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9 Take care

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Safety hazards Hazards and safety precautions should, shouldn't, and could Instructions Instructions and procedures Adjectives and adverbs: tight, tightly, etc.
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As in the S tu d en t’s Book.

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1 You should roll up your sleeves. 2 You shouldn’t leave these boxes here. 3 Someone could trip over them and hurt themselves. We use could to talk about future possibilities. We use should to say what’s right or correct. We use shouldn’t to say what’s wrong or dangerous.

Safety hazards
Safety is a key issue in technical English. This section includes: • practice of the modal verbs should, shouldn’t, and could • vocabulary to do with workplace accidents and safety. 1 As in the Student’s Book. Collect answers from the class and explain any unknown words in the notice. Answer
You could find a notice like this is a factory workshop. Depending on where they work, the students may have similar notices in dangerous areas of their facilities.

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Check th e stu d e n ts’ answ ers before th ey go on to read th e con versation s w ith a partn er. Draw atten tio n to th ese w ords and p h rases in th e con versation s: to slip - co n tra st w ith to trip. W h en we slip we slide. So we slip on w et floors but we trip over raised objects. to get an electric shock - to receive / exp erien ce one to have a nasty accident - n asty = bad, u n p leasan t to spill - to co m e ou t o f a co n tain er - used especially to talk about liquids to lose a finger - to have a finger cu t off.

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Draw attention to the words injury and damage. We usually use injury when we talk about people getting hurt, but damage when we talk about things. However, we receive eye injuries and hearing damage.
Note

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1 A Someone could slip. We should clean it up right away. B Yes, and we should turn off all the machines. Someone could get a shock. 2 A You shouldn’t use this machine without goggles. You could injure your eyes. B I don’t know where they are. 3 A Who took the guard off this machine?
Someone could have a nasty accident.

Hurt and injured have similar meanings. We use
hurt when it isn’t very serious, e.g. My son hurt his

arm when he fell off his bike.
We use injured when it’s more serious, e.g. His son was injured in a car crash and rushed to hospital.

B It takes longer to clean if it’s on. A But you shouldn’t remove it. You could cut yourself, or even lose a finger.

Answers
Id, 2a, 3e, 4c, 5b

Unit 9

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Someone could slip on the wet floor. 10 He should clean up the crumbs and he shouldn’t eat in the workshop. If you don't If you don't wear go ggle s. or prepare posters with pictures and safety warnings. or a whiteboard that they can write on. He should hand them down.. 8 6 The students will need this vocabulary later when they move on to describing the hazards. these group presentations can be small or large. 6 He should carry fewer boxes so he can see where he’s going.. 8 The glass flask is uncorked and not stored in a safe place.. 12 He should wear goggles. He should ride inside the cab or walk. 5 He should use the steps. He should also use a hand cart if they are heavy. 11 The woman is smoking near a container of flammable liquid. She could start a fire or cause an explosion. Collect their answers and then demonstrate the conversations with a student first before moving on to pair practice. Depending on your students’ needs and interests. 11 She shouldn’t smoke in the workshop. Things could fall off or he could knock into things. W hatever’s inside it could spill out and someone could drink its contents by mistake.. Answers ladder drawer sink drill shelf lead b 1 d g c j goggles hand cart glass flask fork-lift truck crumbs socket h e f a k i Brainstorm a list with the class. Sparks or small pieces of wood could get in his eyes. 1 2 3 4 5 If you leave y o u . slides. 42 Unit 9 . If you use electric tools when the work area is wet. If you remove safety guards from machines. 9 They should close the filing cabinet drawer. He can’t see where he’s going so he could walk into things. 10 The man is eating and dropping crumbs on the floor. things lying on the floor. 4 The woman is trying to pick up a heavy box without bending her knees. 5 The man is trying to reach something on top of the cupboard without using the step ladder. 7 There’s a leak from the sink. Example If you don't roll up your sleeves. They could attract rodents. Answers 1 He shouldn’t ride on the fork-lift truck load. 2 The man pushing the hand cart is running. Things could topple off and hit him.. and the box could hit someone.. and she should get help if they are really heavy. Suggest they write lists of precautions (in the style of those in exercise 1). Ask them to suggest endings for these sentences. 6 The man coming through the door is carrying too much. someone . 3 He shouldn’t throw the boxes. Answers 1 A man is riding on top of the fork-lift truck load. He could fall off the ladder..... 7 They should fix the leak and they should mop up the water on the floor. 4 She should bend her knees when she picks up heavy things.. 7 Pairs of students should work on identifying the hazards first. 8 They should cork the flask and store it in a safe place. and set time limits for the preparation. provide the students with flip charts. She could hurt or strain her back.Extra activity The students say what could happen if they don't take precautions. 12 The man operating the machine isn’t wearing goggles. informal or formal affairs. wear ear protectors. 9 Explain that all members of a group will be required to present some of this information to the new apprentices.. 9 The filing cabinet drawer is open.. He could fall off. 2 He shouldn’t run with a hand cart. If possible. they could get caught up in the machines. overheads. 3 The man on the ladder is throwing a box. Someone could walk into it. Give one or two students pens and tell them to write the list on the board as you go.

