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# Received on April 2J. 1987: Revised on November 10,. 1987.

Abstract

I he papcr rcviewa h i d p litcraturr pertaining to thc ultlmarc strength. dellcctions and crackmg of reinforced coocrele rcctang~lnr.skew and circuidr slabs and gives a II\I of 136 pobiiwtiwx oa lhc topic. Key words: Concrete (remforcedl. sldna ( t w w v a y l . rncmhrdne action. ddlectim, cmckwidth, leinforcrment

iinvout).

Reinforced concrete slab is one of the structural elements which is extensively used in civil engineering colistruction. Twcl-way structural actiun, post-cracking nun-linear behaviour and development of membrane action complicate the anaiysis and estimation ofthe ultimate strength of the slab. Design of rhc slabs baseti on limit htates also rcquires a knowledge ot their deflections and cracking behnviour. A number of researchers have investigated the flexural strength, deflection and cracking of two-way slabs and these aspecls are briefly reviewed here. 2. Methods of slab analysis

The elastic analysis of slabs as thin piate requires the solution of biharmonic equation for specified boundary conditions. Solutions for diffcrcnt shapes of slabs and boundary This t . analysis is useful to conditions arc found in '1 imoshenko and ~ o i n o w s k ~ - K r i e g e r the elastic behaviour of thc slab, but the factor of safety against collapse cannot be assessed. Also it is complicated for slabs of irregular shape, which can however be arlalyssd more easily using yicltl-line analysis.

Y?

## 2.3 Lower-bound approach

In the lower-bound approach the solution should be determined to satisfy equilibrium and boundary conditions and provide a statistically admissible moment field without violating the yield conditions anywhere in the slab. This provides a safe solution because the collapse load may be greater than or equal to the calculated value. This solution provides information on the required distributionof positive and negative reinforcement. Some lower-bound solution^'^-'^ are available for simply supported, continuous, one shortedge free, rectangular isotropic and orthotropic slabs and circular slabs with isotropic and oahotropic reinforcement. Though most of these solutions do not coincide with upper-bound solutions, they are satisfactory as the differences between the upperand lower-bound solutions are small. In 1956, HillerborgZ0 developed the strip method b*d on the lower-bound approach. He proposed to design several types of slabs b y assuming the load to be carried only by bending moments in two perpendicular

equation and not as afourth independent rquation. Subsequently GurleyJ2 has presentee design methods for slabs considering as torsion-free gillages. H e has covered the yiek lines which are curved in plan also.
2.4 Direcl design method

this method of design based on elastic stress fields. The steel is wood" determined by using elastic stress distribution at ultimate loads in conjunction with the yield criterion. Recently Hago and ~ h a t t " reported test results designed by the above method and it was found that the slabs behaved satisfactorily both at working load and at ultimate loads. To design by this method, computer facilities are required and also they haxe assumed uncracked stiffness of slab throughout the analysis.

## 3.1 Memhrane uction in restrained slahs

The above mentioned methods have been fornlulated without considering the effect o f change of geometry o i the slab. The changes in the geometry of the slab and boundary restraints have considerable influence on the load-carrying capacity of the slab. These effects are called membrane actions and there exist two types of membrane action. wr. ( I ) compressive and (2) tensile membrvne actions. This is reviewed briefly in tht following sections.

## 3.1 Conlpressive membrane action

When a slab is surrounded by and is continuous with either stiff heams or additlonai slabs. compressive membrane action develops within the depth of the slab. This phenomenon can he explained as follows. After cracking load, thcre occurs a substantial shift in the position oE neutral axis in the cross-section. This effects in the outward movenlent of the edges. This movement is prevented by the restraints. Hence compressive forces develop in the slab. This compressive force acts above the mid-depth 1 at the centre of the slab and heluw at the edges of the slab and hence causes arching 0 h m actton. It increases the moment of resistance of the slab cross-section which in turn significainly increases the ultimate flexural resistance of the slab. In 1939. ~ v o z d e v ' ~ conducted tests on restrained slabs and showed that the compressive membrane forces were due to the different level of neutrnl axis in the positive and negative yield lines. Much work has been done on membrane action by Soviet researchers. Their cofltribut% are not available in English. In 1955, Ockleston* conducted load tests on a three-stow reinforced concrete building at Johannesberg and recorded the collapse three or four times of Johansen's yield-line load. powell'" tested nine h d dsabout ~ ma~l-lcale restrained, isotropic rectangular slabs with different steel ratio. H e noticed ghat for a slab with 0.25% steel ratio, the ultimate load was 8.2 times higher than

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,,

In restrained slabs. the load-carrying capacity is enhanccd by compressive niernbrane action till the ascending !(&-deflection curve reaches a peak point. While in the descending portion of the load-deflection curve, the membrane force changes from comPre~sion to tension. The load-deflection curve descends to a secondary resistance

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## P. DESAYI AND K U MUTHU

point at which the membrane action in the central region of the slab changes to tensile, Beyond this, the tensile membrane action spreads throughout the slab till the fractureof steel. park3'. KeenanhY,Black7', ~ e r z o g "have presented procedures for calculatingthe incipient collapse deflection capacity. Iqbal and ~ e r e c h o ~have ' reviewed their contributions in detail.

