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Nalco Company

Cooling Water Presentation 6-24-04
Stress Management for Cooling
Systems
TVWD Cooling Tower
TVWD Cooling Tower
Seminar and Workshop
Seminar and Workshop
November 29, 2005 November 29, 2005
Agenda
Agenda
Þ Þ
Introduction
Introduction
Þ Þ
Fundamentals of Cooling Water
Fundamentals of Cooling Water
Þ Þ
Cooling System Problems (Stresses)
Cooling System Problems (Stresses)
Þ Þ
Treatment Programs
Treatment Programs
Þ Þ
The Engineering Approach
The Engineering Approach
Þ Þ
Microbiological Control and
Microbiological Control and
Monitoring
Monitoring
Þ Þ
Stress Management
Stress Management
Þ Þ
The purpose of cooling
The purpose of cooling
systems is to transfer
systems is to transfer
heat from one substance
heat from one substance
to another
to another
Þ Þ
The substance that
The substance that
gives up its heat is
gives up its heat is


cooled
cooled


Þ Þ
The substance that
The substance that
receives the heat is the
receives the heat is the


coolant
coolant


THE COOLING PROCESS
Open Recirculating Systems
Open Recirculating Systems
Open recirculating systems are open to the atmosphere
Open recirculating systems are open to the atmosphere
at the tower. As the water flows over the tower, heat
at the tower. As the water flows over the tower, heat
picked up by the process is released by evaporation.
picked up by the process is released by evaporation.
The cooling water then returns to the heat exchangers
The cooling water then returns to the heat exchangers
to pick up more heat.
to pick up more heat.
Open Recirculating System
Open Recirculating System
Makeup
Water
Pump
Blowdown
EXAMPLES
º Spray Ponds
º Cooling Towers
º Evaporative Condensers
CHARACTERISTICS
º Avg. Temp. Change: 20-30°F [11.1-16.7°C]
º Amount of Water Used: Moderate
Heat Exchanger
Cooling Tower
Open Recirculating Systems
Open Recirculating Systems
Heat Transfer
Heat Transfer
Þ Þ
Process in which heat
Process in which heat
is transferred from
is transferred from
one substance to
one substance to
another.
another.
Evaporation
Evaporation
Þ Þ
Process by which
Process by which
the hot cooling
the hot cooling
water releases its
water releases its
heat to the
heat to the
atmosphere so
atmosphere so
that it can return
that it can return
cool water back to
cool water back to
the heat
the heat
exchangers
exchangers
Open Recirculating Systems
Open Recirculating Systems
A cooling tower provides two conditions
A cooling tower provides two conditions
that enhance the evaporation process...
that enhance the evaporation process...
Þ Þ
Break water into tiny droplets, thus
Break water into tiny droplets, thus
providing more escape routes for water
providing more escape routes for water
molecules to evaporate.
molecules to evaporate.
Þ Þ
Fans provide rapid flow of air through
Fans provide rapid flow of air through
the tower which removes evaporated
the tower which removes evaporated
water molecules and allows even more to
water molecules and allows even more to
escape.
escape.
Why Use Water for Cooling?
Why Use Water for Cooling?
Þ Þ
Plentiful; Readily Available; Cheap
Plentiful; Readily Available; Cheap
Þ Þ
Easily Handled:
Easily Handled:
Pumpable
Pumpable
Þ Þ
Can carry large amounts of heat
Can carry large amounts of heat
Þ Þ
Does not expand/contract much at
Does not expand/contract much at
normally encountered temperatures
normally encountered temperatures
Þ Þ
Does not decompose
Does not decompose
Why Use Water for Cooling?
Why Use Water for Cooling?
Þ Þ
Specific Heat: Measure of how well
Specific Heat: Measure of how well
a substance absorbs heat
a substance absorbs heat
Þ Þ
Water can absorb more heat than
Water can absorb more heat than
virtually any other substance that
virtually any other substance that
would be considered for industrial
would be considered for industrial
cooling
cooling
Þ Þ
Minor increases in temperature
Minor increases in temperature
Þ Þ
Minimal environmental impact
Minimal environmental impact
Why Isn
Why Isn


