show the understanding of the concepts of periodic table) describe, e#plain and interpret phenomena and effects in terms of principles and concepts, presenting arguments and ideas clearly and logically in the study of matter and atomic structure) interpret and translate data presented as continuous prose or in tables, diagrams and graphs and to carry out relevant calculations in the study of matter) and apply the principles and concepts to unfamiliar situations and to show understanding of the responsible use of chemistry in society.

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%+.

T !I%S #N& TIME #"" %#TI N 4. 7. 6. :. 0evelopment of the =odern -eriodic Table 5uilding of the -eriodic Table and electronic configuration +ariation in the physical properties with -roton /umbers across -eriod 7 and -eriod 6 <lements +ariation in the physical properties of the first row d-block elements Total 6 hours : hours : hours : hours 48 hours

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Foundation Course: Science 2

SEMESTER 1 (N )"E&$E 4. 0evelopment of the =odern -eriodic Table 4.4 4.7 4.6 /ewlands =endeleev =oseley <#plain the development of the -eriodic table by /ewlands, =endeleev and =oseley. Use the Aufbau principle and subse,uently e#plain the electronic configuration of atoms with proton numbers 4 to 6; in the -eriodic Table. <#plain the position of elements in the -eriodic Table in &a' block s, with outer shell configurations s4 and s7 &b' block p, with outer shell configuration from s7p4 to s7pC &c' block d, with outer shell configuration from d4s7 to d4;s7 &d' e#plain the position of f-block elements in the -eriodic Table. Str'tegy: !ecture followed by tutorial sessions -ractical sessions I%T Integr'tion %nternet "ebsite Achievement oriented %nitiative %nnovative T + " Resources: 90 AO= >T-= -hysics Te#tbook /'lues: Appreciate the ethical practices of scientists Thinking critically and analytically le#ible and open minded *onest and accurate in the recording of data S(I""S TE#%*IN$ + "E#RNIN$ E,!ERIEN%E

7. 5uilding of the -eriodic Table and <lectrons 9onfiguration

6. +ariation in -hysical -roperties with -roton /umbers across -eriod 7 and -eriod 6

<#plain the trend and gradation of atomic radii, melting points, boiling points, enthalpy change of vaporisation, and electrical conductivities in terms of structure and bonding. <#plain the trend in ionization energy across -eriod 7 and -eriod 6 and down the group.

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Foundation Course: Science 2

SEMESTER 1 (N )"E&$E :. irst row d-block elements S(I""S <#plain the variation in the physical properties of the first row d-block elements in terms of melting point, density, and successive ionization energies. TE#%*IN$ + "E#RNIN$ E,!ERIEN%E Str'tegy: !ecture followed by tutorial sessions

:.4 %onisation <nergy

<#plain the variation in successive ionisation energies. <#plain the factors influencing ionization energies. -redict the electronic configuration and position of unknown elements in the -eriodic Table from successive values of ionisation energies.

I%T Integr'tion %nternet "ebsite Achievement oriented %nitiative %nnovative T + " Resources: 90 AO= >T-= -hysics Te#tbook /'lues: Appreciate the ethical practices of scientists Thinking critically and analytically le#ible and open minded

46

Foundation Course: Science 2

SEMESTER 1 UNIT 0: SYN !SIS This unit aims to enhance further knowledge and understanding of mechanics and thermodynamics including work, energy, power, state of matter, thermodynamics of gases, thermal conduction, an appreciation of the different forms of energy and application of these concepts in calculations. "E#RNIN$ UT% ME Energy ( 1 credit 15 hours)

At the end of this unit the students should be able to( %. show the understanding of mechanical work and energy, work done by gas, heat energy, internal energy of gas, thermal energy and power) %%. describe, e#plain and interpret phenomena and effects in terms of principles and concepts, presenting arguments and ideas clearly and logically in the study of work, energy, power, conservation of energy and first law of thermodynamics) %%%. interpret and translate data presented as continuous prose or in tables, diagrams and graphs and to carry out relevant calculations in the study of work, conservation of energy, heat capacity) and apply the principles and concepts to unfamiliar situations and to show understanding of the responsible use of physics knowledge in society.

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T !I%S #N& TIME #"" %#TI N

4. 7. 6.

