Masonry details

Masonry details
Konrad Zilch, Martin Schiitz

Walls notonlyenclosing, are decorative elements. Theyalsohavemajorstructural and building sciencefunctions perform. terms to In of structure, distinguish we loadbetween bearing, stiffening non-loadbearing and walls. Loadbearing wallscarryvertical and horizontal loadsand transfer theseto the subsoil. Stiffening wallsin the formof shearwallsguarantee the load-carrying and capacityof the building, in the formof crosswalls return wallsprovide or lateral supportto prevent buckling loadthe of bearing walls,Therefore, theyare alwaysconwalls. sideredas loadbearing Non-loadbearing wallsgenerally onlycarry theirownweightand havemerely enclosing an function. Theyare not.called uponto assistin to stabilizing building to provide the or support otherloadbearing walls.However, non-loadwallsmustbe ableto transfer horizonbearing tal loadsperpendicular the face of the wall to to loadbearing members. Thebuilding functions thewallare of science thermal(insulation heatstorage), and sound insulation, protection protection fire and against drivingrain.Specialrequirements may that needto be fulfilled a wall are protection by against water(bothpressurized non-presand surized), basement e.g. walls, and security (external functions wallsof certainbuildings), The e.g.banks, military establishments. many placedon wallscan.lead conflicts demands to of interest, whichcan be solvedonlythrough careful detailing and selection materials. of Basically, following the criteria applywhen choosing type of masonry: the Forfacingworkthe decisive factorsare the surface finishand the strength the unitsor of theirfrostresistance resistance and to mechanical External damageand saturation. walls, theotherhand,areprimarily on chosen depending thermal requirements, for while on internal wallsit is soundinsulation loadand carrying capacity influence choice, that our Whenselecting type of wall and type of the material, otheraspectssuchas weight,opportunities rationalization siteand the costs for on haveto be conof materials construction and s i d e r e d 3 27 1 ,9 1 ,4 1 , 1 6 1 1 . 1 , 122

External walls and builtso External wallsmustbe designed Thisrequirerain. thattheywithstand driving occupied mentis mandatory all buildings for moreor lesspermanently people.External by wallsaredivided intosingleand twin-leaf wall of walls.The single-leaf consists justone wall whereas twin-leaf the wall of masonry, wallsup to 150mm consists two parallel of withwallties.As a rule, apart,joinedtogether Froma theronlythe innerleafis loadbearing. wallsare divided mal pointof view,external wall intosingleor and double- multi-layer conwall of The structions. masonry a single-layer is wall,but apartfrom likethat of a single-leaf the carrying loadsalsofulfilsthe necessary The or requirements. double- multithermal but construction the layerwall is a loadbearing requiremasonry fulfilsonly partof the thermal ments. The otherlayersare madefrommateto rialsthat generally onlycontribute the thermal wall insulation, single-leaf e.g. external with plastering system. thermalinsulation

Single-leaf external walls

wallsis these The designof single-leaf external requiremainlyby thermal daysdetermined '1053 paft 1, the miniments. According DIN to wall is for external mumthickness a single-leaf in commonly 115 mm.Thewallconstructions The infig.2.4.1. regulations useare illustrated haveled to the developon thermalinsulation to mentof different solutions complywiththose extermonolithic regulations. the single-leaf So valnalwallwith everbetterthermalinsulation will to and mortar continue uesfor the masonry And for applications, the be favoured certain plasters alsohelpto will useof insulating Adding masonry. securethe use of monolithic masonry to a layerof insulation the loadbearing practically all wallsto satisfy allowsexternal wall Onlyin the caseof curtain demands. the facadesdo we haveto consider additional wall and heatlosses the wallties between via facade.

Plasteredsing IeJeaf externalwalIs of layers thermal additional are builtwithout witha coatof plasand insulation are provided rendering ter on the insideand water-repellent prevents moisThe rendering on the outside. and subthe turefrom penetrating masonry : the and permits useof freezing, sequently masonry units.In orderto non-frost-resistant requir:einsulation complywiththe strictthermal mentsand, at the sametime,avoidunjustifisatisfying whichalthough ablythickwalls, too are science demands usually building and in expensive termsof construction conSuchwallsonly space. of sumption valuable unitswithvery goodthermalinsuuse masonry clay, (e.9.aeratedlightweight lationproperlies g li aeratedconcrete, ghtwei ht holautoclaved of the low concrete blocks, formation voids, mortar the to without cellsand slots,masonry insulaperpends) conjunction thermal with in systems. or tion plasters plastering transmittance f al]]e2.4.2showsthe thermal 300., for valuesthat can be achieved masonry insulaand 365 mm thick,and howthe thermal insuby tion can be improved usinga thermal lationplaster. modars The use of thin-bedand lightweight with large-,. together instead normalmortar of mortar unitsand layingwithout formatmasonry the furtherreduces thermal' to the perpends joints. bridgingeffectof the mortar of in Thediagrams fig.2.4.3showthe influence lengthof unitand type of perpendas well as LM thickness bed jointfor normal, 36 and of jointof LM 36 is A LM 21 mortars. medium-bed joint.The practically withthe thin-bed identical modarrepresents, or useof lightweight thin-bed in a markedimorovement thermalinsulation of irrespective the thermalconductivity the of units. masonry of the In wallswith normalmortar, thickness the bed jointand the lengthof the unitwith mortar effecton the to the perpendshas a noticeable Differ- ; of thermal conductivity the masonry. and enceswithinlightweight thin-bedmodars of to merelyamount the orderof magnitude class. conductivity the rangeof onethermal if, this However', can be important whendeter-

i{

External walls

2.4.1 Formsof single-leaf walls external

mining characteristic values, measured the or calculated resultfor the masonry beingevaluatedlieson thethreshold a class[A.1,p. of 1161,