t Water Perfect for
t Water Perfect for
Cooling?
Cooling?
Þ Þ
Dissolves everything it touches:
Dissolves everything it touches:
Metal; earth; stone; gasses
Metal; earth; stone; gasses
Þ Þ
Unique dissolving ability has earned
Unique dissolving ability has earned
water the title...
water the title...
Two Sources of Water
Two Sources of Water
Surface Water Surface Water
Þ Þ Low in dissolved solids Low in dissolved solids
Þ Þ High in suspended solids High in suspended solids
Þ Þ Quality changes quickly with seasons & weather Quality changes quickly with seasons & weather
Ground Water Ground Water
Þ Þ High in dissolved solids High in dissolved solids
Þ Þ Low in suspended solids Low in suspended solids
Þ Þ High in iron & manganese High in iron & manganese
Þ Þ Low in oxygen, may contain sulfide gas Low in oxygen, may contain sulfide gas
Þ Þ Relatively constant quality & temperature Relatively constant quality & temperature
What Chemical Properties of
What Chemical Properties of
Water Are Important?
Water Are Important?
Important Properties of Water
Important Properties of Water
1. Conductivity
1. Conductivity
2. Hardness
2. Hardness
3. Alkalinity
3. Alkalinity
4. pH
4. pH
5. Silica
5. Silica
6. Other impurities
6. Other impurities
--
--
Iron, Manganese,
Iron, Manganese,
Chlorides, Phosphate, etc.
Chlorides, Phosphate, etc.
Evaporation
Evaporation
Each 10
Each 10
°
°
F [6
F [6
°
°
C] drop in temperature results
C] drop in temperature results
in an avg. 0.85% evaporation of
in an avg. 0.85% evaporation of
recirculated cooling water
recirculated cooling water
ER = (RR)*(dT/10)*(.0085)
ER = (RR)*(dT/10)*(.0085)
Where Where: :
Þ Þ ER: Evaporation Rate [gpm] ER: Evaporation Rate [gpm]
Þ Þ RR: RR: Recirculation Rate [gpm] Recirculation Rate [gpm]
Þ Þ dT: dT: Temp drop across tower [DegF] Temp drop across tower [DegF]
Concentration of Dissolved
Concentration of Dissolved
Solids
Solids
Þ Þ
Only pure water can evaporate
Only pure water can evaporate
– – Excluding volatile chemicals Excluding volatile chemicals
like bleach like bleach
Þ Þ
No dissolved solids leave the
No dissolved solids leave the
liquid water
liquid water
Þ Þ
If there are no other water
If there are no other water
losses from the system, the
losses from the system, the
evaporation process causes an
evaporation process causes an
increase in the concentration
increase in the concentration
of dissolved solids in the
of dissolved solids in the
recirculating cooling water.
recirculating cooling water.
6
1
3
2
5
4
Constant
Evaporation
Concentration of Dissolved
Concentration of Dissolved
Solids
Solids
Þ Þ
Mineral scale will form if the
Mineral scale will form if the
dissolved solids concentration in the
dissolved solids concentration in the
cooling water becomes too high
cooling water becomes too high
Þ Þ
Supersaturation
Supersaturation
Impact of Blowdown on
Impact of Blowdown on
Concentration Ratio
Concentration Ratio
Blowdown:
Blowdown:
Þ Þ
Deliberate
Deliberate
discharge of
discharge of
water to prevent
water to prevent
the dissolved
the dissolved
solids from
solids from
getting to high
getting to high
6
1
3
2
5
4
Constant Evaporation
6
3
2
5
4
Constant Evaporation
1
With
Zero
Blowdown
With
Continuous
Blowdown
Maintaining
4 Cycles
Makeup Water
Makeup Water
Þ Þ
Amount of water
Amount of water
required to
required to
replace water lost
replace water lost
by evaporation
by evaporation
and blowdown
and blowdown
Evaporation
Makeup
Blowdown
Makeup =
Evaporation +
Blowdown
Concentration Ratio
Concentration Ratio
CR =
Make-up Flow
Blowdown Flow
MU = Evaporation x
CR
(CR – 1)
COMMON COOLING
COMMON COOLING
SYSTEM PROBLEMS
SYSTEM PROBLEMS
CORROSION
MICROBIO
F
O
U
L
I
N
G
S
C
A
L
E
Cooling System Problems
Cooling System Problems
Left unchecked these Left unchecked these
problems cause problems cause
Þ Þ Loss of heat transfer Loss of heat transfer
Þ Þ Reduced equipment Reduced equipment
life life
Þ Þ Equipment failures Equipment failures
Þ Þ Lost production Lost production
Þ Þ Lost profits Lost profits
Þ Þ Increased Increased
maintenance costs maintenance costs
Þ Þ Plant shutdown Plant shutdown
MINERAL SCALE
MINERAL SCALE
Mineral Scale
Mineral Scale
Þ Þ
Cooling Water contains many
Cooling Water contains many
different minerals
different minerals
--
--
normally these
normally these
minerals are dissolved in the water
minerals are dissolved in the water
Þ Þ
Under certain conditions minerals
Under certain conditions minerals
can come out of solution and form
can come out of solution and form
into hard, dense crystals called
into hard, dense crystals called
SCALE
SCALE
Scaled Heat Exchanger Tubes
Mineral Scale
Mineral Scale
Common Scales Common Scales
Þ Þ Calcium Carbonate Calcium Carbonate
Þ Þ Magnesium Silicate Magnesium Silicate
Þ Þ Calcium Phosphate Calcium Phosphate
Þ Þ Calcium Sulfate Calcium Sulfate
Þ Þ Iron Oxide Iron Oxide
Þ Þ Iron Phosphate Iron Phosphate
Þ Þ Others... Others...
CaPO4
CaCO3
Mineral Scale
Mineral Scale
The Following Factors Affect
The Following Factors Affect
Scale Formation...
Scale Formation...
^ ^
Mineral Concentration
Mineral Concentration
^ ^
Water Temperature
Water Temperature
^ ^
Water pH
Water pH
^ ^
Suspended Solids
Suspended Solids
- -
Water Flow Velocity
Water Flow Velocity
Mineral Scale
Mineral Scale
Þ Þ
Scale usually forms in hot areas of
Scale usually forms in hot areas of
cooling systems
cooling systems
Þ Þ
Reduces heat transfer efficiency
Reduces heat transfer efficiency
Þ Þ
Mechanical/Chemical cleaning
Mechanical/Chemical cleaning
Þ Þ
Under deposit corrosion (pitting)
Under deposit corrosion (pitting)
Þ Þ
Plant shutdown
Plant shutdown
Þ Þ
Equipment replacement
Equipment replacement
Preventing Mineral Scale
Preventing Mineral Scale
Þ Þ
Limit concentration of scale forming
Limit concentration of scale forming
minerals: Blowdown, clarify/filter MU
minerals: Blowdown, clarify/filter MU
Þ Þ
Feed acid to reduce pH & alkalinity:
Feed acid to reduce pH & alkalinity:
Reduces scaling
Reduces scaling
--
--
increases corrosion
increases corrosion
Þ Þ
Mechanical design changes: Increase HX
Mechanical design changes: Increase HX
water velocity,
water velocity,
backflush
backflush
, air rumble
, air rumble
Þ Þ
Apply chemical scale inhibitors
Apply chemical scale inhibitors
Mineral Scale
Mineral Scale
Three Classifications Of Scale
Three Classifications Of Scale
Inhibiting Chemicals Are
Inhibiting Chemicals Are


Þ Þ
Crystal Modifiers
Crystal Modifiers


Prevent scale from
Prevent scale from


laying down
laying down


Þ Þ
Sequestrants
Sequestrants


Prevent scale from agglomerating
Prevent scale from agglomerating
Þ Þ
Dispersants
Dispersants