"ork, energy and power >tate of =atter Thermodynamics of gases Tot'l

3 hrs 7 hrs 8 hrs 15 hours

4:

Foundation Course: Science 2

SEMESTER 1 (N )"E&$E 4. "ork, energy and -ower 4.4 "ork 0efine work done by a force and calculate work from a graph of force versus displacement. 9alculate work done in certain situations, including that by a gas which e#pands against a constant e#ternal pressure. 4.7 -otential energy 0erive and use the formula( potential energy change = mgh, near the <arthDs surface. Use the formula( kinetic energy E F mv7 to solve ,uestions regarding the interchange between kinetic energy and potential energy. S(I""S TE#%*IN$ + "E#RNIN$ E,!ERIEN%E Str'tegy: !ecture followed by tutorial sessions -ractical sessions to enhance the understanding of theory as well as to apply the knowledge learnt I%T Integr'tion %nternet "ebsite <g. www.bimp.fr

4.6 .inetic energy

Str'tegy: !ecture followed by tutorial and practical sessions to enhance the understanding of theory as well as to apply the knowledge learnt.

4.: 9onservation of energy

Use the principle of conservation of energy in situations involving change in forms of energy. 0efine power 0erive and use the formula P = Fv. <#plain the concept of efficiency of systems and the conse,uences of heat dissipation.

4.8 -ower

4.C <fficiency

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Foundation Course: Science 2

SEMESTER 1 (N )"E&$E 7. >tates of matter 7.4 %deal gas e,uation Aelate the concept of Avogadro number. Use the e,uation of ideal gas, p+ E nAT. Aelate the relationship between 5oltzmann constant and gas constant. 7.7 .inetic theory of gases Use assumptions of the kinetic theory of gases to derive the e,uation for pressure e#erted by an ideal gas, p =1/3 p < c2 > or p =1/3 nm < c2 >. 0efine heat capacity, specific heat capacity, and molar heat capacity. Use the e,uations Q = C G, Q = mc G, Q = nC v m G,. 6.7 "ork 0erive and use the e,uation for work done by gas during e#pansion, W = p d V . Understand and use the first law of thermodynamics, Q = AU + AW. Understand the concept of internal energy from the first law of thermodynamics. 0erive and use the e,uation 9-.. - 9v.m E A. T + " Resources: 90 AO= >T-= -hysics Te#tbook I%T Integr'tion %nternet "ebsite S(I""S TE#%*IN$ + "E#RNIN$ E,!ERIEN%E

7.6 -ressure of a gas

6. Thermodynamics of gases 6.4 *eat capacity

/'lues: Appreciate the ethical practices of scientists Thinking critically and analytically le#ible and open minded *onest and accurate in the recording of data Str'tegy: !ecture followed by tutorial and practical sessions to enhance the understanding of theory as well as to apply the knowledge learnt. I%T Integr'tion %nternet "ebsite T + " Resources: 90 AO= >T-= -hysics Te#tbook

6.6

irst law of thermodynamics

6.6 %nternal energy

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Foundation Course: Science 2

SEMESTER 1 UNIT 1: !r'ctic'l Science - (1 credit 203 hours)

SYN !SIS This unit will develop students$ e#perimental skills and understanding of scientific methods. %t is hoped that through practical works, skills such as handling of apparatus, planning of e#perimental works, making observations, interpretation of results and making inferences can facilitate the understanding of the dynamic and e#citing nature of science. %n the process, an awareness of the ethical, technological and economic aspects of the subHect can be created. <ach practical work should be accomplished within a 6 hours period inclusive of the report write up by students under partial supervision of the lecturer. The suggested e#periments for -ractical science 7 are adopted from that of >T-= -ractical 5iology, 9hemistry and -hysics. There are three e#periments to be carried out in this semester comprising of one practical each from 5iology, 9hemistry, and -hysics respectively taking up a total of 6; hours. "E#RNIN$ UT% MES

At the end of this unit the students should be able to( %. choose, assemble and use the apparatus correctly) %%. follow instructions and safety procedures prescribed) %%%. observe, record and display readings or data collected) %+. process, analyse and interpret data correctly and perform necessary calculation) +. draw reasonable conclusions consistent with the processed observations) and +%. use precise language and terminology in preparing the report for the practical work. !r'ctic'ls %o45onents !r'ctic'l Science E65eri4ent Titles

<#pt 4(

<ffect of enzyme and substrate concentrations on the hydrolysis of sucrose. +olumetric Analysis I Acid -5ase +erifying the principle of conservation of linear momentum.

<#pt 7( <#pt 6(

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Foundation Course: Science 2

SEMESTER UNIT 5: %ontrol 'nd %oordin'tion ( 1 credit 15 hours)

SYN !SIS This unit looks at how integration and control are achieved in organisms. <ach cell is so specialized to a particular function and doing so lost the ability to perform others. This led to the dependence of one cell on another and in turn to the need for cells to act in concert. This is possible due to the evolution of a central coordination, the nervous system I the brain and the spinal cord which act as the Kcontroller$. This unit will also look at how plants and animals use chemical messages in the form of plant growth substances and hormones to produce a slower, but more permanent, response than the nervous communication that is additionally used by animals, which produces a ,uick, but normally reversible, reaction.

