Wojciech Kowalski, Zbigniew Skorupka, Rafał Kajka, Jan Amborski, Institute of Aviation 02-256 Warsaw, Poland E-mail: KEYWORDS Car brakes, braking system, brake analysis. ABSTRACT This paper contains numerical analysis of brake system for heavy (mass m=6400[kg]) transport car. Analysis was performed in order to correct existing non optimal brakes in mentioned car. Analysis was based on results of the brake system dynamic tests made in Landing Gear Laboratory Institute of Aviation in Warsaw, Poland. Authors describe analytical process which led to generate results for new parameters of more efficient braking system for heavy transport car. 1. INTRODUCTION Q Fp Ft Fh l h a b ms m1 m2 g 2. 2.1.
direction ruchu

Fh S C Q Fh a Fp l b Ft h

Figure 1. Car Load Distribution Table 1. Used designations Vehicle weight [N] Front axle static reaction (for both wheels) [N] Rear axle static reaction(for both wheels) [N] Braking force (four wheels) [N] Wheel base [mm] Center of gravity to ground distance [mm] Front axle to center of gravity distance [mm] Rear axle to center of gravity distance [mm] Vehicle mass [kg] Vehicle mass for front axle [kg] Vehicle mass for rear axle [kg] g force = 9,81 [m/s2] Table 2. Preliminary Data m m1 m2 h a l Q a h b Fp Ft r Fp/Ft 62931,2 27615,2 35316,0 1169 1783 3191 62931,2 1783 1169 1408 27767,8 35163,3 0,426 0,790 [N] [N] [N] [mm] [mm] [mm] [N] [mm] [mm] [mm] [N] [N] [m]

In 2009 Institute of Aviation Landing Gear Department was asked for redesigning brake system for heavy transport car. Car brake system was not efficient enough and too costly in maintenance because of extensive wear of braking shoes (rear brake) and braking pads (front brake). Analyzed car brake system used two types of brakes: rear drum brakes and front disc brakes. Such configuration of brakes is common but not very efficient due to lover efficiency of drum brakes in general. Another problem was that brakes weren’t made especially for this car but were taken from another car which was similar in parameters but had much lower nominal mass. Landing Gear Department was supplied with some brake parameters (made by car testing facility) but full characteristics of brakes were unknown. Landing Gear Department has its own laboratory equipped with test stand capable to perform tests of brake systems. Based on results from car test facility new set of tests were made in Landing Gear Laboratory in order to achieve full characteristics of existing brakes. Obtained results were used in calculation for new brake system. Calculations assumption was made that disc brakes will be used on both axles. Below chapters shows analysis and calculations which led to generate parameters for improved brake system for heavy transport car.

Proceedings 24th European Conference on Modelling and Simulation ©ECMS Andrzej Bargiela, Sayed Azam Ali David Crowley, Eugène J.H. Kerckhoffs (Editors) ISBN: 978-0-9564944-0-5 / ISBN: 978-0-9564944-1-2 (CD)

8 (see fig.9 Nm 2 All wheels braking force: Fch = Es =29629. Ft [N] 0 0 Fp(μ ) Fp( μ ). (despite first suggestions) that pressure in braking system can be around 3[MPa] and pressure needed to achieve braking moment at level of 3000[Nm] is around 9 ÷10[MPa]. Initial parameters are taken from previous chapter Vehicle energy at the start of braking process: Es = mV2 =888888.426 m Mht =FHt *r=2850 Nm Mhp =FHp *r=8300 Nm m= Mht =2.40 μ 0.329 Nm y=342.91) MHt =2.00 0.91 Mhp After front brake tests.00 MHt = MHp =2.4 Ft(μ ) 0.80 1.2. According to results of the tests for front and rear brakes distribution of the rear and front braking moments can be checked in assumption that pressures in both front and rear brakes are equal. Dynamic Balancing of the Car s(μ) 300 250 200 s [m] 150 100 50 0 0.01*php +28. that every braking pressure will give us constant braking moment ratio m=const . 2) then: 16720 =8360 N 2 46212 Fp = =23106 N 2 Ft = FHt =μ*Ft =6688 N FHp =μ*Fp =18485 N r =0.01*x+28.6 0.20 0.3.60 0. Vehicle braking test shown that braking distance from km velocity V =60 is equal to 𝑠h =30 m h For vehicle stop in desired distance (assuming constant decelerated motion) we need braking force equal to: E Fh = =29629 N s or total braking moment equal to: M=Fh *r =12622 Nm assuming that m= result is 12622 =1614 Nm 2*(1+2.91 MHp Liniowy (Ft(μ )) Figure 2.67 is equal h s to E= ms *V2 =888888. Braking Distance Versus Tyre-Ground Friction Coefficient 2. Ft( μ ) Kinetic energy of the vehicle with mass km m ms = 6400 kg and speed V=60 =16.91*1614=4697 Nm 2.2 0. Braking Pressures Estimation Figure 3. Brake Selection Analysis Let’s assume that brake is optimized for tyre -ground friction coefficient equal to μ=0.329 Let’s assume.8 μ 1 Second parameter is a braking distance.9 J 2 0.60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 Fp.63 N sh According to dynamic tests linear interpolation of front axle braking moment (disc brake) versus braking pressure was made: Mhpśr =342. it turned out.

