You are on page 1of 22

PETROCHEMICAL AROMATICS FROM LIQUID HYDROCARBONS A TECHNOECONOMIC ASSESSMENT

K.M.WAGIALLA DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING KING SAUD UNIVERSITY

7TH SAUDI ENGINEERING CONFERENCE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING KING SAUD UNIVERSITY RIYADH NOVEMBER, 2007

1

ABSTRACT This paper investigates some technical and economic aspects regarding liquid feedstocks processing in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A review of present and potential petrochemical feedstocks is undertaken. Several commercial and potential processing routes are examined. A conceptual petrochemical complex comprising 12 down stream petrochemical derivative plants in the Kingdom is then economically evaluated. The complex cracks naphtha and produces ethylene, LDPE, LLDPE, HDPE, propylene, propylene glycol, ethylene glycol, benzene, styrene, and polystyrene. Realistic capital and operating cost data were obtained from international consultative sources and then adjusted for local Saudi conditions. A cash flow analysis was carried out over a 20 year period taking into account the effect of inflation. The complex has an ethylene annual production capacity of 680,400 tons. The total capital investment is estimated at 5,382.46 million dollars. 1. INTRODUCTION The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is expected to become the world’s largest producer and exporter of petrochemicals and plastics in the near future. The Kingdom has been forecast to produce 100 million tons per year of petrochemicals by 2015 [1]. Both the public and private industrial sectors are expanding their petrochemical operations in order to diversify their economies and strengthen their industries. They enjoy access to abundant and competitively priced feedstocks. Saudi Arabia’s proven natural gas reserves, including both associated and non-associated gas, are estimated at 230 trillion standard cubic feet as of January 2003. More than 60% of these reserves (i.e. about 140 trillion cubic feet) consist of associated gas. According to governmental and industrial sources, The Kingdom has more than 530 trillion standard cubic feet of undiscovered reserves as well as 40 billion barrels of condensate. The industrial sector in the Kingdom can claim access to modern production facilities and first class export infrastructures and logistics which are continually being upgraded and maintained. The Kingdom is not only endowed with abundant hydrocarbon resources it is also becoming the centre of the world’s petrochemical production because it offers: (1) Proactive policies committed to rapid industrialization. (2) Well-built infrastructures for industries to operate and thrive. (3) Financial incentives in the form of low cost project finance. (4) Tax incentives for foreign partners. (5) A well-trained work force – both indigenous and expatriate. The growth of petrochemical production in the Kingdom in the past two decades was phenomenal. The continued expansion of basic petrochemicals will propel SABIC and the Kingdom as a top producer in the key products of polyethylene, ethylene glycol, methanol and styrene. Overall, SABIC is the world’s 4th largest producer of polymers. However, most of the petrochemical industries in the Kingdom at the present time are natural gasbased. The aim of this study is to explore the techno-economic feasibility of liquid-based petrochemical processing in the Kingdom. 2. PETROCHEMICAL FEEDSTOCKS OVERVIEW: 2.1 Natural Gas Liquids Natural gas liquids (NGLs) are composed mainly of ethane, propane and normal butanes. Isobutane is not typically cracked for petrochemical production. Downstream processing is based on both normal and cryogenic distillation. The cracked gas from gaseous feedstocks (ethane, propane, butane) is fed into the transfer-line-exchanger (TLE) followed by direct quench with water, and multistage compression, typically

2

PIONA or PIANO analysis (i. Olefins.1) gives a typical naphtha composition [1].7. 2.0 3 .0 22.2 Naphtha Naphtha is obtained in petroleum refineries as one of the intermediate products from the distillation of crude oil.0 30.e. These denser types are also used in the petrochemical industry but more are used as a feedstock for refinery catalytic reformers where the lower octane naphtha is converted to a higher octane product called reformate which is a precursor for motor gasoline production. explains the effect of the market demand and price changes of gasoline on the production economics and prices of petrochemicals (specially aromatics). After the last compressor stage. Table (2. This common dependence of gasoline and petrochemicals on the same feedstock (naphtha). Naphthenes and Aromatics contents). Naphtha composition varies with source and refinery operating conditions.1): Typical naphtha composition Component C3. acid gas (mainly hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide) is removed. The heavier types are usually richer in naphthenes and aromatics and are sometimes referred to as “straight run benzene” (SRB) or “heavy virgin naphtha” (HVN). Medium range naphtha (MRN) and light virgin naphtha (LVN). flammable and have a specific gravity of 0. The main application of paraffinic naphthas is as a feedstock in the petrochemical production of olefins. Before the last compression stages.2 12.in four to six stages with intermediate cooling. as industrial solvents. Cryogenic distillation requires a lot of energy due to the need for a refrigeration system.5 8. Naphthas are also used as an unprocessed component in gasoline production.4 11. C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 – C15 Total n-Alkanes Iso-Alkanes Naphthenes Aromatics Total Analysis (% of total) 8. It is a liquid intermediate between the light gases in the crude oil and the heavier liquid kerosene. as an oil painting medium. Subsequent fractionation of the cracked gas is based on cryogenic (temperature less than 273 K) and conventional distillation under pressure (15 – 35 bar).e. water removal takes place by chilling and drying over zeolites.4 19. and as an ingredient in shoe polish. Isoparaffin.9 100. Naphthas are volatile.9 17. Paraffin. “straight run gasoline” (SRG).5 39.7 11.6 100. or “light virgin naphtha” (LVN”). This type of naphtha is also referred to as “light distillate feedstock (LDF).9 17. Table (2. C5-430oF boiling range). Full rang naphtha is a hydrocarbon mixture that boils in the gasoline boiling range (i. The naphthas are distinguished by density and PONA. Naphthas are also commonly classified as full range naphtha (FRN).