"E#RNIN$

UT% ME

At the end of this unit the students should be able to( %. %%. %%%. describe the gross structure of the brain and spinal cord) describe the location and functions of the medulla, cerebellum, hypothalamus and cerebral hemispheres) describe the functioning of a spinal refle# arc and the types of neurone involved) understand the value of such refle#es in response to changes in the e#ternal environment) describe the structure and functions of sensory, relay and effector neurones) the role of >chwann cells and myelination) describe the structure and functions of a synapse) e#plain the role of acetylcholine as a transmitter substance) post-synaptic potentials) state the effects of drugs on synaptic transmission) e#plain the principles of hormonal action and the principle of negative feedback) and state the roles of hormones in plant growth and development.

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T !I%S #N& TIME #"" %#TI N 4. 7. /ervous system *ormone?chemical coordination Tot'l 3 hours J hours 15 hours

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Foundation Course: Science 2

SEMESTER (N )"E&$E 173 Ner8ous syste4 4.4 *uman /ervous >ystem 4.4.4 Types of neurones I sensory, inter- and motor neurones. >tructure of the brain. >tructure of the spinal cord. 0escribe the functions of each types of neurone. 0escribe the gross structure of the brain and spinal cord. 0escribe the location and functions of the medulla, cerebellum, hypothalamus and cerebral hemispheres. 0escribe the functioning of a spinal refle# arc and the types of neuron involved. 4.7 %mpulse 4.7.4 Beneration, characteristics, and transmission of impulse 0escribe the generation and transmission of impulse along the a#on. >tate the characteristics of an impulse. 0escribe the structure and functions of a synapse. /ote( The role of acetylcholine as a transmitter substance should be discussed. Str'tegy: Using an interactive model to illustrate the process. Str'tegy: 9ollecting information on structure and its function. S(I""S TE#%*IN$ + "E#RNIN$ E,!ERIEN%E

4.4.7 4.4.6

4.6

>ynapses

4.:

Autonomous nervous system in mammals

9ompare between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Understand the effects of drug abuse on human nervous system. >trategy( 9ollecting information from various resources.

4.8

0rug abuse

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Foundation Course: Science 2

SEMESTER (N )"E&$E -7 *or4one9che4ic'l coordin'tion S(I""S TE#%*IN$ + "E#RNIN$ E,!ERIEN%E

7.4 *umans 7.4.4 0efinition of hormone 7.4.7 Types and characteristics of hormone 7.4.6 =echanism of hormone action

>tate the definition of mammalian hormone. !ist the types and characteristics of hormone. <#plain the principles of hormonal action and control and the principle of negative feedback.

Str'tegy( Using an interactive model to illustrate the process

7.7

-lants >tate the roles of hormones in plant growth and development.

7.7.4 Types and functions of hormone( Au#in Bibberellins 9ytokinin Abscisic acid ethylene

Note ( 0iscussion include interaction between hormones. 0iscuss the differences between nervous and hormonal coordination.

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Foundation Course: Science 2

SEMESTER UNIT :: SYN !SIS This topic aims to enhance knowledge and understanding of basic 9hemical and ionic e,uilibria. The scope of study encompasses of chemical e,uilibrium, !e 9hatelier$s principle, and acid-base and salt. "E#RNIN$ UT% ME <,uilibria I 9hemical and %onic (1 credit 15 hours)

All students should ac,uire the following learning outcomes in the conte#t of the content and skills prescribed. At the end of the course the students should be able to( %. recognise, recall of specific facts, terminology, principles, and practical techni,ues and show the understanding of the concepts of chemical and ionic e,uilibria) describe, e#plain and interpret phenomena and effects in terms of principles and concepts, presenting arguments and ideas clearly and logically in the study of chemical and ionic e,uilibria) interpret and translate data presented as continuous prose or in tables, diagrams and graphs and to carry out relevant calculations in the study of chemical and ionic e,uilibria) and apply the principles and concepts to unfamiliar situations and to show understanding of the responsible use of chemistry in society.

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%%%.