t >240

1 , >.1 5

4 >115 .|f-f--

> 115

1 1 52 > 1 7 5 .t---.1+

Plastered Single-leafexternal Single-leaffacing Singleleafexternal Single-leafexternal Single-leaf externalwalls with thermalinsulamasonrywith 20 mm single-leaf wall with thermal wall with curtainwall wallwith internal tion compositesystems wall joint external wall insulationcomposite facade insulation are.constructed masonry from unitsperforming syslem structural otherfunctions exhibiting and but relpoorthermalinsulation properties atively in conjunction a thermally with insulating coating 2.4.2 fhermal transmittance valuesfor sinole-leaf masonrv applied the external to wall surface. Thiswall Wallthick- Type of Rendering Designvaluefor thermalconductivity masonry[WmK] of system employed new building is for work,as ness [mm] plaster 0.16 0.18 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.1 0.11 wellas for subsequently improving thermal the 0.52 300 LP 0.41 0.47 2 0.31 0.34 0.36 0.39 insulation existing of masonry. coating The 0.41 WDP 4 0.33 0.34 0.38 o.27 o.29 0.31 consists threelayers: of bondingcoat,thermal 366 0.44 LP 0.35 0.39 2 o.26 o.28 0.3 0.33 o.33 0.36 WDP 4 0.26 0.28 0.3 o.23 o.24 (hardpolystyrene insulation foamor mineral plaster(LP)or 40 mm thermalinsulation plaster(WDP) External: mm lightweight 20 plaster fibrebatts)and a two-coat finishcomlnternal: mm lime-dvoslJm 10 nlaster prising reinforcing finalcoats. and Railsystems dowelscreatean additional or fixingto the substrate. heatlossescausedby The thethermal bridges formed suchmechaniby calfixings takenintoaccount increasing 2.43 fhermal conductivityof masonry in relationto thermal conductivity of masonry unit, type of mortar,thickness of are by thethermal transmittance values. However, this bed jointand lengthof unit effectcan be ignored whenusingthermally 0.25 0.25 ootimized dowels. 12mm bedjoint As the thermalinsulation composite systemis 6 mm bed joint tl fullyresponsible thethermal for insulation function,thistype of wall is oftenreferred as a to "thermoskin" is usedwith masonry and with NM relatively thermal low insulation highcombut NM pressive (e.9.calcium strength silicate masona ,/ ry).Thissystem results relatively walls, in thin LM 36: )< '/ whichgreatlybenefits totalamount inter- Y the of F F LM 36 nalspaceavailable. v In principle, typeof wallis an improvement = this c C _M t1 DIV = l plastering on the thermal insulation system LIV c C because layers thermalinsulation better of with 6 6 '// ,/ insulation valuesare used instead the olasof E E '/ b ter. /): '= As the thermal insulation composite system .> ,/t I o b doesnot satisfy requirement decreasing l the for l tl c ! c strength the layers of fromthe insideto the out- c o o o o side, materials the usedin thethreelayers G E E E mustbe compatible orderto avoid nega- o in the o c s (see tiveconsequences "Plasters"). is This F F 0.15 0.10 0.15 0.10 0.20 0.20 guaranteed usingcomplete by systems. Nevertheless, shouldbe notedthatthistype of wall it Thermalconductivity masonry[WmK] of Thermal conductivity masonry of [WmK]

v,

a

F

t

t

Masonry details

2,4.4 Sectionthrough375 mm single-leaf faced wall (sketchshowingprinciple) Outside

joint Wall filled without voids

./tnsiae
-ff

20

-1 3 7 5 1
2.4.5 Formsof twin-leaf external walls Outside Cavitywall Outerleal Walltie embedded >50mm Walltie with dripdisc Cavity lnnerleaf plaster Internal >90 60<d<15Omm ...].-....'.'.-..]T 1 PaftialJillcavity wall lnside

MG ll (lla)

Loadbearing leaf Air space >40mm plaster Internal Wall tie with dripdisc >90

----T---- < 1 5 0 m m
....]T

>40

Full{illcavitywall Facing masonry MG ll (la)

>1501

-

I

r<150

Plaster-f collar-jointed illed wall Minimal air space Plaster lnnerleaf Walltie >90
l_

