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Nalco Company

Cooling Water Presentation 6-24-04


Stress Management for Cooling
Systems
TVWD Cooling Tower
TVWD Cooling Tower
Seminar and Workshop
Seminar and Workshop
November 29, 2005 November 29, 2005
Agenda
Agenda

Introduction
Introduction

Fundamentals of Cooling Water
Fundamentals of Cooling Water

Cooling System Problems (Stresses)
Cooling System Problems (Stresses)

Treatment Programs
Treatment Programs

The Engineering Approach
The Engineering Approach

Microbiological Control and
Microbiological Control and
Monitoring
Monitoring

Stress Management
Stress Management

The purpose of cooling
The purpose of cooling
systems is to transfer
systems is to transfer
heat from one substance
heat from one substance
to another
to another

The substance that
The substance that
gives up its heat is
gives up its heat is

cooled
cooled


The substance that
The substance that
receives the heat is the
receives the heat is the

coolant
coolant

THE COOLING PROCESS


Open Recirculating Systems
Open Recirculating Systems
Open recirculating systems are open to the atmosphere
Open recirculating systems are open to the atmosphere
at the tower. As the water flows over the tower, heat
at the tower. As the water flows over the tower, heat
picked up by the process is released by evaporation.
picked up by the process is released by evaporation.
The cooling water then returns to the heat exchangers
The cooling water then returns to the heat exchangers
to pick up more heat.
to pick up more heat.
Open Recirculating System
Open Recirculating System
Makeup
Water
Pump
Blowdown
EXAMPLES
Spray Ponds
Cooling Towers
Evaporative Condensers
CHARACTERISTICS
Avg. Temp. Change: 20-30F [11.1-16.7C]
Amount of Water Used: Moderate
Heat Exchanger
Cooling Tower
Open Recirculating Systems
Open Recirculating Systems
Heat Transfer
Heat Transfer

Process in which heat
Process in which heat
is transferred from
is transferred from
one substance to
one substance to
another.
another.
Evaporation
Evaporation

Process by which
Process by which
the hot cooling
the hot cooling
water releases its
water releases its
heat to the
heat to the
atmosphere so
atmosphere so
that it can return
that it can return
cool water back to
cool water back to
the heat
the heat
exchangers
exchangers
Open Recirculating Systems
Open Recirculating Systems
A cooling tower provides two conditions
A cooling tower provides two conditions
that enhance the evaporation process...
that enhance the evaporation process...

Break water into tiny droplets, thus
Break water into tiny droplets, thus
providing more escape routes for water
providing more escape routes for water
molecules to evaporate.
molecules to evaporate.

Fans provide rapid flow of air through
Fans provide rapid flow of air through
the tower which removes evaporated
the tower which removes evaporated
water molecules and allows even more to
water molecules and allows even more to
escape.
escape.
Why Use Water for Cooling?
Why Use Water for Cooling?

Plentiful; Readily Available; Cheap
Plentiful; Readily Available; Cheap

Easily Handled:
Easily Handled:
Pumpable
Pumpable

Can carry large amounts of heat
Can carry large amounts of heat

Does not expand/contract much at
Does not expand/contract much at
normally encountered temperatures
normally encountered temperatures

Does not decompose
Does not decompose
Why Use Water for Cooling?
Why Use Water for Cooling?

Specific Heat: Measure of how well
Specific Heat: Measure of how well
a substance absorbs heat
a substance absorbs heat

Water can absorb more heat than
Water can absorb more heat than
virtually any other substance that
virtually any other substance that
would be considered for industrial
would be considered for industrial
cooling
cooling

Minor increases in temperature
Minor increases in temperature

Minimal environmental impact
Minimal environmental impact
Why Isn
Why Isn

t Water Perfect for


t Water Perfect for
Cooling?
Cooling?

Dissolves everything it touches:
Dissolves everything it touches:
Metal; earth; stone; gasses
Metal; earth; stone; gasses

Unique dissolving ability has earned
Unique dissolving ability has earned
water the title...
water the title...
Two Sources of Water
Two Sources of Water
Surface Water Surface Water
Low in dissolved solids Low in dissolved solids
High in suspended solids High in suspended solids
Quality changes quickly with seasons & weather Quality changes quickly with seasons & weather
Ground Water Ground Water
High in dissolved solids High in dissolved solids
Low in suspended solids Low in suspended solids
High in iron & manganese High in iron & manganese
Low in oxygen, may contain sulfide gas Low in oxygen, may contain sulfide gas
Relatively constant quality & temperature Relatively constant quality & temperature
What Chemical Properties of
What Chemical Properties of
Water Are Important?
Water Are Important?
Important Properties of Water
Important Properties of Water
1. Conductivity
1. Conductivity
2. Hardness
2. Hardness
3. Alkalinity
3. Alkalinity
4. pH
4. pH
5. Silica
5. Silica
6. Other impurities
6. Other impurities
--
--
Iron, Manganese,
Iron, Manganese,
Chlorides, Phosphate, etc.
Chlorides, Phosphate, etc.
Evaporation
Evaporation
Each 10
Each 10

F [6
F [6

C] drop in temperature results


C] drop in temperature results
in an avg. 0.85% evaporation of
in an avg. 0.85% evaporation of
recirculated cooling water
recirculated cooling water
ER = (RR)*(dT/10)*(.0085)
ER = (RR)*(dT/10)*(.0085)
Where Where: :
ER: Evaporation Rate [gpm] ER: Evaporation Rate [gpm]
RR: RR: Recirculation Rate [gpm] Recirculation Rate [gpm]
dT: dT: Temp drop across tower [DegF] Temp drop across tower [DegF]
Concentration of Dissolved
Concentration of Dissolved
Solids
Solids