Affect mineral charge so that scale
Affect mineral charge so that scale
formers repel each other
formers repel each other
Normal Operations
Normal Operations
Parameters 7.6 7.9 8.1 8.4 8.7 8.9 9.2
Calcite 0.4 1.3 3.9 10.9 29 68 96 pH
Tricalcium Phosphate 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Temp 120
Magnesium Silicate 0.1 0.3 1 3.2 10 28 72 PO4 2
Silica 0.6 0.6 0.55 0.53 0.5 0.44 0.36 Cycles 8
Comments:
Parameters 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Calcite 6 6.5 7 7.4 7.7 8 8.3 pH 8.3
Tricalcium Phosphate 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Temp 120
Magnesium Silicate 1.3 1.6 2.1 2.5 3 3.5 0.8 PO4 2
Silica 0.4 0.5 0.55 0.6 0.7 0.75 0.8 Cycles
Constants
Impact of pH
Constants
Impact of Cycl es
PGE Beaver Condenser Scale Analysis
PGE Beaver Condenser Scale Analysis
Calcium Carbonate Scale
Calcium Carbonate Scale
High Silica, Minimum Blowdown
High Silica, Minimum Blowdown
Parameters 7.6 7.9 8.1 8.4 8.7 8.9 9.2
Calcite 0.67 1.9 5.5 15 38 89 187 pH
Tricalcium Phosphate 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 Temp 120
Magnesium Silicate 0.2 0.8 2.8 9 28 81 203 PO4 2
Silica 1.08 1.07 1.05 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 Cycles 15
Comments: 15 cycles, 230 PPM Silica
Parameters 7.6 7.9 8.1 8.4 8.7 8.9 9.2
Calcite 0.4 1 3 9 24 60 136 pH
Tricalcium Phosphate 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 Temp 80
Magnesium Silicate 0.1 0.1 0.3 1.1 3.6 11 31 PO4 2
Silica 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.78 1.73 1.64 1.5 Cycles 15
Comments: 15 cycles, 230 PPM Silica
Impact of pH and Hi gh Silica
Constants
Impact of pH and Hi gh Silica
Constants
CORROSION
CORROSION
CORROSION
CORROSION
Corrosion is the mechanism by which metals
Corrosion is the mechanism by which metals
are reverted back to
are reverted back to
their
their
natural
natural


oxidized
oxidized


state
state
Battery Analogy
Battery Analogy
Þ Þ
Anode
Anode
Þ Þ
Cathode
Cathode
Þ Þ
Electrical Circuit
Electrical Circuit
Þ Þ
Metal lost at anode
Metal lost at anode
Corrosion
Corrosion
e
-
Electrolyte
A
n
o
d
e
C
a
t
h
o
d
e
Simplified Corrosion Cell
Simplified Corrosion Cell
Fe
2+
CATHODE
ANODE
O
2
OH
-
e
-
STEP 1
STEP 2
STEP 3
STEP 4
Water with
Dissolved
Minerals
Base Metal
O
2
e
-
e
-
e
-
Four Step Corrosion Model
Four Step Corrosion Model
Þ Þ Step 1 Step 1: At the anode, pure iron begins to break : At the anode, pure iron begins to break
down in contact with the cooling water. This down in contact with the cooling water. This
step leaves behind electrons. step leaves behind electrons.
Þ Þ Step 2 Step 2: Electrons travel through the metal to the : Electrons travel through the metal to the
cathode. cathode.
Þ Þ Step 3 Step 3: At the cathode, a chemical reaction : At the cathode, a chemical reaction
occurs between the electrons and oxygen carried occurs between the electrons and oxygen carried
by the cooling water. This reaction forms by the cooling water. This reaction forms
hydroxide. hydroxide.
Þ Þ Step 4 Step 4: Dissolved minerals in the cooling water : Dissolved minerals in the cooling water
complete the electrochemical circuit back to the complete the electrochemical circuit back to the
anode. anode.
Factors Influencing Corrosion
Factors Influencing Corrosion
Þ Þ
pH
pH
Þ Þ
Temperature
Temperature
Þ Þ
Dissolved Solids
Dissolved Solids
Þ Þ
System Deposits
System Deposits
Þ Þ
Water Velocity
Water Velocity
Þ Þ
Microbiological Growth
Microbiological Growth
100
10
0
5 6 7 8 9 10
C
o
r
r
o
s
i
o
n