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T !I%S #N& TIME #"" %#TI N 4. 7. 6. 9hemical e,uilibriua !e 9hatelier$s principle Acid-base and salt Tot'l 8 hours 7 hours 3 hours 15 hours

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Foundation Course: Science 2

SEMESTER (N )"E&$E 4.; 9hemical e,uilibria 4.4 Aeversible reaction <#plain a reversible reaction and dynamic e,uilibrium in terms of forward and backward reactions 9alculate the ,uantities present at e,uilibrium from given appropriate data 4.7 *omogeneous and heterogeneous constant .c and .p 0educe e#pressions for e,uilibrium constants in terms of concentrations . c and partial pressures . p 9alculate the value of the e,uilibrium constants in terms of concentrations or partial pressures from appropriate data 7.; !e 9hatelier$s principle >tate !e 9hatelierDs principle and use it ,ualitatively from given information 0iscuss the effect of catalysts, or changes in concentration, pressure, or temperature on a system at e,uilibrium, using !e 9hatelierDs principle >tate e#amples of e,uilibria which are referred to and studied in general >how awareness of the importance of an understanding of chemical e,uilibrium in chemical industry I%T Integr'tion %nternet "ebsite Achievement oriented %nitiative %nnovative T + " Resources: 90 AO= >T-= -hysics Te#tbook S(I""S TE#%*IN$ + "E#RNIN$ E,!ERIEN%E Str'tegy: !ecture followed by tutorial sessions -ractical sessions to enhance the understanding of theory as well as to apply the knowledge learnt

/'lues: Appreciate the ethical practices of scientists Thinking critically and analytically le#ible and open minded *onest and accurate in the recording of data

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Foundation Course: Science 2

SEMESTER (N )"E&$E 6. Acid-base and salt 6.4 Acids and bases theories Use Arrhenius, 5ronstead-!owry, and !ewis theories to e#plain acids and bases %dentify conHugate acids and bases <#plain the degree of dissociationof weak acids and bases as the basis of strong and weak electrolytes <#plain and use the terms p*, pO*, .a, p.a, . b, and p.b S(I""S TE#%*IN$ + "E#RNIN$ E,!ERIEN%E Str'tegy: !ecture followed by tutorial sessions -ractical sessions to enhance the understanding of theory as well as to apply the knowledge learnt I%T Integr'tion %nternet "ebsite Achievement oriented %nitiative %nnovative T + " Resources: 90 AO= >T-= -hysics Te#tbook /'lues: Appreciate the ethical practices of scientists Thinking critically and analytically le#ible and open minded *onest and accurate in the recording of data

6.7 0egree of dissociation

6.6 0issociation constant

4 9alculate p* from the * 6O1 ion concentration for acids &monobasic' and strong and weak bases 4 <#plain changes in p* during acid-base titrations 6.: Titration and indicator in terms of strengths of acids and bases 4 >elect suitable indicators for acid-base titrations <#plain the significance of the ionic product of water, .w and its use in calculations 6.8 >alt >oluble and insoluble salt -reparation of soluble and insoluble salt %dentifying cation and anion ,ualitatively <#plain and use the term solubility product, .sp 9alculate .sp from given concentrations, and vice versa

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Foundation Course: Science 2

SEMESTER UNIT ;: SYN !SIS This unit aims to enhance students$ knowledge and understanding of the behaviour of static charges, parallel plate capacitors, flow of electric current, what constitute a direct current circuit, the use of potentiometer and calculations involved in electric circuits. "E#RNIN$ UT% ME Electricity 'nd M'gnetis4 1 ( 1 credit 15 hours)

At the end of this unit the students should be able to( %. show the understanding of electric field and potential, 9oulomb$s law, parallel plates capacitor, conduction of electricity, resistivity, electric energy and power, electromotive force, potentiometer and "heatstone bridge through their abilities to recognize and recall of specific facts, terminology, principles, and relevant practical techni,ues related to the four topics) describe, e#plain and interpret phenomena and effects in terms of principles and concepts, presenting arguments and ideas clearly and logically in the study of electrostatics and electricity) interpret and translate data presented as continuous prose or in tables, diagrams and graphs and to carry out relevant calculations in the study of electrostatics and electricity) and apply the principles and concepts to unfamiliar situations and to show understanding of the responsible use of physics knowledge in society.

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%%%.

%+.

T !I%S #N& TIME #"" %#TI N 4. 7. 6. :. <lectrostatics 9apacitors <lectric current 0irect current circuit T !"# 7 hrs 7 hrs C hrs 8 hrs 1$ h %&'

7:

Foundation Course: Science 2

SEMESTER (N )"E&$E 4. <lectrostatics 4.4 9oulomb$s law >tate 9oulomb$s law and use the formula E L?:MN; r7. <#plain electric field as an e#ample of an inverse s,uare field like the gravitational field. 0efine the electric field strength, ( = F/). 4.6 <lectric potential 0escribe ,uantitatively the motion of charges in a uniform electrical field . Str'tegy: !ecture followed by tutorial sessions -ractical sessions to enhance the understanding of theory as well as to apply the knowledge learnt I%T Integr'tion %nternet "ebsite T + " Resources: 90 AO= >T-= -hysics Te#tbook /'lues: Appreciate the ethical practices of scientists Thinking critically and analytically le#ible and open minded *onest and accurate in the recording of data S(I""S TE#%*IN$ + "E#RNIN$ E,!ERIEN%E