Only pure water can evaporate
Only pure water can evaporate
Excluding volatile chemicals Excluding volatile chemicals
like bleach like bleach

No dissolved solids leave the
No dissolved solids leave the
liquid water
liquid water

If there are no other water
If there are no other water
losses from the system, the
losses from the system, the
evaporation process causes an
evaporation process causes an
increase in the concentration
increase in the concentration
of dissolved solids in the
of dissolved solids in the
recirculating cooling water.
recirculating cooling water.
6
1
3
2
5
4
Constant
Evaporation
Concentration of Dissolved
Concentration of Dissolved
Solids
Solids

Mineral scale will form if the
Mineral scale will form if the
dissolved solids concentration in the
dissolved solids concentration in the
cooling water becomes too high
cooling water becomes too high

Supersaturation
Supersaturation
Impact of Blowdown on
Impact of Blowdown on
Concentration Ratio
Concentration Ratio
Blowdown:
Blowdown:

Deliberate
Deliberate
discharge of
discharge of
water to prevent
water to prevent
the dissolved
the dissolved
solids from
solids from
getting to high
getting to high
6
1
3
2
5
4
Constant Evaporation
6
3
2
5
4
Constant Evaporation
1
With
Zero
Blowdown
With
Continuous
Blowdown
Maintaining
4 Cycles
Makeup Water
Makeup Water

Amount of water
Amount of water
required to
required to
replace water lost
replace water lost
by evaporation
by evaporation
and blowdown
and blowdown
Evaporation
Makeup
Blowdown
Makeup =
Evaporation +
Blowdown
Concentration Ratio
Concentration Ratio
CR =
Make-up Flow
Blowdown Flow
MU = Evaporation x
CR
(CR 1)
COMMON COOLING
COMMON COOLING
SYSTEM PROBLEMS
SYSTEM PROBLEMS
CORROSION
MICROBIO
F
O
U
L
I
N
G
S
C
A
L
E
Cooling System Problems
Cooling System Problems
Left unchecked these Left unchecked these
problems cause problems cause
Loss of heat transfer Loss of heat transfer
Reduced equipment Reduced equipment
life life
Equipment failures Equipment failures
Lost production Lost production
Lost profits Lost profits
Increased Increased
maintenance costs maintenance costs
Plant shutdown Plant shutdown
MINERAL SCALE
MINERAL SCALE
Mineral Scale
Mineral Scale

Cooling Water contains many
Cooling Water contains many
different minerals
different minerals
--
--
normally these
normally these
minerals are dissolved in the water
minerals are dissolved in the water

Under certain conditions minerals
Under certain conditions minerals
can come out of solution and form
can come out of solution and form
into hard, dense crystals called
into hard, dense crystals called
SCALE
SCALE
Scaled Heat Exchanger Tubes
Mineral Scale
Mineral Scale
Common Scales Common Scales
Calcium Carbonate Calcium Carbonate
Magnesium Silicate Magnesium Silicate
Calcium Phosphate Calcium Phosphate
Calcium Sulfate Calcium Sulfate
Iron Oxide Iron Oxide
Iron Phosphate Iron Phosphate
Others... Others...
CaPO4
CaCO3
Mineral Scale
Mineral Scale
The Following Factors Affect
The Following Factors Affect
Scale Formation...
Scale Formation...
^ ^
Mineral Concentration
Mineral Concentration
^ ^
Water Temperature
Water Temperature
^ ^
Water pH
Water pH
^ ^
Suspended Solids
Suspended Solids
- -
Water Flow Velocity
Water Flow Velocity
Mineral Scale
Mineral Scale

Scale usually forms in hot areas of
Scale usually forms in hot areas of
cooling systems
cooling systems

Reduces heat transfer efficiency
Reduces heat transfer efficiency

Mechanical/Chemical cleaning
Mechanical/Chemical cleaning

Under deposit corrosion (pitting)
Under deposit corrosion (pitting)

Plant shutdown
Plant shutdown

Equipment replacement
Equipment replacement
Preventing Mineral Scale
Preventing Mineral Scale

Limit concentration of scale forming
Limit concentration of scale forming
minerals: Blowdown, clarify/filter MU
minerals: Blowdown, clarify/filter MU

Feed acid to reduce pH & alkalinity:
Feed acid to reduce pH & alkalinity:
Reduces scaling
Reduces scaling
--
--
increases corrosion
increases corrosion

Mechanical design changes: Increase HX
Mechanical design changes: Increase HX
water velocity,
water velocity,
backflush
backflush
, air rumble
, air rumble

Apply chemical scale inhibitors
Apply chemical scale inhibitors
Mineral Scale
Mineral Scale
Three Classifications Of Scale
Three Classifications Of Scale
Inhibiting Chemicals Are
Inhibiting Chemicals Are