R
a
t
e
,

R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

U
n
i
t
s
pH
Corrosion Vs. pH
Corrosion Vs. pH
Corrosion Vs. Temperature
Corrosion Vs. Temperature
Corrosion Rate
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
In general, for every 18°F in
water temperature, chemical
reaction rates double.
Other Causes of Corrosion
Other Causes of Corrosion
^ ^
System Deposits
System Deposits
• • Anodic pitting sites develop under deposits Anodic pitting sites develop under deposits
¯ ¯
Water Velocity
Water Velocity
• • Too low = deposits Too low = deposits
• • Too high = Erosion Too high = Erosion
^ ^
Microbiological Growth
Microbiological Growth
• • Deposits; Produce corrosive by Deposits; Produce corrosive by- -products products
Types of Corrosion
Types of Corrosion
All cooling system metallurgy experiences some All cooling system metallurgy experiences some
degree of corrosion. The objective is to control degree of corrosion. The objective is to control
the corrosion well enough to maximize the life the corrosion well enough to maximize the life
expectancy of the system... expectancy of the system...
1. General Corrosion
1. General Corrosion
2. Localized Pitting Corrosion
2. Localized Pitting Corrosion
3. Galvanic Corrosion
3. Galvanic Corrosion
Base Metal
General Etch Uniform Attack
Water
O
r
i
g
i
n
a
l
T
h
i
c
k
n
e
s
s
General Corrosion
General Corrosion
Þ Þ
Preferred situation
Preferred situation
Þ Þ
Take a small
Take a small
amount of metal
amount of metal
evenly throughout
evenly throughout
the system
the system
Þ Þ
Anode very large
Anode very large
Base Metal
Localized Pitting Attack
Water
O
r
i
g
i
n
a
l
T
h
i
c
k
n
e
s
s
Pitting Corrosion
Pitting Corrosion
Þ Þ Metal removed at Metal removed at
same rate but from a same rate but from a
much smaller area much smaller area
Þ Þ Anode very small Anode very small
Þ Þ Often occurs under Often occurs under
deposits or weak deposits or weak
points points
Þ Þ Leads to rapid metal Leads to rapid metal
failure failure
Galvanic Corrosion
Galvanic Corrosion
Active End
Passive End
Magnesium
Galvanized Steel
Mild Steel
Cast Iron
18-8 Stainless Steel Type 304 (Active)
18-12-3 Stainless Type 316 (Active)
Lead Tin
Muntz Steel
Nickel (Active)
76-Ni-16 Cr-7 Fe Alloy (Active)
Brass
Copper
70:30 Cupro Nickel
67-Ni-33 Cu Alloy (Monel)
Titanium
18-8 Stainless Steel Typ 304 (Passive)
18-12-3 Stainless Steel Type 316 (Passive)
Graphite
Gold
Platinum
Þ Þ Occurs when two Occurs when two
different metals different metals
are in the same are in the same
system system
Þ Þ More reactive More reactive
metal will corrode metal will corrode
in presence of less in presence of less
reactive metal reactive metal
Þ Þ Potential for Potential for
galvanic corrosion galvanic corrosion
increases with increases with
increasing distance increasing distance
on chart on chart
Affects of Corrosion
Affects of Corrosion
Þ Þ Destroys cooling system metal Destroys cooling system metal
Þ Þ Corrosion product deposits in heat exchangers Corrosion product deposits in heat exchangers
Þ Þ Heat transfer efficiency is reduced by deposits Heat transfer efficiency is reduced by deposits
Þ Þ Leaks in equipment develop Leaks in equipment develop
Þ Þ Process side and water side contamination Process side and water side contamination
occurs occurs
Þ Þ Water usage increases Water usage increases
Þ Þ Maintenance and cleaning frequency increases Maintenance and cleaning frequency increases
Þ Þ Equipment must be repaired and/or repaired Equipment must be repaired and/or repaired
Þ Þ Unscheduled shutdown of plant Unscheduled shutdown of plant
Methods To Control Corrosion
Methods To Control Corrosion
Þ Þ
Use corrosion resistant alloys: $
Use corrosion resistant alloys: $
Þ Þ
Adjust (increase) system pH: Scale
Adjust (increase) system pH: Scale
Þ Þ
Apply protective coatings: Integrity
Apply protective coatings: Integrity
Þ Þ
Use
Use


sacrificial anodes
sacrificial anodes


: Zn/Mg
: Zn/Mg
Þ Þ
Apply chemical corrosion
Apply chemical corrosion
inhibitors
inhibitors
Anodic Corrosion Inhibitors
Anodic Corrosion Inhibitors
Þ Þ
Stop corrosion
Stop corrosion
cell by blocking
cell by blocking
the anodic site
the anodic site
Þ Þ
Severe localized
Severe localized
pitting attack can
pitting attack can
occur at an
occur at an
unprotected
unprotected
anodic sites if
anodic sites if
insufficient
insufficient
inhibitor is
inhibitor is
present
present
Anodic Inhibitors
Anodic Inhibitors
Þ Þ
Chromates
Chromates
Þ Þ
Nitrites
Nitrites
Þ Þ
Orthophosphates
Orthophosphates
Þ Þ
Silicates
Silicates
Þ Þ
Molybdates
Molybdates
Cathodic Corrosion Inhibitors
Cathodic Corrosion Inhibitors
Þ Þ Stop corrosion cell Stop corrosion cell
by blocking the by blocking the
electrochemical electrochemical
reaction at the reaction at the
cathode cathode
Þ Þ Corrosion rate is Corrosion rate is
reduced in direct reduced in direct
proportion to the proportion to the
reduction in the size reduction in the size
of the cathodic area. of the cathodic area.
Cathodic Inhibitors
Cathodic Inhibitors
Þ Þ
Bicarbonates
Bicarbonates
Þ Þ
Polyphosphates
Polyphosphates
Þ Þ
Polysilicates
Polysilicates
Þ Þ
Zinc
Zinc
Þ Þ
PSO
PSO
General Corrosion Inhibitors
General Corrosion Inhibitors
Þ Þ
Protect metal by
Protect metal by
filming all
filming all
surfaces whether
surfaces whether
they are anodic or
they are anodic or
cathodic
cathodic
General Inhibitors
General Inhibitors
Þ Þ
Soluble Oils
Soluble Oils
Þ Þ
Tolyltriazoles
Tolyltriazoles
Þ Þ
Benzotriazoles
Benzotriazoles
Nalco Corrosion Monitor
Nalco Corrosion Monitor
Þ Þ
Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR)
Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR)
Þ Þ
Effective in Low Conductivity Waters
Effective in Low Conductivity Waters


Soft Water, Condensate
Soft Water, Condensate
Þ Þ
Probes and Tips are one unit
Probes and Tips are one unit
Þ Þ
Battery Powered
Battery Powered
Þ Þ
Internal Data Logger
Internal Data Logger


PDA/Computer
PDA/Computer
Down Load
Down Load
Þ Þ
Inexpensive
Inexpensive
Unit 2 NCM 100 Data
0.00
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
4-Sep 6-Sep 8-Sep 10-Sep 12-Sep 14-Sep 16-Sep 18-Sep 20-Sep
Date
M