5 Mpa 2. Front Axle Braking Moment Versus Braking Pressure – Linear Interpolation For rear axle drum brake.657 Fhtśr2 = N Rkt Overall braking force is equal to: 2 5000 For linear interpolation: 2* 342.36153 Summary Car (mass ms = 6400 kg ) braking from speed km Vs =60 .731872718 ph =11.978344 ph =11. Braking With Constant Friction Coefficient (µ = 0.59*x-239.2 N Rkt 2 Aviation regulations (ex.3 sh mV2 car energy in the beginning all wheels braking force Non -linear interpolation: Mhtśr2 =8.59*pht .329 Rkp + 2 * 217.239.8 tyre-ground friction coefficient for permissible side loads. FAR. will stop within sh =30 m when braking pressure is equal to ph =11.426 m front wheel radius Rkt =0. Mht(ph) verification R =1.8) Tyre-ground h 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 -500 0 Mhp [Nm] 5 10 ph [MPa] 15 Braking moment versus braking pressure linear interpolation Braking moment versus braking pressure .01 * php + 28.92*pht -44.92*pht -44. Let’s take an assumption that analyzed car uses friction tyre-ground coefficient µ = 0. Such analysis was made because of non linear drum brake Mh(ph) relation caused by drum brake operating principle.62963 Fhpśr *2+Fhtśr *2= 29630.655[MPa] (linear interpolation) or ph =11. ms = 6400 kg car mass km m Vs =60 =16.239.0975* pht +127. One is linear as in the case of front brake while the second is non linear. JAR) recommend taking µ = 0.63 N ph =11.329 Rkp + 2 * 8.275[MPa] Fhc =29629.Fhpśr = 342.329 Rkp Mhp(ph) N 8. Rear Axle Braking Moment Versus Braking Pressure – Interpolations Linear interpolation: Mhtśr =217.0975* pht +127.426 m rear wheel radius Es = =888888.655[MPa] For nonlinear interpolation: 2* 342.657 Nm average braking pressure from chapter .Fhc = R = 0 Mhp [Nm] 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 5 10 ph [MPa]15 R =0.2 Rkt .275[MPa] (non linear interpolation) what gives us average braking pressure ph ≅11.0975* pht +127.8 Rest of the parameters are the same as in previous chapters (repeated below for better overview).9 Nm 2 of braking E Fch = s =29629.92*pht -44.59*pht -239. two braking moments versus braking pressure two interpolations were made. Where permissible loads are the ones which can be present during standard operation.01 * php + 28.4.2 Nm y=217.5[MPa] 2.657 Rkt 2 -Fhc = R = 0 Figure 4.2 Fhtśr = 217.66667 car speed h s sh =30 m braking distance Rkp =0.01*php +28.59 * pht .non linear interpolation Figure 5.

