This fascinating and relatively sophisticated 1910 landmark review by Whitman apostate OE Lessing has never to my knowledge been

reprinted for the modern student !n addition to its careful history of Whitman reception in "ermany# the betrayed author serves up several tart $ingers to skewer Whitman%s &morbid passion' and his perceived bid to become mankind%s &intercessor' before a (hristian "od The essay%s key significance lies in its portrayal of the &many years of careful study' that it took for the so)called victims of &Whitmania' to find &the solution of the secret lurking behind Whitman%s seemingly unfathomable personality#' and the resulting conviction that &the world must be enlightened and warned as to the real meaning of Whitman%s principal message ' **** &! myself confess to the guilt of a serious attack of Whitmania# although ! tried to be moderate in my statements and made Whitman only a superman instead of a "od as my predecessors had done +oth ,ch-lermann and myself defended Whitman against what we believed possible misinterpretations of his gospel of friendship .r +ert$ had the courage to face the truth and he had the scholarly e/uipment to prove the truth# i e # the fact that Whitman%s conception of friendship is based upon an abnormal se0ual instinct This being the case# Whitman can no longer be considered the perfect# typical man# the model# the leader of others On the contrary1 the world must be enlightened and warned as to the real meaning of Whitman%s principal message ' **** &2iet$schemania was the beginning of Whitmania in "ermany ' **** &!t was not with out reluctance that +ert$ destroyed with his own hands the ideali$ing picture of Whitman which he had painted before .uring many years of careful study he had found the solution of the secret lurking behind Whitman%s seemingly unfathomable personality3 and once recogni$ed# truth must be revealed to others +ert$# in this matter# is far from +ritish cant 4e does not condemn Whitman3 for how can anything be condemned# the cause of which lies beyond the control of personal will power5 2or does he 6oin Edward (arpenter in e0tolling Whitman and all 7ranians# as if they represented a higher type of humanity than the normally built ' **** &Whitman%s %universal love% may refer to rocks and trees# to mountains and oceans# to clouds and planets# but it e0cludes the basic love of mankind and contaminates the conception of manly friendship with morbid passion Whitman shaped his covenant to suit his own individuality# not to make it acceptable by humanity at large 8nd if# toward the end of his life# after his fatal passion had died out# he encouraged a symbolical interpretation of Calamus# he deceived# more or less consciously# himself and the world ' **** &The same biblical teleology Whitman applies to his conception of "od 8nd yet Whitman is not a (hristian 4e does not believe in the salvation through (hrist nor in the remission of sins 9edemption and condemnation are allotted to man according to his deeds in this life !f (hrist were acknowledged as our ,aviour# there would be nothing left for Whitman to do ,o Whitman e0pects of his disciples a mystical faith in his own mission !f there is any intercessor at all : it is Walt Whitman ' **** &The more openly we face the truth# the sooner we get over that dangerous malady which ,winburne diagnosed as Whitmania 2ations that have produced a "oethe and an Emerson need not and should not worship a Whitman as one of their heroes ' : ;itchell ,antine "ould# curator# LeavesOf"rass Org <ossess the origin of all poems OE Lessing &Whitman and "erman (ritics ' The Journal of English and Germanic Philology# =ol 9# 2o 1 >?an # 1910@# AB)9A


A few months before Ferdinand Freili rath left his !ondon e"ile# he read W. M. Rossetti$s Selections from Whitman's Poems. Im%ressionable as he was and e&er ea er to 'ontrib(te toward the reali)ation of Goethe$s ideal of *Welt+!iterat(r#, he %(blished at on'e a tentati&e a''o(nt of his dis'o&er- in the Augsburg er Allgemeine Zeitung# A%ril ./th# 0121.304 Admittin that his 5(d ment of the Ameri'an a(thor is b- no means settled and that he writes (nder the s%ell of a first infat(ation# he (r es his fellow+'o(ntr-men to note in Whitman the ad&ent of a new and sin (lar %ower.

Whitman# he sa-s# is the %oet of the E o as a %art of Ameri'a# of the earth# of man6ind# of the (ni&erse. With all its indi&id(alism and Ameri'anism Whitman$s %hiloso%h- is trans'endental and 'osmi'. Whate&er he hears or sees# whate&er he 'omes in 'onta't with# e&en the lowl- and 'ommon%la'e# seems a s-mbol to him of somethin hi her# somethin s%irit(al. 7r rather# the ideal and the real# s%irit and matter# are to him one and the same. So# assertin himself a %ro(d# free man# and neither more nor less than a man# he o%ens world+wide so'ial and %oliti'al &istas.