P

Y
Start Trial
Chlorine Shock
Normal Operations
Startup
Unit 2 Circ Water Corrosion Rates
9/6/03 to 9/17/03
Unit Shutdown
FOULING
FOULING
Fouling
Fouling
FOULING is the accumulation of solid
FOULING is the accumulation of solid
material, other than scale, in a way that
material, other than scale, in a way that
hampers the operation of equipment or
hampers the operation of equipment or
contributes to its deterioration
contributes to its deterioration
Common Foulants
Common Foulants
Suspended Solids
Suspended Solids
Þ Þ
Silt, Sand, Mud and Iron
Silt, Sand, Mud and Iron
Þ Þ
Dirt & Dust
Dirt & Dust
Þ Þ
Process contaminants, e.g. Oils
Process contaminants, e.g. Oils
Þ Þ
Corrosion Products
Corrosion Products
Þ Þ
Microbio growth
Microbio growth
Þ Þ
Carryover (clarifier/lime softener)
Carryover (clarifier/lime softener)
Þ Þ
Water Characteristics
Water Characteristics
Þ Þ
Water Temperature
Water Temperature
Þ Þ
Water Flow Velocity
Water Flow Velocity
Þ Þ
Microbio Growth
Microbio Growth
Þ Þ
Corrosion
Corrosion
Þ Þ
Process Leaks
Process Leaks
Factors Influencing Fouling
Factors Influencing Fouling
Affects of Fouling
Affects of Fouling
Þ Þ
Foulants form deposits in hot and/or low
Foulants form deposits in hot and/or low
flow areas of cooling systems
flow areas of cooling systems
Þ Þ
Shell
Shell
-
-
side heat exchangers are the most
side heat exchangers are the most
vulnerable to fouling
vulnerable to fouling
Þ Þ
Deposits ideal for localized pitting
Deposits ideal for localized pitting
corrosion
corrosion
Þ Þ
Corrosive bacteria thrive under deposits
Corrosive bacteria thrive under deposits
Þ Þ
Metal failure results
Metal failure results
Economic Impact of Fouling
Economic Impact of Fouling
Þ Þ
Decreased plant efficiency
Decreased plant efficiency
Þ Þ
Reduction in productivity
Reduction in productivity
Þ Þ
Production schedule delays
Production schedule delays
Þ Þ
Increased downtime for maintenance
Increased downtime for maintenance
Þ Þ
Cost of equipment repair or replacement
Cost of equipment repair or replacement
Þ Þ
Reduced effectiveness of
Reduced effectiveness of
chemical inhibitors
chemical inhibitors
Fouling
Fouling
Three Levels Of Attack Can Be
Three Levels Of Attack Can Be
Employed To Address The Effects
Employed To Address The Effects
Of Fouling...
Of Fouling...
1. Prevention
1. Prevention
2. Reduction
2. Reduction
3. Ongoing Control
3. Ongoing Control
Preventing Fouling
Preventing Fouling
Prevention Prevention
Þ Þ Good control of makeup quality Good control of makeup quality
Þ Þ Good control of corrosion, scale, & microbio Good control of corrosion, scale, & microbio
Reduction Reduction
Þ Þ Increase blowdown Increase blowdown
Þ Þ Sidestream filter Sidestream filter
Ongoing Control Ongoing Control
Þ Þ Backflushing, Air rumbling, Clean tower basin Backflushing, Air rumbling, Clean tower basin
Þ Þ Chemical treatment Chemical treatment
Preventing Fouling
Preventing Fouling
Prevention
Prevention
Þ Þ
High Efficiency Multimedia Filters
High Efficiency Multimedia Filters
– – Capable of 80% removal of 0.5 micron Capable of 80% removal of 0.5 micron
– – Typical multimedia depth filters capable of Typical multimedia depth filters capable of
80% removal only down to 10 micron 80% removal only down to 10 micron
– – Most (greater than 90%) of particles found in Most (greater than 90%) of particles found in
a cooling tower are less than 10 micron a cooling tower are less than 10 micron
Þ Þ
Do not overlook
Do not overlook
sidestream
sidestream
filtration and
filtration and
choose wisely!
choose wisely!
Fouling
Fouling
Chemical Treatment
Chemical Treatment
Þ Þ
Charge
Charge
Reinforcers
Reinforcers


Anionic polymers increase strength of
Anionic polymers increase strength of
charge already present on suspended
charge already present on suspended
solids
solids


Keep particles small enough so they
Keep particles small enough so they
do not settle out
do not settle out
Þ Þ
Wetting Agents
Wetting Agents


Surfactants
Surfactants


Penetrate existing deposits
Penetrate existing deposits


Wash away from metal surfaces
Wash away from metal surfaces
MICROBIOLOGICAL
MICROBIOLOGICAL
GROWTH
GROWTH
Microbiological Growth
Microbiological Growth
Þ Þ
Water treatment is
Water treatment is
about managing
about managing
three fouling
three fouling
processes...
processes...
= =
Corrosion
Corrosion
= =
Scale
Scale
= =
Microbio
Microbio
The microbial fouling The microbial fouling
process is... process is...
Þ Þ The most complex The most complex
Þ Þ The least understood The least understood
Þ Þ The hardest to The hardest to
measure and monitor measure and monitor
Þ Þ Controlled using the Controlled using the
least desirable, most least desirable, most
expensive, & expensive, &
potentially hazardous potentially hazardous
products products
Microbiological Growth
Microbiological Growth
Three Kinds Of Troublesome
Three Kinds Of Troublesome
Microorganisms In Cooling Water...
Microorganisms In Cooling Water...
1. Bacteria
1. Bacteria
2. Algae
2. Algae
3. Fungi/Mold/Yeast
3. Fungi/Mold/Yeast
Bacteria
Bacteria
Sears
Tower
Þ Þ Bacteria extremely Bacteria extremely
small small
Þ Þ Compared to a Compared to a
human, a bacteria is human, a bacteria is
like a grain of sand to like a grain of sand to
the Sears Tower the Sears Tower
Þ Þ Size allows many Size allows many
(millions) to fit into a (millions) to fit into a
small volume of small volume of
water... water...
Bacteria
Bacteria
Þ Þ There are as many There are as many
bacteria in 12 oz. of bacteria in 12 oz. of
cooling water as cooling water as
there are people there are people
living in the United living in the United
States States
Þ Þ There are 40,000 There are 40,000
times as many times as many
bacteria in a 50,000 bacteria in a 50,000
gallon cooling gallon cooling
system as there are system as there are
people in the world! people in the world!
12oz.
Cooling Water
40,000 X
50MGAL
Cooling System
Bacteria
Bacteria
Types of Bacteria
Types of Bacteria
1. Slime Forming
1. Slime Forming
2. Anaerobic Corrosive
2. Anaerobic Corrosive
3. Iron Depositing
3. Iron Depositing
4. Nitrifying
4. Nitrifying
5. Denitrifying
5. Denitrifying
Bacteria
Bacteria
Slime Formers
Iron Depositing Anaerobic
Typical Rods
Bacteria
Bacteria
Þ Þ
Produce acidic waste that lowers pH and
Produce acidic waste that lowers pH and
causes corrosion
causes corrosion
Þ Þ
Produce large volumes of iron deposits
Produce large volumes of iron deposits
that foul
that foul
Þ Þ
Produce acids from ammonia that
Produce acids from ammonia that
increase corrosion & lower pH
increase corrosion & lower pH
Þ Þ
Form sticky slime masses that foul &
Form sticky slime masses that foul &
cause reduced heat transfer
cause reduced heat transfer
Two Classifications of Bacteria
Two Classifications of Bacteria
Planktonic
Planktonic
:
:
Þ Þ
Free
Free
-
-
floating bacteria in bulk water
floating bacteria in bulk water
Sessile
Sessile
:
:
Þ Þ
Bacteria attached to surfaces
Bacteria attached to surfaces
Þ Þ
Over 95% of bacteria in a cooling system
Over 95% of bacteria in a cooling system
are sessile and live in BIOFILMS
are sessile and live in BIOFILMS
Biofilms
Biofilms
Þ Þ Contribute to all Contribute to all
cooling water cooling water
problems problems
Þ Þ Underdeposit Underdeposit
corrosion corrosion
Þ Þ Trap silt & debris Trap silt & debris
which foul heat which foul heat
exchangers and exchangers and
tower fill tower fill
Þ Þ Provide nucleation Provide nucleation
sites for scale sites for scale
formation formation
Biofilm Formation
C
C
C
FLOW
Thermal
Foulant Conductivity
CaCO3 1.3-1.7
CaSO4 1.3
CaPO4 1.5
MgPO4 1.3
Fe Oxide 1.7
Biofilm 0.4
P P
Common
biofilms are 4
times more
insulating
than CaCO3
scale!
Biofilms
Biofilms
Þ Þ
More insulating
More insulating
than most
than most
common scales
common scales
=
=
Þ Þ
Reduce heat
Reduce heat
transfer efficiency
transfer efficiency
Þ Þ
Increase dP across
Increase dP across
heat exchangers &
heat exchangers &
reduce flow
reduce flow
Þ Þ
Health risks
Health risks
(legionella)
(legionella)
Algae
Algae
Þ Þ
Require sunlight to grow
Require sunlight to grow
Þ Þ
Found on tower decks & exposed areas
Found on tower decks & exposed areas
Þ Þ
Form
Form


