You are on page 1of 3

1

2T0IXEI0NETPIA 2YK0YAB KuN2TANTINA



STP m
V =n V !

!"#$%&$#'&"()*

, -./ :


01 2 03 :




41 2 43 5



, .67 5




0($8'9: ;<6=->16 ?@;A 5



BCD#$ '&"*"(#DEF
D#G9"H"*: #IG)*:


- Aptûµo¸ mol µopluv :





- Aptûµo¸ µopluv :





- Aptûµo¸ u+oµuv :




- Uyxo¸ oc ¤po+u¤c¸ ouvûqxc¸ :



0"#'$J2 '#FKL* 'KM*: opl(c+ut u¸ +o 1¡12 +q¸ µú(u¸ +ou u+oµou +ou
úvûpuxu -12 (
12
C).

!%&"$J2 *"#'$J2 'KM* 2 *"#'$J9 NK(#: icyc+ut o uptûµo¸ ¤ou ocl¿vct ¤ooc¸
µopc¸ clvut µcyuiú+cpq q µú(u +ou u+oµou +ou o+ot¿clou u¤o +o 1¡12 +q¸
µú(u¸ +ou u+oµou +ou úvûpuxu -12.
!%&"$J2 '#($*J2 'KM* 2 '#($*J9 NK(#: ¿qµtxq¸ ouolu¸ icyc+ut o uptûµo¸
¤ou ocl¿vct ¤ooc¸ µopc¸ clvut µcyuiú+cpq q µú(u +ou µoplou +ou o+ot¿clou q
+q¸ ¿qµtxq¸ cvuoq¸ u¤o +o 1¡12 +q¸ µú(u¸ +ou u+oµou +ou úvûpuxu -12.

clvut µovúou ¤ooo+q+u¸ ouolu¸ o+o Atcûvc¸ 2úo+qµu µovúouv (S.I.) xut
opl(c+ut u¸ q ¤ooo+q+u +q¸ úiq¸ ¤ou ¤cptc¿ct +ooc¸ o+ot¿ctuoct¸ ov+o+q+c¸
ooo¸ clvut o uptûµo¸ +uv u+oµuv ¤ou u¤úp¿ouv oc 12 g +ou
12
C.

0 uptûµo¸ +uv u+oµuv ¤ou ¤cptc¿ov+ut oc 12 g +ou
12
C xut
u¤oioyloûqxc µc ¤ctpuµu+txc¸ µcûooou¸ xut µc µcyúiq
¤poocyytoq loo¸ µc OPQR S ,Q
RT
U


n=
m
Mr

mol
Nú(u
2¿c+txq µoptuxq µú(u

N=n! N
A
Aptûµo¸ Avogauio

A
!=n " N ! !

oclx+q¸
Aptûµo¸ Avogauio
(6,u2 !1u
2S
)
22,4L
!"# % &'()*&+, ,*-./0+,

uVC (q 27SK)
1atm (76ummBg)
2
2T0IXEI0NETPIA 2YK0YAB KuN2TANTINA




4&)W'*"*

2uvoitxo¸ uptûµo¸ moles µclyµu+o¸ : X#Y Z X, [ XR [ XT [\U


Nú(u µclyµu+o¸ : .'&$W'UZX, ]1?;A [ XR ]1?^A [ XT ]1?_A [ \UU


Av +o µclyµu clvut ucpto, o oyxo¸ +ou clvut : `'&$W'U Z X#Y ! `. o¤ou vm =22,4L oc STP

BP020XB !! Acv to¿úct o +ú¤o¸ n
!"#$%
=
m
µ&#'µ
(r
µ&#'µ



Iooµoptuxo µclyµu :



!"* *a($* H *F*Y#W)* "bF 9WJbF &)F*$ )GH '& "HF *F*Y#W)* "#I *($8'#C "bF .67cd
"#I:, o+uv ot oyxot c¿ouv µc+pqûcl oc lotc¸ ouvûqxc¸ ¤lcoq¸ xut ûcpµoxpuolu¸.