The metri'al str('t(re of Leaves of Grass reminds Freili rath of the *Northern Ma (s#, Hamann# of Carl-le$s ora'(lar wisdom# of the Paroles d'un Croyant# and first of all# of the 8ible. Whitman$s rha%sodi' rh-thms# whi'h so(nd li6e the sonoro(s roar and s(r e of o'ean wa&es# ma6e o(r traditional %rosod-# o(r s'annin # o(r sonnet+writin a%%ear almost 'hildish. Is this# Freili rath as6s# to be the %oetr- of the f(t(re as there has been a m(si' of the f(t(re anno(n'ed to (s for -ears9 Is Walt Whitman more than Ri'hard Wa ner9

This arti'le did not 'reate a sensation# nor were the German &ersions that followed 'hara'teristi' ill(strations. All of the ten %ie'es whi'h Freili rath translated refer to the Ci&il War: nine

bein ta6en from the ori inal edition of Drum- a!s# the tenth from Ashes of Soldiers. The %oems are; Arm$d -ear< -ear of the str( le < = >ahr in Waffen < >ahr d( des ?am%fs < . . . Eise# 7 da-s# from -o(r

fathomless dee%s# = A(f a(s e(ren r(ndlosen Tiefen# o Ta e# stei t# ... I see before me now# a tra&elin arm- haltin # = Halt ma'hen seh$ i'h &or mir n(n ein Heer# das a(f dem Mars'he. ... As toilsome I wandered @ir inia$s woods# = Als mAhe&oll i'h s'hritt d(r'h @ir inia$s WBlder . . . 8athed in war$s %erf(me C deli'ate fla < = Gebadet im D(fte des ?rie s# C wei'h)arte Fla e d(. . . . A mar'h in the ran6s hard %rest# and the road (n6nown = Ein Mars'h in den Eeihn hart bedrBn t# (nd der We (ns fremd. ... A si ht in 'am% in the da-+brea6 re- and dim = Eine !a ers'ha(# eine S'ha( im dAstern Ta ra($n. . . . 7&er the 'arna e rose %ro%heti' a &oi'e = Dber das 8l(tbad %ro%hetis'h h(b eine Stimme si'h. . . . Far hen'e# amid an isle of wondro(s bea(t- = Weit &on hier# a(f einer Insel Ew(nders'hFn sie<G. . . . In 'lo(ds des'endin # in midni ht$s slee% = A(s Wol6en nieder# im Mitterna'htss'hlaf.

It is s(r%risin that the same man who a&e the Germans the 'lassi'al translation of "ia#atha# was (nable to master the Whitmanian &erse. There is almost nothin left of the swa- of %athos# of the mi ht- roar of wa&es Freili rath himself had fo(nd in the ori inal. Those translations are a stale mi"t(re of %rose and rh-melese do erel# as ma- be seen e&en b- the be innin lines H(oted abo&e.

Sin'e the sele'tion was indifferent# the &ersion %oor# it is b(t nat(ral that the e(lo - remained abstra't and (nheeded.

In 01IJ Adolf Strodtmann# who had s%ent the -ears between 01K. and 01K2 in the Lnited States# %(blished an Ameri$anische Anthologie with more sele'tions and with the same ne ati&e res(lt as Freili rath.

An eH(all- (ns(''essf(l attem%t was made in 01II# b- the German+Ameri'an %oet Ernst 7tto

Ho%%# who in'l(ded a &ersion of *7 Ca%tain< M- Ca%tain<, in a &ol(me of %rose+s6et'hes# %oems# and translations %nter dem Sternenbanner.

Freili rath had ended his essa- with the warnin that Whitman# if an- writer# m(st be 5(d ed bthe s(m total of his wor6. Dr. Ed(ard 8ert) was the first# and has remained (% to the %resent time# the onl- German to 'ome (% to that 'riti'al standard. He# too# li6e Strodtmann and Ho%%# had li&ed in Ameri'a for some time Eas a member of the ill+fated R( b- 'olon- in Tennessee# 0110+011MG: he had thoro( hl- absorbed Whitman# and# after settlin in !ondon# had ser&ed Geor e Gissin as a model for the Whitmanite in the no&el hyr&a. 8(t it was not (ntil after his ret(rn to German- in 011N# that he felt 'alled (%on to ta6e %art in the international Whitman %ro%a anda. In the Deutsche Presse# II# No. .M# he %(blished an arti'le; Walt Whitman &u seinem sieb&igsten Geburtstag. It be ins with the swee%in 'onfession; *As the reatest benefit whi'h I deri&ed from m- so5o(rn in Ameri'a# na- as one of the ha%%iest e&ents of m- life# I re ard the a'H(aintan'e with the writin s of the most ori inal and dee%est of all Ameri'an %oets., He %raises the so(nd &italit-# the s%irit(ali)ed nat(ralness# the (ni&ersal s-m%ath- of *that most h(mane of all %hilanthro%ists., Lnder the dis (ise of Gissin $s hero he H(otes himself as sa-in that Whitman will hel% him row to be a %erfe't and mat(re man. For Whitman is a man# a reat# health-# %lain# stron # f(ll-+de&elo%ed man. What to man- 'riti's seems sheer materialism is in realit- %(rest s%irit(alism# the bod- bein a re&elation of the so(l. The %oet$s own so(l is so f(ll of (nlimited lo&e that it ma- well be 'onsidered identi'al with man6ind at lar e. Whitman ma6es his readers reali)e their (nit- with the (ni&erse. In him for the first time nat(re has fo(nd a tr(e e"%ression in words. It is thro( h him that forests and seas sin to (s# that the health- a&era e man s%ea6s o(t at last what he had so far been (nable to arti'(late# i. e.# his se'ret -earnin # his silent lo&e and admiration. 8ert) oes on to defend the %oet$s sens(alit- as the reli io(s &iew of the san'tit- of all life. C Whitman is an o%timist in the real sense. He does not den- the e"isten'e of e&il b(t a''e%ts it from Mother Nat(re with the de&o(t re&eren'e of a lo-al son. 8ein in harmon- with the will of the