4.7 <lectric field

Use the relationship < E - d+?dr 0efine electrical potential and use the formula + E L?:MN; r7

7. 9apacitors 7.4 9apacitance 7.7 -arallel plate capacitor 7.6 Uniform field between parallel plates 7.: <nergy stored in a charged capacitor

0efine capacitance and use the formula 9 E L?+. 0escribe ,ualitatively the mechanism of charging a parallel plate capacitor 0erive and use the formula 9 E NA?d for parallel plate capacitors.

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Foundation Course: Science 2

SEMESTER TE#%*IN$ + "E#RNIN$ E,!ERIEN%E Str'tegy: !ecture followed by tutorial sessions -ractical sessions to enhance the understanding of theory as well as to apply the knowledge learnt

(N )"E&$E 6. <lectric current 6.4 9onduction of electricity

S(I""S

Use the formula UE F L+, UE F L7?9, UE F 9+7 &0erivation is not re,uired'. Understand electric current as a flow of charged particles and use the e,uation % E dL?dt. <#plain ,ualitatively the mechanism of conduction of electricity in metals and semiconductors.

6.7 Aesistivity 6.6 <nergy and electrical power :. 0irect current circuits :.4 <lectromotive force

0efine resistivity = *A /+. Use the e,uations of energy and electrical power 0efine emf and electrical potential difference. <#plain that the sources of emf have internal resistance and understand the effect on e#ternal circuits. 0raw and interpret electric circuit diagrams. <#plain the working principles of a potentiometer and its use. <#plain the working principles of a "heatstone bridge and its use.

I%T Integr'tion %nternet "ebsite

T + " Resources: 90 AO= >T-= -hysics Te#tbook /'lues: Appreciate the ethical practices of scientists Thinking critically and analytically le#ible and open minded *onest and accurate in the recording of data

:.7 %nternal resistance of sources :.6 -otentiometer :.: "heatstone bridg e

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Foundation Course: Science 2

SEMESTER UNIT <: SYN !SIS This topic aims to enhance knowledge and understanding of mathematical concepts that are fre,uently used in the sciences. >tudents will need to develop mathematical competencies in f unct ions, dif f er ent ial calculus and int egr al calculus. "E#RNIN$ UT% ME M'the4'tics =or Science II ( 1 credit 15 hours)

At the end of the course the students should be able to( %. II. %%%. sketch and recognize the forms of plots of simple e#pressions like 4?#, #7, 4? #7, sin #, cos #, e# and 4?e# ) recognize and use the logarithmic forms of e#pressions like ab, a?b, #n, ek# ) and apply the principles and concepts of differential and integral calculus

T !I%S #N& TIME #"" %#TI N 4. 7. 6. unctions 0ifferential 9alculus %ntegral 9alculus Tot'l 8 hours 8 hours 8 hours 15 hours

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Foundation Course: Science 2

SEMESTER (N )"E&$E 4. unctions and Braphs &8 hours' Aecognize algebraic functions and find the domain and range of such functions. S(I""S TE#%*IN$ + "E#RNIN$ E,!ERIEN%E

0efine a function. 9ombine functions using the arithmetic operations 9omposite functions %nverse functions -lot set of ordered pairs to obtain the graph of functions. Obtain the graphs of related functions by translation and stretching of a graph Use the rules of differentiation to differentiate compound e#pressions. !ocate and identify the stationary points and the non-stationary points of infle#ion of a function.

Braphical features of functions.

T + " Resources: Beometer >ketch -ad. Aeference( Ong 5eng >im, &7;;6'. ,"!h-m"!.c' f & /TP,. =alaysia( -enerbit aHar 5akti. &eli8ery Str'tegy: 9ooperative !earning 9onstructivism

7.

0ifferential 9alculus &8 hours'

T + " Resources: Use of calculus courseware Aeference( Ong 5eng >im, &7;;6'. ,"!h-m"!.c' f & /TP,. =alaysia( -enerbit aHar 5akti.

6. %ntegral 9alculus&8 hours' %ntegration as a reverse process to ifferentiation.

0efine the definite integral. Aecognize that integration is the reverse process of differentiation. Use standard derivatives to solve simple integrals. Use a number of standard methods of converting integrals to standard form. 9alculate plane areas between the curve and the a#es.