Crystal Modifiers
Crystal Modifiers

Prevent scale from


Prevent scale from

laying down
laying down


Sequestrants
Sequestrants

Prevent scale from agglomerating


Prevent scale from agglomerating

Dispersants
Dispersants

Affect mineral charge so that scale


Affect mineral charge so that scale
formers repel each other
formers repel each other
Normal Operations
Normal Operations
Parameters 7.6 7.9 8.1 8.4 8.7 8.9 9.2
Calcite 0.4 1.3 3.9 10.9 29 68 96 pH
Tricalcium Phosphate 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Temp 120
Magnesium Silicate 0.1 0.3 1 3.2 10 28 72 PO4 2
Silica 0.6 0.6 0.55 0.53 0.5 0.44 0.36 Cycles 8
Comments:
Parameters 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Calcite 6 6.5 7 7.4 7.7 8 8.3 pH 8.3
Tricalcium Phosphate 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Temp 120
Magnesium Silicate 1.3 1.6 2.1 2.5 3 3.5 0.8 PO4 2
Silica 0.4 0.5 0.55 0.6 0.7 0.75 0.8 Cycles
Constants
Impact of pH
Constants
Impact of Cycl es
PGE Beaver Condenser Scale Analysis
PGE Beaver Condenser Scale Analysis
Calcium Carbonate Scale
Calcium Carbonate Scale
High Silica, Minimum Blowdown
High Silica, Minimum Blowdown
Parameters 7.6 7.9 8.1 8.4 8.7 8.9 9.2
Calcite 0.67 1.9 5.5 15 38 89 187 pH
Tricalcium Phosphate 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 Temp 120
Magnesium Silicate 0.2 0.8 2.8 9 28 81 203 PO4 2
Silica 1.08 1.07 1.05 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 Cycles 15
Comments: 15 cycles, 230 PPM Silica
Parameters 7.6 7.9 8.1 8.4 8.7 8.9 9.2
Calcite 0.4 1 3 9 24 60 136 pH
Tricalcium Phosphate 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 Temp 80
Magnesium Silicate 0.1 0.1 0.3 1.1 3.6 11 31 PO4 2
Silica 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.78 1.73 1.64 1.5 Cycles 15
Comments: 15 cycles, 230 PPM Silica
Impact of pH and Hi gh Silica
Constants
Impact of pH and Hi gh Silica
Constants
CORROSION
CORROSION
CORROSION
CORROSION
Corrosion is the mechanism by which metals
Corrosion is the mechanism by which metals
are reverted back to
are reverted back to
their
their
natural
natural

oxidized
oxidized

state
state
Battery Analogy
Battery Analogy

Anode
Anode

Cathode
Cathode

Electrical Circuit
Electrical Circuit

Metal lost at anode
Metal lost at anode
Corrosion
Corrosion
e
-
Electrolyte
A
n
o
d
e
C
a
t
h
o
d
e
Simplified Corrosion Cell
Simplified Corrosion Cell
Fe
2+
CATHODE
ANODE
O
2
OH
-
e
-
STEP 1
STEP 2
STEP 3
STEP 4
Water with
Dissolved
Minerals
Base Metal
O
2
e
-
e
-
e
-
Four Step Corrosion Model
Four Step Corrosion Model
Step 1 Step 1: At the anode, pure iron begins to break : At the anode, pure iron begins to break
down in contact with the cooling water. This down in contact with the cooling water. This
step leaves behind electrons. step leaves behind electrons.
Step 2 Step 2: Electrons travel through the metal to the : Electrons travel through the metal to the
cathode. cathode.
Step 3 Step 3: At the cathode, a chemical reaction : At the cathode, a chemical reaction
occurs between the electrons and oxygen carried occurs between the electrons and oxygen carried
by the cooling water. This reaction forms by the cooling water. This reaction forms
hydroxide. hydroxide.
Step 4 Step 4: Dissolved minerals in the cooling water : Dissolved minerals in the cooling water
complete the electrochemical circuit back to the complete the electrochemical circuit back to the
anode. anode.
Factors Influencing Corrosion
Factors Influencing Corrosion

pH
pH

Temperature
Temperature

Dissolved Solids
Dissolved Solids

System Deposits
System Deposits

Water Velocity
Water Velocity

Microbiological Growth
Microbiological Growth
100
10
0
5 6 7 8 9 10
C
o
r
r
o
s
i
o
n

R
a
t
e
,

R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

U
n
i
t
s
pH
Corrosion Vs. pH
Corrosion Vs. pH
Corrosion Vs. Temperature
Corrosion Vs. Temperature
Corrosion Rate
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
In general, for every 18F in
water temperature, chemical
reaction rates double.
Other Causes of Corrosion
Other Causes of Corrosion
^ ^
System Deposits
System Deposits
Anodic pitting sites develop under deposits Anodic pitting sites develop under deposits

Water Velocity
Water Velocity
Too low = deposits Too low = deposits
Too high = Erosion Too high = Erosion
^ ^
Microbiological Growth
Microbiological Growth
Deposits; Produce corrosive by Deposits; Produce corrosive by- -products products
Types of Corrosion
Types of Corrosion
All cooling system metallurgy experiences some All cooling system metallurgy experiences some
degree of corrosion. The objective is to control degree of corrosion. The objective is to control
the corrosion well enough to maximize the life the corrosion well enough to maximize the life
expectancy of the system... expectancy of the system...
1. General Corrosion
1. General Corrosion
2. Localized Pitting Corrosion
2. Localized Pitting Corrosion
3. Galvanic Corrosion
3. Galvanic Corrosion
Base Metal
General Etch Uniform Attack
Water
O
r
i
g
i
n
a
l
T
h
i
c
k
n
e
s
s
General Corrosion
General Corrosion

Preferred situation
Preferred situation

Take a small
Take a small
amount of metal
amount of metal
evenly throughout
evenly throughout
the system
the system