(ni&erse# he %oints forward to the (ltimate sal&ation from all earthl- woes. An all+embra'in s-m%ath-# then# is the so(r'e of Whitman$s %oems: the- are s(re to li&e thro( h 'ent(ries and will be a 'onsolation to f(t(re enerations. >(d ed merel- from an estheti' %oint of &iew# Whitman is inferior to a n(mber of other %oets: howe&er# his form m(st be a'6nowled ed as a thoro( hl- adeH(ate &ehi'le of his tho( ht.

Whitman was deli hted with the homa e of his German admirer. He entered into a 'orres%onden'e with him# and# ho%in to ma6e him a %ermanent ad&o'ate of his 'a(se# he liberall%ro&ided him with material C %hoto ra%hs# la(dator- news%a%er 'li%%in s# and the li6e. The effe't (%on Dr. 8ert) was H(ite 'ontrar- to Whitman$s e"%e'tations. The German disa reed with what he 'onsidered a t-%i'al Ameri'an self+ad&erti)in s'heme# be'ame 'riti'al# and soon sto%%ed res%ondin to Whitman$s ad&an'es. Ne&ertheless# he 6e%t (% his interest and wrote a fa&orable# tho( h somewhat reser&ed# a''o(nt of Whitman$s wor6 and life for S!emanris Goldenes 'uch der Weltliteratur# 0NJJ. In &iew of 8ert)$s later attit(de one statement in that arti'le deser&es s%e'ial mention; *The most modern of all %oets# Whitman has assimilated the s'ientifi' in&esti ations of the 'ent(r- and 'onne'ted their res(lts into a rand harmon-# th(s be'omin the %oeti'al inter%reter of monisti' %hiloso%h-.,

In the meantime T. W. Rolleston# assisted b- ?arl ?nort)# had made another attem%t to introd('e Whitman in German-. With the san'tion of the a(thor himself the- %(blished# in 011N# a sele'tion from Leaves of Grass ( Grashalme C whi'h was headed b- a 'om%arati&el- well+balan'ed %refa'e. The boo6 was an im%ro&ement (%on Freili rath. It 'ontained the entire Song of myself and a oodl- n(mber of other 'hara'teristi' Leaves# e. .# )ut of the Cradle* he mystic rum!eter. The &ersion is rather 'r(de# at times e&en fa(lt-# neither German nor En lish. It s( ests the interlinear

method of medie&al s'ribes and wo(ld %robabl- ha&e met with the same fate as Freili rath$s# if it had not been for Whitman$s German %endant.

E&en Whitman$s death in 01N. did not 'a(se more than a shallow ri%%le in the sea of letters. There was an insi nifi'ant arti'le b- >ohannes S'hlaf in +reie ',hne Enow -eue .undschauG# whi'h sim%l- re%rod('ed the &iews of Rolleston+?nort)# Freili rath# and 8ert). Nor did an- of the other %rofessional 5o(rnalists and ma a)ine writers find it worth while to read Whitman$s ori inal te"t. What the- said abo(t him was a sort of se'ond+ or third+hand literar- ossi%# s('h as Whitman himself had ind(l ed in C *?ant ha&in st(died Fi'hte# S'hellin and He el., Toward the middle of the de'ade# howe&er# the Niet)s'he+'(lt rea'hed its hi h+water mar6. *>An st+de(ts'hland, t(rned lar elawa- from the ri id tenets of nat(ralism# re&elin instead in the rhetori'al s-mbolism of Zarathustra. Whitman was ill(minated b- Niet)s'he; demo'ratism &ers(s aristo'ratism in their %oliti'al# so'ial and reli io(s as%e'ts res%e'ti&el-. Grashalme and Zarathustra; ea'h seemin l- destro-in the old# traditional instit(tions and %ro'laimin new ethi'al standards: the form of ea'h resemblin the ora'(lar tone of oriental %ro%hets. Niet)s'hemania was the be innin of Whitmania in German-. The latter has to the %resent time fort(natel- been limited to a small ro(% of ade%ts# while Niet)s'he$s infl(en'e# dire'tl- or indire'tl-# e"erted itself as a fertili)in %ower (%on the tho( ht of the masses.