algae mats
algae mats


Þ Þ
Plug distribution holes on tower decks
Plug distribution holes on tower decks
Þ Þ
Plug screens/foul equipment
Plug screens/foul equipment
Þ Þ
Consume oxidants
Consume oxidants
Þ Þ
Provide food for other organisms
Provide food for other organisms
Fungi
Fungi
Þ Þ
Use carbon in
Use carbon in
wood fibers for
wood fibers for
food
food
Þ Þ
Destroy tower
Destroy tower
lumber by either
lumber by either
surface or internal
surface or internal
rotting (deep rot)
rotting (deep rot)
Þ Þ
Loss of structural
Loss of structural
integrity of tower
integrity of tower
Factors Affecting Growth of
Factors Affecting Growth of
Microorganisms
Microorganisms
Þ Þ
Microorganism Sources: Air or Makeup
Microorganism Sources: Air or Makeup
water
water
Þ Þ
Cooling systems provide the ideal
Cooling systems provide the ideal
environment for microbiological growth
environment for microbiological growth
– – Nutrients: Ammonia, oil, organic Nutrients: Ammonia, oil, organic
contaminants contaminants
– – Temperature: 70 Temperature: 70- -140 140° °F acceptable F acceptable
– – pH: 6.0 pH: 6.0 - - 9.0 ideal 9.0 ideal
– – Location: Light/No Light Location: Light/No Light
– – Atmosphere: Aerobic/Anaerobic Atmosphere: Aerobic/Anaerobic
Controlling Microbiological
Controlling Microbiological
Growth
Growth
Water Quality
Water Quality


Eliminate organic contaminants (food)
Eliminate organic contaminants (food)


No food = No bugs
No food = No bugs
» »Bugs are Bugs are carniverous carniverous – – A forest feeds A forest feeds
itself itself
System Design Considerations
System Design Considerations


Clean tower and sumps, cover decks
Clean tower and sumps, cover decks
Chemical Treatment with Biocides
Chemical Treatment with Biocides
Microbiological Growth
Microbiological Growth
Chemical Treatment With Biocides
Chemical Treatment With Biocides
Þ Þ
Oxidizing Biocides
Oxidizing Biocides
Þ Þ
Non
Non
-
-
oxidizing Biocides
oxidizing Biocides
Þ Þ
Biodispersants
Biodispersants
What About Dipslides?
What About Dipslides?
Simple, quick, and inexpensive.
However, only gives bacteria
levels from the bulk water.
There is more to this picture!
Monitoring Tools for
Monitoring Tools for
Planktonic Microorganisms
Planktonic Microorganisms
-
-
Dipslides
Dipslides
Þ Þ
Dipslides only measure selected
Dipslides only measure selected
aerobic planktonic microorganisms
aerobic planktonic microorganisms
Þ Þ
Total aerobic bacterial counts
Total aerobic bacterial counts
determined from dipslides are useful
determined from dipslides are useful
for tracking
for tracking
trends
trends
Aerobic Plate Counts
Aerobic Plate Counts
Microbiological Monitoring
Microbiological Monitoring
Sessile Monitoring
Tracide, ATP
Bio Box
DIVERSITY
DIVERSITY
of different kinds….
the state of being unlike or different
refers to the KINDS of microorganisms
present
Differential Microbiological
Differential Microbiological
Analysis (DMA)
Analysis (DMA)
Testing designed
to differentiate
the
microbiological
content within a
system.
Fr om: Anal ysi s No. MB 207310
ABC Pl ant Dat e Sampl ed 9/ 9/ 97
Dat e Recei ved 9/ 10/ 97
Dat e Compl et ed 9/ 15/ 97
Sampl e Mar ked: Dat e Pr i nt ed 9/ 15/ 97
Cool er Out l et
>>> Mi cr obi ol ogi cal Eval uat i on <<<
PHYSI CAL APPEARANCE Li qui d wi t h Fl oc
TOTAL AEROBI C BACTERI A 4, 000
Ent er obact er <100
Pi gment ed <100
Mucoi ds <100
Pseudomonas <100
Spor es <10
TOTAL ANAEROBI C BACTERI A
Sul f at e Reducer s 2
Cl ost r i di a <10
TOTAL FUNGI
Yeast s <10
Mol ds 20
I RON- DEPOSI TI NG
Gal l i onel l a None
Sphaer ot i l us None
ALGAE
Fi l ament ous None
Nonf i l ament ous None
OTHER ORGANI SMS None
Lab Comment s:
Al l count s expr ess col ony f or mi ng uni t s per ml .
Mi cr oscopi c exami nat i on: f ew cr yst al s and ver y f ew di at oms.
The goal in microbial fouling
control ...
is almost never to “sterilize” the
system, but rather,
...it is to MANAGE the fouling
control process to a level that
causes no operational problems
How do I measure
How do I measure
biofilms?
biofilms?
Sessile monitoring is an
Sessile monitoring is an
integral part of the microbial
integral part of the microbial
monitoring program
monitoring program
Þ Þ
Planktonic results have a weak
Planktonic results have a weak
correlation to the sessile population
correlation to the sessile population
Þ Þ
The sessile population, or biofilms, are
The sessile population, or biofilms, are
the true microbial control target
the true microbial control target
Surface Microbial
Surface Microbial
Monitoring Test Kit
Monitoring Test Kit
Þ Þ
Surface Microbial Monitoring Test Kit
Surface Microbial Monitoring Test Kit


