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American Presidents 1960 – Present

United States History and Government

John F. Kennedy (Democrat) 1960 - 1963

JFK: How he got to be President
• Beat Republican candidate Richard Nixon in the election of 1960 • First televised presidential debates • First president born in the 20th century • Appealed to the “new generation” of Americans

000 soldiers there. . By 1963.S. JFK responds with naval blockade. there are 17. Closest the Cold War gets to nuclear war • Alliance for Progress – containment (using $) in Latin America • Vietnam – Sent first U.S. Embarrassing failure.JFK: Foreign Policy • Bay of Pigs Invasion – CIA plan to overthrow Castro in Cuba. Troops (advisors). • Cuban Missile Crisis – Soviet missiles aimed at U.

to have a man on the moon by end of decade • Peace Corps – combined foreign and domestic – sent young American volunteers to work in developing countries • Civil Rights – under pressure from growing movement.JFK: Domestic Policy: New Frontier • Space program – committed U. asked Congress for a civil rights bill .S.

visible first lady .JFK: How is he similar to/different than other presidents? • Youngest president elected to office • First Catholic President • First president to ask for civil rights legislation • Jackie Kennedy most popular.

JFK: What is ALWAYS on the regents? • New Frontier – establishes space program • 1961 inaugural address quotes .

Johnson (Democrat) 1963 .Lyndon B.1968 .

became President in November 1963 when JFK was assassinated • Re-elected in 1964 • Shocks the nation in 1968 by announcing that he would not run for a 2nd term .LBJ: How he got to President • JFK’s Vice President.

S. increases U.000 . troops to 200.LBJ: Foreign Policy Vietnam becomes “President Johnson’s War” • Tonkin Gulf Resolution – gives him extra power during war • Operation Rolling Thunder – escalates the war.

Civil Rights and Voting Rights Act both passed • Created “War on Poverty” • Project Head Start • Elementary and Secondary Education Act • Medicare added to social security • Department of Housing and Urban Development .LBJ: Domestic Policy: “Great Society” • “inherited” JFK’s civil rights action.

. especially minorities and the poor.LBJ: How is he similar to/different than other Presidents? • Because he was a majority leader in the Senate. he was more successful in getting laws passed (civil rights) than JFK • Compared with FDR because he increased the role of government to help people.

LBJ: What is ALWAYS on the regents? • He did the most for civil rights since Lincoln • Got the nation more involved in Vietnam • Great Society = anti-poverty • Great Society (LBJ) compared to the New Deal (FDR) .

1974 . Nixon (Republican) 1969 .Richard M.

Nixon: How he got to be President • Elected in 1968 after losing the 1960 election to JFK .

S. decreases U.Nixon: Foreign Policy • Visit to China – started diplomatic relations with China for the 1st time since the communist revolution • Détente – goal to bring about a warming (thaw) to the Cold War. Nixon visits USSR in 1972 • SALT Agreement – Strategic Arms Limitation Talks • “Vietnamization” – turn the war back over to the Vietnamese to fight. troops (increased bombing in Cambodia instead) .

Nixon: Domestic Policy
• “New Federalism” – tried to reduce the role of the federal government in social welfare. Criticized the “Great Society” (LBJ) • 26th Amendment – extended the right to vote to 18 year olds, under criticism that 18 year olds were drafted to fight • Civil Rights – appointed conservative justices to the Supreme Court. He wanted to slow down civil rights.

Nixon: How is he similar to/ different than other presidents?
• Changed LBJ’s influence by decreaing the role of the federal government • Resigned because of the Watergate Scandal • First president to resign from office

Nixon: What is ALWAYS on the regents?
• Nixon vs. United States and the Watergate Scandal
• Weakened executive privilege • Example of limited government • Example of checks and balances

• Nixon’s visit to China decreases tensions between China and the U.S. • Détente decreases tensions between the USSR and U.S.

Gerald R.1977 . Ford (Republican) 1974 .

Ford became Nixon’s Vice President.Ford: How he got to be President • Ford was Speaker of the House when Nixon’s Vice President Spiro Agnew resigned in 1973. • Ford became the President when Nixon resigned in 1974 • Ford appoints Nelson Rockefeller as his Vice President .