&eli8ery Str'tegy: 9ooperative !earning 9onte#tual Teaching

%ntegrals with integrand of the orm f$&#'?f&#'. %ntegration by -artial ractions. %ntegration by -arts. Application of %ntegration.

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Foundation Course: Science 2

SEMESTER UNIT >: !r'ctic'l Science - (1 credit 203 hours)

SYN !SIS
This unit will develop students$ e#perimental skills and understanding of scientific methods. %t is hoped that through practical works, skills such as handling of apparatus, planning of e#perimental works, making observations, interpretation of results and making inferences can facilitate the understanding of the dynamic and e#citing nature of science. %n the process, an awareness of the ethical, technological and economic aspects of the subHect can be created. <ach practical work should be accomplished within a 6 hours period inclusive of the report write up by students under partial supervision of the teacher. The suggested e#periments for -ractical science 7 are adopted from that of >T-= -ractical 5iology, 9hemistry and -hysics. There are three e#periments to be carried out in this semester comprising of one practical each from 5iology, 9hemistry, and -hysics respectively taking up a total of 6; hours.

"E#RNIN$

UT% MES

At the end of this unit the students should be able to( %. %%. %%%. %+. +. +%. choose, assemble and use the apparatus correctly) follow instructions and safety procedures prescribed) observe, record and display readings or data collected) process, analyse and interpret data correctly and perform necessary calculation) draw reasonable conclusions consistent with the processed observations) and use precise language and terminology in preparing the report for the practical work. E65eri4ent <#pt :( <#pt 8( <#pt C( Titles 0issection of mammalian respiratory system. Acid-base and salt. >tudy of Ohm$s !aw and determine the total resistance of resistors in series and parallel.

!r'ctic'ls %o45onents !r'ctic'l Science -

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Foundation Course: Science 2

SEMESTER 0 UNIT 13: SYN !SIS This unit will unravel some of the mysteries of why offspring are recognizably similar to their parents but rarely identical to them) why characteristics seem to disappear in one generation only to reappear in the ne#t) and how hereditary information is passed from generation to generation. %n addition, this unit will e#plore the methods by which new species arise through the gradual process of evolutionary change. 5y the end of this unit students will ac,uire the ability to solve genetic problems and make predictions about the likely offspring of given parents. "E#RNIN$ UT% ME $enetic ( 1 credit 15 hours)

At the end of this unit the students should be able to( %. %%. %%%. %+. +. +%. e#plain the meaning of monohybrid and dihybrid cross) calculate the genotypic and phenotypic ratios) state the significance of mutations) describe point mutations as illustrated by base deletions, insertions, substitutions, and inversion) describe chromosome mutations as illustrated by translocation) and state that non-disHunction can lead to polysomy and polyploidy.

T !I%S #N& TIME #"" %#TI N 4. 7. Transmission genetics =utation Tot'l 3 hours J hours 15 hours

6;

Foundation Course: Science 2

SEMESTER 0 (N )"E&$E 17 Tr'ns4ission genetics 0efine the basic terminology commonly used. <#plain the meaning of monohybrid and dihybrid cross. 9alculate the genotypic and phenotypic ratios 4.7 =odification of =endelian genetics 0efine each modification. 9alculate the genotypic and phenotypic ratios. -7 7.4 Mut'tion Bene mutation >tate the significance of mutations. 0escribe point mutations as illustrated by base substitutions, base insertion, base deletion and inversion. 7.7 9hromosomal mutation Str'tegy: !ecture followed by discussion. Note: %nclude translocation, deletions, inversions and duplications. Note: %nclude monosomy, trisomy, se# chromosomal abnormalities Str'tegy: !ecture followed by discussion. Note: %nclude codominance, multiple alleles, lethal alleles, polygenes, and linked genes. Str'tegy: !ecture followed by practical session to illustrate the cross. S(I""S TE#%*IN$ + "E#RNIN$ E,!ERIEN%E

Benetic terms =endelian genetics =onohybrid 9ross 0ihybrid 9ross

9hromosomal aberration

0escribe the main categories of chromosomal mutations.

Alteration of chromosome number

<#plain chromosomal mutation by alterations of chromosome number .