4.

## Membrane action in simply supported slabs

In simply supported slabs. membrane forces develop at large deflections. With large deflections a1 midspan, the central region of the supported edges tend t o move inwards but are restrained from domg so by adjacent outer regions. This creates the central area of the tensile membrane stresses within the slab together with a surrounding ring of compression. This effect enhances the load-carrying capacity of the slab. Park5", Taylor er ~ 1 ' Hayes7'. ~. Kemp7', Sawczuck and Wlnnicki7', Morleysx, Desayi and Kulkarni", proposed methods of analysis for rectangular simply supported reinforced concrerte slabs indiiding membrane actlon. l'rabhakara7%xtended the work of Desayi and Kulkarni" t o simply supported skew slabs. The above studies were concerned with the ultimate strength of reinforced concrete rcctangulariskew slabs. But these should be complimented by investigation on ~ ~ ~ i c e a b i limit l i t y states namely deflection and crackwidth. In the following sections the literature a~ailahle on the studies on deflections and crackwidths of reinforced concrete slabs is reviewed.

5. Deflections of two-way reinforced concrete slabs Deflection is one of the serviceability limit states t o be satisfied in the limit-state designof structures. ThereEore the estimation of deflection under working loads is often necessary in the design of concrete slabs. But an accurate estimation of deflection is complicated hecause of the influence of factors like cracking of concrete, creep and shrinkage effects itime-dependent effects) and nonlinear properties of the material. A s a convenient way of emtrolling deflections, some codes of practice specify limiting span to depth ratio. This is conservative because the effect of all factors affecting deflections is included in a single parameter namely depth. Clarke et a17%ave compared the code clauses of 25 countries related to deflections of concrete memhers. In 1974, ACI Committee 435'' reviewed the methods like classical, cross-beam analogy, analogous grid work method. static ratio, wide beam and equivalent frame methods for the determination of deflections o i two-wy slabs. The ACI manual of concrete practicex1 recommends the prwedure developed by Branson based on beam test results for the computation of slab d~fle&ons. This requires further examination due to difference in the structural Wanchoo " hehaviour of the beam and the slab. Scanlon and Murray8', Bell and ~ l m s ~ ~ incorporated May". Yukio et d", Cope and Vasudeva ~ a o " " , ~ h o n o h r i c h ~ have the influence of cracking in developing finite element analysis t o predict the

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## P. DESAYI AND K. U. MUTHU

including shrinkage effects. They have compared with the field measurements. Graham and scanlan"" have presented a method for estimating the deflection due to shrinkage restraint, construction loads. They proposed multiplier constants for estimating the two-way slab deflections. Limit state of crack~ng is another serviceability criterion to be satisfied in the limit-state design of structures. The studies pertaining to the predictiona( maximum crackwidth in rectangularlskew slabs are presented in the next section.
6. Prediction of crackwidth

In reinforced concrete slabs. the crack appears as soon as the tensile stress due to the bending moment exceeds the tensile strength of concrete. This may impair appearanceof the slab or increase the risk of corrosion of the reinforcement. In order to avoid rhis, the crackwidth should be kept below the acceptable limit. ACI Code, CP 110"" and CEB-FIP re corn mend at ion^'^^' have specified the maximum allowable crackwidths for structural members under different exposure conditions. A crackwidth study on one-way s!abs with welded wire fabric by Srinivasa Rao and S ~ b r a h m a n y a m " ' ~ indicates that a steel stress of 2500 kg/cm2 can be allowed without violating the strength and crackwidth limitations for one-way slabs. In developing their mathematical model, they have included the force exerted by transverse bars in iongitudinal direction. Nawy and his "8 have done a major study on cracking of two-way rectangular siabs. The associates~!~7proposed equations were based on the fracture hypothesis on the stress concentration at the intersection of orthogonal bars. The limitations of the proposed equations are in choosing the appropriate multiplying constant for the particular type of loading and specified boundary conditions. and the experimental results being those of rectangular .;lab reinforced with welded wire fabric. Desayi and Kulkarni"" extended the method propsed by Desayi"' for the determination of maximum crackwidth of partially prestressed concrete beams to two-way rectangular reinforced concrete slabs. Two-way action was included by considering the bearing exerted by transverse bars. A uniform distribution of bond stress over the length of the bar and tensile stress in the stretched concrete area was assumed in their analysis. This was further extended to skew and rectangular slabs by Deszyi and Prabhakara'". It was found from their investigation that the assumption of parabolic distribution for bond stress and uniform distribution of karing stress resulted in a better agreement with the test data of 348 crackwidth measurements on rectangular and skew slabs. In recent times. considerable work has been in progress to study the cracking behaviour of concrete using fracture mechanics conceprs. These have yet to find application in the design of slabs. 7. S t u d i e s on circular slabs
7.1 Membrana action

