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Myocardial infarction (MI) is the irreversible necrosis of heart muscle secondary to prolonged ischemia.

This usually results from an imbalance of oxygen supply and demand. The appearance of cardiac enzymes in the circulation generally indicates myocardial necrosis. MI is considered, more appropriately, part of a spectrum referred to as Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACSs), which also includes unstable angina and non±ST-elevation MI (NSTEMI). Patients with ischemic discomfort may or may not have ST-segment elevation. Most of those with ST-segment elevation will develop Q waves. Those without ST elevations will ultimately be diagnosed with unstable angina or NSTEMI based on the presence of cardiac enzymes. MI may lead to impairment of systolic function or diastolic function and to increased predisposition to arrhythmias and other long-term complications. Myocardial Infarction (MI) is one of the effects of the disease atherosclerosis. It is characterized by the destruction of a portion of myocardium caused by an interruption in blood flow resulting to the formation of localized necrotic areas. It is commonly known as coronary thrombosis, cardiac arrest or heart attack. Acute MI can cause permanent damaged of heart muscles as in thrombotic occlusion of a branch of an atherosclerotic coronary artery. It is often accompanied by severe pain, shock, cardiac dysfunction and even death. This usually results from plaque rupture with thrombus formation in a coronary vessel, resulting in acute reduction of blood supply to a portion of the myocardium. Atherosclerotic plaque formation involves many risk factors such as age, gender, smoking, inherited lipoprotein disorders, diabetes mellitus (DM), poorly controlled hypertension, type A personality, family history and having a sedentary lifestyle. Increasing age predisposes more risk factors in an individual which make that individual prone to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). It is more common to males than females. Smoking tends to increase the incidence of MI due to the vasoconstrictor effect of nicotine or to some undesirable effects on the coagulability of the blood or the survival of the platelets. Hypertension may also cause MI since it is the persistent elevation of asystolic blood pressure above 140 mmHg and diastolic pressure above 90 mmHg. Other causes of MI are coronary artery vasospasm, ventricular hypertrophy, hypoxia due to CO poisoning or acute pulmonary disorders, coronary artery emboli, cocaine, ampethamines and ephedrine, and other coronary anomalies. A myocardial infarction can occur at any time of the day. This can be identified with observations of the following signs and symptoms: Chest pain described as a pressure sensation, fullness, or squeezing in the midportion of the thorax. Radiation of chest pain into the jaw or teeth, shoulder, arm and/or back Associated with shortness of breath Associated with epigastric discomfort which may or may not cause nausea or vomiting. Associated with sweating Myocardial infarction can also be a cause of hyperlipoprotenemia type IV, which is an elevation of lipoprotein factors in the blood. It is characterized by an overproduction and impaired clearance of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL). This order may be hereditary or associated with diabetes mellitus or another metabolic disorder. Obesity and atherosclerosis are also frequent causes.