64

Foundation Course: Science 2

SEMESTER 0 UNIT 11: SYN !SIS This topic aims to enhance knowledge and understanding of hydrocarbon. The scope of study encompasses alkanes, alkenes and alcohol and carbo#ylic acids. "E#RNIN$ UT% ME %'r.on %he4istry (1 credit 15 hours)

At the end of this unit the students should be able to( %. recognise, recall of specific facts, terminology, principles, and practical techni,ues and show the understanding of the concepts of hydrocarbon) describe, e#plain and interpret phenomena and effects in terms of principles and concepts, presenting arguments and ideas clearly and logically in the study of hydrocarbon) interpret and translate data presented as continuous prose or in tables, diagrams and graphs and to carry out relevant calculations in the study of hydrocarbon) and apply the principles and concepts to unfamiliar situations and to show understanding of the responsible use of chemistry in society. T !I%S #N& TIME #"" %#TI N 4. 7. 6. Alkanes Alkenes Alcohol and carbo#ylics acids Tot'l 8 hours 8 hours 8 hours 15 hours

%%.

%%%.

%+.

67

Foundation Course: Science 2

SEMESTER 0 (N )"E&$E 4. Alkanes ,e#emplified by <thane. S(I""S <#plain alkanes as saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons <#plain the construction of alkane series& straight and branched' and %U-A9 nomenclature of alkanes for 94 to 98 /ame alkyl groups derived from alkanes and identify primary, secondary,tertiary and ,uartenary carbons. 4.4 ree radical substitution 4.7 ree radical reaction <#plain the halogenation of alkanes <#plain the mechanism of free radical substitution 0efine alkenes as unsaturated hydrocarbons /ame alkenes according to %U-A9 nomenclature of alkenes for 94 to 98. <#plain the mechanism of electrophilic additions in alkenes <#plain the chemistry of alkenes as e#emplified by the following reactions of ethene( addition of hydrogen, steam, hydrogen halides, halogens &decolourisation' of bromine water concentrated sulphuric acid. /'lues: Appreciate the ethical practices of scientists Thinking critically and analytically le#ible and open minded *onest and accurate in the recording of data Str'tegy: !ecture followed by tutorial sessions -ractical sessions to enhance the understanding of theory as well as to apply the knowledge learnt TE#%*IN$ + "E#RNIN$ E,!ERIEN%E Str'tegy: !ecture followed by tutorial sessions -ractical sessions to enhance the understanding of theory as well as to apply the knowledge learnt I%T Integr'tion %nternet "ebsite Achievement oriented %nitiative %nnovative T + " Resources: 90 AO= >T-= -hysics Te#tbook

7. Alkenes, e#emplified by ethene 7.4 <lectrophilic addition

7.7 9hemical reaction of alkenes

66

Foundation Course: Science 2

SEMESTER 0 (N )"E&$E S(I""S TE#%*IN$ + "E#RNIN$ E,!ERIEN%E

6.; Alcohol and carbo#ylic Acid 6.4 Alcohol /aming alcohol. -hysical properties. 9hemical properties 0istinguishing alcohol. -reparation of alcohol. Uses of alcohol. <#plain how to name alcohol. 0escribe the physical and chemical properties of alcohol. <#plain how to distinguish alcohol. 0escribe the preparation of alcohol. >tate the uses of alcohol. 6.7 9arbo#ylic acid <#plain how to name carbo#ylic acid. 0escribe the physical and chemical properties of carbo#ylic acid. >tate the uses of carbo#ylic acid. 0escribe the preparation of ester. >tate the uses of ester.

I%T Integr'tion %nternet "ebsite Achievement oriented %nitiative %nnovative T + " Resources: 90 AO= >T-= 9hemistry Te#tbook

/aming carbo#ylic acid. -hysical properties. 9hemical properties Uses of carbo#ylic acid. -reparation of ester. Uses of esters.

/'lues: Appreciate the ethical practices of scientists Thinking critically and analytically le#ible and open minded *onest and accurate in the recording of data

6:

Foundation Course: Science 2

SEMESTER 0 UNIT 1-: SYN !SIS This unit aims to enhance students$ knowledge and understanding of the concepts of stress and strain in solids, atomic structure as postulated by 5ohr$s model and its energy levels, photoelectric effects, basic concepts in nuclear physics including isotopes and radioactivity. "E#RNIN$ UT% ME #to4ic 'nd Nucle'r !hysics ( 1 credit 15 hours)

At the end of this unit the students should be able to( %. show the understanding of deformation of solids, Ooung$s modulus, 5ohr$s postulate for atom, energy levels, photoelectric effects, nucleus of atom, isotopes and radioactivity through their abilities to recognize and recall of specific facts, terminology, principles, and relevant practical techni,ues related to the four topics) describe, e#plain and interpret phenomena and effects in terms of principles and concepts, presenting arguments and ideas clearly and logically in the study of deformation of solid, atomic structure, photoelectric effects and radioactive decay) interpret and translate data presented as continuous prose or in tables, diagrams and graphs and to carry out relevant calculations in the study of solids, atomic structure, 2-ray spectrum, photoelectric effect and radioactive decay) and apply the principles and concepts to unfamiliar situations and to show understanding of the responsible use of physics knowledge in society.