S. • Rationing established as solution to oil issue . Controversial to many Americans.Ford: Domestic Policy • Nixon’s Pardon – Ford wanted the nation to heal. so he pardons Nixon. • Economic Issues – OPEC oil embargo – causes inflation and recession in U.

Ford: How is he similar to/different than other Presidents? • First and only President never to win an electoral vote for VP or President .

Ford: What is ALWAYS on the regents? • Ford justifies pardoning Nixon because he believes it will allow the nation to heal and move on more quickly .

1981 .Jimmy Carter (Democrat) 1977 .

Carter: How he got to be President • Former governor of Georgia • Emphasized HONESTY and American values • Ford still had negative association with the Nixon administration .

Carter: Foreign Policy • Panama Canal Treaty (1977) – promised to return the Panama Canal to Panama in 1999 • Camp David Accords (1979) – helped negotiate the 1st peace agreement between Egypt and Israel • Boycott of the 1980 Olympic Games in Moscow – in response to Soviet invasion of Afghanistan • Iranian Hostage Crisis (1979) – 53 Americans held hostage by conservative Muslim terrorists. Refused to negotiate and would not release the prisoners until the inauguration of another president .

S.Carter: Domestic Policy • Federal government gave loans to major corporations to deal with the problems of “stagflation” • During Carter’s Presidency. issues of the U. and environmental issues (acid rain) came to the public’s attention .’s dependency on oil.

Carter: How is he similar to/ different than other Presidents? • Compared with President Woodrow Wilson for his efforts in MORAL DIPLOMACY .

Carter: What is ALWAYS on the regents? • Camp David Accords – attempt to establish peace in the middle east • Similarity between Carter and Wilson – both emphasized moral principles in foreign affairs .

Ronald Reagan (Republican) 1981-1989 .

inflation. Jimmy Carter • Carter dealing with Iranian Hostage Crisis. and energy crisis • Reagan.Reagan: How he got to be President • 1980 election vs. former California governor • Promises a “new beginning” • Reagan won 91% of electoral vote .

Reagan: Foreign Policy • Tough on communism. USSR is the “evil empire” ended détente in first term • Iran-Contra Affair – Reagan is cleared of wrongdoing. but Colonel Oliver North and CIA members are investigated • Reagan and Gorbachev work for a renewal of détente and arms reductions (1985 – 1987) .

Reagan: Domestic Policy • Supply-side economics (Reaganomics) called for tax cuts for wealth individuals and businesses. leading to increased investments and more jobs. goods and services • Tried to balance the budget by decreasing social welfare and environmental protection • Refused to cut military budget – wanted money for strategic defense initiative (“star wars”) .

Reagan: How is he similar to/different than other Presidents? • Supported Nixon’s idea of “New Federalism” • Hoover’s “trickle down” = Reagan’s “supply side” • Worked to overturn efforts by LBJ and Carter at using federal government in welfare/social programs .

Reagan: What is ALWAYS on the regents? • Comparing Reagan’s supply side economics with Hoover’s trickle down economics • “star wars” as increased defense initiative .

W.George H. Bush 41 (Republican) 1989 – 1993 .

Bush 41: How he got to be President • Was Ronald Reagan’s Vice President • Chose Dan Quayle as running mate • Beat Michael Dukakis in 1988 election .

Bush 41: Foreign Policy • Cold War ends during his presidency • Persian Gulf War (Jan – Feb 1991) – Operation Desert Shield created to defend Kuwait against Iraq. Becomes Operation Desert Storm in early 1991 when US troops invade Iraq .

.Bush 41: Domestic Policy • “Read my lips: no new taxes” broke promise by 1990 because of an increasing deficit • Economic recession. rising unemployment • Savings and Loan scandal – misuse of funds meant taxpayers would have to bail out the industry • Appointed two Supreme Court justices: David Souter and Clarence Thomas • Had to deal with urban violence that resulted from the Rodney King incident in LA.

Bush 41: How is he similar to/different than other presidents? • Associated with the end of the cold war. but also credited with the Persian Gulf War • Similar to Reagan in economic policy .

interests in the region .S.Bush 41: What is ALWAYS on the Regents? • Bush decides to invade Iraq in order to protect U.

2001 .William Clinton (Democrat) 1993 .