unit classusedin thewall. by the lowest strength to and Saturation attackby frostis assumed unitsin singleonlyaffectthe outermasonry of leaffaced walls.To avoidsaturation the backweather, with severe in ing masonry regions at shouldinclude least everycourseof masonry by two rowsof unitsof equalheightseparated in a 20 mm wide walljoint (offset eachcourse to followthe bond)overthe full heightof the Single-leafexternal walls with curtain wall without voidsusing wall.Thismustbe filled facade mortaror, betterstill,run in liquid lf external wallsmadefromnon-frost-resistant waterproof By mortarcourseby course. inwaterproof masonry unitsare not rendered, external the the of the and creasing thickness the walljointfrom wall can be protected against weather '10 by mm to 20 mm, guaranteed the full mortar claddingto damageby addinga weatherproof becomes wall filling, minimum thickness the the outside. Thiscurtain wall can be attached wallor to external 310mm.Thisis dueto thefactthata 240mm eitherdirectly the external to insulation, which is thenprotected the venti- thickwallwouldmeanthatthe walljointcould by latedcuftainwallfacade. only be formedin everysecondcourseand a the moisture barrier full heightof wall continuous The mechanical fixingsfor the curtain (seefig.2.4.4.). thewallwouldnotbe possible result additional in heatlosses whichcan be quiteconsiderable. Thicknesses 375 and 500 mm are also of feasible. face- if flushpointSingle-leafexternal walls with internal insulation The jointsin the exposed ing is not carriedout- shouldbe rakedout to a Thethermalinsulation effectof a single-leaf pointed. Subdepthof 15 mm and properly external wall can alsobe improved attachby that has ing insulation madefrom hardpolystyrene sequentpointing the advantage pigmortar to mentscan be addedto the pointing foamor mineral fibrebattsto the insideface. (see"Pointing"). of varythe appearance thejoints Thistype of wall is particularly suitable the for insulation to It is very difficult fulfilthe thermal refurbishment existing with of buildings facingmasonry. with requirements single-leaf facadesworthyof preservation, for those and is thesedaysfacingmasonry almost roomsin newbuilding workwhichare notper- Therefore, masonry (e.9.assembly builtas pad of a twin-leaf halls). Owing exclusively manently heated wall. to the lossof the heatstorageeffectof the are external walls,roomsinsulated internally quicklyheatedand storelessthermal energy afterthe heatingis switched Condensation Twin-leaf external walls off. beingused problems masonry increasingly is Twin-leaf withinthe wall construction be a can problem particularly for external the wallsto achieve necessary masonry, with absorbent functions a of The floorsand partitions. Like- thermalinsulation. various at junctions between in rooms wall are separated thistype of construction wise,the soundinsulation adjacent of The leaves. to transmisand allocated the individual can be impaired through flanking provides solid a masonry) internal insulation innerleaf (backing sions causedby unsuitable the to and carries vedical enclosure the interior systems. loads.The outerleaf (facing and horizontal ihe outerleaf)determines masonry rendered or externalwallswithoutrendering Single-leaf (sing le-leaffaced wall) and servesas protection visualappearance damage. the and mechanical froman against weather The decision omitthe rendering to is required fixedagainst wall,i.e.the facademasonry remains Any thermalinsulation external face of the innerleaf. the wholeof the outside etc.),dependson exposed(facingbrickwork frostThe outerskin usesnon-efflorescent, the desiredapoearance well as localtradias units units.Perforated resistant solidmasonry tionsand experience. mainadvantage The of theycan become because wallsare lesssuitable facingmasonry in single- twin-leaf or whichcan be aggravated severely saturated, is the low cost of maintenance. lackof careduringpointing. A single-leaf facedwall consists an outer of by possible cavbetween cavity,partial-fill fac- We distinguish skinof frost-resistant, usually small-format, collar-jointed ity,full{ill cavityand plaster-filled ingor engineering silicate bricks calcium or (seefig.2.4.5). nonfacingbricks and a backing usually, of, of frost-resistant masonry The use of differ- Onlythethickness the innerleaf(min. units. in 115 mm) may be considered the structural ent masonry. materials the backingand the for the Whenanalysing innerleafaccordof analysis. facing workshould avoided be because the possible the methodof analysis, deformation the asso- ing to the simplified and differential 'l{5 for of mm is onlysuitable buildare thickness ciatedriskof cracking. Facing and backing plusan ingsof no moreof thantwo full storeys formthe loadbondedtogether and together mustbe provided crosswalls The stress attic;in addition, bearingcross-section, permissible thickness the of The whichmaybe usedin the designis governed for stabilitv. minimum Apart is vulnerable mechanical to damage. fromthat,additional skinshavean soft unfavourable effecton the soundinsulation properties the masonry. of mustbe observed Fireorotection reouirements whenusing flammable notreadily flammable or thermal insulation materials.

't24

E{ernal walls

outerleafshouldbe 90 mm for reasons staof bility during construction. SupporTing outerleaf the Theweightof the outerleafmustbe supported on the loadbearing leaf.The complete outer leafshouldbe supported overits full length (e.9.on nibs projecting fromthe floors,on steel sections boltedon or cast in). lf the supportis non-continuous separate (e.9. brackets), every masonry mustbe supported bothends unit at at the suppoftlevel. Using metalangleas a supportcreates a a continuous thermal bridgewhich,in the arrangement shownin 'fi7.2.4.6, means an additional heatflowto the outsideof 0.15 WmK [A.2]alongthe length the angle. of Forsupport overtwo storeys meansan this increase heatlossesof AU = 0.025WmrK in compared a wallwithout to such supports. The influence the supportcan be neglected of for an outerleaf12 m high.Supportdetails which can no longerbe inspected afterbeing builtin protected mustbe permanently againstcorrosion. Outerleaves1 15 mm thickhaveorovedto be worthwhile practice, in Owingto theirgood stability, theseneedto be supported only every m in'height. 12 Whensupported every at second floor,a 115 mm outerleafcan project beyond supportby up to one thirdof its its thickness. Outerleaves lessthan115 mm thick mustbe supported every6 m in heightand maynot be builtmorethan20 m aboveground levelowingto theirlimitedresistance wind to loads, Buildings comprising morethantwo no fullstoreys mayinclude triangular gableup a to 4 m highwithout additional any support. a lf 115mm leafis notprovided withflushpointing, weakening to subsequent due rakingout of the joints mustbe takenintoaccount. Anchoringthe outer leaf Theouterleafis to be anchored the loadto bearing innerleafby meansof walltiesto preventit fromoverturning, buckling and bulging as a resultof unequal temperature changes.In addition, anchoring this serves transfer to the windloads.As the wind generates bothpressureand suction forces,the anchorsmustbe ableto resist tension and compression. Wall tiesmustbe of stainless steelto DIN 17440. Their shapeand dimensions mustbe as given inItg.2.4.7. When bonding the loadbearing and the of leaf theouterleafcoincide, thenZ-shape ties may be used.Otherwise L-shaoeis moresuitthe ablebecause can be bentto suit.lf the this bedjointsof the two leaves not in the same are planeor if the outerleafis builtat a laterdate, tiesfor subsequent fixingintothe innerleafof masonry necessary. are Theuseof such anchorsis alsorecommended whenattaching additional an layerof thermal insulation orderto ensure in thatthe insulation

