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The Role and Use of Advanced Controls in Challenging Hybrid Electric Vehicles Applications

By: Prof. Francis Assadian and Dr Sajjad Fekriasl Automotive Mechatronics Centre, Cranfield University

During the last two decades, there have been substantial advances in the theory and application of robust multivariable feedback control system design. The reason for a need of such robust algorithms arises from several inherent uncertainty sources such as various operational conditions, process changes, sensor noises and unmeasured exogenous disturbances. While robust control systems have been reported to successfully tackle a wide range of engineering applications including Aerospace Systems: Automotive Industry has not fully taken sufficient advantages of such modern control techniques; However, it is interesting to recall that most of the control software design and requirement capturing in the automotive engineering domain have been adopted from the aerospace industry. One of the main reasons in this course, perhaps, is the fact that the process of automotive systems, unlike the aerospace industry, is in the state of flux, being made not "standardised" as of yet. It is turned out that there has been a continuous increase in the gap between the control theory and the practical control strategies utilised in the existing production vehicles. This gap indeed results in significant missed opportunities in addressing several fundamental functionalities such as fuel economy, emissions, driveability, unification of control architecture and integration of the Automotive Mechatronics units on-board vehicle and most importantly control software calibrations. In this article, we shall briefly discuss how we have endeavoured to bridge this gap by employing robust feedback control systems design in the Automotive Mechatronics domain. Automotive Mechatronics in Research A wide range of modern automotive products are currently designed by the integration of mechanical components and electronic hardware into one packaging unit leading towards true mechatronic solutions, such as HEV energy management systems, active chassis systems, next-generation HEVs etc (Figure 1). On the other hand, there are various

practical challenging problems of automotive systems including calibration efforts, time and cost to production, reliability and diagnostics, control system robustness and performance issues and hardware constraints. Existing methodologies, however, are no longer liable to meet such requirements for increasingly complex new vehicle and therefore a variety of innovative mechatronics-based design methodologies are desperately required. Mechatronics applications are the best and ultimate solutions to the challenging automotive industries requirements as they offer versatile potentials with regards to functionality, cost, space requirements and quality. The key objective of the Automotive Mechatronics is thus to pursue, in both research and development, a harmonised approach to the design of mechatronic systems for the automotive systems.

Figure 1. Automotive Mechatronics Applications Automotive Mechatronics Centre at Cranfield 1 University , led by Prof. Francis Assadian, contributes to advance mechatronics applications with wide range of innovative and cost-effective research and development technologies. To this end, we aim to build strong links with industrial partners in our research collaborations. Examples which have been successfully investigated in our centre include complex automotive applications such as advanced control systems for torque management and driveability improvement of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) which is the main topic of this article. The Technology In our EPSRC funded research project on multivariable controls, the aim was to design

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For more information on Automotive Mechatronics Centre at Cranfield University, please see: http://www.cranfield.ac.uk/soe/departments/automotive/automechatronics/index.jsp