Clinton: How he got to be president? • Election of 1992 – ran against Bush/Quayle and Ross Perot with Al Gore as VP candidate • Won 370 electoral votes.38% of popular vote • Perot – 19% of popular vote . and 43% of popular vote • Bush .

. Mexico and Canada in 1992 to break down trade barriers.S.Clinton: Foreign Policy • War in Bosnia – US helped win an agreement between ethnic groups and sent troops to enforce plan in 1995 • Kosovo – US supported NATO in bombing to force Serbs to withdraw in 1998 • NAFTA – signed by U..

The Senate acquitted him. .Clinton: Domestic Policy • Health Care Reform – 1993 plan to ensure health care to all Americans. Congress rejected it. saying it was too expensive. and would limit choice • Scandal and Impeachment – Clinton lied under oath and to the public about his relationship with a white house intern. The House impeached him in 1998 for perjury and obstruction of justice. • 1990s were longest period of economic growth in US history. complex.

Clinton: How is he similar to/different than other presidents? • Compared with Andrew Johnson because of impeachment • Compare to Wilson and Carter for efforts at moral diplomacy .

neither are removed from office. both because of human rights violations .Clinton: What is ALWAYS on the Regents? • Purpose of NAFTA is to increase trade between the 3 countries • The result of Clinton and Johnson’s impeachment was that both are impeached. • Troops in Bosnia and Kosovo.

Bush 43 (Republican) 2001 – 2009 .George W.

• Supreme Court ruled in Bush v. One of the closest elections in history. Vice President Al Gore.“Bush 43”: How he got to be President • Election of 2000 – Bush v. vote so close a recount is taken. • Florida is the key state. Gore to end the recount. and Bush wins election • Gore won the popular vote and Bush won the electoral vote and presidency .

2003. and Hussein would be connected with WMDs. most of Bush’s Presidency is focused on foreign policy and the “war on terror” • War in Iraq – in early 2003. Bush declares official end to war on May 1. .“Bush 43”: Foreign Policy • After September 11th 2001. Troops still occupy area. and defended it by saying a dictator was overthrown. US attacks Iraq.

but it had little effect. • Education Reform and “No Child Left Behind” – meant to increase accountability of public schools .“Bush 43”: Domestic Policy • Tax cut that resulted in about $300 rebate for taxpayers. Hoped this would jumpstart the economy.

• 9/11/01 makes Bush’s presidency different than any other in history .“Bush 43”: How is he similar to/different than other Presidents? • Tax cut similar to Reagan and Bush 41 • US involvement in Iraq often compared to Bush 41’s attempts to keep power in the area.

“Bush 43”: What is ALWAYS on the Regents? • Economy has a greater emphasis on service industries • Bush sends troops into Afghanistan as part of the War on Terror • War in Iraq justified to eliminate Hussein’s rule and existence of WMDs • Reduction of rights to preserve freedom (Patriot Act. wiretapping) .

Barack Obama (Democrat) 2009 – Present .

S.Obama: How he got to be President • Defeated Hillary Clinton for the Democratic nomination • 2009 . VP Sarah Palin received more media attention. • First Africa-American president of U.Defeated John McCain who was viewed as too old and out of touch. .

S. • Increased U. Today. troops remain in Iraq. troop presence in Afghanistan as part of the war on terror. troops from Iraq.S. . Gitmo remains open and U.S.Obama: Foreign Policy • During campaign he promised to close Guantanamo Bay facility and withdraw U.

Stock market drops from a high of $14.Obama: Domestic Policy • Faced the largest economic downturn since the Great Depression.53 on 10/9/2007 to a decade low of $6.164. .547 on 3/9/2009. • Pushed to the passage of universal healthcare bringing raising coverage for American citizens from 86% to 95%.

Obama: How is he similar to/different than other Presidents? • Obama’s handling of the recent economic crisis to the Great Depression and FDR’s New Deal. • Iraq still a difficult issue. Roosevelt 1906. Obama increases troop presence in Afghanistan. • War on Terror not dramatically different that Bush 43. • Won the Nobel Peace Prize (T. . Wilson 1919 and Carter 2002).

Obama: What is ALWAYS on the Regents? • This is a new area. but these are the best guesses: • His handling of economic recovery • Sent additional troops to Afghanistan as part of the War on Terror • Passage of universal healthcare .