is pressed tightlyagainst outside the face of the innerleaf. Wallties shouidbe soacedat max.500 m vertically, max.750mm horizontally.addition In to the requirements outlined table2.4.8,Ihree in ties per metreof edge lengthare required aroundopenings and at the corners the of joints building wellas alongmovement as and at the tops of outerleaves. The type,numberand arrangement ties in of curvedmasonry masonry or with projections should specified, be takingintoaccount the deformation to, for example, due wind and/or temperature changes.' Table2.4.10 shows influence walltieson the of heattransmission a numberof typicaltypes for of wall.In cavitywallsthe ties are practically ineffective thermalbridges. as The useof additional layers insulation the of in cavityincreases heattransmission up to the by 5% for optimum150mm thickcavityinsulation and 5 mm thickwallties;theseinfluences can be ignored. Therefore, complywith DIN to 4108part2, no analysis thethermal of bridge effecthasto be carriedout for minimum ther mal insulation when usingconventional forms of fixing, e.g.wireties.Whenusinglightweight mortar, 36 is alwaysrequired LM whenwallties are to be builtin. Othertypesof tie are permissiblewhentheycan accommodate 1.0kN min. tension and compression 1.0mm slipper at tie.The number tiesmustbe increased this of if valuecannotbe guaranteed, Othertypesof ties(e.9. steel) flat and dowelled fixings the in masonry permissible are whentheirserviceabilityis verifiedby a buildingauthority certificate. Walltiesshould builtin so thattheycannot be conveymoisture fromthe outerto the inner leaf. Thisis achieved positioning ties by the horizontally by fittinga plasticdisc (drip and disc).The drip disc ensures thatwaterpenetratingthe outerleafdoes not reachthe thermalinsulation the loadbearing but is or leaf, intercepted. Ad ditionalrequirements (dpc)should included A dampproofcourse be at the bottomof the cavitybetween leaves the in orderto protect innerleafand the tloor the from moisture whichpenetrates outerleaf the and collectsat the baseof the cavity. The damp proofcoursemustbe laidwith a fallto the outside withinthe cavityand horizontal underthe outerjeaf.The outerleafmustbe supported sucha way that it cannotslip. in To do this,placethe firstrow of ties as low as possible and ensure thatthe waterproofing part4. Thedamp complies withDIN18195 proofcourseshouldextendas far as the front edgeof the outerleafand should continue piece min.150mm up the innerleafon a firring and be fixedto this leaf (see2.4.9). Openings doors,windowsetc. in the outer for leafareformedas transfer structures

2,4.6 Outer leaf supportdetails

Facing masonry

This joint sealedwith permanenlry elastic

Strips for distributing load Joinl seareo

Continuous stainless steelangle support

Movement joint

Masonry details

2.4.7 Wall ties for twin-leaf external masonry Plasticdisc 130 >cn

7
2.4.8 Minimumnumberand diameterof wall ties Der m2 of wall area Wallties: min. No. diameter neitherof the followingtwo linesapply Wali sections > 12 m above groundlevel,or

(e.9.individual as brackets steelsections), or The lattermay reinforced masonry as lintels. or or be constructed usingspecials in the formof cambered semicircular or arches. Refer "Jointdesign"for detailsof the to joints. arrangement movement of Cavity walls In contrast the curtain to wallfacade,in this the type of wall,the cavitybetween masonry to leavesmay be includedin calculations the because determine thermalinsulation the openvedicaljointsin the outerleafare not proRainwater condensaor videdfor ventilation. tion in the cavitycan drainawayor evaporate problems without inner the without causing and leafbecoming In the saturated. addition, cavity Thetherhelpsthe outerleafto dry out faster. malinsulation mainly is determined the by innerleaf, this onlyeconomalthough is usually with withvery lcal in conjunction innerleaves highinsulation values. The cavityshouldbe at least60 mm wide.This is minimum distance basedon the fact that circulation the air cannot of be adequate the expectedif the gap is too small.However, widthof the cavitymay be reducedto 40 mm if the mortaris struckoff flushon at leastone mortar side of the cavlty,thus preventing The maxithe bridgesfrom interrupting cavity. the mum distance between two leavesis determinedby the load-carrying capacityof the wall and be tiesundercompression should no more (e.9.open than150mm.Ventilation openings perpends) at should included thetop and be bottomof the cavityand at any intermediate to circulation the air. of supports guarantee Openings the bottomalsoserveto drainthe at Thisalsoapplies spanto cavity(weepholes). A of drel panels. totalof 7500mm2 ventilation for 20 should provided every m2 be openings of wallarea(including doorsandwindows). Thisfiguremeans thatfor a single-storey building and an outerleafof thin-format units everysecondperpendat the approximately of baseand belowthe roofor the underside supportsin the outerleafmustbe leftopen. The damp proofcoursemustbe positioned the below exactlyin orderto prevent masonry atthe the open perpendsbecoming saturated baseof the wall.As watermay collectin certain areasat the base,the innerleafis to be protected againstrisingdamp by extending the damp proofcourseup the face of the inner leaf. Openings mustbe at least100mm above ground level. Parlial-fill cavity walls Inthistypeof wallthefunctions the individof underoptiual layers clearlydemarcated are A mumbuilding science conditions. layer of to thermalinsulation attached the outside is leaf faceof the inner, loadbearing buta ventithis latedgap remains between and the outer and leaf.Thiscavitvmeansthat condensation

distance between masonry reaves 70-120 mm

7 or5

4 5

A walltie diameter 3 mm is adeouatefor a Dlaster of f illedcollar-iointed wall.

to drivingrain penetrating the insidefaceof the the saturating therouterleafcan drainwithout the Consequently, outerleaf mal insulation. protects layerof thermal insulation against the and impactor the directeffectsof the weather material otherdamage.lf a vapour-permeable then is usedfor the thermalinsulation, the circulatingair notonly driesout the outerleafbut any dry, alsokeepsthe insulation causing conto densation evaporate. innerand between The maximum distance walls"). outerleavesis 150mm (see"Cavity if Thisdoesnot needto be fullyexploited the properties. it But innerleafhas good insulation whenthe innerleafmakesuseof is important masonry typesthat exhibithighcompressive In insulation, thatcase, strength lowthermal but of the thermalproperties the wall are provided This solelyby the layerof insulation. can partly of for compensate the disadvantage the total to necessary thickness the wall construction of pluscavity. A thermalinsulation accommodate is furtherdisadvantage the highcostof constructing suchwalls. Theminimum widthof the airspaceis 40 mm. widthof 150mm between lf we usethe maximum we the two leaves, are leftwith 110 mm which However, owingto may be filledwith insulation. of the unevenness the surfaces the two of to a it leaves, is advisable include reasonable Insulating battsare tolerance our planning. in recommended; theseare buttjointedtogether (e.9.clamping means andfixedby suitable etc.).Blandiscson walltiesor wallanchors kets,on the otherhand,tendto swellor expandand hencereducethe widthof the air they shouldnot be usedfor space.Therefore, thistypeof wall. The detailsat the top and bottomof the wall corre- ' openings and waterproofing regarding spondto thosefor cavitywalls. Full-fill cavity walls wallsin whichthe cavity Theseare external with the between leavesis filledcompletely the material orderto increase in insulation value,or the cavityis omitted thermalinsulation thickness the of in orderto reducethe overall of wall.The outerleafshouldconsist frostunitsat least115 mm thick resistant masonry to the to increase resistance drivingrain.The to cleardistance the face of the loadbearing not innerleafshould exceed150mm.Glazed mustexhibit unitsor unitswith surfacecoatings The frostresistance. thermalinsulaenhanced without any the between leaves tion is installed usedmay materials air space.The insulation granulates be in the formof batts,blankets, whichare permanently and loosematerials (hydrophobic) well as injectas water-repellent or foams(e.9.hardpolystyrene ed cellular polyurethane), mineral wool,looseexpanded perliteor polyurethane ureaformaldehyde or foams.Up to now,the resininjected cellular has of serviceabilitv thesematerials had to be