1) are possible depending on the type of feedstock and the degree of recovery desired for the different products. Vacuum gas oils are not usually cracked commercially.g.2. toluene and gasoline). Figure (2. Downstream processing of cracked gas from liquid feedstocks (naphtha and gas oil) is somewhat more complex than processing of gaseous feedstocks because heavier components are present. naphtha or gas oil) cracking [2]. Pygas may be processed to separate the BTX components.1): Simplified process flow diagram for producing ethylene via liquid (e. while the remainder may be sold or used as fuel for the cracking furnace. called pyrolysis gasoline or pygas which is rich in aromatics (benzene.3 Gas Oil Gas Oils are classified as either atmospheric or vacuum according to their origin. However. naphtha or gas oil) cracking. C4 hydrocarbons are produced in sufficient amounts to justify their separate recovery. Modifications of Figure (2. hydrotreated vacuum oils can be commercially exploited as cracking feedstocks for olefins and aromatics production. The primary fractionator also produces a gasoline stream. which is produced in considerable amounts when cracking naphtha or gas oil. either from an atmospheric crude tower or a crude bottoms vacuum column. Liquid Feedstock Steam Cracking Compressi on Ethane and Propane Recycle TLE Gas Drying Water Oil Quench Demetha nizer Hydrogen Methane Primary Fractionator Deethani zer Hydrogenation Ethylene Fractionation Ethylene Compression Depropo nizer Hydrogenation Propylene Fractionation Propylene H2S CO2 Acid Gas Removal Debutani zer C4 Pygas Fuel Oil 4 . and therefore usually a butanizer is installed.g. In this case a primary fractionator is installed upstream the compressor stages in order to remove fuel oil. Figure (2. Atmospheric Gas Oil boils in the range 400800oF. vacuum gas oil boils at 800-1000oF and higher.1) shows a simplified process flow diagram for producing ethylene via liquid (e. This fuel is partly used in the direct quench operation.

Table (3. toluene and xylenes. mainly. Thus. they must be manufactured from cracking processes. CURRENT PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES At present there exist several alternative routes to olefins and aromatics production. * On average.1 Steam cracking of saturated hydrocarbons Ethylene and propylene are the most important chemical feedstocks. However. operability and marketing) than any other type of cracker since there is one feedstock (ethane) and. the following considerations need to be taken into account [3]: * An ethane plant is an order of magnitude simpler (in terms of capital cost.1): Yields Patterns (lb per 100 lb Ethylene). It would be the feedstock of choice for an investor with limited capital resources. The propylene production at low propane feed content usually does not justify propylene recovery.3. accounting for 50-60% of all organic chemicals. * A naphtha cracker is more complex with three times the products to sell and involves much more working capital. Table (3. [2] Ethane Feedstock required(lb) Ethylene (yield %) Benzene (yield %) Propylene Butadiene Other C4 olefins Pyrolysis gasoline Benzene Toluene C5 olefins Fuel oil Other(mainly H2 and CH4) 120 80 3 2 1 2 1 Neg. Neg. Thus. but over the years the flexible naphtha cracker will have a lower cost since it can be changed over to the optimum feedstock. * An ethane/propane cracker is almost as simple as an ethane cracker if the amount of propane is relatively small. cracking butanes containing significant isobutene will result in significantly different yields and costs. * Cracking normal butane is very similar to cracking propane in terms of investment and yields. the net ethylene cost of ethane crackers and flexible crackers running on naphtha will be close. But. In broad terms the commercially prevalent routes are: 3. 5 . 17 Propane 240 42 50 5 3 15 5 Neg. 2 65 Butane 250 38 40 9 17 18 6 3 1 4 62 Naphtha 320 31 50 15 25 75 15 10 7 10 45 Atmospheric Gas Oil 380 26 55 17 18 70 23 12 8 70 50 Vacuum Gas Oil 430 23 60 17 18 65 24 12 7 125 45 3. in particular the aromatics: benzene. the depropanizer and C3 splitter columns are not required. These co products are the precursors for down stream integration in petrochemicals industry. due to their high reactivities. Neg. FEEDSTOCK SELECTION In terms of feedstock selection.1) gives the yield from different feedstocks. * Cracking heavier feedstocks (such as naphtha and gas oil) provides a wider product mix. Neg. only very limited amounts of olefins exist in natural gas and crude oil. one product (ethylene).

LPG. The reverse is to some degree possible because liquid crackers can be modified to handle lighter feeds. The future technology for olefins and aromatics production is expected to be dominated by steam cracking. the decision depends on a balance of availability. design of commercial petrochemical olefins and aromatics plants must deal with a number of constraining conditions: (1) Supply heat at very high temperatures. the dominant steam cracking feedstocks are LPG (C3H8 + C4H10) and NGL (C2H6. cost of feed. Most C4 olefins are obtained from catalytic cracking. and operating costs. (6) Need to efficiently make difficult separations between close-boiling components. A free radical and chain reaction mechanism generates olefins. natural gas liquids. Optimum operating conditions. In general the final decision to opt for feedstock flexibility will depend on several key design and operating factors. In general it is not practical to feed naphtha to a “gas cracker” designed for ethane or ethane/propane feed because the furnace design for the various feedstocks is different. with less than 10% coming from steam cracking (except butadiene). (5) Provide a high level of energy integration to minimize net energy consumption. which in turn. once the feedstock (ethane. gas oils) is set. Usually for paraffin dehydrogenation. become a trade off between feedstock consumption. and by-product market. (4) Quickly quench furnace effluent to freeze product compositions. impact on energy consumption and capital investment and associated variable and fixed costs. Atmospheric gas oil can be fed to a naphtha cracker. naphtha. Concerns about these two key factors of conversion and selectivity affect feedstock consumption and recycles. (2) The degree of feedstock flexibility will affect the required changes in operating conditions to accommodate the feedstock of choice. the residence time. propane. selectivity to a desired product declines with increasing conversion for a given operating pressure. the coil temperature profile. and the partial pressure of the hydrocarbons. (1) Total capital investment. therefore. As regards feedstock selection. light naphtha). capital investment. If a market exists for propylene and heavier by-products. Mega-capacity petrochemical plants are envisaged to be built in the future to take advantage of economies of scale in capital costs. The most obvious disadvantage of the steam cracking process (due to the non-catalytic nature of the process) is its relatively low selectivity for the desired products. A point of contention is that although high temperatures enhance conversion per pass. Thus it is quite practical to feed moderate quantities of ethane or ethane/propane and/or butane to a naphtha or gas oil cracker. A number of plants in the United States have been designed to crack the full range of feeds (ethane through atmospheric gas oils and/or field condensates). The overall reaction is highly endothermic. In practice there are four major options regarding feedstock flexibility: (a) Ethane only 6 . In the USA. the difficulty is one of selectivity and losses to side reactions including cracking to light gases and coking. (3) How that flexibility is utilized once the cracker is in operation. A wide range of products is produced with little flexibility. (2) Operate at low hydrocarbon pressure to maximize yields. with temperatures above 750-800 OC .Steam cracking of saturated hydrocarbons has been the dominant technology for several decades and involves thermal pyrolysis in the presence of steam to achieve dehydrogenation of a saturated hydrocarbon ranging from ethane to vacuum gas oil. The dehydrogenation of paraffins is equilibrium-limited and hence requires high temperatures. More and more petrochemical plants are designed to operate with feedstock flexibility. propane or liquid feeds will be needed. (3) Maintain split second residence times to limit consecutive reactions. In general. the main design and operating variables are. Within the pyrolysis section (hot-end) of plant.