overall braking energy (4 wheels) Difference: Ehc05 – Es Es  Rear brake nt =1. At = 314 mm2 When tyre-ground friction coefficient is equal to μ ≈ 0. In some cases friction coefficient µ > 1 is achieved during landing gear laboratory tests performed in Institute of Aviation Landing Gear Department.5 = 314 mm2 Therefore when tyre-ground friction coefficient is equal to μ ≈ 0. for example by „Budowa samochodów Układy hamulcowe i kierownicze” .78 : h s sh =49.5.8 braking pistons area will change and will be equal to: Ap0.) are equal to: Fp05 =39295 N Ft05 =23636 N For friction coefficient µ = 0.5[MPa].1 mm2 New braking system will be optimized in order to make braking process more effective what can result with reducing braking distance from about 30 [m] to about 18 [m] (according to analytical data) what gives 41% improvement. Pistons area coefficient will be: Apnew Fhpav08 Mhpav08 np = = = =1.99 Apold Fhpav05 Mhpav05 Atnew Fhtav08 Mhtav08 nt = = = =1. It is taken for calculations of airplane landing gears and during laboratory tests of landing gears it is proven that friction coefficient is no less than µ = 0. In this case front disc brake should generate braking moment equal to Mhp=3961[Nm] what can be achieved by existing brake system with the braking pressure php=11.04 m Summary For effective use of tyre-ground friction coefficient equal to µ = 0. During dynamic test of the rear drum brake Mht≈1750Nm was obtained with braking pressure pht=9[MPa].8 Overall braking force Fhc =Fhpśr08 *2+Fhtśr08 *2=50345 N Braking distance for braking with start speed equal to km m Vs =60 =16. With constant braking pressure equal to php=11. Vertical loads on one axle for friction coefficient µ = 0. At0. At0. Preliminary Data.5 = 3040 mm2.5 braking pistons area will not change and will be equal to: Ap0.8 are equal to: Fp08 *µ Fhpśr08 = =18485 N 2 Ft08 *µ Fhtśr08 = =6688 N 2 Mhpśr08 =Fhpśr08 *Rkp =7874 Nm Mhtśr08 =Fhtśr08 *Rkt =2849 Nm In redesigned brakes pressure will be the same as in previous version. main change will be the area of the brake pistons. Reński Oficyna wydawnicza Politechniki Warszawskiej 2004 [1].4 % Derives from approximations during analysis and calculations.67 : h s sh =17.8 = 361.8 = 6080 mm2. .Braking forces and moments for one wheel in the actual brakes’ configuration.14 Atold Fhtav05 Mhtav05 Braking distances for tyre-ground friction coefficient µ = 0.A. Such a difference is fully acceptable from engineering point of view.5 (chapter 2.8. For tyre-ground friction coefficient μ ≈ 0.5[MPa].15 Atnew =nt *Atold * 100 = 2.8 vertical axis loads will be equal to: Fp08 =46211 N Ft08 =16720 N Braking forces and moments for one wheel µ = 0.5 Mpa braking pressure for car ms = 6400 kg of mass.5[MPa] current area of the braking pistons (for one wheel) is equal to: Ap = 3040 mm2.5 (or braking distance equal to 30m). area of the braking pistons has to be multiplied by:  Front brake np =2 Apnew =np *Apold Comments Friction coefficient µ = 0. Due to 2 % less moment value obtained during dynamic tests compared to calculated during numerical analysis it can be assumed that original brake system was calculated for tyre-ground friction coefficient μ ≈ 0. SUMMARY Based on dynamic analysis of the car .1. braking moment taken from numerical analysis is equal to MhtA=2567[Nm] while the same moment taken from test results non linear analysis should be equal to MhtA=2497[Nm] for braking pressure equal to pht=11.66 m Braking distance for braking with start speed equal to km m Vs =100 =27. 3.8 is required by aviation regulations. Mhpśr05 =3961 Nm Fhpśr05 =9299 N Ehp05 = 278970[Nm] Mhtśr05 =2497 Nm Fhtśr05 =5862 N Eht05 = 175860[Nm] Ehc05 = 909820[Nm] .5 (or braking distance equal to 30m). This is also proven by literature.8 can be achieved by using ph =11.dissipated energy by the front axle brakes should be equal to Ekp=557940[J] and for rear axle brakes should be equal to Ekt=351720[J] when tyre-ground friction coefficient is equal to μ ≈ 0.

in Engineering (2000) from Warsaw University of Technology.cntpolska. His current professional area are: use of smart materials in landing gear. Warsaw initially as a strength engineer and from 2007 as a Manager of Landing Gear Department. “Car Braking System Dynamics Analysis”. (Poland). Currently he is working at Landing Gear Department of Warsaw Institute of Aviation. where he studied Shaping Machines Design and Steering. 36/BZ/ RAFAŁ KAJKA born in 1977. Faculty of Automotive and Construction Machinery Engineering. Since 2001 he is working at Institute of Aviation. Institute of Aviation. E-mail: born in 1977 in Warsaw.Sc. Directly after graduation he started his doctoral studies and in 2005 he received PhD from Warsaw University of Technology.php/landing-gearsdepartment/about-us Institute of Aviation website. Institute of Aviation AMZ-Kutno sp.Sc. general design and testing of landing http://www. 2004 “Budowa samochodów Układy hamulcowe i kierownicze”. 2009. Faculty of Power and Aeronautical Engineering in Applied Mechanics and 2000 PhD from Warsaw University of Technology. REFERENCES Reński A. http://www. Institute of Aviation Institute of Aviation Landing Gear Report. in Engineering in 1970. Oficyna wydawnicza Politechniki Warszawskiej Institute of Aviation Landing Gear Report. 27/LW/2009. test parameters determination. results analysis and interpretation of tests and calculations E-mail: . received his M. received his M. Now he is working at Warsaw Institute of Aviation.Sc. E-mail: jan.Sc. Faculty of Automotive and Construction Machinery Engineering. brakes and test Now he is working at Warsaw Institute of Aviation.ilot. Poland. z o. Faculty of Power and Aeronautical Engineering and 2006 PhD from Warsaw University of Technology. Faculty of Automotive and Construction Machinery Landing Gear Department website. Finished Warsaw Academy of Technology.amborski@ilot.o. “ Laboratory tests of armored cars brake lining sectors with termovision made with IL-68 test rig”. 26/LW/2009.kowalski@ilot. Poland and went to the Warsaw Academy of E-mail: zbigniew. His current professional area are: load and stress analysis. in Engineering in 1999 from Warsaw University of JAN AMBORSKI born in 1972 received his M. construction dynamics. He received his M. http://www.skorupka@ilot. born in Warsaw. Poland. Institute of Aviation Institute of Aviation Landing Gear Report. Warsaw. in 2004. ZBIGNIEW KONRAD SKORUPKA. “Armored Car Drum Brake Laboratory Tests”.pl AUTHOR BIOGRAPHIES WOJCIECH KOWALSKI. 2009.