2.4.9 Detailat base of twin-leaf facing masonry

I

115 >60 Tf Loadbearing leaf

MG ll (lla)

Freshair inlet,e.g. vraopen perpends '1st in and2nd courses

126
t

External walls

valuesof twin-leaf 2.4.10 lnfluence wall ties on thermaltransmittance of verified a generalbuildingauthority by certificate.In futurethe requirements theseinsulationmaterials haveto meetlvill be coveredby corresponding standards. In practical terms,it is virtually impossible to buildthe outerleafwithouta gap for the bricklayer's fingers whenusingbattsand blankets (notloosematerials injected or cellular foams), However, hasthe advantage this that any 1 7 5m m 1 7 5m m 175 m m lnnerleaf water whichdoes penetrate drainaway can l. = 0.56 l. = 0.36 unhindered. 1 2 0m m 1 0 0m m Thermalinsulation Whenusedas full-fill watercavityinsulation, l, = 0.040 l, = 0.040 proofor water-repellent 40 mm materials not need do 60 mm Cavity/Airspace 115 m m 1 1 5m m 115 m m Outer leaf to be treatedany differently theiruse elseto I = 0.81 ), = 0.81 l. = 0.81 where with resoect theirthermalconductiv- Walltie to 5 per m2 ity.However, full-fill cavityinsulation funccan 4mmA 3mmtl) SmmA tioneffectively whenthe amountof water only 1.O23 0.006 0.009 penetrating insulation not excessive 0.003 the is and, au. 0.282 0.312 1.026 aboveall,does not accumulate certainposi- uc at guaranteed ensuring tions. Thisis thatthe by outerleafis builtto a high standard workof manship whichmeanserecting masonry the withfullyfilledjointscapableof transmitting stresses. Lime-cement mortars group ll or of lla witha good stickyconsistency preare properbricklaying ferred. addition, In techniques appropriate the material the outer to of (e.9.prewetting leafare essential highabsorbency units,reducing plasticity the the of mortar low absorbency for units).Furthermore, openings the outerleaftotalling least in at per 5000mm2 20 m2of wallarea(including doorsand windows) mustbe included the at baseof the wall so that any moisture does that become trappedin the cavityinsulation despite careful construction can drainto the baseof the walland escapeto the outside. Mineral fibreinsulation materials the formof in battsand blankets, sheetsof foamedplastic or andfoamedglassareto be fixedto the inner plasticdiscsfittedto the leafby,for example, wallties,in sucha way thatthe thickness the of insulatlon remains Blankets insulatconstant. of ingmaterials buttjointedtogetherbut the are jointsto be formed(e.9. stiffer battsrequire rebate, tongueand groove) fixedwith layers or offset thatwatercannotpenetrate joints. so the (e.9. Missing sections hardfoammaterials of wherewallties penetrate) mustbe made good witha suitable sealing compound. Whenusingloose thermal insulating materials (e.9.mineral polystyrene fibregranulate, foam perlite), mustbe ensured beads, expanded it external wallswithoutmathematical 2.4.11 Max. permissible sizesof infillpanelsin non-loadbearing thatthe insulating material completely the fills uVall thicknebs Permissible max. size of infillpanelfor a heightabove ground levelof: cavitybetween leaves the with a consistent 20to 100m 8to20m 0toBm e=1.0 e=1.0 e>2.01) packingdensity e=1.0 e>2.01) and alsothatthe drainage le>2.01) ' lm' mz m2 m2 mm openings the baseof wall remainunobat 4.0 6.0 8.0 5.0 115 12.0 8.0 structed using,for example, stainless by a 5.3 8.0 10.6 6.7 115r) 16.0 10.6 mesh, inconsistent, steel An incomplete filling 6.0 9.0 13.O 9.0 175 20.o 14.O 12.O to the cavityimpairs thermalinsulation 16.0 the 16:0 25.O 23.0 240 36.0 17.0 25.O 23.O 35.0 > 300 50.0 33.0 value. Thisis particularly at the top of the so where e = ratio of longer to shorter side of infill panel wallif the material settles shortly afterfillingor linearly. Max. permissible sizesfor side ratios1.0 < e < 2.0 may be interpolated overthe courseof time,However, voidsand 1) The sizesmay be doubledfor masonryunitsof strengthclasses> 20 and ratiosM > 2.0 (whereh = heightof infill irregularitiesfillings loose in of insulating panel,| = lengthof infillpanel). 2)Permissible masonrvunit comDressive for strenothclasses> 12 materials injected and foamsare particularly

Masonry details

2.4.1 2

Slidingand elasticjointsat sides of infill panels Wall recessedinto groove

Jointmaskedby channel or anglesection

to criticalas theseallowmoisture penetrate Theonly rightup to the innerleaf. unchecked way to avoidthls is to use provenequipment in andtechniques the handsof experienced personner. nted extern waIIs Plaster-fIIed coIIar-joi i al makesuse of Thistype of twin-leaf construction layer plaster applied the outto a continuous of wall, sidefaceof the innerleaf.Likethe cavity of the innerleafin thiscaseconsists masonry properties. unitswith goodthermalinsulation prevents Thistype of construction waterfrom protection reaching innerleafand provides the Theouterleaf(facing against driving rain. to masonry) erectedas closeas possible the is plaster(gapfor bricklayer's fingers) withjoints fullyfilledwith mortar,In termsof construction this on and function, wallis an improvement the single-leaf facedwallwithits continuous 20 mm walljoint.In contrast the single-leaf to wall,whichoftensuffers fromdamage external to attributable lackof carewhencastingthe faceof the walljoint,plastering outside the innerleafand hencethe standard workmanof coat of shipandfunction the continuous of plaster beforethe can be easilyinspected However, disadvantage the outerleafis built. to of thetwin-leaf compared the single-leaf wall loadsmustbe facedwallis thatthe vertical to carried solely the innerleaf.Compared by overthe cavity wall,thistypeof wallis thinner
all.