Applied Services C0243
Applied Services C0243


SBIO is test code
SBIO is test code
Þ Þ
Kit contains supplies necessary to
Kit contains supplies necessary to
sample a surface
sample a surface
Þ Þ
Measures microorganisms on surfaces,
Measures microorganisms on surfaces,
i.e., sessile population
i.e., sessile population
Monitoring Tools for
Monitoring Tools for
Sessile Microorganisms
Sessile Microorganisms
Sessile Monitoring
Sessile Monitoring
Swab
Coupon
Sterile
Buffer
BioBox
Surface Microbial
Test Kit
Bio Box
Bio Box
Þ Þ
Visual indicator
Visual indicator
Þ Þ
Removable Slides
Removable Slides
for Microscopic
for Microscopic
Analysis
Analysis
• Planktonic counts don’t often correlate with sessile
counts.
• Use microbial types, numbers, and locations as clues to
current conditions, trends, and improvements.
• Be creative with sample point locations, timing with
cleanup events, etc.. to provide powerful diagnostic
information.
• Establish criteria for success
BioManage
BioManage
TM
TM
Best Practices
Best Practices
Recognizing The Problem
Recognizing The Problem
THANK YOU
THANK YOU
-
-
Any questions on
Any questions on
any topics we
any topics we
covered?
covered?
Every system
Every system


under
under
stress
stress
Þ
Þ
High Stress Causes:
High Stress Causes:


Scale
Scale


Corrosion
Corrosion


Fouling
Fouling
Þ
Þ
Low Stress Causes
Low Stress Causes


High water costs
High water costs


High energy costs
High energy costs


High chemical costs
High chemical costs
Stress: varies by system
Stress: varies by system
operation
operation
Þ Þ
High temperatures
High temperatures
Þ Þ
Long holding time indices (
Long holding time indices (
HTI
HTI


s
s
)
)
Þ Þ
Biological/Organic contamination
Biological/Organic contamination
– – Size, type and diversity of bio Size, type and diversity of bio- -
populations populations
Þ Þ
Low flow rates
Low flow rates
Þ Þ
High oxidant concentrations
High oxidant concentrations
Þ Þ
Water chemistry
Water chemistry
Stress: varies by system
Stress: varies by system
design
design
Þ Þ
Erratic feed systems
Erratic feed systems
Þ Þ
Problematic equipment
Problematic equipment


Blowdown valves, make
Blowdown valves, make
-
-
up
up
systems, etc.
systems, etc.
Þ Þ
Monitoring problems
Monitoring problems


How does the rest of your facility
How does the rest of your facility
work?
work?
Þ Þ
System design limitations
System design limitations
Þ Þ
System location
System location
Stress: varies by industry
Stress: varies by industry
Capacity limitations Capacity limitations Aggressive water Aggressive water
chemistry chemistry
Variable water Variable water
chemistry chemistry
Nutrient Nutrient- -rich rich
environments environments
Regulatory Needs Regulatory Needs Regulatory Needs Regulatory Needs
System System
Contamination Contamination
Long Long HTI HTI’ ’s s Equipment often idle Equipment often idle
for long periods for long periods
Food & Beverage Food & Beverage
Institutional
Institutional
Semiconductor Semiconductor
Stress: varies by location
Stress: varies by location
Texas City, TX
Morris, IL
San Diego, CA
El Segundo, CA
Houston, TX
Westchester, IL
Sandy, UT
Beaumont, TX
Phoenix, AZ
Rahway, NJ
Naperville, IL
Tiger Bay, FL
Sioux City, IA
Martinez, CA
V
a
r
i
a
b
l
e

W
a
t
e
r
C
h
e
m
i
s
t
r
y
L
o
w

H
a
r
d
n
e
s
s
L
o
w

A
l
k
a
l
i
n
i
t
y
High Hardness
High Alkalinity
High Temperatures
Variable Water Chemistry
Critical Systems
Variable Water Chemistry
High water cost
Gray water use
Environmental Concerns
High Bio-Acti vity
Minneapolis, MN
Texas City, TX
Morris, IL
San Diego, CA
El Segundo, CA
Houston, TX
Westchester, IL
Sandy, UT
Beaumont, TX
Phoenix, AZ
Rahway, NJ
Naperville, IL
Tiger Bay, FL
Sioux City, IA
Martinez, CA
V
a
r
i
a
b
l
e