In this respect the key driving forces for feedstock prices are mainly natural gas and crude oil. then straight ethane cracking represents the lowest unit capital choice (for the plant itself and for the related infrastructure) and the simplest co-product mix. The over-riding consideration being design of still larger plants to take advantage of economies of scale in capital costs. In this case the plant must be operated optimally to take advantage of feedstock choice options in order to maximize return on investment. which themselves are interrelated. The battery limits and offsites costs increase still further if a wide range of flexibility is desired. and cracked gas compressors can be single train for capacities of 1. (d) Chilling-train plate-fin heat exchangers will require multiple shells/cores.4 to 1.8 MMTA. (c) Refrigeration. Cracker feedstock prices can have a dynamic pattern and are usually driven by (1) the value of energy. (f) Dilution steam generators may need to be in parallel for liquid feedstocks. and concentration profiles may be desirable. At times of high co-product values. Moving to heavier feeds increases the unit capital cost and the complexity of the co-product mix. (2) the seasonal factors of feedstocks and (3) the variations in ethylene co-product values. 3. pressure.000 KTA for liquid feedstocks.2 Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis The Fischer-Tropsch process converts catalytically synthesis gas (obtained from natural gas or coal) into a wide range of hydrocarbons and oxygenates: Coal CO/H2 hydrocarbons + alcohols 7 . (b) Quench towers for 1. naphtha is favored.000 metric tons per annum (KTA) for gas feedstocks and 230. with individual furnace capacities of up to 300. (h) In order to optimize the design of mega-capacity olefin plants.(b) Ethane/propane (c) Liquids: naphtha or gas oil or a combination of both (d) Flexible cracking with any combination of the foregoing modes If the demand is for ethylene only. The following are some of the future design considerations: (a) Single train capacities of 1 to 2 million metric tons per annum (MMTA) are envisioned. whereas at high crude oil values light liquids cracking becomes relatively more attractive. At low crude oil prices. (i) Feedstock selection will be a crucial element regarding ethylene plant capacity and location. (e) Gas driers and acetylene converters may need to be in parallel. Pressure drops in pipelines may be increased to minimize the size and cost of valves and fittings. possibly leading to integration of heat exchanger surface within multi-purpose vessels. (g) Pressure profiles may be adjusted to limit actual volumetric flow rates at compressor inlets to capacities in the 300 to 350 thousand cubic meters per hour (KCMH) range. The longterm availability and price of the feedstocks will be an over-riding factor because of their dominant effect on cost and profitability of plants. (j) Plants processing liquid feedstocks will be affected strongly by the market demand and value obtainable for the plant’s co-product slate. heat pump. When co-product prices are low. the relationship is exactly reversed: naphtha becomes the lowest cost feedstock.8 MMTA will be smaller and lighter than vessels presently used in refinery and petrochemical plants. At present the consensus among major technology licensors is that the technology of ethylene production will continue to be dominated by steam cracking. naphtha cracking yields higher cost ethylene. certain adjustments in process temperature.

ethylene recovery design may be integrated with the ethylene unit of its adjacent refinery. 3. high methane formation. direct production methods for these specific alkenes receive increasingly more attention. A modern oil refinery will typically include a cat cracker. diesel. and insufficient catalyst activity and life are problems as yet to be overcome for route for it to be commercially exploited. the growth of refinery sources (e. A logical choice of process is the catalytic selective dehydrogenation of the corresponding alkanes. and jet fuel) but. low selectivity towards ethylene.4 Selective Dehydrogenation of Alkanes In recent years the demand for propylene and butylenes has increased much more rapidly than the demand for ethylene and this situation is expected to continue [3]. In general. 3. but up to now a commercially attractive process has not been realized [4.It has mainly been used for the production of liquid fuels (gasoline.6]. which converts methanol into gasoline with alkenes as intermediates. relatively high octane rating gasoline components and LPG. This can be achieved through the used of certain zeolite-based catalysts. catalytic dedydrogenation of ethane is also possible. particularly at refineries in the USA due to the high demand for gasoline. 3.5 Methanol to olefins Fluidized bed technology using newly developed catalysts based on SAPO-34(a silico-alumino-phosphate molecular sieve) is used in the Methanol to Olefins (MTO) technology for the conversion of methanol to ethylene and propylene. All these products have a very low content of sulfur and contaminants. oil refinery cracking processes allow the production of light products (such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and gasoline) from heavier crude oil distillation fractions (such as gas oils) and residue. cracking furnaces are very capital intensive and it is expected that in the next decades many have to be replaced because of their age. kerosene. An important consideration here is to enhance the formation of lower alkenes and to suppress the formation of aromatics. it has never been able to compete economically with conventional petroleum-based fuels and chemicals. from FCC) for these products have not kept pace with this growing demand. while hydrocracking is a major source of jet fuel. Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) units in oil refineries are built primarily to produce motor gasoline to supplement gasoline produced from other refinery units such as catalytic reformer units. in hydrocarbon synthesis. This route (discovered in 1923). Moreover. FCC units produce a high yield of gasoline and LPG. Therefore. the process can be tuned for the production of light olefins by using different catalysts.3 Refinery off-gas recovery In what is called a refinery-petrochemical complex. However.5. diesel. in principle. The following are 4 commercially available processes for the dehydrogenation of propane and iso-butane: (a) Oleflex (UOP) Process (b) Catofin (ABB Lummus crest) (c) STAR (Phillips Petroleum) (d) FBD-4 (Snamprogetti) In principle. The MTO process has developed from Mobil’s Methanol-to–Gasoline (MTG) process.g. In addition. The reaction scheme is as follows: 2CH3OH H3C-O-CH3 H3C-O-CH3 + H2O H2C=CH2 + H2O 8 .