An A(strian# ?arl Federn# a st(dent of Emerson and Niet)s'he# was attra'ted to Whitman b- his trans'endentalism. In 01NI he %(blished an essa- on Whitman EDie ZeitG# whi'h two -ears later was re%rinted# with %a%ers on Emerson and Thorea( (nder the title /ssays &ur Ameri$anischen Literatur. In 'ontrast to S'hlaf he had not rested satisfied with the 6nowled e of sele'tions onl-. Federn had read all of Whitman$s writin s# %oetr- as well as %rose. 8(t he also 6new 8('6e$s bio ra%h- and 7$Connor$s e(lo -# he good gray !oet# and 'om%letel- identified himself with their &iews. A''ordin lWhitman is re%resented b- him as the most %erfe't# the most ori inal and the randest of all Ameri'an %oets C as the %oet of Ameri'a. Whitman is also the reatest of thin6ers# not onl- in his own 'o(ntr-# b(t in all 'o(ntries# for his ideas are the (ltimate fr(it of the Nineteenth Cent(r-. His E o is the

%h-si'all- and s%irit(all- %erfe't man in whom there is 'ontained the essen'e of 'i&ili)ation and nat(re ali6e. His sens(alit- is as %(re as nat(re herself. He is the most health-# %owerf(l# lo&in # life+assertin %ersonalit- sin'e Goethe. He is %ossessed of a ma i' ma netism s('h as is as'ribed to Moses# 8(ddha and other fo(nders of reli ions C a %arallel to Christ is indire'tl- drawn# 'f. 7$Connor. Whitman is a Cosmos# a s-mbol and t-%e of (ni&ersal life. His os%el of lo&e and 'omradeshi% re'on'iles demo'ra'- with aristo'ra'-# the eH(alit- of all bein the soil o(t of whi'h reat aristo'rati' indi&id(als C Ibsen$s Adelsmens'hen C row. As in Whitman the two %rin'i%les of indi&id(alism and 'olle'ti&ism are 'ombined into a hi her s-nthesis# so Hea&en and Earth# s%irit and matter are fore&er (nited.

Whitman$s# the wo(nd+dresser$s# s(%erh(man H(alities are enlar ed (%on in another arti'le of the same &ol(me; Aus Ameri$anischen 0riegs&eiten. It is# here as before# 8('6e$s and 7$Connor$s %hantasti' e"a erations that (ide Federn$s %en. The a(thor did not thin6 it ne'essar- to 'han e his o%inion when# in 0NJ/# he %(blished a Selection from the Leaves# (sin for an introd('tion what he had written fi&e and se&en -ears before.

C(rio(sl- eno( h# re%rintin from stored+(% material with sli ht or no alterations seems to ha&e been a tena'io(s habit with the German Whitmanites. In 01NN ?arl ?nort) re%(blished an essa- Walt Whitman als Dichter der Demo$ratie# whi'h %re&io(sl- had a%%eared in the New Oor6er StaatsZeitung* De'ember 011.# a ain in 0112# and on'e a ain# translated into En lish b- Alfred Forman and E. M. 8('6e# in 1n .e Walt Whitman# 01NM. ?nort)$s arti'le# in itself# was worth readin . It was based (%on inde%endent st(d- and ood 'ommon sense C a &er- e"'e%tional H(alit- with Whitman+admirers C : it was enth(siasti' and -et free from e'stati' madness. ?nort) did not worshi% Whitman as a modern Christ# b(t he res%e'ted him as a reat %oet and fearless thin6er. Admittin that there is some r(bbish amon the Leaves# he de'lares )ut of the cradle and When lilacs last in the door-yard bloom'd

3.4# to be master%ie'es that eH(al an- of the world$s reatest a'hie&ements in literat(re. Whitman$s %hiloso%h- is inter%reted as monisti' o%timism# his eroti'ism as a wholesome antidote a ainst %(ritani' %r(der-# his os%el of fellowshi% as the demo'rati' %rin'i%le of s-m%ath- for all man6ind. A brief bio ra%h-# an enli htenin anal-sis of Democratic 2istas and an a%%endi" of ood translations# e. .# he Song of the 'road-A3e and -ight Poem E he Slee!ersG# C all that ma6es ?nort)$s %am%hlet the most &al(able 'ontrib(tion to Whitman+literat(re in German-# before Dr. 8ert) entered the field on'e more.