## in restrainedlsimplj supported slabs

WOO^'" analysed the membrane action in isotropic circular slabs using the basic equations of ::lrg:-defiection plate theory. He assumed the material to b e rigid plastic

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## P. DESAYI AND K. U MUTHV

shapes of slabs showed non-linear behaviour up t o Johansen's load. Also the assumption of the same initial deflection irrespective of size of the ring beam is also not clear, H~~~~~~ the effect of ring beam on membrane action was considered in their analyslsby adding the inplane slab flexibility and ring beam flexibility in the form of a boundary spring. The agreement between the theoretical and experimental curves is good. But complete details of the experimental work were not presented by them, gave some steps to obtain the initial value of deflection according tothe theory presented in the paper. Recently, the authors have developed methods of estimating the ultimate load of simply supported and restrained, isotropic and orthotropic circular slabs sub~ected t o distributed loading taking into account the membrane action, load-deflection behavia"! and estimation of widths of cracks that form in these ~labs""-'~".

## 8. Study on slabs with different layouts of reinforcement

~ e d ~ e y 'conducted ~ ~ " ~ experiments on simply supported square slabs with different arrangements of reinforcement. He kept the total amount of reinforcement to be the same for all slabs. H e noticed a reduction of 15% of collapse loads for square slabs with diagonal reinforcement compared with uniform reinforcement parallel to the edges. Taylor et a17%ested ten two-way simply supported square slabs to investigate the effect of arrangement of the reinforcement. The slabs were designed to have same flexuralresistance under uniformly distributed load. They concluded that slabs with variable rein. forcement were stiffer than uniformly reinforced slabs up to Johansen's load. However. the use of variable reinforcement did not enhance the load-carrying capacity. They observed that the use of variable reinforcement reduces crackwidth in the central portion of the slabs. bur increases the crack width in the corner regions. Reddy et allz6 tested 12 simply supported square reinforced concrete slabs under cental concentrated load to study the effect of direction of reinforcement, effect of banded reinforcement and the effect of circular and spiral reinforcement layout in square slabs. The investigation showed that the best arrangemen: of reinforcement for strength and stiffness wasby having the bars parallel to the sides at a uniform spacing. Ultimate loads of all slabs reported were higher than Johansen's load. Clark12' studied the effect of arrangement of relnfomment for reinforced concrete skew bridge slabs. H e suggested that saving in steel could be achieved by placing the steel parallel and ~ e r ~ e n d i c u l to a r the abutments in the central region and changing to the arrangement wh'ich'has steel parallel to the free edge near the edges.

Slabs with different layouts of reinforcement based on optimisation theory have been Sharpe and ~ l ~ d e Thakkar ' ~ ~ , and Sridhar &=tigated by R~nany'~-'~',~elchers~~~, ~ a o ' " . The principal canclusions were: load enhancement in optimised slabs was not much more than conventional slabs; at a particular load, optimised slabs exhibited smaller defiecti~ns when compared to conventional slabs; although the reinforcement 1 u n h e was saved in optimised slabs, the optimal layout was quite complicated. While :

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muchtheoretical advancement has been done in optimisation of slabs, reported test resultson the same appear to be very few. M~spratt''~.'" has reported tests on opti&lv designed slabs He suggested that Monte Carlo technique could be used for of slabs as the properties of the slab are random variables.

9. Conclusions

1. Many investigations are come aCiOSS on the determination of ultimate strength of rectangularslabs. Studies on the ultimal? strength of skew and circular slabs are comparatively few. While the studies recognize the enhancement in the strength beyond Johansen's load, attempts to include this enhancement in design of slabs are yet to be made.
1. Studies on the determination of deflections and crackwidth in slabs are comparatively

less. More experimental work on these aspects including the influence of creep under sustained loading is required in the examination of serviceability limit states of slabs.