A n c h o ri n s l o t ,e . g . of stainless steel

Slidingjoint at steelcolumn

Flator round bar in bed joint approx. every 400 mm

2.4.13 Detailat base of infilloanel

2,4.14 Junctionbetweeninfilloaneland timber oosl plaster Internal

to lf a rendered outerleafis preferred facing masonry, coaton the outside thenthe plaster innerleafmaybe omitfaceof the loadbearing, facingbricksare not necested. Frost-resistant sarywith such a rendered outerleaf. (e.9. weepholes) are Drainage openings required onlyat the baseof thewalltoallow waterwhichhas penetrated outerleafand the at drained downto escape. Openings thetop in ventilation because of wall are not necessary gap between the narrow innerand outerleaves be Walltiesjust3 mmthick cannot expected. to are adequate connectthe two leaves.

Mortargroup ll or self-adhesive sealingstrips Stainless steelflat anchorbent to form angle Galvanized clout nails

128

walls lnternal

Non-loadbearing external walls

masonry wallsare Non-loadbearing external components which,apartfromtheir slab-like ownweight,haveto carryloadsactingperpento windloads) and dicular theirface (e.9, loadbearing comtransfer these adjoining, to ponents, shear ln walls, floorplates. the e.g. structural analysis they may not be takeninto account whenassessing stability the the of restraint loadbearing to building as lateral or panfor walls. These wallsare popular the infill structures reinforced of elsof frameor cellular concrete, steelor timber.Suchpanelscan be form,withor without builtin single- multi-leaf or plaster, additional insulation with thermal wallfacade.Single-leaf, renand/orcurtain dered wallsmustbe min.115 mm thick,singleleaffacingmasonry min.310mm. In a twin-leaf wallthe outerleafmustbe at least90 mm and the inner leafat least115 mm thick.

by fittingsor attached overlapping between way of stainless steelanchorsin slots(seefig. the and elasin 2.4.12) orderto achieve sliding rotelastic, tic connection. Stripsof resilient, proofmaterial (e.9.mineral fibreor bitumen paneland adjoininfill felt)are placedbetween joints sealed ing component, outerand inner joint material prefabricated or with elastoplastic connectThe are fillers. sidesof panels easily dimenwhenthe overall ed to steelcolumns to are sionsof the sections selected suitthe panel(seefig.2.4.12). thickness the infill of steelflange Stripsof foil are placedbetween joint.Mineral to a and mortar achieve slidlng the fibre pads between mortarand the web of helpto improve soundinsulathe steelsection The of tion and fire protection. transfer forces masonry between and columnis ensuredby steelsecfillingthe void between completely At tion and panelwith mortar. the top of the panela 20 mm tolerance generally sufficient. is material. The gap is filledwith a soft,rotproof Basisfor design panels Thisprevents loadbearing comadjoining the According DIN1053part1, the infill to ponentunintentionally loadsto the transferring need not be of frameor cellular structures panelby way of deformation whenthe panelsare sup- non-loadbearing assessed structurally At ported foursides(e,9.by bonding, and subsequent deflection. the baseof the tongue on jointsor anchors), forcesfrom,for example,, normal mortarof wallthe horizontal and groove fromthe non-loadwind loads,are transferred mortar at leastmortargrouplla or lightweight comwall bearing external to the loadbearing LM36 or thin-bed mortar usedand the conis ponentby friction. layerof roofing can be felt A of ditions DIN1053part1 table9 (seetable the included between walland the loadbearing 2.4.11) maintained. dimensions the The of are (fig. panel to be takenas the cleardimen3). component 2.4.1 infill are panels a timber be frameshould always Infill to sionsbetween supporting the construction, joint 10-20mm wide with a mortar Theheights abovegroundlevelreferto the top completed Thiscompentimberand masonry. infillpanel.To classify between edgeof the respective in and to satesfor tolerances deformations the twin-leaf masonry, is recommended use it to A connection the timberconstruction.secure thethickness the innerleafplushalfthe of filletsto timberis providedby way of triangular thickness the outerleafas the designwall of This steelnails. In loadbearing masonry, all sidesfixedwithstainless thickness. contrastto mortar reliable adhesion between theconditions table2.4.11 takeintoaccount presupposes of perpendicular the by and masonry units(e.9.provided suitable the lowtensilestrength to mortar the failure a pretreatment, useof low-shrinkage of bedjoints. Thisis possible because paneldoesnot leadto collapse the entire stainless steelflat anchors etc.).Alternatively, of as structure. the aboveconditions not met or bentto forman anglecan be specified a lf are particularly large with fixing, mechanical openings provided non-loadbearing are in panels. walls(e.9.windows, doors)which external impair load-carrying the ability, structural a is analysis required. to Connections loadbearingcomponents panels Infill achieve theirstability being by The fixedto adjoining components. connecloadsactingon tionsmustbe ableto transfer the infillpanelsto the loadbearing construction in and alsoaccommodate deformations the They adjoining construction. maybe rigidor However, rigidconneca sliding and elastic. joints, mortar tion,e.g. steelinserts, anchors, bonding, should onlybe usedwhenexcessive from restraint deformation not exoected is and loadbearing themasonry the surrounding and The construction. use of slidingconnections means to thereis no opportunity spanthe infill The wallsbetween adjoining the components. panelis generally intoa groove, infill or built