6 Every 5.. ask them what words they don’t know and explain any unknown words. She’s a quick worker. Make sure th a t..... Screw in the new . 3 Investigate safety issues in your workplace. It lays some important groundwork for later sections of the syllabus on comparative adverbs. Highlight: shallow = not deep tightly = not loosely thoroughly = carefully and completely to unscrew = opposite of to screw to flow . Check the handbrake . making a note of useful words and phrases on the board. and should there be punishments for breaking safety rules? (What?) 5 anything else? (What?) 2 Design safety posters to make people more aware of safety issues in your workplace.. As the students give you their answers. Draw up an agenda. The students will find out the answers in the next exercise.000 kilometres... Answers 4 8 1 6 9 3 7 2 5 Then locate the oil filter. Unit 9 43 . She’s a slow worker. How can you collect statistics on: 1 numbers of accidents? 2 common causes of accidents? 3 the cost of accidents? 3 As in the Student’s Book. Do it up tightly with a wrench. Remove the drain pan . 4 As in the Student’s Book. Repeat this process . Discuss: 1 what are the most common causes of accidents? 2 a safety publicity campaign . Unscrew the drain plug . 1 The pictures show the steps of changing the oil and oil filter in a car in the correct sequence.. Answers 1 2 3 4 5 Directly underneath the engine’s drain plug... Carefully pour it into a container you can seal for disposal.what should it contain ? 3 safety training .Extra activities 1 How could you improve safety in the company shown in seal for disposal = close tightly for throwing away directly underneath = exactly in position below.how should you do it? 4 safety rules .. No. Lower the car to . Unscrew the plug and wait for the oil to drain. Then change the adjective to slow..to move in a smooth and continuous way (like water) to rotate = to turn something around clockwise = opposite of anti-clockwise (icounter-clockwise in AmE) Write this sentence on the board. 6 ? Hold a meeting to discuss the problem.what should they be.. Answers 1 2 3 4 5 tight easy thoroughly tightly careful 6 7 8 9 slow easily thorough slowly 2 When the students have read the text. easily tightly not tightly carefully regularly Read the language note.. Use them to elicit the actions from the students. e. She w o rk s _____ Elicit slowly. This section provides practice in: • understanding written instructions • adverbs of manner • verbs for describing physical tasks. directly underneath completely. write the adverbs on the board.g. equipment manuals often contain instructions on how it should be done.. She w o rk s ____ Elicit quickly. Instructions As well as instructions on w hat should be done. Remove the filter .

hard. tightly. not adverbs: louely friendly early 5 As in the Student’s Book. Be ready to ask: What kinds o f things do we usually try to do accurately. Warn the students that there are three important irregular forms and write: She's a good worker. She works_________. etc? 7 44 Unit 9 . She's a fa s t worker. Call on different students to read their sentences to the class. I park the car well. This is a variation on a traditional charades game. 6 This task prepares the students with a wide range of adverbs. an d fast. Examples It's hard to remember new English words. Note Confusing adjectives Some common adjectives end in -ly.Then change the adjective to careful. Extra activity The students think of three things that 1 2 they find hard they are good at. Encourage the students to suggest adverbs not on the list as well and write them up on the board. She’s a careful worker. Remembering English words is hard. Elicit well. As the verbs and adverbs become muddled up. Highlight that we usually form adverbs by adding -ly to adjectives. She w o r k s ________ . I'm good at parking in small spaces. She’s a hard worker. You may want to warn your students that these words are adjectives. and then read the language note. She w o r k s ________. For example: to screw a lid on a bottle accurately to add up a sum tightly The difficulty of acting things out adds to the humour but it can provide also opportunities for class discussion. some of the words that are drawn together will be unlikely matches. She w o r k s ________. They make two sentences about each one.