>ohannes S'hlaf re%eated his arti'le of 01N. in the ma a)ine -euland of 01N2# and two -ears later a ain in boo6+form. In 0NJJ he %refa'ed a s(%erfl(o(s German translation of Whitman$s -ovellen b- Thea Ettlin er. In 0NJ/ he established himself as the a(thori)ed Whitman+a%ostle b- a mono ra%h Walt Whitman whi'h a%%eared as &ol(me 01 of Die Dichtung. This little boo6 is an (n%aralleled e"am%le of hi h+handed arro an'e# 'owardl- im%osition and (tter i noran'e. As Dr. 8ert)# in Whitman-4ysterien# 0NJI# has 'learl- shown# S'hlaf had e&en then# 0. -ears after his first 'ontrib(tion# no 6nowled e of Whitman$s own lan (a e. He dis'(ssed an a(thor of whose writin s he had not read more than %erha%s 0KP# and for his 5(d ment he relied solel- on the few German arti'les that ha&e been mentioned. What# then# 'o(ld he do b(t %ilfer his so(r'es and 'on'eal his %la iarism behind neb(lo(sl- m-sti' e"a erations9 Whitman is not onl- 8(ddha %l(s >es(s re+in'arnated b(t at the same time an anti'i%ation of Niet)s'he$s s(%erman. Whitman at last has bro( ht to an end the lon str( le between reli ion and s'ien'e. His is the s'ientifi' reli ion of monism.3M4

Abs(rd and blas%hemo(s as s('h hero+worshi% was# S'hlafs non+'halant 'harlatanism d(%ed %(blishers as well as re&iewers. In 0NJI the re%(table firm of H. Haessel# !ei%)i # %(blished Henr- 8. 8inns$s !ife of Whitman translated b- >ohannes S'hlaf. The boo6 was another %roof of S'hlaf$s literarirres%onsibilit-. With the e"'e%tion of 'ertain %ortions whi'h were ta6en 'are of b- an anon-mo(s

hel%er#3/4 the translation is absol(tel- worth less# as has been shown elsewhere.3K4 And -et this remar6able translator boldl- ad&erti)es himself in the %refa'e; *I ha&e rendered the En lish te"t witho(t an- alterations whate&er<, 8(t that was not all. S'hlaf s(r%assed himself b- %(blishin Grashalme of his own sele'tion where the Whitman st(dent will be able to ma6e man- sensational dis'o&eries# s('h %oems as had %re&io(sl- been translated b- others e"'e%ted.324

In 0NJ/ and 0NJ2 other translations had a%%eared; Grashalme b- Wilhelm S'hFlermann and Prosa-Schriften b- the %resent writer. S'hFlermann$s introd('tion did not essentiall- differ in %oint of &iew from Federn+8('6e. I m-self 'onfess to the (ilt of a serio(s atta'6 of Whitmania# altho( h I tried to be moderate in m- statements and made Whitman onl- a s(%erman instead of a God as m%rede'essors had done.3I4 8oth S'hFlermann and m-self defended Whitman a ainst what we belie&ed %ossible misinter%retations of his os%el of friendshi%.

Dr. 8ert) had the 'o(ra e to fa'e the tr(th and he had the s'holarl- eH(i%ment to %ro&e the tr(th# i. e.# the fa't that Whitman$s 'on'e%tion of friendshi% is based (%on an abnormal se"(al instin't. This bein the 'ase# Whitman 'an no lon er be 'onsidered the %erfe't# t-%i'al man# the model# the leader of others. 7n the 'ontrar-; the world m(st be enli htened and warned as to the real meanin of Whitman$s %rin'i%al messa e. 8ert)$s arti'le; Walt Whitman* /in Chara$terbild# a%%eared in @ol. @II of the 5ahrbuch f,r se3uelle Z#ischenstufen# 0NJK.314 It s-stemati)ed# stren thened and bro( ht to a 'on'l(sion the e&iden'e athered b- Ha&elo'6 Ellis# >. A. S-monds# Raffalo&i'h# Edward Car%enter# Ma" Norda(# and others. It was not with o(t rel('tan'e that 8ert) destro-ed with his own hands the ideali)in %i't(re of Whitman whi'h he had %ainted before. D(rin man- -ears of 'aref(l st(d- he had fo(nd the sol(tion of the se'ret l(r6in behind Whitman$s seemin l- (nfathomable %ersonalit-: and on'e re'o ni)ed# tr(th m(st be re&ealed to others. 8ert)# in this matter# is far from 8ritish 'ant. He does not 'ondemn Whitman: for how 'an an-thin be 'ondemned# the 'a(se of whi'h lies be-ond the

'ontrol of %ersonal will %ower9 Nor does he 5oin Edward Car%enter in e"tollin Whitman and all Lranians# as if the- re%resented a hi her t-%e of h(manit- than the normall- b(ilt. As a man of s'ien'e 8ert) 6nows that nat(re tends to differentiation and that the most %(rel- differ entiated s%e'ies# not the h-brid# is t-%i'al.