Anode very large
Anode very large
Base Metal
Localized Pitting Attack
Water
O
r
i
g
i
n
a
l
T
h
i
c
k
n
e
s
s
Pitting Corrosion
Pitting Corrosion
Metal removed at Metal removed at
same rate but from a same rate but from a
much smaller area much smaller area
Anode very small Anode very small
Often occurs under Often occurs under
deposits or weak deposits or weak
points points
Leads to rapid metal Leads to rapid metal
failure failure
Galvanic Corrosion
Galvanic Corrosion
Active End
Passive End
Magnesium
Galvanized Steel
Mild Steel
Cast Iron
18-8 Stainless Steel Type 304 (Active)
18-12-3 Stainless Type 316 (Active)
Lead Tin
Muntz Steel
Nickel (Active)
76-Ni-16 Cr-7 Fe Alloy (Active)
Brass
Copper
70:30 Cupro Nickel
67-Ni-33 Cu Alloy (Monel)
Titanium
18-8 Stainless Steel Typ 304 (Passive)
18-12-3 Stainless Steel Type 316 (Passive)
Graphite
Gold
Platinum
Occurs when two Occurs when two
different metals different metals
are in the same are in the same
system system
More reactive More reactive
metal will corrode metal will corrode
in presence of less in presence of less
reactive metal reactive metal
Potential for Potential for
galvanic corrosion galvanic corrosion
increases with increases with
increasing distance increasing distance
on chart on chart
Affects of Corrosion
Affects of Corrosion
Destroys cooling system metal Destroys cooling system metal
Corrosion product deposits in heat exchangers Corrosion product deposits in heat exchangers
Heat transfer efficiency is reduced by deposits Heat transfer efficiency is reduced by deposits
Leaks in equipment develop Leaks in equipment develop
Process side and water side contamination Process side and water side contamination
occurs occurs
Water usage increases Water usage increases
Maintenance and cleaning frequency increases Maintenance and cleaning frequency increases
Equipment must be repaired and/or repaired Equipment must be repaired and/or repaired
Unscheduled shutdown of plant Unscheduled shutdown of plant
Methods To Control Corrosion
Methods To Control Corrosion

Use corrosion resistant alloys: $
Use corrosion resistant alloys: $

Adjust (increase) system pH: Scale
Adjust (increase) system pH: Scale

Apply protective coatings: Integrity
Apply protective coatings: Integrity

Use
Use

sacrificial anodes
sacrificial anodes

: Zn/Mg
: Zn/Mg

Apply chemical corrosion
Apply chemical corrosion
inhibitors
inhibitors
Anodic Corrosion Inhibitors
Anodic Corrosion Inhibitors

Stop corrosion
Stop corrosion
cell by blocking
cell by blocking
the anodic site
the anodic site

Severe localized
Severe localized
pitting attack can
pitting attack can
occur at an
occur at an
unprotected
unprotected
anodic sites if
anodic sites if
insufficient
insufficient
inhibitor is
inhibitor is
present
present
Anodic Inhibitors
Anodic Inhibitors

Chromates
Chromates

Nitrites
Nitrites

Orthophosphates
Orthophosphates

Silicates
Silicates

Molybdates
Molybdates
Cathodic Corrosion Inhibitors
Cathodic Corrosion Inhibitors
Stop corrosion cell Stop corrosion cell
by blocking the by blocking the
electrochemical electrochemical
reaction at the reaction at the
cathode cathode
Corrosion rate is Corrosion rate is
reduced in direct reduced in direct
proportion to the proportion to the
reduction in the size reduction in the size
of the cathodic area. of the cathodic area.
Cathodic Inhibitors
Cathodic Inhibitors

Bicarbonates
Bicarbonates

Polyphosphates
Polyphosphates

Polysilicates
Polysilicates

Zinc
Zinc

PSO
PSO
General Corrosion Inhibitors
General Corrosion Inhibitors

Protect metal by
Protect metal by
filming all
filming all
surfaces whether
surfaces whether
they are anodic or
they are anodic or
cathodic
cathodic
General Inhibitors
General Inhibitors

Soluble Oils
Soluble Oils

Tolyltriazoles
Tolyltriazoles

Benzotriazoles
Benzotriazoles
Nalco Corrosion Monitor
Nalco Corrosion Monitor

Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR)
Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR)

Effective in Low Conductivity Waters
Effective in Low Conductivity Waters

Soft Water, Condensate


Soft Water, Condensate

Probes and Tips are one unit
Probes and Tips are one unit

Battery Powered
Battery Powered

Internal Data Logger
Internal Data Logger

PDA/Computer
PDA/Computer
Down Load
Down Load

Inexpensive
Inexpensive
Unit 2 NCM 100 Data
0.00
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
4-Sep 6-Sep 8-Sep 10-Sep 12-Sep 14-Sep 16-Sep 18-Sep 20-Sep
Date
M

P

Y
Start Trial
Chlorine Shock
Normal Operations
Startup
Unit 2 Circ Water Corrosion Rates
9/6/03 to 9/17/03
Unit Shutdown
FOULING
FOULING
Fouling
Fouling
FOULING is the accumulation of solid
FOULING is the accumulation of solid
material, other than scale, in a way that
material, other than scale, in a way that
hampers the operation of equipment or
hampers the operation of equipment or
contributes to its deterioration
contributes to its deterioration
Common Foulants
Common Foulants
Suspended Solids
Suspended Solids

Silt, Sand, Mud and Iron
Silt, Sand, Mud and Iron

Dirt & Dust
Dirt & Dust

Process contaminants, e.g. Oils
Process contaminants, e.g. Oils

Corrosion Products
Corrosion Products

Microbio growth
Microbio growth

Carryover (clarifier/lime softener)
Carryover (clarifier/lime softener)

Water Characteristics
Water Characteristics

Water Temperature
Water Temperature

Water Flow Velocity
Water Flow Velocity

Microbio Growth
Microbio Growth

Corrosion
Corrosion

Process Leaks
Process Leaks
Factors Influencing Fouling
Factors Influencing Fouling
Affects of Fouling
Affects of Fouling

