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1 Week of 25 March 2013 Histology Lab # 7 Goals: 1. Review prepared slides: a. Hematopoiesis b. Blood Vessels c. Lymphatics 1.

Lymph Node 2. Spleen 3. Thymus d. Integument and Oral Cavity 1. Thick skin 2. Thin skin 3. Tongue Blood, Lymphatics, Skin

Supplement Pages: 11, 12, 13, and 14 Slides: #49 Hematopoiesis #48 Blood Vessels #51 Lymph Nodes #54 Spleen #55 Thymus #56 Thin Skin #57 Thick Skin #58 Tongue

Background: Blood Vessel Structure Tunics Tunica Intima Consists of a layer of Endothelial cells lining the internal surface Subendothelial Layer of connective tissue Internal Elastic Lamina present in arteries Tunica Media Mostly smooth muscle cells and interspersed fibers: Elastic, Reticular with proteoglycans External Elastic Lamina present in large arteries Tunica Adventitia Is an outer layer of connective tissue

2 Lymphoid Tissues Primary: Responsible for the production of all blood cells including lymphocytes and other cells such as mast cells and macrophages. 1. Bone Marrow Bone marrow is the largest organ in the body 2. Secondary Lymphoid Organs: Where lymphocytes are maintained, and provide sites for lymphocyte interaction with antigen and each other. These are: Spleen, Lymph Nodes, and less well organized lymphoid tissues underlying various internal epithelial mucous membranes. These are the Mucosal - Associated Lymphoid Tissue or MALT In addition, there are Gut associations = GALT, and Bronchial (Respiratory) associations = BALT 3. Tertiary Lymphoid Organs: These are smaller, less well organized clusters of lymphoid elements such as those associated with the skin. Those associated with the skin are cutaneous associated lymphoid tissue. Thymus The thymus is a flat, bilobed organ in the center of the chest above the heart. The thymus is enclosed in a connective tissue capsule that invades the body of the gland and subdivides it into lobes and lobules. Lobules of the thymus gland have a cortical region and a medullary region. Both the cortical and medullary regions have the same kinds of cells, differing primarily in their stage of differentiation. The medulla contains significantly fewer cells than the cortical region. The lobules also contain epithelially derived cells, the Nurse or Reticular cells. These have cytoplasmic extensions that may surround as many as 50 maturing T lymphocytes. Secondary lymphoid organs Are specialized to trap antigen, to provide for initiation of the adaptive immune response, and to provide signals for recirculating lymphocytes. Lymph Nodes Are a system of in line filters within the lymphatic vessel system. Major regions: Capsule, Cortex with primary and secondary follicles, Medulla with medullary cords (extensions of inner cortex) and sinuses Within the lymph node tissue, different cell types are clustered in different regions. The nodular cortical region contains an abundance of B lymphocytes. Nodules composed of resting (unstimulated) B lymphocytes are primary nodules. Activated B lymphocytes form germinal centers and the nodules containing them are secondary nodules.

3 Loosely scattered around the B lymphocyte rich nodules and in the sub- or Para- cortical region, are T lymphocytes, reticular cells (specialized fibroblasts), macrophages, and dendritic cells are also abundant here. In the medullary region, cells are in linear clusters called medullary cords. The medullary cords are composed mostly of macrophages and activated, fully differentiated, antibody secreting B lymphocytes called plasma cells. A system of loose lymphoid tissue called sinuses is arranged beneath the connective tissue at the surface and then penetrates into the body of the lymph node between the nodules and is more openly spaced in the medullary region. This arrangement ensures the encounter of lymph borne pathogens with lymphocytes and other classes of leukocytes. Lymph nodes filter lymph which from drains tissues.

Spleen The spleen is a relatively large lymphoid organ in the abdominal cavity The spleen: filters blood is an important site of red blood cell destruction is an important site of white blood cell interaction, lymphocyte activation and proliferation Major regions: Capsule, Trabeculae, Parenchyma (Pulp; Red and White) Spleen Approximately ½ of the total volume of the blood passes through the spleen in 24 hours. The spleen responds to antigens that have reached blood circulation, and is an important antibody forming organ. The spleen consists of areas rich in erythrocytes, the red pulp, and areas where other blood cell types, including lymphocytes, are concentrated, the white pulp. Within the red pulp, circulatory vessels open up into large diameter (for a capillary) winding vessels called sinusoids. The sinusoids are in between cords of cells, the medullary cords. The medullary cords of the spleen can contain most of the various blood cell types. The white pulp typically is arranged around a central arterial blood vessel. Immediately around the blood vessel are T lymphocytes in what is formally called the periarterial lymphatic sheath, PALS, and B lymphocytes are clustered in nodules around this. At the periphery of the white pulp clusters is the marginal zone consisting of many blood sinuses and loose lymphoid tissue. The marginal zone contains an abundance of blood antigens and is a major site of the antigen and cellular interactions important in the immunological activities of the spleen.

4 Lip and Skin Skin is composed of the Epidermis, consisting of epithelial tissue, and the Dermis, consisting of an underlying connective tissue Thick skin and thin skin can be distinguished by the thickness of the epidermal layer The epidermal-dermal junction is irregular and has papillae which are projections of the dermis Distinguish the stratum basale and stratum corneum layers, note the presence of hair in thin skin Tongue The tongue is a mass of muscle covered by a mucous membrane. Present on the upper surface are papillae of three primary types: filiform, fungiform, and circumvallate. The lateral borders of the circumvallate papillae bear taste buds and serous von Ebner’s glands. Hand in your drawings before leaving lab today Recommendations for the drawings: Label: Figure Number Organ (Where appropriate) Tissue Cell Type Total Magnification Important Features Blood: Draw the cell types that you did not draw previously Draw only the fully differentiated cell types Vessels: Draw an artery and a vein Lymph Node: Capsule, Cortex with primary and secondary follicles, Medulla with medullary cords Spleen: Capsule, Trabeculae, Parenchyma (Pulp; Red and White = Lymphoid nodule)