In addition to 8ert)$s ar (ments we ma- 'all attention to the '(rio(s onesidedness of Whitman$s os%el. If it e&er had meant an ideal lo&e of man6ind# as the ade%ts C e&en the women amon them C 'laim# Whitman wo(ld ha&e de'lared the lo&e of woman to woman a means of redem%tion as solemnland em%hati'all- as he did the lo&e of man to man. 8(t there is no all(sion in his writin s to that essential %art of the 'on'e%tion of friendshi%. And as to the lo&e of man to woman# did he e&er sin of an-thin hi her than br(tall- %h-si'al relations# did he e&er find an e"%ression for the sweet 'harm of so(lf(l womanl- lo&e9 No# amon the l-rists of the world Whitman stands almost alone in not ha&in i&en (s one tr(e lo&e son # nor e&er ha&in dreamed of that most bea(tif(l of all forms of friendshi%# the friendshi% between h(sband and wife# between man and woman. Whitman$s *(ni&ersal lo&e, marefer to ro'6s and trees# to mo(ntains and o'eans# to 'lo(ds and %lanets# b(t it e"'l(des the basi' lo&e of man6ind and 'ontaminates the 'on'e%tion of manl- friendshi% with morbid %assion.

Whitman sha%ed his 'o&enant to s(it his own indi&id(alit-# not to ma6e it a''e%table bh(manit- at lar e. And if# toward the end of his life# after his fatal %assion had died o(t# he en'o(ra ed a s-mboli'al inter%retation of Calamus# he de'ei&ed# more or less 'ons'io(sl-# himself and the world.

The so(nd s'holarshi%# the matter+of+fa't tone and dis'retion of 8ert)$s arti'le# stand in larin 'ontrast to the &i'io(s atta'6 it 'alled forth. >ohannes S'hlaf a ain ass(med the role of the Whitman+ a%ostle. Witho(t in&esti atin the so(r'es# witho(t e&en enterin into a serio(s dis'(ssion of the ar (ments ad&an'ed# S'hlaf h(rls a %asH(il at Dr. 8ert) so mean in 'ontents and form that 8ert)# in

sheer self+defen'e# was for'ed to e"%ose to the %(bli' S'hlafs asto(ndin i noran'e and thie&ish methods. That was done in the boo6let Whitman-4ysterien# 0NJI# referred to abo&e. At the same time Dr. 8ert) %(blished another &ol(me on Whitman6 Der 7an$ee-"eiland# in whi'h he %ro&ed himself definitel- the s(%erior of an- Whitman st(dent on the 'ontinent.

The boo6 is a final ref(tation of Whitman$s 'laim to ha&e fo(nd the s-nthesis of s'ien'e and reli ion. It shows how e"tensi&el- and how indis'riminatel- Whitman borrowed his ideas from others. It shows that he 'ontradi'ts himself# not in the Emersonian sense of a %ro ressi&e de&elo%ment and self+re&elation# b(t in the sense of a disharmonio(s 'haos.3N4 Side b- side with Emerson$s Eor Ro(ssea($sG indi&id(alism# %antheisti' trans'endentalism# and do mati' meta%h-si's# we ha&e a 'r(de theism and a materialisti' do'trine of %ersonal immortalit- whi'h seem Whitman$s own mental %ossession. For does he not anno(n'e his reli ion as entirel- new9 In realit- Whitman$s theism does not differ from the 'reed of the 7ld Testament# and his 'on'e%tion of %ersonal immortalit- C identit- as he is %leased to 'all it C is nothin else than the do'trine of St. Qa(l.

After drawin a %arallel with Carl-le and 8er6ele-# 8ert) %oints o(t Whitman$s indebtedness to No&alis# whose %rin'i%al ideas were transmitted to him b- Carl-le. Here we ha&e a stri6in ill(stration of Whitman$s method of se'ond hand %hiloso%hi)in ; Carl-le i&es e"tra'ts from No&alis: Whitman in his t(rn i&es e"tra'ts from Carl-le$s. For No&alis as well as for Whitman reli ion is the 'enter of ra&itation# the %(r%ose of 'reation. 8oth dream of a (niform# (ni&ersal reli ion. 8oth see manifestations of God in e&er- nat(ral %henomenon E'f. The Qsalms# too# et'.G. 8oth &al(e faith more hi hl- than 6nowled e# m-sti' int(ition more hi hl- than s'ien'e. It oes witho(t sa-in that here a ain Whitman is in'onsistent# inasm('h as he ne&er 'eases to %ose as a radi'al rationalist. To both

lo&e seems the basis of all meta%h-si's C onl-# Whitman$s theor- of lo&e has that %e'(liar tin e all(ded to abo&e. 8oth fall a %re- to that romanti' e'stas-# where reli ion and sens(al %assion intermin le. E&en in thin6in of death the- e"%erien'e the sensation of &ol(%t(o(sness. 8oth are t-%i'al romanti'ists in their H(est of the bl(e flower# in their lon in for an ill(sor- ideal in a world of dreams. A ain Whitman is in'onsistent. A''ordin to the materialisti' element in his %hiloso%h-# the %leas(res of this life mean as m('h to him as the %leas(res of the be-ond# and the 5o-s of Hea&en are no less %h-si'al than the 5o-s of the world.