4. 4. The main disadvantage of this route is its tendency to produce higher amounts of carbon oxides than normally found in conventional processes. This fact makes the direct conversion of methane into valuable chemicals. The economics of the MTO process is highly location-specific such as availability and price of methanol and transportation distances involved. one for reaction and one for catalyst regeneration [7. 4.e. Although the yield from the Asahi catalytic process is about 25% less than in the conventional technology. In 1995 a demonstration plant of the MTO process came on stream [2].CO CH3CH3 + H2O CH2CH2 + H2O 9 .8]. the catalytic reaction of methane with oxygen according to the following reaction scheme: 2 CH4 + 1/2O2 CH3CH3 + 1/2O2 Undesirable reactions [2]: CH4. (b) The need for robust temperature control because of the highly exothermic nature of the process. Several processes in this category have been patented and yet to be commercialized. Some patents were awarded for this route but autothermal processes are yet to be commercialized.1 Catalytic ethane partial oxidation Paraffinic hydrocarbons can be catalytically cracked in the presence of oxygen to form mono-olefins.3 Oxidative Coupling of Methane Methane is the largest constituent of natural gas. The yield per pass of the Asahi Chemical process is about 22% ethylene. etc + O2 CO2. CH3CH3 . such as ethylene. For this reason it has been suggested to carry out the reaction in two fluidized bed reactors. Partial oxidation implies one or both oxidative dehydrogenation and cracking.H2C=CH2 + CH3OH CH2=CH-CH3 + H2O The main disadvantages of the MTO process are: (a) The need for frequent catalyst regeneration due to substantial coke formation. In comparison conventional yields from steam cracking of light naphtha is about 25-33% ethylene. i. The direct conversion of methane into ethylene is possible by applying so-called ‘oxidative coupling’. Under autothermal reaction conditions. the feed is partially combusted and the heat generated during combustion drives the endothermal cracking process. very attractive. the propylene yield is 20-40 percent higher and the aromatics yield is 2-4 times greater than from conventional steam cracking. DEVELOPING PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES 4.2 Deep catalytic cracking/catalytic pyrolysis process This technology involves the cracking of naphtha-range feedstocks in the presence of various catalysts.

while through sequential reactions higher hydrocarbons are also formed in small amounts. This not only reduces the selectivity towards ethane. such as staged oxygen addition and membrane reactors for combined reaction and ethylene removal [11. Accordingly.2 Pricing Basis The pricing basis for the economic analysis that follows is summarized in table (6. oxidative coupling has receive considerable attention [10.3925 1.8805 1.1): Average Chemical Prices Basis.0892 2. 6. respectively) thus far achieved in laboratory fixedbed reactors are still well below those considered economically acceptable. However.1100 1. 2nd Quarter 2007) Unit Feedstock/By-product: Ethane Propane Light Virgin Naphtha Atmospheric Gas Oil Propylene (poly grade) Propylene (Refinery grade) Butadiene Raffinate-1 Benzene Toluene (mogas value) Gal Gal Gal Gal Lb Lb Lb Gal Gal Gal 0.7455 1. The main problem with oxidative coupling of methane is the formation of large amounts of CO2 and CO by oxidative reactions.13]. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 6.1 Projects’ Basis Location Year of Analysis Stream Time Income tax rate Project Life Time : Jubail Industrial City (KSA) : 2nd Quarter 2007 : 330 days/year : 2. Since its invention in 1982.11]. the high exothermicity also presents formidable heat removal problems [9]. Table (6.1) for the second quarter of 2007 for Jubail location in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. the best combinations of conversion and selectivity through this effort (ca.12. which is converted in situ. the emphasis in oxidative coupling research has shifted somewhat to innovative reactor designs.The reaction produces ethane (CH3CH3).4885 0.(Jubail.5% : 20 years 6.4463 0.3535 $/Unit 10 . 30% and 80%.3932 0.2900 0. The early research effort was in development of suitable catalysts.

137 59. Propylene is converted into polypropylene and propylene glycol.293 Utility Prices: Electricity Cooling Sea Water Process Water LP Steam HP Steam = 0.320 MT/Year Polystyrene 366. The total ethylene output from the steam cracker is 1499 million lb/year.3400 2. Ethyl benzene (produced from ethylene and benzene) is dehydrogenated into styrene which is then polymerized into polystyrene.3800 1.385 MT/Year LLDE 127.098 MT/Year Propylene glycol 458.Xylenes (mogas value) C9 Aromatics Raffinate (Bz extraction) SC Light Fuel Oil SC Heavy Fuel Oil Hydrogen (ex steam cracker) Manpower: Labor Foremen Supervisor Gal Gal Gal Gal Gal MSCF 1.032 $/kWh = 13.7200 0. and styrene.6 / m3 = 2.269 MT/Year Polypropylene 31. HDPE.540 MT/Year HDP 116.1100 0. EG.290 49.7300 Year Year Year 43.600 MT/Year The cracker ethylene production is converted into LDPE. LLDPE.76/1000 m3 = 1.700 MT/Year Ethylene glycol 510. The ethylene material balance is as follows (in million lb/year): Ethylene consumed in the LDPE plant = 52 Ethylene consumed in the LLDPE plant = 260 Ethylene consumed in the HDPE plant = 260 Ethylene consumed in the EG plant = 700 Ethylene consumed in the styrene plant = 227 ----Total ethylene consumed = 1499 11 .4 $/1000 kg = 11.3 Investment Basis The production capacity of the complex component plants are as follows: LDPE 23.84 $/1000 kg 6.3648 1.

2) to (7. Fuel Oil 7. Figure (6. 12 .6  SAUDI STREAM TIME   *  USA STREAM TIME    Table (7. Figure (6. The total benzene converted into styrene is obtained from the benzene cracker plus that from toluene.5) show the individual plant cost estimates. The fixed capital investment (FCI) estimates were based on NEXANT data and were adjusted for Saudi location in 2007 via the following correlation:   SAUDI CAPACITY COST INDEX 2007  FCI ( JUBAIL)  FCI (USA) * LOCATION FACTOR *   COST INDEX BASE YEAR  USA CAPACITY       0.1) shows the petrochemical project totals.1): Flow Diagram of Petrochemical complex FUEL GAS ETHYLENE CRACKER LDPE LLDPE HDPE EO EG POLYPROPYLENE PROPYLENE PO BENZENE ETHYLE BENZENE PG STYRENE POLYSTYRENE NAPHTHA STEAM TOLUENE Butadiene. C9 Aromatics.All the toluene from the steam cracker is converted into benzene. Hydrogen. PRODUCTION COST ESTIMATES The EXCEL spreadsheet cost estimate computations and the sensitivity analysis were carried out using Visual Basic for Applications software.1) shows a general flow diagram of the petrochemical complex under assessment. Tables (7. Raffinate. The feedstock to each plant within the complex is assumed to have a transfer price of product cost plus 20% ROI.