Ku+uo+u+txq
c(louoq +uv ucpluv














eL*F$JK 2 "aY&$* *a($* : ovoµú(ov+ut +u ucptu +u o¤olu u¤uxoúouv o+qv xu+uo+u+txq
c(louoq ytu o¤otcooq¤o+c +tµc¸ ¤lcoq¸ xut ûcpµoxpuolu¸.

0voµú(c+ut +o µclyµu ¤ou ¤cptcp¿ct loo uptûµo µopluv , úpu xut loo
uptûµo moles, u¤o +u ouo+u+txú +ou. Aqiuoq to¿úct o+t : n1=n2=..
V
A
V
B
=
n
A
n
B
(o+uv P xut T lotu)
f! `ZX! g! h
o¤ou
i : q ¤lcoq ¤ou uoxcl +o ucpto oc atm (1atm=76ummBg)
` : o oyxo¸ ¤ou xu+uiuµµúvct +o ucpto oc L
X : o uptûµo¸ mol +ou ucplou
B : q u¤oiu+q ûcpµoxpuolu +ou ucplou oc µuûµoú¸ Kelvin
(T = 27S + ûVC)
g : µtu o+uûcpú uvuioylu¸, q o¤olu ovoµú(c+ut D*WJ9G'$* G"*8&(K
"bF *&()bF xut clvut uvc(úp+q+q u¤o +q µúoq +u ucplou xut +t¸
ouvûqxc¸ ¤lcoq¸ xut ûcpµoxpuolu¸. B uptûµq+txq +tµq +q¸ o+uûcpú¸
R c(up+ú+ut u¤o +t¸ µovúoc¸ +uv µcycûuv P xut v.
R=u,u82
atm! L
mol ! K
q R = 8,S1
J
mol ! K
o+o S.I.


S
2T0IXEI0NETPIA 2YK0YAB KuN2TANTINA




Tu ¤cptooo+cpu '&)W'*"*
*&()bF, xú+u u¤o optoµcvc¸
ouvûqxc¸ ¤lcoq¸ xut ûcpµoxpuolu¸,
ouµ¤cptµcpov+ut u¸ touvtxú ucptu.
T+ot µ¤opoúµc vu cµupµo(ouµc +qv
xu+uo+u+txq c(louoq xut ytu
µclyµu+u ucpluv :



!IWJaF"(bGH L$*YC'*"#:















0(*)bGH L$*YC'*"#: : Apuluoq c¿ouµc o+uv u¤úp¿ct ¤pooûqxq vcpoú oc cvu otúiuµu. 2+qv
upuluoq q otuiuµcvq ouolu µcvct lotu .






!I'DCJFbGH L$*YC'*"#: : 2uµ¤úxvuoq c¿ouµc o+uv µc xú¤otov +po¤o (¤.¿. c(ú+µtoq)
uµutpcoouµc vcpo u¤o cvu otúiuµu.






0FK'&$jH L$*YI'K"bF : Avuµtyvúouµc oúo q ¤cptooo+cpu otuiúµu+u ¤ou ¤cptc¿ouv +qv lotu
otuiúµcvq ouolu.


f
#Y
! `ZX
#Y
! g! h
f#Y 5 H #Y$J2 D)&GH "#I *a($#I '&)W'*"#:
` 5 # 9WJ#: D#I J*"*Y*'NKF&$ "# *a($# '&)W'*
h 5 H *D9YI"H 8&('#J(*G)*
X
#Y
Z X
,
[ X
R
[ \\ # GIF#Y$J9: *($8'9: .67
"bF GIG"*"$JEF "#I *&()#I '&)W'*"#:U
•=
n
V

o¤ou :
C = q ouyxcv+puoq +ou otuiúµu+o¸
n = o uptûµo¸ mol +q¸ otuiuµcvq¸ ouolu¸
v = o oyxo¸ +ou otuiúµu+o¸ oc L

Novúou µc+pqoq¸ +q¸ ouyxcv+puoq¸ clvut +o N (€olaiit•)



c
1
! V
1
= c
2
! V
2



c
1
! V
1
= c
2
! V
2




c
1
! V
1
+ c
2
! V
2
= c
3
! V
3