It was stated abo&e that Whitman shared with St. Qa(l the 'on'e%tion of immortalit-. With the a(thor of the first e%istle to the Corinthians he belie&es in the trans'endental realit- of s%a'e and time as the abode of the eternal so(l. He also belie&es that the so(l is born with the bod-. It is the %redestined %(r%ose and end of all material e&ol(tion to brin forth the immortal so(l. The h(man boditself is the (ltimate sta e in the %re%aration of the so(l for an e&erlastin indi&id(al e"isten'e.

The same bibli'al teleolo - Whitman a%%lies to his 'on'e%tion of God. And -et Whitman is not a Christian. He does not belie&e in the sal&ation thro( h Christ nor in the remission of sins. Redem%tion and 'ondemnation are allotted to man a''ordin to his deeds in this life. If Christ were a'6nowled ed as o(r Sa&io(r# there wo(ld be nothin left for Whitman to do. So Whitman e"%e'ts of his dis'i%les a m-sti'al faith in his own mission. If there is an- inter'essor at all C it is Walt Whitman.

Christians 'on'ei&e of God as a Trinit-. Whitman in&ents C followin the e"am%le of S%ino)a et al.a C a R(aternit- in'l(din Satan. E&il is not a %(nishment for sins 'ommitted# b(t a bene&olent %art of God$s ori inal %ro ram of h(man ed('ation. ConseH(entl- E&il is the same as Good# sin as %erfe't as &irt(e: and if Whitman were 'a%able of thin6in o(t one tho( ht lo i'all-# he wo(ld ha&e 'ome to the 'on'l(sion that the world sho(ld be left alone# no sal&ation of an- 6ind bein needed. His

onl- mission wo(ld then ha&e been to inter%ret somewhat liberall- Qo%e$s and He el$s famo(s sa-in s; All that is# is ri ht: or; all that is# is reasonable.

This seems absol(te and (nsha6able o%timism. Indeed# if an- one# Whitman has the re%(tation of bein the o%timist %ar e"'ellen'e. It is his em%hati' and tho(sandfold affirmation of life and death# bliss and miser-# ood and e&il# bod- and so(l that attra'ts to him those who are dis'ontented with established 'h(r'h+reli ions. 8(t how 'an an o%timist de'lare life a fra(d of the most tra i' 6ind# if there sho(ld be no immortalit-9 That is what o(r o%timist a't(all- did; literall- in 'on&ersation with Hora'e Tra(bel : %ra'ti'all- in his well 6nown debate with Robert In ersoll. So'rates# !('reti(s# Mar'(s A(reli(s wel'omed eternal slee% as the reatest of blessin s. The- did not ta6e ref( e to the theor- of %ersonal immortalit- for a 5(stifi'ation of this life. Nor did Niet)s'he. The- a''e%t life (n'onditionall- as it reall- is. That is the stand%oint of s'ien'e. Whitman$s affirmation# howe&er# de%ends (%on a h-%othesis# whi'h ma- be belie&ed# whi'h 'an ne&er be s'ientifi'all- %ro&ed. Where# then# is the Whitmanian s-nthesis of reli ion and s'ien'e9 Dr. 8ert) dril- remar6s; Whitman$s intelle't disa%%ro&es# his faith a%%ro&es the world. A%%arentl- he is an o%timist# se'retl- a %essimist.

Certainl- Dr. 8ert) deser&es 'redit for ha&in laid bare this irre'on'ilable dis're%an'- in Whitman$s %hiloso%h- and# besides# its %rin'i%al 'a(se; Whitman$s abnormal se"(alit-. As an Lranian the %oet was at &arian'e with the ethi'al standard of so'iet-. Therefore his s%ells of moral anar'hism# as well as the (ndertone of des%onden'-# miser-# and ne ation in his os%el of affirmation. Whitman was an-thin b(t the t-%e of manl- %erfe'tion. While his instin'ts were lar elfeminine# his 'onstit(tion de enerate# he tried to %ers(ade himself and others of the 'ontrar- C 5(st as Niet)s'he did.

8ert) de&otes a brilliant 'ha%ter to a detailed 'om%arison of the two %oet+%ro%hets. In s%ite of

'ertain %oints of similarit- in their life and tho( ht C the latter bein d(e 'hiefl- to a 'ommon so(r'e; Emerson C the- are dire't 'o(nter%arts as re ards the (ltimate meanin of their messa e. Niet)s'he$s s(%erman is a loft-# if (to%ian# ideal to be rea'hed in a farawa- f(t(re# as the res(lt of rad(al e&ol(tion. The s(%erman is reall- Godli6e. Whitman sees his ideal of manhood# the di&ine a&era e# f(lfilled now amon the 'ommon %eo%le. An ordinar- ha'6+dri&er with the s%irit(al as%irations of a sa&a e meets his reH(irements 'om%letel-# if onl- he is a * ood fellow., 8(t sin'e both Whitman and Niet)s'he %la'e instin't abo&e reason# and sin'e both ha&e ne&er attained to lo i'al 'onsisten'- in their %hiloso%h-# the- ma- not be 'o(nted amon the leaders of man6ind. The- ha&e not i&en new '(lt(ral &al(es to the world as ha&e Goethe and Emerson.