2 639. Ethylene/Propylene 00/01-4.6016 TOTAL PLANT CAPITAL Thousand MT/Y 680.3 Thousand MT/Y 680. ENG.7 OPERATING RATE 100 TOTAL CAPITAL INVESTMENT 1134.025641 13 .15 MT/Year ETHYLENE $ Million $ Million/Year $ Million/Year $ Million/Year (=1500 Million Pounds per Year) PRODUCTION CAPACITY TOTAL CAPITAL INVESTMENT COST OF PRODUCTION ANNUAL SALES ANNUAL NET PROFITS PLANT SERVICE LIFE 20 Years RETURN ON INVESTMENT (ROI) PAY BACK PERIOD NET PRESENT VALUE (AT 8.25 470 500 8000 7800 1.36 701.0% ) DICOUNTED CASH FLOW RATE OF RETURN (IRR) 21. Process: "FRN (MODERATE SEVERITY) CAPITAL COST MILLION US $ ISBL 545.4 OTHER PROJECT COSTS OPERATING RATE 100 TOTAL PROJECT INVESTMENT WORKING CAPITAL TOTAL CAPITAL INVESTMENT MILLION US $ 2478.97% Years $ Million SAUDI CAPITAL INVESTMENT DATA (BASED ON SOURCE BELOW) CAPITAL COST ANALYSIS DATE 2007 ISBL LOCATION SAUDI ARABIA OSBL CAPACITY: MM Lb/Year 1499.4 3764.43 30.7 OSBL 272. PERP Report.10% 4. COST INDEX 2007 USA STREAM TIME (Hours/Year) SAUDI STREAM TIME (Hours/Year) 1.6016 TOTAL PROJECT INVESTMENT 1023.8 1285.65 3923.9 4541.0638298 1.7 CAPACITY: MM Lb/Year 1499.93 8232.9 ANALYSIS DATE 2000 TOTAL PLANT CAPITAL 818.4 WORKING CAPITAL 110.TABLE (7.3 995.21 3267.1): PROJECT TOTALS PROJECT: FULL RANGE NAPHTHA (MODERATE SEVERITY) ANALYSIS DATE LOCATION 2007 SAUDI ARABIA 680400 5180.6 LOCATION US Gulf Coast OTHER PROJECT COSTS 204.03 5180. ENG. Page 93.2 USA CAPITAL INVESTMENT DATA Source:NEXANT.0 LOCATION FACTOR (SAUDI ARABIA / USA) CHEM. COST INDEX 2000 CHEM.

33 -56.07 0.81 2.0125 -0.10 1.00 793.7% of ISBL Direct Overhead 45% Labor & Supervision TOTAL DIRECT FIXED COSTS ALLOCATED CASH COSTS General Plant Overhead 60% Direct Fixed Costs Insurance 1% Total Plant Capital TOTAL ALLOCATED CASH COSTS CASH COST Depreciation @ 10% for ISBL and OPC 5% for OSBL COST OF PRODUCTION Ethylene (Transfer Price) 1368.77 3.16 1368.602 680.00 2.81 655.0333 -0.42 15.99 -16.24 5.34 540.0000 0.27 372.53 1.83 0.96 776.64 ANNUAL % COST COST MM US $ US$/MT OF PRODUCTION 594.0172 0.27 605.58 3.92 7.82 7.3827 0.0025 1.0016 0.58 889.0000 0.59 0.55 1.60 19.94 76.49 -10.2 Thousand US $ Supervisors 1 Men 52.63 405.0148 0.05 20.97 -27.32 84.31 MILLION US $ 20.62 0.41 -57.77 1141.03 -83. Million Lb/Y Thousand MT/Y CAPACITY Thousand MT/Y 2009 2007 SAUDI ARABIA 1499.31 597.46 76.48 279.08 29.833 C9 aromatics Gal 0.93 889.12% 14 .TABLE (7.06 -39.20 1116.58 PRODUCTION COST SUMMARY RAW MATERIALS NAPHTHA Gal Catalyst & Chemicals 1 0.0242 -0.2): ETHYLENE PRODUCTION COST ESTIMATES PLANT START UP ANALYSIS DATE LOCATION OPERATING RATE.032 Natural Gas MM Btu 0.0551 0.0435 0.0016 0.3965 0.079 Boiler Feed Water M Gal 0 1.97 35.40 3.27 605.250 Toluene-mogas value Gal 0.718.36 0.48 2.53 0.0009 0.0413 -0.843 TOTAL BY-PRODUCT CREDITS NET RAW MATERIALS UTILITIES Power kWh 0.09 0.1667 0.63 -5.89 -38.200 Raffinate-1 Lb 0.34 24.68 -43.86 -90.1193 0.89 1.6192 0.94 963.0004 0.840 Propylene (Poly grade) Lb 0.30 0.4162 0.557 TOTAL UTILITIES NET RAW MATERIALS AND UTILITIES VARIABLE COST DIRECT FIXED COSTS Laborers 62 Men 38.4 680.44 3.0034 -0.41 77.33 4.729 MILLION US $ 744.80 275.44 -36.88 21.39 177.0012 0.17 3.471 Benzene Gal 0.1024 -0.1 Thousand US $ Foremen 13 Men 43.0073 -0.0419 0.95 77.23 63.65 69.58 0.53 16.11 931.16 25.824 Xylene-mogas value Gal 0.0378 0.42 -18.10 -7.41 37.40 4.0219 0.98 1546.94 -153.002 TOTAL RAW MATERIALS Fuel Gasl MMBtu 0.00 0.47 $/MT TOTAL SALES NET PROFITS AFTER ZAKAT ANNUAL CASH FLOW BY-PRODUCT CREDITS US$/LB 0.0088 0.2 Thousand US $ Maintenance.19 1395.0423 0.00 65.56 0.49 120.696 Hydrogen-ex SC M SCF 0.34 -53.5118 0.00 95.47 221.50 -225.0163 0.0256 -0.4 CAPITAL COST ISBL OSBL TOTAL PLANT CAPITAL OTHER PROJECT COSTS TOTAL PROJECT INVESTMENT WORKING CAPITAL TOTAL CAPITAL INVESTMENT UNITS PRICE Per Lb Product US $/UNIT 0.700 Raffinate(Bz extraction) Gal 0.77 -50.0000 0.17 0.5443 0.27 2.70 -27.0807 0.0291 -0.0346 0.009 2.0134 0.15 1.71 -64.016 0.361 SC Lt Fuel Oil Gal 0.00 0.57% 4.87 YEARS $1.47 0.46 -61.14 1.45 931.3392 0.0589 0.65 11.66 150.30 -16.0180 -0.26 8.3827 0.95 0.41 14.0075 -0.033 1.3981 -0.0149 2.61 1.11 150.66 -11.01 2.4969 0.200 Butadiene Lb 0.46 93.2030 RETURN ON INVESTMENT (ROI) PAY BACK PERIOD NET PRESENT VALUE (AT 8%) DICOUNTED CASH FLOW RATE OF RETURN (IRR) 17.840 Cooling Water M Gal 0.0098 0.67 0.00 -73.6192 0.00 8.63 873.03 877.50 0.47 1368.0074 0.48 6. Material & Labor 2.

