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Acid/base equilibria

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An acid is a proton (hydrogen ion) donor. A base is a proton (hydrogen ion) acceptor. A conjugate acid, within the Brønsted–Lowry theory, is a species formed when a (proton hydrogen) ion added to it. A conjugate base is formed by the removal of a proton from an acid: the conjugate base of an acid is that acid with a hydrogen ion removed. A substance which can act as either an acid or a base is described as being amphoteric Water molecules can function as both acids and bases. One water molecule (acting as a base) can accept a hydrogen ion from a second one (acting as an acid). Ionic product of water can be defined as the product of the ionic concentrations of hydrogen and hydroxide ions in water. The fully written equation is , but this can be simplified to

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Kw has a value of 1.00 x 10-14 mol2 dm-6 at room temperature (25°C)

A strong acid is one that completely ionises in a solution. Hydrochloric acid is a strong acid virtually 100% ionised. To workout the pH of a strong acid you have to do is work out the concentration of the hydrogen ions in the solution, and then use your calculator to convert it to a pH. A weak acid is one which doesn't ionise fully when it is dissolved in water. To work out pH of a weak acid we use Ka.

     pKa is the logarithmic measure of the acid dissociation constant. For the other three combinations the end point can be seen using an indicator. the weaker the acid When acids are diluted their pH changes. The lower the value for pKa.   pH curves help select a suitable indicator pH curves also allow us to find the pKa of weak acid. diluting a strong acid by a factor of 10 increases the pH by 1. At half equivalence point pKa = pH  A buffer is a solution that resists changes is pH when small amounts of acid ar alkali are added . All the graphs apart from the weak acid/weak alkali have a vertical line – this is called the equivalence points. diluting a weak acid by a factor of 10 increases the pH by 0. A titration curve is a graph of the pH as a function of the amount of titrant (acid or base) added.5. To find the pH of a weak acid/weak base we use a pH meter as it is too difficult to see the end point. the stronger the acid The higher the value for pKa.