Gable walls

Gable wallswithoutverticalload gablewallsarenecessary buildon Masonry Withsteeproofslopes, ingswith pitchedroofs. areas considerable suchwallscan constitute Coupleand collarroofsdo not of masonry. any loadto the gablewall,which transfer therefore onlycarriesits ownweightand wind as loads. These shouldbe considered nonwalls.Theymay be external loadbearing with or structurally by comparison analysed panels accordfor values infill the permissible the ingto DIN1053part1 table9, provided gablewallis supported the edgesor by at piers.At the basethe or crosswalls integral conby wall is held in position the relnforced anchors creteflooreitherby meansof tension at and or viaadhesion friction, thetop by a ring To beamor the roofconstruction. do this,the mustbe braced(e.9.timber roofconstruction The bettersolution bracing). or metaldiagonal of termsis the formation a ring in structural beam,whoseendsat leastmustbe connected by to the roofconstruction way of steelanchors. the is solution to support gable Thesimpler rigid in the wall at roof levelvia a connection achieved This horizontal direction. is usually anchors. by way of masonry Gable walls with vertical load lf purlins spanontothe gablewall,thena loadpier masonry can be assumed bearing for the beneath bearing the purlinas a resultof the the verticalload.Apartfromcarrying roof the load, thisalsostiffens gablewall. the Therefore, gablewall is dividedintoloadTheloadareas. bearing and non-loadbearlng piers)beneath the (masonry bearingsections to purlins according the haveto be examined In methodof analysis. doingso, moreaccurate be of the clearheight the piershould usedas of The length. distribution load the buckling to belowthe purlinsmay be assumed be 60'. the mustaccommodate The roofconstruction e.g. horizontal supportreactions, by way of in bracing the planeof the roof,arisdiagonal of ing fromthe provision supportto the pier. to adjacent the sections The non-loadbearing piersshouldbe analysed gable as masonry vertical load. wallswithout

lnternalwalls
Loadbearing internal walls

of edition DIN1053pad 1, the miniln the latest wall internal for mumthickness a loadbearing has beenreducedtrom240mm to 115 mm. in has in Thisreduction thickness resulted a for gainin floorspace,particularly useful in buildings whichthe andtwo-storey singleeviThis loadsareonlyminimal. is particularly that dentwhen it can be guaranteed the crossof sections suchthinwallsare not reducedby the Reducing minimum chases and recesses.

129

Masonry details

2.4.15 Structural loadingschemeaccordingto DIN 4103 part 1 for non-loadbearing internal partitions

--"j .:.
\ --,7

Horizontal load

Location 1: P, = 9.5 P57t Location2: P, = 1.6 L17t

Location2: e.g. Locations largenumbers people, with of lecture larger buildings schools, and assembly halls,retailpremises and theatres, exhibition facilities: similar horizontal load line Pz= 1.0kN/mat a heightof 900 mm abovethe baseof wall. lrrespective location, bracketloadof of a (see2.4.15) an and 0.4kN/mwalllength = impactloadwith a forceof Euu"i" 100kNm position mustalsobe actingat an unfavourable Non-loadbearing internal walls for. allowed The impactloadcan be causedby Whenbuiltfrommasonry, non-loadbearing a person(softimpact)or a hardobject(hard par- impact). internal walls- or non-loadbearing internal partititions are usually According DIN 1055paft 3, the structural to builtas lightweight such tionsin the sense DIN1055part3. Nonfloorsuppoding of analysis a loadbearing of paditions onlysubject- partitions of loadbearing internal may assume instead a more are distributed ed to considerable loadsin exceotional accurate wind calculation a uniformly wall imoosedloadof 0.75kN/m'zfor cases, e.g.in shed-type buildings large with additional (including plaster) 1.0kN/m'zwall < dooropenings where pressure build the weights can (including for up inside building. suchcasestheyare the ln areaand 1.25kN/m2 wallweights plaster) to be treatedas non-loadbearing 1.0-1 kN/m2 .5 wall area. external par- Forwallweights> 1.5kN/m2 wall area- or walls. Otherwise, non-loadbearing internal adetitionsnot subjected wind loadsare covered > 1.0 kN/m2 wall areafor floorswithout to quatetransverse by the provisions DIN4103. Therequiredistribution the loads- the of of mentsand analyses DIN4103part 1 are not position of of and magnitude the wall loadis to be guidelines whenanalysing related material. to Construction for takenintoaccountaccurately partitions stipulated DIN4103 the floor. masonry in are paft 3. At present this standard onlyexistsin given Materialsfor non-loadbearing internalmasonry the formof an unpublished draft.Details partitions hereare basedon the current stateof knowor ledgewith respectto non-loadbearing masonry Onlymaterials coveredby DINstandards partitions may be usedfor certificates basedon the information sheetpubbuildingauthority Partitions masonry of units lishedby Deutsche Gesellschaft Mauerfur buildingpartitions. (German of werksbau Masonry Association) may use onlymortar mortar or wall elements [97, groupsll, lla or lll to DIN1053part1.Themor1721. partitions walls firm Non-loadbearing internal tar shouldnot be unnecessarily in orderto are preserve to in between interior sufficient elasticity the masonry spacesthat do notfulfilany mortar Thin-bed structural function the overall for structure, i.e. accommodate deformation. may theyare notcalleduponto stabilize buildcertificate the coveredby buildingauthority units. ing notto carryvertical loads.Consequently, and be usedfor wallelements gauged they may be removed without adversely affectingthe stability the building. of Structuralanalysis An assessment the ability carryhorizontal of to to Requirements loadsaccording DIN4103part1 (see 'ti1.2.4.15) be carriedout mathematically plus plaster Apaftfromself-weight may and/or a cladding, thesewallsmustbe ableto carry or by meansof tests.However, mathematical lightloadsfrom brackets is because tensilestresses and horizontal analysis difficult impacts from peopleor hardobjectsand trans- perpendicular the bed jointmay not be to fertheseloads adjoining, to loadbearing com- takenintoaccounteventhoughtheyare preponents. Theygaintheirstability from being sentto a limitedextent. g that the connected adjoinin components. to Maximum dimensions satisfy requireDIN4103part1 distinguishes the between fol- mentsof DIN4103part t havebeendeterlowinglocations partitions theirassoci- minedexperimentally[97]. for with (taken from[97]) ated loads: Thesemaximum dimensions various typesof aregivenin table2.4.16tor to according Location 1: masonry and supporlconditions Designers Locations lownumbers people, with location, thickness height. and of e.g. patient do housing, hotels, hospital adhering thesedimensions not needto to offices, mathematical accommodation interiors and with similar func- carry<iut (lessfavourable) a are tions(including lf dimensions corridors): analysis. thesemaximum supportin the formof horizontal load line exceeded, additional masonmm concrete reinforced or Pr = 0.5 kN/mat a heightof 9OO abovethe steel,reinforced ry columns mustbe provided. baseof wall.