sufficiently realistic clutch models. model uncertainties are ignored and torque estimation errors in the feedback are not considered. we intent to show only some typical results of the multivariable robust control design. Robust multivariable torque control results designed and tested at Cranfield University. This is a challenging multivariable problem with which single PID loops cannot cope with. the developed robust multivariable controller fully achieves our requirement from the HEV driveability viewpoint by delivering sufficiently fast total torque response. Here. 1 For more information on Automotive Mechatronics Centre at Cranfield University. Figure 2. In words. Middle: CIMG Torque. in which driveability is an afterthought. lowfrequency responses are counted by the ICE while CIMG is expected to compensate ICE torques at high-frequencies. applied successfully to the case study of torque Figure 4.jsp . management of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) (Figure 4). Yellow: Requested torque. the so called ‘torque filling’. drastically reduce the need for manual drivability calibration effort.cranfield. This complexity results in many challenges for both automotive OEMs and suppliers. As illustrated. We have developed a Simulink package for the HEV energy management application (Figure 2). by meeting the increasingly stringent emissions standards and enhanced reliability and diagnostics. more expertise in the mechatronics area particularly at the OEM side. a better definition of roles of suppliers and automotive OEMs.and develop a pragmatic advanced modelbased (dynamical) controller to the torque management of HEV that is a challenging application due to complexity of the HEV dynamics. This was motivated due to the fact that existing hybrid powertrain control methods are based on off-line (sub-optimal) algorithms. using so-called mixed-mu synthesis. Figure 3. over specific drive cycles including NEDC. adaptive torque estimation algorithms (for both ICE and CIMG output torques). the controller has made the CIMG to help bring the total torque rapidly to the requested torque. an electric Crankshaft Integrated Motor Controller (CIMG). pumping and friction torques). It also turns out that intensive calibration efforts are required. multivariable torque controller and their associated bumpless anti-windup controls that were designed and tested in HIL (Figure 3). The Structure of the HEV for the application of Torque Management. HIL architecture implemented based on the dSPACE platforms. Among these challenges. use of advanced robust control techniques and more refined integration approaches are worth mentioning. Magenta: Estimated torque. more efficient development processes. This includes an empirical diesel engine model. Bottom: Total Torque). Our project was aimed to deliver a setup with reduced fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. please see: http://www.uk/soe/departments/automotive/automechatronics/index. the HEV torque management application is a complex frequency-weighted problem which can be solved by the robust MIMO designs and as a result. Recall that due to different bandwidths at two ICE/CIMG control channels. an ICE speed controller. together with saturated actuators and torque loss models (such as ICE ancillary.ac. Top: ICE torque.

Cranfield Automotive Mechatronics Centre Cranfield University is one of the leading institutes of higher education in the UK in the fields of design and engineering of automotive technology. The Automotive Mechatronics Centre. please see: http://www. The Summary In collaboration with our industrial partners.uk/soe/departments/automotive/automechatronics/index.ac. Florida. Furthermore. 3) To address the knowledge gap in automotive mechatronics through short courses as well as establishment of an MSc program in Automotive Mechatronics in 2013. advanced automotive control and energy management strategies. USA (December 2011) at the above field which has received very promising feedback and attention from wider researchers and engineers. our overarching goals of this centre are listed as follows: 1) To address the immediate needs and gap in the mechatronics and advanced control system design in a coordinated pragmatic approach through short term projects with industry. Contact: Prof. both academia and industry. vehicle Dynamics and integrated chassis Control. To present operational and practical issues of automotive mechatronics.ac. we have co-authored a number of publications to overview some of the theoretical and practical aspects of the applied robust control. through governmental support and long term industrial projects. designed for both speed-control and torque-control modes. have been very satisfactory and promising. It has been our intention to highlight that the missed opportunities within the automotive applications could have been addressed by utilising advanced control techniques. 2) To carry out long term fundamental research in the automotive green technology area. Besides.In order to disseminate our latest achievements.uk 1 For more information on Automotive Mechatronics Centre at Cranfield University. we are now in the process of testing these torque estimations and are planning to write an invention disclosure in due course. the results of our adaptive engine brake torque estimations. Figure 5. our research activities are mainly focused on vehicle electrifications (novel electrical and control architectures). The Automotive Mechatronics Centre at Cranfield University was established in 2009 to help address some of the applied advanced control issues discussed above. aimed at both transient and steadystate. We also recently held a workshop entitled "Applied Robust Control: From Theory to Automotive Industrial Applications" at the 50th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control and European Control Conference. Francis Assadian Head of Department of Automotive Engineering & Director of Automotive Mechatronics Centre School of Engineering.cranfield. to mechatronics modelling. To meet increasingly new challenges in the pioneered automotive research. Orlando. Cranfield University. from process and methodology. It is our hope that the results of this research work could motivate automotive industry to pay sufficient attention towards the advanced robust control designs and their potential capabilities in addressing a broad range of complex applications in the automotive control systems by improving vehicle performance and driveability while still continuing to reduce costs and meeting new emission standards.assadian@cranfield.jsp . Cranfield University Tel: +44 (0) 1234 754657 Email: f. our current research successes are in the design and development of robust controls for a challenging application of Hybrid Electric Vehicle torque management. design and development.