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(11'

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Desrgn ot rectanguldr rerntorced concrete slabs supported on a!l the s~dcs with a short disconunuous edgc. Bldg Scr.. 1970, 5 , 181-185 B p t ~ m ~ s esjnp d method for the dealgn of freely supported slabs, Indian Concr. 1.. 1971, 45, 390-394. Moment coeffs~enlsfor the design of rectangular reinforced concrete slabs with fixed or contrnuous edges, J. lnstn Engr (India) 1972, 52, 224-277. Moment coefi~cientsfor the design of recranguiar slabs with short discontmuous edges, Indrnn Concr. 3 , 1972, 46, 466-468

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AND

The shcar distribution method for the design of reinforced concrete slabs, I. Srrucr. Engng (Roorkee), 1971, 3, 103-112.

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AND

BHATT, P.

Tests on RC slabs des~gnedby direct design procedure, 3. Am. C o n o . Inst., 1986, 83, 916-924. Obosnovanie norm procktirovaniya, zhetobetonnykh konstmktsii, Sronrelnayor Promyshlenmost, 1939, 17. Load tests on a three storey reinforced concrete building in Johannesberg, Struct. Engr, 1955, 33, 304-322.

The uitimate srrengih of concretepanelr subjected lo unifomly disiribnred loads, Ph.D. Thesis, Cambridge University, 1956.

## p. DESAYI AND K. U MUTHU

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64.

## DA~A T. , K. b 5 . DATTA. T . K. *ND R a r w , C. K.

66. DESAYI, P. AND Kummi. A. B.

~~.

C. K.

AND

Ultimate strength of reinforced concrete slah-beam systems-A new approach, Indian Concr. J . , 1973, 47, 301-308. Some experimental studies on a reinforced concrete slab-beam system, Mag. Concr.' Res., 1975, 27, 111-120 Loaddeflection behaviour of reinforced concrete slab-beam paneb, Indian Conm. J., 1979, 53, 277-283.

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67, TONG, P.

105

## Y. AND BATCHELOR, B. OEV.

Compressive membrane enhancement in two-way bridge slabs, Paper SP30-12, ACI SP-30, Detroit, 1971, 271-286.
Load-deflection behaviour of restrained reinforced concrete skew slabs, I. Struct. Div., ASCE, 1981, 107, 873-888.

Strength and behaviour of restrained ranforced concrete slabs under static nnd dynamrc loadmgs, Tech. Rep. R621, U S . Naval Civil Engng Lab . Port Huencme. Californ~a. 1969
Ultimate strength study of nvo-way concrete slabs, 1. S m c r Dzv , ASCE, 1975, 101, 311-324 The membrane action of RC slabs after tests, Beton Stahlbetonbau, (Berlin), 1976, 71, 270-275.

Design criterion for defiction capacity of conventionally reinforced concrete slabs, Phme-I, Stme of an report, Construction Technology Laboratories, Portland Cement Assoclat~on,Illinois, 1979, 139
73. TAYLOR, R., MAHER, D. R. HAYES, B.
74. HAYES, B.

H. A N 0

Effect of the arrangement of reinforcement on the behaviour of r a n forced concrete slabs, Mag. Concr. Res., 1966, 18, 85-94. Allowing for membrane actlon in the plasnc analysis of rectangular reinforced concrete slabs, Mag. Concr. Res., 1968, 20, 205-211. Yield of a square reinforced concrete slab on simple supports allow. mg for membrane forces, Struct. Engr, 1967, 45, 235-240 Plastic behaviour of simply supported plates at moderately large deflexions, Inr. J. Solidr Strucr., 1965, 1, 97-111. Load-deflection bebaviour of simply supported rectangular remlorced concrete slahs. Proc. Itrr Aw Bridge Srnm. E q r . 1. 1978, p 11178, 1-16.

Strength and deformanon of reinforced concrete skew slabs, Ph.D. Thesis, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India, 1979, 15-160.
Deflection-Problems and treatment in vanous countries, ACI, SP-43, 1974, 129-178.

## 80. ACI Committee 435

Deflection of two-way reinbrced concrete floor systems, State of the a n , Deflection of concr. slruct, ACI, SP-43, 1974. 318-328.
Bdilding code rcqulrerncnts o i reinforced concrete, ACI Standard. ACIJIb', 1977.