%%.

%%%.

%+.

T !I%S #N& TIME #"" %#TI N 4. 7. 6. :. 0eformation of solids Atomic structure -hoton /ucleus and Aadioactivity Tot'l : hrs : hrs 6 hrs : hrs 15 hours

SEMESTER 0 68

Foundation Course: Science 2

(N )"E&$E 4. 0eformation of >olids 4.4 >tress and strain

S(I""S

TE#%*IN$ + "E#RNIN$ E,!ERIEN%E Str'tegy: !ecture followed by tutorial sessions -ractical sessions to enhance the understanding of theory as well as to apply the knowledge learnt I%T Integr'tion %nternet "ebsite

0efine stress and strain for a stretched wire or elastic string. >ketch and interpret forcee#tension graphs and stressstrain graphs.

4.7

orce-e#tension graphs and stressstrain graphs

0istinguish between elastic deformation and plastic deformation. 0istinguish the shapes of force-e#tension graphs for ductile, brittle and polymeric materials. 0efine the Ooung modulus.

4.6 Ooung modulus

2. Atomic structure
7.4 5ohr$s postulate >tate 5ohrDs postulate for an atom. 0erive an e#pression for radii of orbits in 5ohrDs model. 0erive the e,uation <P E - 0 2 - 1 m/2 N;7h7n7 for 5ohrDs model.

2.7 <nergy levels in


atoms

6C

Foundation Course: Science 2

SEMESTER 0 (N )"E&$E 6. -hoton 6.4 -hotoelectric effects S(I""S 0escribe important observations in photoelectric emission e#periments. Use the e,uation ( = hf for a photon Understand the meaning of work function and threshold fre,uency. Use <insteinDs e,uation for photoelectric effect, hf = W + 1/2mv2. TE#%*IN$ + "E#RNIN$ E,!ERIEN%E T + " Resources: 90 AO= >T-= -hysics Te#tbook /'lues: Appreciate the ethical practices of scientists Thinking critically and analytically le#ible and open minded *onest and accurate in the recording of data

:. /ucleus and Aadioactivity

A
:.4 Atomic number and mass number <#plain the symbol

Z
2. Understand and use the units u and e+. Understand the e#istence of isotopes.

:.7 %sotopes :.6 Aadioactive decay

Str'tegy: !ecture followed by tutorial sessions -ractical sessions to enhance the understanding of theory as well as to apply the knowledge learnt

I%T Integr'tion %nternet "ebsite T + " Resources: 90 AO= >T-= -hysics Te#tbook

Understand radioactive decay as a spontaneous and random process. :.: 0ecay constant and half-life >tate and use the e#ponential law d3/d! = 453 for radioactive decay. 0efine activity and decay constant. 0erive and use the formula 3 = 3 -45!. 0efine half-life and derive the relation Q E %n 7 ? t 4?7.

6J

Foundation Course: Science 2

SEMESTER 0 UNIT 10: !r'ctic'l Science - (1 credit 203 hours)

SYN !SIS
This unit will develop students$ e#perimental skills and understanding of scientific methods. %t is hoped that through practical works, skills such as handling of apparatus, planning of e#perimental works, making observations, interpretation of results and making inferences can facilitate the understanding of the dynamic and e#citing nature of science. %n the process, an awareness of the ethical, technological and economic aspects of the subHect can be created. <ach practical work should be accomplished within a 6 hours period inclusive of the report write up by students under partial supervision of the teacher. The suggested e#periments for -ractical science 7 are adopted from that of >T-= -ractical 5iology, 9hemistry and -hysics. There are three e#periments to be carried out in this semester comprising of one practical each from 5iology, 9hemistry, and -hysics respectively taking up a total of 6; hours. "E#RNIN$ UT% MES

At the end of the course the students should be able to( %. %%. %%%. %+. +. +%. choose, assemble and use the apparatus correctly) follow instructions and safety procedures prescribed) observe, record and display readings or data collected) process, analyse and interpret data correctly and perform necessary calculation) draw reasonable conclusions consistent with the processed observations) and use precise language and terminology in preparing the report for the practical work Titles <#amining slides) liver and kidney Lualitative analysis. To determine the functional groups of an organic substance >tudy the behaviour of a bar magnet in a varying magnetic fields and to estimate the horizontal component of the <arth$s magnetic field. 63

!r'ctic'ls E65eri4ent %o45onents !r'ctic'l <#pt J( Science <#pt 3( <#pt @(

Foundation Course: Science 2

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