1754 41.0093 0.72 98.30 381.35469174 TOTAL CAPITAL INVESTMENT PRODUCTION COST SUMMARY UNITS PRICE Per Gal Product US $/UNIT RAW MATERIALS Toluene-mogas value Gal 2.3856 0.70 2.2479 2009 2007 SAUDI ARABIA 35.07 0.0111 0.0136 0.15 447.0918 3.54725 118.77 411.76 1.49 509.95 8.6894 45.79 -175.13 0.0162 TOTAL RAW MATERIALS BY-PRODUCT CREDITS Fuel Gas MM Btu 0.0000 0.89 49.9435 0.1816 0. Material & Labor 3% of ISBL Direct Overhead 45% Labor & Supervision TOTAL DIRECT FIXED COSTS ALLOCATED CASH COSTS General Plant Overhead 60% Direct Fixed Costs Insurance 1% Total Plant Capital TOTAL ALLOCATED CASH COSTS CASH COST Depreciation @ 10% for ISBL and OPC 5% for OSBL COST OF PRODUCTION Benzene Transfer Price(or Sales Price) 509.0000 0.0540 1.00 -0.79 85.06 0.55 13.26 27.50 psig Natural Gas Steam(Gas).50 6.0122 0.16 0.7716 7.15 60.15 1.4859 Catalyst & Chemicals 1 0.00 0.0000 0.032 0.0435 1.08 1.09 58.34 0.23 0.78 15 .60 0.40 3.33 2.28 11.25 0.38 36.02 0.0000 0.51 0.7869 48.9147 11.106 0 0.75 C9 Aromatics Gal 0.85 7.54725 TOTAL UTILITIES NET RAW MATERIALS AND UTILITIES VARIABLE COST DIRECT FIXED COSTS Laborers 10 Men 43.00 0.00 91.00 0.78 1.78 352.0162 0.0000 0.00 0.87 YEARS $95.00 0.92 16.1216 4.44 8.04 0.7016 60.5099 Mixed Xylenes Gal 0.26 77.0034 0.00 0.200 psig Steam(Gas).5850 -20.15 9.80 7.61 -0.12 1.62 TOTAL BY-PRODUCT CREDITS NET RAW MATERIALS UTILITIES Power Cooling Water Steam(Gas).1162 -4.28 0.1592 41.6567 35.98 345.83 0.62 0.60 MILLION US $ 27.7755 $/MT TOTAL SALES NET PROFITS AFTER ZAKAT ANNUAL CASH FLOW RETURN ON INVESTMENT (ROI) PAY BACK PERIOD NET PRESENT VALUE (AT 8%) DICOUNTED CASH FLOW RATE OF RETURN (IRR) 22.5678 40.80 -6.TABLE (7.34 39.00 0.04 2.00 0.52 9. 600 psig kWh M GALS M Lb MM Btu M Lb M Lb 0.96% MILLION US $ 28.25 2.0239 0.083 1.0226 -0.00 0.13 -34.52 0.0124 0.14 0.00 0.12 78.7016 60.00 0.3 Thousand US $ Foremen 5 Men 49.81 0.23 0.43% 4.10 0.06 0. Million Gal/Y Thousand MT/Y CAPACITY Million Gal/Y CAPITAL COST ISBL OSBL TOTAL PLANT CAPITAL OTHER PROJECT COSTS TOTAL PROJECT INVESTMENT WORKING CAPITAL 0.23 0.32 36.78 0.0099 0.70 0.00 0.17 0.106 1.9103 53.6075 -0.00 0.91 0.60 ANNUAL % COST US$/Gal COST MM US $ US$/MT OF PRODUCTION 1.91 0.12 0.21 347.80 -6.17 3.0301 0.75 0.0007 0.30 381.3): BENZENE PRODUCTION COST ESTIMATES PLANT START UP ANALYSIS DATE LOCATION OPERATING RATE .0324 1.0005 0.0113 0.65 0.1233 4.44 3.00 0.2278 0.1 Thousand US $ Supervisors 1 Men 59.3 Thousand US $ Maintenance.11 0.19967 1.6894 45.00 0.00 0.80 0.51 -0.75 0.0069 0.0017 0.46 0.58 4.00 0.02 0.63 9.49 509.77 -0.61 0.50 0.43 3.25 39.76 1.95 1.35 77.85 1.0000 0.79 85.48 4.75 1.