An analysis to deternune the effects of cracking in reinforced concrete slabs. Pwc. Conf finrte ei~mentmethods rip. engng, McCiN University, 1972, 841
Nonlinear analysis of ieinforced concrete slabs, Mag. Concr. Res., 1972, 24, 63-70. Cracking analysis of reinforced concrete plates, L Srruct. Div., ASCE, 1975, 101, 201-215. Nonlinear anaiysir of reinforced concrete slabs by finite element method, Tech. R e p , Osaka Universl!~, 1976, 26, 595-604.

106

## P DESAYI AND K. U. MW'CHU

Nonitnear finite eiemenr analysls of concrete slab structures, pra Instn Ctv Engr (Lond.), Part 2, 1977, 63, 159-180. Behawour of relnforced concrete structures predicted by finiteele ment method, Computers Struct., 1977, 7, 365-376. Finite element andiysls of re~nforcedconcrete structures, ~~~~~l~ Presenri Speciaiiry Course on reinforced concrete construction, Polytechnic, Milan, Italy, 1978. Deflection of two-way slabs from uncracked stare up to rupture,~j~ Bavtechnik (Berlin), 1977, 9, 313-317.

Mliai

90. SHUKLA. S. N. M ~ A L M K.

AND

Short term deflection in two-way retnforced concrete slabs after nac. kmg, J . ACI., 1976. 73, 416-419. Deflection of two-way reinforced concrete slab systems, Defom. aon gf concrete structures, McGraw-HIU, 1977, 279-342.

## 92. DESAYL, P. AUD MwI'. K. U

93 DESRII, P. AND Mumv. K. U. 94. T n x o n , P. J.

Short tlme deflectton of rectangular slmply supponed relnforced concrete slabs, Advances m concrete slab technoiogy, R. K. Dhr and J 6 . L. Munday (eds), Peigamon Press, Oxford, 1980, 110-117. Short time deflexion of rectangular, restramed, reinforced concrrte slabs, Proc. lnsrn Crv. Engr (Lond.), Part 2, 1979, 529-536. The tninal and long-term deflection of ranforced concrete flat platen ana siabs, Constr. Rev. (Sydney), 1970, 43, 68-74.
A comparison of measured and calculated deflections of flexural members in four retnforced concrete buddlngs, ACI SP-43-21. Dej7mtion of coflcrele srrucrurei, 1974, 515-525.

Long term deflection of flat plates and slabs, J. ACI, Proc.. 1976,4, 205-223.
A rattonal approach to control of slab deflections, J. ACI, Proc 1978, 75, 256-262.

Concrere Structures Code, AS-1480.74, Standards Association of Australia, Sydney, 1974. Indian Standards code of pracrrce for piam and reinforced concrete (Third revision), IS 456-1978, Indran Standards Institution, New Deihi, 1978. Discussion on deflection of RC rectangular simply suppotted slabs and the recommendations in IS 456-1978, Institution of Engineen (India), Bangalore, 13-16, October 1980. Deflectios control of siabs using aliowable span to depth ratios, 1. ACL Proc., 1985, 82, 67-72. Deflection of two-way slabs subjected to restrained volume change and transverse loads, 1. ACI, Proc , 1986, 83, 737-744. bDg-time multipliers ior estimating two-way slab deflections, 1. ACl, Pmc., 1986, 83, 899-907. Code of pracnce for the rrrucrural me of convele, Parr I, D&n. materiolc and workmanship, British Standards Institution. CPlIo. 1972.

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## Infernational recommendations for ?he design of concrete siructures, CEB-FIP, 1970.

1%. SWIVASA RaU, P.
AND

SUBMHMANYAM, 5. V.
107. NAWY, E. G .

Crack~ngand uitrmate strength of one way slabs re~nforcedwirh welded wire fabric, Indian Concr. J 1971, 45, 115-121, 139,

Crackwidth control in weided fabnc reinforced centraliy loaded twoway slabs, Causes, mecharrim and control of crackrng m concrete, Anlatican Concrete Institute, Detroit, SP-20, 1'168, 211-235. Crackwidth control in reinforced concrete two-way slabs, J Srrucr. Dzv., ASCE, 1970, 96, 701-721.

## 109. NAWY,E. 0. BMR, K. W

AND

Further siudies on flexural crack controi in nructural slab systems, Cracking, deflectron and uitimare load of concrete slab system, ACI, D e t m t 1971, SP-30, 1-42 Determination of maxlmum crackwdth in two-way reinforced concrete slabs, Proc. Insrn Civ. Engr (Lond.),Part 2 , 1976,61,343-349. Discussion on the paper Part 2, 1977, 53, 227-231.
A method for determ~ning the spacfng and width of cracks in partially prestressed concrete beams, Proc. lnstn Cfv. Engr (Lond.),

## 110. DESAYI, P. AND KULKARNI,A. B.

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AND

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