Foulants form deposits in hot and/or low
Foulants form deposits in hot and/or low
flow areas of cooling systems
flow areas of cooling systems

Shell
Shell
-
-
side heat exchangers are the most
side heat exchangers are the most
vulnerable to fouling
vulnerable to fouling

Deposits ideal for localized pitting
Deposits ideal for localized pitting
corrosion
corrosion

Corrosive bacteria thrive under deposits
Corrosive bacteria thrive under deposits

Metal failure results
Metal failure results
Economic Impact of Fouling
Economic Impact of Fouling

Decreased plant efficiency
Decreased plant efficiency

Reduction in productivity
Reduction in productivity

Production schedule delays
Production schedule delays

Increased downtime for maintenance
Increased downtime for maintenance

Cost of equipment repair or replacement
Cost of equipment repair or replacement

Reduced effectiveness of
Reduced effectiveness of
chemical inhibitors
chemical inhibitors
Fouling
Fouling
Three Levels Of Attack Can Be
Three Levels Of Attack Can Be
Employed To Address The Effects
Employed To Address The Effects
Of Fouling...
Of Fouling...
1. Prevention
1. Prevention
2. Reduction
2. Reduction
3. Ongoing Control
3. Ongoing Control
Preventing Fouling
Preventing Fouling
Prevention Prevention
Good control of makeup quality Good control of makeup quality
Good control of corrosion, scale, & microbio Good control of corrosion, scale, & microbio
Reduction Reduction
Increase blowdown Increase blowdown
Sidestream filter Sidestream filter
Ongoing Control Ongoing Control
Backflushing, Air rumbling, Clean tower basin Backflushing, Air rumbling, Clean tower basin
Chemical treatment Chemical treatment
Preventing Fouling
Preventing Fouling
Prevention
Prevention

High Efficiency Multimedia Filters
High Efficiency Multimedia Filters
Capable of 80% removal of 0.5 micron Capable of 80% removal of 0.5 micron
Typical multimedia depth filters capable of Typical multimedia depth filters capable of
80% removal only down to 10 micron 80% removal only down to 10 micron
Most (greater than 90%) of particles found in Most (greater than 90%) of particles found in
a cooling tower are less than 10 micron a cooling tower are less than 10 micron

Do not overlook
Do not overlook
sidestream
sidestream
filtration and
filtration and
choose wisely!
choose wisely!
Fouling
Fouling
Chemical Treatment
Chemical Treatment

Charge
Charge
Reinforcers
Reinforcers

Anionic polymers increase strength of


Anionic polymers increase strength of
charge already present on suspended
charge already present on suspended
solids
solids

Keep particles small enough so they


Keep particles small enough so they
do not settle out
do not settle out

Wetting Agents
Wetting Agents

Surfactants
Surfactants

Penetrate existing deposits


Penetrate existing deposits

Wash away from metal surfaces


Wash away from metal surfaces
MICROBIOLOGICAL
MICROBIOLOGICAL
GROWTH
GROWTH
Microbiological Growth
Microbiological Growth

Water treatment is
Water treatment is
about managing
about managing
three fouling
three fouling
processes...
processes...
= =
Corrosion
Corrosion
= =
Scale
Scale
= =
Microbio
Microbio
The microbial fouling The microbial fouling
process is... process is...
The most complex The most complex
The least understood The least understood
The hardest to The hardest to
measure and monitor measure and monitor
Controlled using the Controlled using the
least desirable, most least desirable, most
expensive, & expensive, &
potentially hazardous potentially hazardous
products products
Microbiological Growth
Microbiological Growth
Three Kinds Of Troublesome
Three Kinds Of Troublesome
Microorganisms In Cooling Water...
Microorganisms In Cooling Water...
1. Bacteria
1. Bacteria
2. Algae
2. Algae
3. Fungi/Mold/Yeast
3. Fungi/Mold/Yeast
Bacteria
Bacteria
Sears
Tower
Bacteria extremely Bacteria extremely
small small
Compared to a Compared to a
human, a bacteria is human, a bacteria is
like a grain of sand to like a grain of sand to
the Sears Tower the Sears Tower
Size allows many Size allows many
(millions) to fit into a (millions) to fit into a
small volume of small volume of
water... water...
Bacteria
Bacteria
There are as many There are as many
bacteria in 12 oz. of bacteria in 12 oz. of
cooling water as cooling water as
there are people there are people
living in the United living in the United
States States
There are 40,000 There are 40,000
times as many times as many
bacteria in a 50,000 bacteria in a 50,000
gallon cooling gallon cooling
system as there are system as there are
people in the world! people in the world!
12oz.
Cooling Water
40,000 X
50MGAL
Cooling System
Bacteria
Bacteria
Types of Bacteria
Types of Bacteria
1. Slime Forming
1. Slime Forming
2. Anaerobic Corrosive
2. Anaerobic Corrosive
3. Iron Depositing
3. Iron Depositing
4. Nitrifying
4. Nitrifying
5. Denitrifying
5. Denitrifying
Bacteria
Bacteria
Slime Formers
Iron Depositing Anaerobic
Typical Rods
Bacteria
Bacteria

Produce acidic waste that lowers pH and
Produce acidic waste that lowers pH and
causes corrosion
causes corrosion

Produce large volumes of iron deposits
Produce large volumes of iron deposits
that foul
that foul

Produce acids from ammonia that
Produce acids from ammonia that
increase corrosion & lower pH
increase corrosion & lower pH

Form sticky slime masses that foul &
Form sticky slime masses that foul &
cause reduced heat transfer
cause reduced heat transfer
Two Classifications of Bacteria
Two Classifications of Bacteria
Planktonic
Planktonic
:
:

Free
Free
-
-
floating bacteria in bulk water
floating bacteria in bulk water
Sessile
Sessile
:
:

Bacteria attached to surfaces
Bacteria attached to surfaces

Over 95% of bacteria in a cooling system
Over 95% of bacteria in a cooling system
are sessile and live in BIOFILMS
are sessile and live in BIOFILMS
Biofilms
Biofilms
Contribute to all Contribute to all
cooling water cooling water
problems problems
Underdeposit Underdeposit
corrosion corrosion
Trap silt & debris Trap silt & debris
which foul heat which foul heat
exchangers and exchangers and
tower fill tower fill
Provide nucleation Provide nucleation
sites for scale sites for scale
formation formation
Biofilm Formation
C
C
C
FLOW
Thermal
Foulant Conductivity
CaCO3 1.3-1.7
CaSO4 1.3
CaPO4 1.5
MgPO4 1.3
Fe Oxide 1.7
Biofilm 0.4
P P
Common
biofilms are 4
times more
insulating
than CaCO3
scale!
Biofilms
Biofilms

More insulating
More insulating
than most
than most
common scales
common scales
=
=

Reduce heat
Reduce heat
transfer efficiency
transfer efficiency

Increase dP across
Increase dP across
heat exchangers &
heat exchangers &
reduce flow
reduce flow

Health risks
Health risks
(legionella)
(legionella)
Algae
Algae

Require sunlight to grow
Require sunlight to grow

Found on tower decks & exposed areas
Found on tower decks & exposed areas

Form
Form

algae mats
algae mats


Plug distribution holes on tower decks
Plug distribution holes on tower decks

Plug screens/foul equipment
Plug screens/foul equipment

Consume oxidants
Consume oxidants

Provide food for other organisms
Provide food for other organisms
Fungi
Fungi

Use carbon in
Use carbon in
wood fibers for
wood fibers for
food
food

Destroy tower
Destroy tower
lumber by either
lumber by either
surface or internal
surface or internal
rotting (deep rot)
rotting (deep rot)

Loss of structural
Loss of structural
integrity of tower
integrity of tower
Factors Affecting Growth of
Factors Affecting Growth of
Microorganisms
Microorganisms

Microorganism Sources: Air or Makeup
Microorganism Sources: Air or Makeup
water
water

Cooling systems provide the ideal
Cooling systems provide the ideal
environment for microbiological growth
environment for microbiological growth
Nutrients: Ammonia, oil, organic Nutrients: Ammonia, oil, organic
contaminants contaminants
Temperature: 70 Temperature: 70- -140 140 F acceptable F acceptable
pH: 6.0 pH: 6.0 - - 9.0 ideal 9.0 ideal
Location: Light/No Light Location: Light/No Light
Atmosphere: Aerobic/Anaerobic Atmosphere: Aerobic/Anaerobic
Controlling Microbiological
Controlling Microbiological
Growth
Growth
Water Quality
Water Quality

Eliminate organic contaminants (food)


Eliminate organic contaminants (food)

No food = No bugs
No food = No bugs
Bugs are Bugs are carniverous carniverous A forest feeds A forest feeds
itself itself
System Design Considerations
System Design Considerations

Clean tower and sumps, cover decks


Clean tower and sumps, cover decks
Chemical Treatment with Biocides
Chemical Treatment with Biocides
Microbiological Growth
Microbiological Growth
Chemical Treatment With Biocides
Chemical Treatment With Biocides

Oxidizing Biocides
Oxidizing Biocides

Non
Non
-
-
oxidizing Biocides
oxidizing Biocides

Biodispersants
Biodispersants
What About Dipslides?
What About Dipslides?
Simple, quick, and inexpensive.
However, only gives bacteria
levels from the bulk water.
There is more to this picture!
Monitoring Tools for
Monitoring Tools for
Planktonic Microorganisms
Planktonic Microorganisms
-
-
Dipslides
Dipslides

Dipslides only measure selected
Dipslides only measure selected
aerobic planktonic microorganisms
aerobic planktonic microorganisms

Total aerobic bacterial counts
Total aerobic bacterial counts
determined from dipslides are useful
determined from dipslides are useful
for tracking
for tracking
trends
trends
Aerobic Plate Counts
Aerobic Plate Counts
Microbiological Monitoring
Microbiological Monitoring
Sessile Monitoring
Tracide, ATP
Bio Box
DIVERSITY
DIVERSITY
of different kinds.
the state of being unlike or different
refers to the KINDS of microorganisms
present
Differential Microbiological
Differential Microbiological
Analysis (DMA)
Analysis (DMA)
Testing designed
to differentiate
the
microbiological
content within a
system.
Fr om: Anal ysi s No. MB 207310
ABC Pl ant Dat e Sampl ed 9/ 9/ 97
Dat e Recei ved 9/ 10/ 97
Dat e Compl et ed 9/ 15/ 97
Sampl e Mar ked: Dat e Pr i nt ed 9/ 15/ 97
Cool er Out l et
>>> Mi cr obi ol ogi cal Eval uat i on <<<
PHYSI CAL APPEARANCE Li qui d wi t h Fl oc
TOTAL AEROBI C BACTERI A 4, 000
Ent er obact er <100
Pi gment ed <100
Mucoi ds <100
Pseudomonas <100
Spor es <10
TOTAL ANAEROBI C BACTERI A
Sul f at e Reducer s 2
Cl ost r i di a <10
TOTAL FUNGI
Yeast s <10
Mol ds 20
I RON- DEPOSI TI NG
Gal l i onel l a None
Sphaer ot i l us None
ALGAE
Fi l ament ous None
Nonf i l ament ous None
OTHER ORGANI SMS None
Lab Comment s:
Al l count s expr ess col ony f or mi ng uni t s per ml .
Mi cr oscopi c exami nat i on: f ew cr yst al s and ver y f ew di at oms.
The goal in microbial fouling
control ...
is almost never to sterilize the
system, but rather,
...it is to MANAGE the fouling
control process to a level that
causes no operational problems
How do I measure
How do I measure
biofilms?
biofilms?
Sessile monitoring is an
Sessile monitoring is an
integral part of the microbial
integral part of the microbial
monitoring program
monitoring program