86 0.60 16 .30 874.04 2.27 1337.04 0.00 0.75 Fuel Lb 0 0.31 86.47 0.41 1276.29 421.91 Thousand MT/Y 360.02 TOTAL UTILITIES NET RAW MATERIALS AND UTILITIES VARIABLE COST DIRECT FIXED COSTS Laborers 24 Men 43.00 0.00 0.85 24.6650 528.05 0.67 0.03 2.00047 1. 600 psig M Lb 0.2027 162.4): STYRENE PRODUCTION COST ESTIMATES CAPITAL COST ISBL OSBL TOTAL PLANT CAPITAL OTHER PROJECT COSTS TOTAL PROJECT INVESTMENT WORKING CAPITAL 0.00057 1.01 0.75 0.2479 Process Water M GALS 0.21 11.TABLE (7.31 0.00052 0.48 0.0083 6.02 0.00 0.504 FEEDSTOCK "C" Lb 0 0 FEEDSTOCK "D" Lb 0 0 FEEDSTOCK "E" Lb 0 0 FEEDSTOCK "F" Lb 0 0 Catalyst & Chemicals 0 0 TOTAL RAW MATERIALS TOTAL BY-PRODUCT CREDITS NET RAW MATERIALS UTILITIES Power kWh 0.15 1788.06 0.02% PLANT START UP 2009 ANALYSIS DATE 2007 LOCATION SAUDI ARABIA OPERATING .24 0.21 59.00025 0.3 Thousand US $ Maintenance.67 CAPACITYThousand MT/Y 360.33 0.657 MILLION US $ 295.0046 3.62 18.76 0.60 314.0053 4.0000 0.38 105.17 91.00 0.00 0.25 0.0000 0.39 MILLION US $ DICOUNTED CASH FLOW RATE OF RETURN (IRR) 33.12 0.54 1.0009 0.31 86.10 26.0016 1.54 1.07 0.88 0.0139 11.00 0.63 1465.36 128.14 0.5745 456.0006 0.1 Thousand US $ Supervisors 2 Men 59.200 psig M Lb 0.0111 8.70 0.76 0.00 0.25 0.0002 0.09 0.08 126.00 0.0000 0.0011 0.00 0.50 psig M Lb 0.3 Thousand US $ Foremen 7 Men 49.1779 141.67 165.72 55.0004 0.00 0.13 0.2 118.70 10.15 1788.20 0.00 0.01922 0.00 0.27 3.0001 0.10 0.0007 0.8094 645.622034 Benzene Lb 0.0000 0.05 0.71 1266.19967 Steam(Gas).0000 0.59 ANNUAL % COST US$/LB COST MM US $ US$/MT OF PRODUCTION 0.89 2.286 0.54 0.34 526.45 1.0001 0.00 0.083 Steam(Gas).00 0.9758 Heat Rransfer Fluid MM Btu 0.86 582.5792 460.00 0.00 0.52 0.56 87.77 0.99 0.56 87.03502 0.17 0.58 2.00 0.10 0.40 0.0000 0.1816 Steam(Gas).64 0.08 0.00 0.354692 TOTAL CAPITAL INVESTMENT PRODUCTION COST SUMMARY UNITS PRICE Per Lb Product US $/UNIT RAW MATERIALS Ethylene Lb 0.19 0.10 0.68 0.00005 1.40 0.8094 645.28% PAY BACK PERIOD 4.34 0.95 0.5745 456.0583 46.5792 460.53 8. Million RATE Lb/Y 794.3966 315.032 Cooling Water M GALS 0.42 392.23 0.0013 1.87 0.71 1266.00 0.03 30.787 0.24 0.765 $/MT TOTAL SALES NET PROFITS AFTER ZAKAT ANNUAL CASH FLOW RETURN ON INVESTMENT (ROI) 29. Material & Labor 3% of ISBL Direct Overhead 45% Labor & Supervision TOTAL DIRECT FIXED COSTS ALLOCATED CASH COSTS General Plant Overhead 60% Direct Fixed Costs Insurance 1% Total Plant Capital TOTAL ALLOCATED CASH COSTS CASH COST Depreciation @10% for ISBL and OPC 5% for OSBL COST OF PRODUCTION Styrene Transfer Price 1788.35 1.88 451.267.87 YEARS NET PRESENT VALUE (AT 8%) $1.83 30.0000 0.6067 482.00 0.0136 10.41 1276.70 0.1408 113.0004 0.80 0.68 1.

0046 3.32 8.37 17 .8431 681.47 3.0018 1.19 2034.12 0.00 0.00 95.16 0.00 0.03 0.00 10.00 0.69 0.17 34.0000 0.30 2034.0004 0.03 12.8665 FEEDSTOCK "C" Lb 0 0 FEEDSTOCK "D" Lb 0 0 FEEDSTOCK "E" Lb 0 0 FEEDSTOCK "F" Lb 0 0 Catalyst & Chemicals U.18 0.04 1819.14 0.0006 0.02 TOTAL UTILITIES NET RAW MATERIALS AND UTILITIES VARIABLE COST DIRECT FIXED COSTS Laborers 24 Men 43.3 Thousand US $ Maintenance.21 1830.34 0.48 1.28 0.54 96.0774 64.0041 3.76 0.00025 0.84 14.21 0.2479 Process Water M GALS 0.083 Steam(Gas).10 0.0041 3.S.8304 670.28% PLANT START UP 2009 ANALYSIS DATE 2007 LOCATION SAUDI ARABIA OPERATING .0011 0.00 0.0004 0.0001 0.03502 0.48 0.82 36.00047 1.00005 1.05 0.91 8.67 0.$ 1 0. 600 psig M Lb 0.00 0.15 0.91 0.32 0.29 0.83 0.9204 745.0000 0.0059 4.04 0.47 0.0205 16.90 0.00 0.09 % COST OF PRODUCTION 92.24 0.8000 646.97 1.00 1819.13 0.62 0.47 0.0000 0.98 1858.00 0. Million RATE Lb/Y 807.01922 0.52 1.0016 1.354692 TOTAL CAPITAL INVESTMENT PRODUCTION COST SUMMARY UNITS PRICE Per Lb Product US $/UNIT RAW MATERIALS Styrene Lb 0.0182 0.64 1.08 0.0068 5.76 0.20 1903.62 0.5): POLYSTYRENE PRODUCTION COST ESTIMATES CAPITAL COST ISBL OSBL TOTAL PLANT CAPITAL OTHER PROJECT COSTS TOTAL PROJECT INVESTMENT WORKING CAPITAL 0.54 0.68 0.19967 Steam(Gas).10 45.46 0.0000 0.87 YEARS NET PRESENT VALUE (AT 8%) $533.61 38.63 2.0000 0. Material & Labor 3% of ISBL Direct Overhead 45% Labor & Supervision TOTAL DIRECT FIXED COSTS ALLOCATED CASH COSTS General Plant Overhead 60% Direct Fixed Costs Insurance 1% Total Plant Capital TOTAL ALLOCATED CASH COSTS CASH COST Depreciation @10% for ISBL and OPC 5% for OSBL COST OF PRODUCTION PolyStyrene Selling Price at 2034.8304 670.14 0.20 0.00 0.42% PAY BACK PERIOD 4.50 psig M Lb 0.16 96.68 97.96 0.54 0.16 95.95 4.00 0.32 0.8258 667.02 0.08 0.00 0.62 176.67 0.96 2.94 0.55 US$/MT 1763.0008 0.78 0.96 184.3 Thousand US $ Foremen 7 Men 49.90 ANNUAL US$/LB COST MM US $ 0.91 Thousand MT/Y 366.05 0.00 22.00 0.00 0.21 2.01 0.00052 0.12 239.8636 697.57 CAPACITYThousand MT/Y 366.0007 0.19 127.9839 0.1 Thousand US $ Supervisors 2 Men 59.200 psig M Lb 0.00057 1.0000 0.25 1830.0555 46.00 0.78 55.0100 8.8258 667.813075 Mineral Oil Lb 0.83 0.57 0.0001 0.9204 745.9758 Heat Rransfer Fluid MM Btu 0.0013 1.12 0.75 Fuel Lb 0 0.01 TOTAL RAW MATERIALS TOTAL BY-PRODUCT CREDITS NET RAW MATERIALS UTILITIES Power kWh 0.0002 0.74 0.TABLE (7.55 MILLION US $ DICOUNTED CASH FLOW RATE OF RETURN (IRR) 36.14 0.0158 12.47 0.29 0.185 $/MT TOTAL SALES NET PROFITS AFTER ZAKAT ANNUAL CASH FLOW RETURN ON INVESTMENT (ROI) 29.032 Cooling Water M GALS 0.76 0.00 1.1816 Steam(Gas).21 147.57 MILLION US $ 109.90 0.86 0.07 0.78 0.05 0.