As artists the- ha&e fallen below man- a less famo(s %oet. Neither Zarathustra nor Leaves of Grass are# stri'tl- s%ea6in # %oeti'al 'om%ositions. The- 'ontain a wealth of estheti' material. 8(t the %assa es where form and 'ontent rea'h the %ermanen'- of 'on'rete ima es are few. Niet)s'he and Whitman are %oeti)in orators# not artists with the formati&e %ower of &is(ali)ation. As to Whitman we ha&e said that he sha%ed his os%el to s(it his own indi&id(alit-. The same is tr(e of his theor- of art. A''e%tin Sainte+8e(&e$s &iew 30J4 that a wor6 of art sho(ld rather s( est emotions than i&e definite

form to an estheti' e"%erien'e# Whitman# in tr(e romanti' fashion# meets the 'riti's$ ob5e'tion to the ha)- &a (eness of the ma5orit- of his %oems. 3004

8(t his own theor- offers no+e"'(se for the monoton- of his &erse. If it reminds the %oet and some of his readers of the roll of o'ean wa&es# we ha&e to as6 the H(estion; What does that mean9 Are we to ta6e for 'om%arison the indefinable roar of the a itated sea with its eneral effe't (%on the ear of monoton-9 7r are we to thin6 of the eH(all- indefinable# inn(merable# e&er 'han in '(r&es the sea in its 'alm moods ins'ribes (%on the sand of the bea'h9 7r what9 The fa't remains that Whitman a%%lies the same te'hniH(e of rhetori'al %athos to an- and all s(b5e'ts; Cavalry crossing a ford in its

rh-thmi'al str('t(re does not differ from Passage to 1ndia. And that is (n'reati&e im%ressionism. Nor does Whitman$s theor- do awa- with the reatest ob5e'tion to his %oetr-# &i).# that its final effe't is ener&atin rather than in&i oratin . In this Whitman resembles a &astl- s(%erior artist; Ri'hard Wa ner# whom Niet)s'he 5(stl- 'alled the reat sor'erer.

8oth Whitman and Wa ner were %ossessed of an indomitable sens(alit-# the ma netism of whi'h# &ibratin thro( h all their 'om%ositions# 'a(ses an e'stati' into"i'ation in&ariabl- followed b- (tter e"ha(stion. This ma- not be an estheti' 'onsideration# b(t it is a fa't worth re'ordin . The more o%enl- we fa'e the tr(th# the sooner we et o&er that dan ero(s malad- whi'h Swinb(rne dia nosed as Whitmania. Nations that ha&e %rod('ed a Goethe and an Emerson need not and sho(ld not worshi% a Whitman as one of their heroes.

7. E. !ESSING.

304 Cf. &ol. I@ of Freili rath$s Colle'ted Wor6s. 3.4 First translated into German b- the %resent writer and %(blished in Aus fremden Zungen# 8erlin# 0NJ2. 3M4 Frit) !ienhard in Wege nach Weimar is (n'riti'al eno( h to ma6e Whitman a s(''essor of Goethe: 'f. /r#inia# Strassb(r # Se%t. 0NJN. 3/4 So Mr. 8inns informed me. 3K4 /nglische Studien# 0NJI# %. 00I.

324 A%%eared in the 8e'lam+!ibrar-. 3I4 Cf. Deutsche Arbeit# Qra # 0NJK+J2# @. %%. MN.+/JM. 314 This arti'le 'ontains some e"'ellent translations from Calamus. 3N4 Similarl- !eo%old Weber in 0unst#art# 7'tober 0NJK# and Her mann Esswein in Der Deutsche# No&ember 0NJK# %oint o(t the barbaro(s 'haos of Whitman$s tho( ht. Der 7an$ee-"eiland bears the si nifi'ant s(b+title; *Ein 8eitra )(r Modernen Reli ions es'hiente., 30J4 Cf. Diar- of 011. and Democratic 2istas. 3004 Cf. ?n(t Hams(n# Die Gesellschaft# S@I# %%. ./+MK. It is interestin to note that >a6obows6-# the editor# %(blished Hams(n$s se&ere 'riti'ism of Whitman with the footnote $,We who lo&e Whitman %refer to ha&e >ohannes S'hlaf instr('t (s., For 'riti'ism of Whitman$s rhetori'al st-le# 'f. Arno Hol)# .evolution der Lyri$# 8erlin 01NN.

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