Planktonic results have a weak
Planktonic results have a weak
correlation to the sessile population
correlation to the sessile population

The sessile population, or biofilms, are
The sessile population, or biofilms, are
the true microbial control target
the true microbial control target
Surface Microbial
Surface Microbial
Monitoring Test Kit
Monitoring Test Kit

Surface Microbial Monitoring Test Kit
Surface Microbial Monitoring Test Kit

Applied Services C0243


Applied Services C0243

SBIO is test code


SBIO is test code

Kit contains supplies necessary to
Kit contains supplies necessary to
sample a surface
sample a surface

Measures microorganisms on surfaces,
Measures microorganisms on surfaces,
i.e., sessile population
i.e., sessile population
Monitoring Tools for
Monitoring Tools for
Sessile Microorganisms
Sessile Microorganisms
Sessile Monitoring
Sessile Monitoring
Swab
Coupon
Sterile
Buffer
BioBox
Surface Microbial
Test Kit
Bio Box
Bio Box

Visual indicator
Visual indicator

Removable Slides
Removable Slides
for Microscopic
for Microscopic
Analysis
Analysis
Planktonic counts dont often correlate with sessile
counts.
Use microbial types, numbers, and locations as clues to
current conditions, trends, and improvements.
Be creative with sample point locations, timing with
cleanup events, etc.. to provide powerful diagnostic
information.
Establish criteria for success
BioManage
BioManage
TM
TM
Best Practices
Best Practices
Recognizing The Problem
Recognizing The Problem
THANK YOU
THANK YOU
-
-
Any questions on
Any questions on
any topics we
any topics we
covered?
covered?
Every system
Every system

under
under
stress
stress

High Stress Causes:


High Stress Causes:

Scale
Scale

Corrosion
Corrosion

Fouling
Fouling

Low Stress Causes


Low Stress Causes

High water costs


High water costs

High energy costs


High energy costs

High chemical costs


High chemical costs
Stress: varies by system
Stress: varies by system
operation
operation

High temperatures
High temperatures

Long holding time indices (
Long holding time indices (
HTI
HTI

s
s
)
)

Biological/Organic contamination
Biological/Organic contamination
Size, type and diversity of bio Size, type and diversity of bio- -
populations populations

Low flow rates
Low flow rates

High oxidant concentrations
High oxidant concentrations

Water chemistry
Water chemistry
Stress: varies by system
Stress: varies by system
design
design

Erratic feed systems
Erratic feed systems

Problematic equipment
Problematic equipment

Blowdown valves, make


Blowdown valves, make
-
-
up
up
systems, etc.
systems, etc.

Monitoring problems
Monitoring problems

How does the rest of your facility


How does the rest of your facility
work?
work?

System design limitations
System design limitations

System location
System location
Stress: varies by industry
Stress: varies by industry
Capacity limitations Capacity limitations Aggressive water Aggressive water
chemistry chemistry
Variable water Variable water
chemistry chemistry
Nutrient Nutrient- -rich rich
environments environments
Regulatory Needs Regulatory Needs Regulatory Needs Regulatory Needs
System System
Contamination Contamination
Long Long HTI HTI s s Equipment often idle Equipment often idle
for long periods for long periods
Food & Beverage Food & Beverage
Institutional
Institutional
Semiconductor Semiconductor
Stress: varies by location
Stress: varies by location
Texas City, TX
Morris, IL
San Diego, CA
El Segundo, CA
Houston, TX
Westchester, IL
Sandy, UT
Beaumont, TX
Phoenix, AZ
Rahway, NJ
Naperville, IL
Tiger Bay, FL
Sioux City, IA
Martinez, CA
V
a
r
i
a
b
l
e

W
a
t
e
r
C
h
e
m
i
s
t
r
y
L
o
w

H
a
r
d
n
e
s
s
L
o
w

A
l
k
a
l
i
n
i
t
y
High Hardness
High Alkalinity
High Temperatures
Variable Water Chemistry
Critical Systems
Variable Water Chemistry
High water cost
Gray water use
Environmental Concerns
High Bio-Acti vity
Minneapolis, MN
Texas City, TX
Morris, IL
San Diego, CA
El Segundo, CA
Houston, TX
Westchester, IL
Sandy, UT
Beaumont, TX
Phoenix, AZ
Rahway, NJ
Naperville, IL
Tiger Bay, FL
Sioux City, IA
Martinez, CA
V
a
r
i
a
b
l
e

W
a
t
e
r
C
h
e
m
i
s
t
r
y
L
o
w

H
a
r
d
n
e
s
s
L
o
w

A
l
k
a
l
i
n
i
t
y
High Hardness
High Alkalinity
High Temperatures
Variable Water Chemistry
Critical Systems
Variable Water Chemistry
High water cost
Gray water use
Environmental Concerns
High Bio-Acti vity
Minneapolis, MN
Stress: constantly varying
Stress: constantly varying

Control Based on System Stress


-
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 71 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 89
Time (each interval = 4 hours)
C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n