16 340.0 2.0 1. YEARS 4.0 6.2):EFFECT OF PLANT OPERATING RATE ON PAY BACK PERIOD 7.12 272.28 544.0 68.24 476.1):EFFECT OF PLANT OPERATING RATE ON ROI 25% 20% 15% ROI 10% 5% 0% 68 136 204 272 340 408 476 544 612 680 PLANT OPERATING RATE MT/Y OF ETHYLENE FIGURE (7.36 680.2 408. FIGURE (7.1) to (7.0 5.Figures (7.08 204.04 136.0 0.4 PLANT OPERATING RATE MT/Y OF ETHYLENE 18 .7) show the sensitivity of plant profitability measures in relation to different operating parameters.0 PAY BACK PERIOD.32 612.0 3.

12 272.32 612.24 476.3):EFFECT OF PLANT OPERATING RATE ON NPV 10000 9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 68.36 680.12 272.08 204.08 204.4):EFFECT OF PLANT OPERATING RATE ON IRR 31% 31% 30% 30% IRR 29% 29% 28% 28% 68.2 408.28 544.4 PLANT OPERATING RATE.24 476. MT/Y OF ETHYLENE NPV.04 136.36 680.32 612.16 340.28 544.4 PLANT OPERATING RATE.16 340. MT/Y OF ETHYLENE 19 .04 136. $ Million FIGURE (7.2 408.FIGURE (7.

4 1.6):EFFECT OF NAPHTHA FEEDSTOCK PRICE ON ON NET ANNUAL PROFITS 1400.240 MT/YEAR 200.5):EFFECT OF OPERATING RATE ON PROFITABILITY 5900 5400 PLANT DESIGN CAPACITY = 680.0 0.0 0.0 OPERATING RATE = 544. $/Gallon 20 . MT/YEAR FIGURE (7.8 0.0 PLANT DESIGN CAPACITY = 680.0 400.1 1.0 OPERATING RATE = 408.400 MT/YEAR 4900 4400 MILLION $/YEAR NET PROFITS SALES 3900 3400 OPERATING COSTS 2900 2400 1900 1400 374 408 442 476 510 544 578 612 646 680 OPERATING RATE.5 NAPHTHA FEEDSTOCK PRICE.400 MT/Y OF ETYHLENE 1200.2 1.0 800.400 MT/YEAR NET ANNUAL PROFITS MILLION $/Y 1000.FIGURE (7.320 MT/YEAR 600.0 OPERATING RATE = 680.3 1.7 0.9 1 1.

A rise in naphtha cost from 0. The use of gaseous feedstocks. MILLION DOLLARS PLANT DESIGN CAPACITY =680. In the example undertaken in this study.. pp. 21 . Zehnder S.) Ullman’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry A10.07 $ million per year).90 0. a drop of 29.41 $ million to 676. such as NGL.78 $ million (i. 2001.e. The sensitivity analysis also showed that the project’s profitability is particularly sensitive to annual operating rate.”Ethylene” in: Gerhartz W. Makkee M. “Chemical Process Technology”. “What are Western Europe’s petrochemical feedstock options?”.. Wiley. 9.3rd January 2006. 5. 2.400 MT /Y 600 400 200 0 -200 -400 -600 -800 0.FIGURE (7. pp. CONCLUSIONS The assessment of liquids cracking in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been shown to be highly profitable. Moulijn JA.org/articles/2006/ioi/060122-mepc-seznec. Van Diepen A. 59-65. 4. 77(2). 1998.7%) results in a drop in annual profits from 1153.41 $ million to 1124. limits down stream product integration. 41st Middle East Policy Council Capitol Hill Conference.02 $/gallon (i.75 0. Moulijn JA.. an increase of 39.55 0. Makkee M. VCH Weinheim. 6. The project’s profitability is especially sensitive to naphtha feedstock and products selling prices as well as the operating rate.60 0. a drop of 20%) will decrease annual profits from 1153. pp. pp. Van Diepen A. et al (eds. $/MT 8..saudi-usrelations.e. REFERENCES 1. 2001.95 1. Hydroc.85 0.e.34 $ million (i.e. ethylene was reacted with benzene (which is essentially not available from gaseous cracking) to produce styrene and subsequently the important polymer polystyrene. 5th ed. Jean-Francois Seznec. Wiley.73 $/gallon to 1. 45-93.”Ethylene”. www..320 ton/year (i. September 2005.7):EFFECT OF CHANGES IN ANNUAL SALES ON PROFITABILITY 1200 1000 800 ANNUAL PROFITS. New York.80 0. 122. on “Saudi Arabia’s WTO Accession Panel”. New York. NEXANT PERP Report 04/05-7. 123-125. a decrease of 41%).00 FRACTIONAL CHANGE IN ANNUAL SALES. 3. Washington. A decrease in operating rate (due to a drop in market demand for example) from 680. Process. Grantom RL and Royer DJ. “Chemical Process Technology”.70 0.html.65 0.400 tons/year to 544.

Ind.) Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Calamur N and Carrera M. New York.7. 10. 12.. 4th ed. pp.) Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 1997. vol 9. VCH. 34 3808-3816. New York.. 1982. Bos Anr and Tromp PJJ. I.”Oxidative coupling of methane and related reactions”. pp. Nilsen. AIChE J. Kinetic modeling. Keller GE and Bhasin MM. 8. Howe-Grant M (eds.”Conversion of methanol to lwer olefins. Wiley. Wiley. HR.Chem.Copenhagen. 249-271.) Handbook of Heterogenous Catalysis. 13.”The UOP/Hydro Methanol to olefin process:its potential as opposed to the present application of natural gas as feedstock”. Denmark. Catal. Howe-Grant M (eds. 1843-1856 and references therein. Sundaram KM. Proceedings of the 20th World Gas Conference. Weinheim. 73 9-19. 1997 11. vol 20. pp. 4th ed. “Synthesis of ethylene via oxidative coupling of methane. 10-13 June. Lunsford JH. Eng. Determination of active catalysts”. Shreehan MM and Olszewski EF.Res. 9. in: Ertl G. and selection”. J. FRT 1-05.” Role of distributed oxygen addition and product removal in the oxidative coupling of methane”. Knozinger H and Weitkamp J (eds. Androulakis IP and Reyes SC. 877-915. 22 ..1995. “Ethylene” in: Kroschwitz JI. reactor simulation. 45 860-868 and references therein. ”Propylene” in: Kroschwitz JI.