W
a
t
e
r
C
h
e
m
i
s
t
r
y
L
o
w

H
a
r
d
n
e
s
s
L
o
w

A
l
k
a
l
i
n
i
t
y
High Hardness
High Alkalinity
High Temperatures
Variable Water Chemistry
Critical Systems
Variable Water Chemistry
High water cost
Gray water use
Environmental Concerns
High Bio-Acti vity
Minneapolis, MN
Stress: constantly varying
Stress: constantly varying


Control Based on System Stress
-
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 89
Time (each interval = 4 hours)
C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

(
p
p
m
)
Active Concentration (ppm)
Treatment Concentration (ppm)
As system stress varies, 3D TRASAR adjusts dosage to compensate. At times of high stress,
more inhibitor is fed. When stress decreases, less inhibitor is fed.
High Stress! Low Stress!
Stress: unpredictable
Stress: unpredictable
3D TRASAR Optimizes System Stress
-
200
400
600
800
1,000
1,200
1,400
1,600
1,800
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61
Time (Each Division = 4 hours)
C
o
n
d
u
c
t
i
v
i
t
y
3D TRASAR detects low stress
and increases conductivity to
minimize operating cost.
3D TRASAR detects high stress
and decreases conductivity to
prevent operational problems.
3D TRASAR detects low stress and
increases the conductivity to
minimize operating cost.
In this case, a bleach feed system failed. When the system was
repaired at 10:50 PM, high concentrations of bleach were fed into
the system, increasing system stress. 3D TRASAR detected the
stress and decreased the conductivity to prevent an operational
problem.
Stress: undiscovered
Stress: undiscovered
-
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1,000
Time (each division = 1 day)
O
R
P

(
m
V
)
-
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
C
o
p
p
e
r

C
o
r
r
o
s
i
o
n

R
a
t
e

(
m
p
y
)
ORP Copper
Before 3D Bio-Control, ORP-based
control was erratic and copper
corrosion rates were high.
After 3D Bio-Control was
implemented, ORP levels were
reduced, variability was reduced
and copper corrosion rates
improved.
3D Bio-Control Started
Stress: many sources
Stress: many sources
Average Daily Nalco Bio-Index
-5.0
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
1
-
J
u
n
2
-
J
u
n
3
-
J
u
n
4
-
J
u
n
5
-
J
u
n
6
-
J
u
n
7
-
J
u
n
8
-
J
u
n
9
-
J
u
n
1
0
-
J
u
n
1
1
-
J
u
n
1
2
-
J
u
n
1
3
-
J
u
n
1
4
-
J
u
n
1
5
-
J
u
n
1
6
-
J
u
n
1
7
-
J
u
n
1
8
-
J
u
n
1
9
-
J
u
n
2
0
-
J
u
n
2
1
-
J
u
n
2
2
-
J
u
n
2
3
-
J
u
n
2
4
-
J
u
n
2
5
-
J
u
n
2
6
-
J
u
n
2
7
-
J
u
n
2
8
-
J
u
n
2
9
-
J
u
n
3
0
-
J
u
n
Date
N
a
l
c
o

B
i
o
-
I
n
d
e
x
Monday
Monday
Monday
Monday
Monday
Bio-activity stresses
cooling systems.
Bringing idle
equipment online
increases system
stress.
Stress: requires dynamic
Stress: requires dynamic
response
response
June 16
Nalco Bio-Index and Pump On Time
(5)
-
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
0:00 3:00 5:40 8:40 11:40 15:00 18:20 21:28
Time (Hours:Minutes)
N
a
l
c
o

B
i
o
-
I
n
d
e
x
-
1
2
3
4
5
P
u
m
p

O
n

(
m
i
n
u
t
e
s
)
Pump On (minutes) Nalco Bio-Index
Nalco Bio-Index Set-
Point
3D TRASAR detects a change in
the bio-population and starts
applying more oxidizing biocide
to compensate.
When 3D TRASAR detects a change in the rate of bio-
population increase, it responds by feeding less biocide,
controlling the bio-population, but preventing a biocide
overdose.
Stress: intermittent
Stress: intermittent
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0
12:00 AM 12:00 PM 12:00 AM 12:00 PM 12:00 AM 12:00 PM
Date/Time
p
H
0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0
10.0
M
i
l
d

S
t
e
e
l

C
o
r
r
o
s
i
o
n

R
a
t
e

(
m
p
y
)
pH MS Corrosion Rate
7:17 PM: acid upset
causes pH to drop.
11:24 PM, pH returns
to normal
In spite of extremely low
pH, corrosion rate is
unaffected.
Stress: interrelated causes
Stress: interrelated causes
1.80
1.85
1.90
1.95
2.00
2.05
2.10
2.15
2.20
2.25
2.30
Date (Each Division = 10 days)
E
x
c
h
a
n
g
e
r

E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
Average Silica = 8 ppm
Average Silica = 7 ppm
Prior to 3D TRASAR control,
phosphate upsets put stress on
the system which caused
significant fouling. In this case,
the overfeed caused a 14%
efficiency loss.
Average Silica = 26 ppm
Stress: interrelated causes
Stress: interrelated causes
1.80
1.85
1.90
1.95
2.00
2.05
2.10
2.15
2.20
2.25
2.30
Date (Each Division = 10 days)
E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

F
a
c
t
o
r
Average Silica = 8 ppm
4
Average Silica = 26 ppm
4
4
Average Silica = 7 ppm
Even with a significant phosphate overfeed,
efficiency loss due to fouling was only 3%.
Stress: unique to every
Stress: unique to every
system
system
Stress: highly visible
Stress: highly visible
Manage
Stress
Grow
Revenue
Control
Costs
Reduce Cost
of Capital
Manage
Risks
Improve
Cash Flow
improve
product quality
extend time
between
turnarounds
reduce
maintenance
decrease
chemical
usage
avoid
equipment
purchase
reduce legal
exposure
reduce operating
liability
minimize
onsite
inventory
fixed contract
pricing
increase
throughput
decrease
energy usage
decrease
water usage
extend
equipment life
avoid EH&S
fines
avoid unplanned
expenses
improve operator
efficiency
Stress: highly visible
Stress: highly visible