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PHYS 203

Princeton University Midterm Exam

Fall 2004

1. (20 points) A boat of mass m is pushed from the shore into a lake with initial velocity v0. The   motion of the boat is resisted by a force F = −mkv . a) (10 points) Find the velocity of the boat as a function of time. b) (10 points) What is the total distance that the boat will travel? dv dv v v t = − mkv; = − kdt; ln = − kt; ma = mv = m vdv = − k ∫ dt; v(t ) = v0 e − kt ∫ v 0 dt v v0 0 v ∞ xtot = ∫ v (t )dt = 0 0 k 2. (40 points) Consider the setup shown on the right. The pulleys, strings, and the spring are massless and there is no friction. The coordinates x1 and x2 are measured from the point of equilibrium.
2mg a) (5 points) What is the extension of the spring in equilibrium? Adding the tension forces in the pulley system shows that there is no force on the spring and it has zero extension. x2 b) (10 points) Write down the Lagrangian in terms of coordinates x1 and x2. 2m mg 1 1 2 2 1 2  D1 D2 L= mx + 2m x −  − mgx1 + 2mgx2 + kx2  2 2 2 m   k x1 b) (10 points) Write down the equation of constraint between x1 and x2. If mass 2m moves up by a distance d, mass m moves down by a distance 2d, therefore x1=2x2 c) (5 points) Using the constraint, write down the Lagrangian equation of motion for x1. 1 1 2 2 1 2  D1 D1 L= mx + mx −  − mgx1 + mgx1 + kx1  2 4 8   e) (10 points) Find the frequency of small oscillations around the equilibrium. k ∂L 3 ∂L 3 1 1 D1 ; D1 + kx1 = 0; ω = = mx mD x = − kx1; D1 2 ∂x ∂x1 2 4 6m 4 3. (40 points) Consider motion of a particle with reduced mass µ in a central force with the potential energy given by U = F0 r , a) (5 points) Describe the force given by this potential energy. dU F=− = − F0 - an inward radial force that does not depend on the distance. dr b) (5 points) Write down and sketch the effective potential.

2 µr 2 c) (10 points) Find the radius r0 of a circular orbit for a given angular momentum l.

Veff = F0 r +

l2

 l2  dV l2  = F0 − = 0; r0 =   F0 µ  dr µr 3  

1/ 3

l.  F2   d 2V / dr 2   = = 3 0  . d 2V 3l 2 1/ 2 1/ 3 . the orbit precesses by an angle of 2π ( 3 − 1) after every period.T = = 2π  T=  F2  µr0 v l  0  1/ 3 e) (10 points) Find the frequency of small oscillations around the circular orbit. Ω=    µl  µ dr 2 µr 4 r     0 f) (5 points) By what angle do the orbit apsides precess after one period? One oscillation around the orbit corresponds to rotation by an angle ΩT = 2π 3 . Hence.d) (5 points) Find the period in the circular orbit in terms of F0. v= . µ 2  µl  2πr0 2πµr0 l  .