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Various common complex functions are expanded as infinite compositions. Includes perhaps the first expansions as outer or left compositions.

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(Preliminary Discussion)

n n

R tk (z ) = t1 t2

k =1 n

tn (z ) , T (z ) = lim R t k (z ) .

n k =1 n

Ltk (z ) = tn tn 1

k =1

t1 (z ) , T (z ) = lim Lt k (z ) .

n k =1

Convergence theory of each of these may be found in [1] and [2]. Here, the emphasis will be on finding algorithms for converting closed form expressions into infinite expansions. Simple functional equations that relate a function of nz to an expression of the same function of z sometimes lead directly to such expansions. Consider the example: Example Ia

Tan (2z ) =

2Tan (z ) . 1 Tan 2 (z )

T (z ) = Tan (z ) = 2 =

2 1 4

1 z

n

1 42

z2

4z Tan ( z )= 4

Which leads to T (z ) =

Rt

k =1

(z ) = t 1 t 2

tn (rn (z )) with

tk (z ) =

z 1

1 4k

z2

, rn (z ) = 2nTan (z / 2n ) z

n k =1

Tan (z ) = lim R t k (z ) = R t k (z ) .

n k =1

~1~

Image (I)

Tan(z) (n=5)

and

Tan(z) z (n=20)

[-8<x,y<8]

Convergence in a neighborhood of z = 0 can be seen by applying the following ______________________________________________________________________ Theorem 2.6 [1] Suppose f n ( z ) = z (1 + n ( z ) ) , with n analytic for z R1 and

n ( z ) < n ,

R1 r

(1 + )

k k =1

Then

Fn (z) = f1 f 2

and F ( z )

(1 + ) < where

k k =1

k =

R1 k . r

_______________________________________________________________________

Here

Although there are many examples showing the convergence of an inner or right composition to the function of which it is an expansion (see, e.g., analytic theory of continued fractions [3]), there are perhaps no previous non-trivial examples showing the same for outer or left compositions. Here is one:

~2~

Arc tan(z ) = n gn gn 1

with

g1 (z ) gn gn 1

Set

g1 (z ) g1 (z ) .

gk (z ) =

2 4k z

( 1+

1 4k

z2 1 .

Gn (z ) = gn gn 1

Gn (z ) Arc tan(z ) , or

2 4k Arc tan(z ) = L z k =1

( 1+

1 4k

Arc tan(z ) =

2z L k =0 1 + 1 + k z

z , k = k 4

Convergence in a neighborhood of z = 0 can be verified by employing the following ___________________________________________________________________________ Theorem 2.8 [1] Let {g n } be a sequence of complex functions defined on S=(|z|<M) . Suppose there exists a sequence {n } such that

k=1

= C k

1

and R 0 = M > 0 . Then, for every z S0 = z < R 0 , G n (z) = g n g n 1 uniformly on compact subsets of S0 .

g1 (z) G(z) ,

___________________________________________________________________________

Here

z 1 gn (z ) z = n 4 1+ 1+

.

1 4n

z2

Example Ib

z2 z2 F (z ) = z (z + 2) F (z / 2) = + z 2z F (z / 2) = + z 2F (z / 2) 4 4 z2 = + z 4

(2z

+ 4z

z2 z2 F (z / 4) = + z + z 4z F (z / 4) = 4 8

~3~

With rn (z ) = 2n F

z2 e z = 1 + R k +1 + z k =1 2

Theorem 2.6[1] can be used to show convergence in a neighborhood of z = 0 with n (z ) = Of course, the radius of convergence of the composition is actually infinite.

z . 2

n +1

( )

g1 (z ) and

2z Ln (z + 1) = L k =1 1 + 1 + 4

( )

1 2k +1

Image (2)

~4~

Image (3)

z2 1 F (z ) = R k + z k =1 10

n=5

-8<x,y<8 G10 (z ) =

z2 1 k + non-convergent L z k = 0 10

10

Image (4) F (z ) =

k 1 k + 1 z + 2k z R k =1

50

50

and G (z ) =

k =0

z + 2 z L k + 1

k

-8<x,y<8

~5~

Example Ic

F (z ) = Sin (z )

Sin (z ) = 2z 1 z 2 Sin (z / 2) = z 1 =z 1

1 2 1 z 2Sin (z / 2) = z 1 z 2 4z 1 z 2 Sin (z / 4) 4 4

1 Sin (z ) = R z 1 k z 2 4 k =1

Where the positive sign is valid in Q1 and Q4 and the negative sign in Q2 and Q3. For Sin (1 + 4i ) the value is accurate to ten decimal places for n = 20 . Image (5) Sin(z) n=10

Continued Fractions (CFs) are a special case of inner composition (I), involving two complex variables. One type is F (z ) =

a1 (z ) a2 (z ) 1+ a (z ) 1+ 3 1+

, defined by tn (z ; ) =

an (z ) and 1+

T1 (z ; ) = t1 (z ; ) , Tn (z ; ) = Tn 1 (z; tn (z ; )) . Then

~6~

F (z ) = lim Tn (z ; ) or R (tn (z ; ) ) = 0 .

n

n =1

Although = 0 normally, other values of the variable frequently lead to the same value of F (z ) . The essential difference between the examples cited previously and CFs is that the former represent compositions on z that lead to functions F (z ) , whereas the latter evolve from compositions on an auxiliary variable , leading to F (z ) . Example Id tn (z ; ) =

with an (z ) analytic for z S . Then tn (z ; ) < R and these functions contract uniformly.

Therefore F (z ) =

R 1+

n =1

an (z )

III

Implicit functions and Zeno contours: Consider an expression defining a function implicitly:

( , f ( ) ) = 0 or ( , z ) = 0 , z = f ( ) .

The following definition is from [4]:

Zeno contour: Let gk ,n ( z ) = z + k ,n ( z ) where z S and gk ,n ( z ) S for a convex set S in the complex plane. Require lim k ,n = 0 , where (usually) k = 1,2,..., n . Set G1,n ( z ) = g1,n ( z )

n

n

The Zeno contour is a graph of this iteration. Normally, for a vector field, F = F , (z ) = F (z ) z , and under the right conditions G (z ) = , an attractive fixed point of F . In the context of this discussion gk ,n (z ) = z + k ,n ( F ( , z ) z ) , and if

F < < 1 S , z

a suitable domain, then Gn (z ) ( ) = f ( ) a fixed point for each value of , starting with an initial value z in some neighborhood of the fixed points [4]. Thus, from the notation II,

n n

III

Lgk ,n (z ) = gn ,n gn 1,n

k =1

g1,n (z )

and

G (z ) = lim Lgk ,n (z ) .

n k =1

~7~

z z Example IIIa: ( , z ) = Cos + z = 0 . Then F ( , z ) = Cos and the Zeno 10 10 contour terminates at z = f ( ) for in a neighborhood of the origin and initial values of z near the fixed points. For example,

starting with z0 = 4 + 2i .

References

[1] J. Gill, Convergence of infinite compositions of complex functions, Comm. Anal. Th. Cont. Frac., Vol XIX (2012) [2] S. Kojima, Convergence of infinite compositions of entire functions, arXiv:1009.2833v1 [3] L. Lorentzen, H. Waadeland, Continued Fractions with Applications, North Holland (1992) [4] J. Gill, Zeno contours and attractors, Comm. Anal. Th. Cont. Frac., Vol XIX (2012)

~8~

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