(
p
p
m
)
Active Concentration (ppm)
Treatment Concentration (ppm)
As system stress varies, 3D TRASAR adjusts dosage to compensate. At times of high stress,
more inhibitor is fed. When stress decreases, less inhibitor is fed.
High Stress! Low Stress!
Stress: unpredictable
Stress: unpredictable
3D TRASAR Optimizes System Stress
-
200
400
600
800
1,000
1,200
1,400
1,600
1,800
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61
Time (Each Division = 4 hours)
C
o
n
d
u
c
t
i
v
i
t
y
3D TRASAR detects low stress
and increases conductivity to
minimize operating cost.
3D TRASAR detects high stress
and decreases conductivity to
prevent operational problems.
3D TRASAR detects low stress and
increases the conductivity to
minimize operating cost.
In this case, a bleach feed system failed. When the system was
repaired at 10:50 PM, high concentrations of bleach were fed into
the system, increasing system stress. 3D TRASAR detected the
stress and decreased the conductivity to prevent an operational
problem.
Stress: undiscovered
Stress: undiscovered
-
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1,000
Time (each division = 1 day)
O
R
P

(
m
V
)
-
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
C
o
p
p
e
r

C
o
r
r
o
s
i
o
n

R
a
t
e

(
m
p
y
)
ORP Copper
Before 3D Bio-Control, ORP-based
control was erratic and copper
corrosion rates were high.
After 3D Bio-Control was
implemented, ORP levels were
reduced, variability was reduced
and copper corrosion rates
improved.
3D Bio-Control Started
Stress: many sources
Stress: many sources
Average Daily Nalco Bio-Index
-5.0
0.0
5.0
10.0
15.0
20.0
25.0
1
-
J
u
n
2
-
J
u
n
3
-
J
u
n
4
-
J
u
n
5
-
J
u
n
6
-
J
u
n
7
-
J
u
n
8
-
J
u
n
9
-
J
u
n
1
0
-
J
u
n
1
1
-
J
u
n
1
2
-
J
u
n
1
3
-
J
u
n
1
4
-
J
u
n
1
5
-
J
u
n
1
6
-
J
u
n
1
7
-
J
u
n
1
8
-
J
u
n
1
9
-
J
u
n
2
0
-
J
u
n
2
1
-
J
u
n
2
2
-
J
u
n
2
3
-
J
u
n
2
4
-
J
u
n
2
5
-
J
u
n
2
6
-
J
u
n
2
7
-
J
u
n
2
8
-
J
u
n
2
9
-
J
u
n
3
0
-
J
u
n
Date
N
a
l
c
o

B
i
o
-
I
n
d
e
x
Monday
Monday
Monday
Monday
Monday
Bio-activity stresses
cooling systems.
Bringing idle
equipment online
increases system
stress.
Stress: requires dynamic
Stress: requires dynamic
response
response
June 16
Nalco Bio-Index and Pump On Time
(5)
-
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
0:00 3:00 5:40 8:40 11:40 15:00 18:20 21:28
Time (Hours:Minutes)
N
a
l
c
o

B
i
o
-
I
n
d
e
x
-
1
2
3
4
5
P
u
m
p

O
n

(
m
i
n
u
t
e
s
)
Pump On (minutes) Nalco Bio-Index
Nalco Bio-Index Set-
Point
3D TRASAR detects a change in
the bio-population and starts
applying more oxidizing biocide
to compensate.
When 3D TRASAR detects a change in the rate of bio-
population increase, it responds by feeding less biocide,
controlling the bio-population, but preventing a biocide
overdose.
Stress: intermittent
Stress: intermittent
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0
12:00 AM 12:00 PM 12:00 AM 12:00 PM 12:00 AM 12:00 PM
Date/Time
p
H
0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0
10.0
M
i
l
d

S
t
e
e
l

C
o
r
r
o
s
i
o
n

R
a
t
e

(
m
p
y
)
pH MS Corrosion Rate
7:17 PM: acid upset
causes pH to drop.
11:24 PM, pH returns
to normal
In spite of extremely low
pH, corrosion rate is
unaffected.
Stress: interrelated causes
Stress: interrelated causes
1.80
1.85
1.90
1.95
2.00
2.05
2.10
2.15
2.20
2.25
2.30
Date (Each Division = 10 days)
E
x
c
h
a
n
g
e
r

E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
Average Silica = 8 ppm
Average Silica = 7 ppm
Prior to 3D TRASAR control,
phosphate upsets put stress on
the system which caused
significant fouling. In this case,
the overfeed caused a 14%
efficiency loss.
Average Silica = 26 ppm
Stress: interrelated causes
Stress: interrelated causes
1.80
1.85
1.90
1.95
2.00
2.05
2.10
2.15
2.20
2.25
2.30
Date (Each Division = 10 days)
E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y

F
a
c
t
o
r
Average Silica = 8 ppm
4
Average Silica = 26 ppm
4
4
Average Silica = 7 ppm
Even with a significant phosphate overfeed,
efficiency loss due to fouling was only 3%.
Stress: unique to every
Stress: unique to every
system
system
Stress: highly visible
Stress: highly visible
Manage
Stress
Grow
Revenue
Control
Costs
Reduce Cost
of Capital
Manage
Risks
Improve
Cash Flow
improve
product quality
extend time
between
turnarounds
reduce
maintenance
decrease
chemical
usage
avoid
equipment
purchase
reduce legal
exposure
reduce operating
liability
minimize
onsite
inventory
fixed contract
pricing
increase
throughput
decrease
energy usage
decrease
water usage
extend
equipment life
avoid EH&S
fines
avoid unplanned
expenses
improve operator
efficiency
Stress: highly visible
Stress: highly visible