wailthickness 115 mm has alsoallowed to internal walls,previously classedas non-loadbearingon accountof theirthickness, now to be included loadbearing As as elements. a result, stiffening the building improved, to is probfloorspansare shortened, connection lemsfor non-loadbearing areminimized walls etc.ln somecircumstances, design and construction the building on thewhole, of is, made easier.

130

d

walls lnternal

paftitions man-mademasonryunits of internal for 2,4.16 Max, dimensions non-loadbearing Thetype of junctionbetween partition a and thefloorabovedetermines whetherany load is Supported on Supportedon 3 sides Suppodedon fromthe floorto that partition. transferred 3 sideswith unwith 1 unsupported 4 sides partitions supportedtop Therefore, distinguish we between edge withand without verticalloading.Reinforced ratios concrete floorswith high slenderness for Max. dimensions walls suoportedon 4 sidesl)withoutverticalload'z) require to assumepartitions with vertical us 2 Max.wall length[m] for wall height[m] for location1 (uppervalue)and location (lowervalue) d [mm] loading. minimum The thickness 50 mm in of AA 4.O 3.5 3.0 2.5 h Iml thetablesis basedon practical considerations. 50 4.O 3.5 3.0 to Themaximum wall lengthis restricted 12 m 2.5 t.c 2.O /q 5.5 5.0 4.0 60 in orderto limitcracking. Loadtransfer on 3.5 2.5 3.0 threesidesmay be assumedup to a 7.O 6.5 6.0 5.5 5.0 70 ratios heighVlength of h/l < 0.66.Smaller ratio meanthatthe partition supported is onlytop 9o 5.5 5.0 4.s 4.O 3.5 In and bottom. this casetheremustbe a morof tar jointbetween of wall and underside top 7.0 6.5 6.0 5.5 5.0 floor slab. 10 . 0 10 . 0 10.0 10 . 0 10.0
\,6di^.1 odd6

6.0

6.5

7.O

7.5

8.0

Design and construction rules Following recommendations the below help will good qualitynon-loadbearing internal ensure partitions:

. Max.finalfloorslab deflection l,/500 (lt= eQuivalent depending structural span on system). Max. dimensions walls suoportedon 4 sidesl)with verticalload2; for . Reduce floorslab deflection to creep d the due Max.wall length[m] for wall lmml 4.5 to times 4.0 andshrinkage adhering striking by 3.5 3.0 2.5 h tml 6.5 the 6.0 and subsequently treating concrete. 5.5 50 ' Buildnon-loadbearing 3.5 2.5 partitions internal after 7.0 6.0 whenever 60 completion the primary of structure 5.0 4.5 4.0 possible thatthe majority deformations so of 9.5 9.0 8.5 8.0 70 7.5 7.0 6.5 b.c o.u resulting fromshrinkage and creepof the 12.0 12.O 12.O 12.O 12.O 90 loadbearing construction alreadycomare 9.0 8.5 8.0 7.5 7.O pleted. the very least, topmostcourse At the 12.O 12.O 12.O 12.0 12.O 100 of masonry unitsand the plastering shouldbe 10.0 9.5 9.0 8.5 8.0 on no restriction length in carried as lateas possible orderto min- t t c out 12.O 12.0 12.0 12.O imize riskof cracks. the on no restriction length 120 . Erectnon-loadbearing partitions sucha in 12.0 12.O waythatfloorslab deformation to the due on no restriction lenqth 175 1)The max.wall lengthsare to be halvedfor walls supportedon 3 sides (1 unsupported weightof such partitions does not introduce verticaledge). 2)The valuesgiven here apply to calciumsilicateand autoclaved aeratedconcreteunitswhen using MG lll or thin-bed anyadditional loadsintonon-loadbearing < > mortar,and also for MG ll or lla with wall thicknesses 100 mm. Forwall thicknesses 100 rpm and MG ll or lla, the partitions the storeybelow(if possible, in start valuesare to be halvedwhen usingthesetypes of masonryunits. in the topmoststoreyand workdown). floor Upto an equivalent spanof l, = 7.66t, u partition non-loadbearing can carrya load by wayof archingactionwithout damage,providingthe recommendations followed are and it is guaranteed the horizontal that thrustcan be carriedby the supports the endsof the wall. at measures to Largerspansrequire additional the be taken,e.g. separating baseof wallfrom thefloorslabby means sandedbuilding of paperor reinforcing areasof wall at riskof the cracking.
for Max. dimensions walls supportedon 3 sideswithoutverticalloadl)(top edge unsupported) ) f dtmn'[ l v l a xw a l ll e n g t h [ m ] o r w a l lh e i g h t [ m ]f o r l o c a t i o n l ( u p p e r v a l u ea n d l o c a t i o n 2 ( l o w e r v a l u e ) AA 4.O 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.25 h Iml 2.0 6 4 5 3.5 3.0 50 t.c 2.5 2.O 9.0 8.0 7.O 6.0 5.5 60 5.0 4.O 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.5 10.0 10.0 10.0 9.0 8.0 7.O 7.5 70 7.O 6.0 5.0 4.O 3.5 3.5 12.O 12.O 10.0 10.0 9.0 8.5 90 8.0 9.0 8.0 7.O 6.0 5.0 4.O 4.0 12.O 12.O 12.O 12.0 10.0 10.0 10.0 100

8.0 7.5 7.O 6.0 6.5 on no restriction length 12.O 12.0 12.0 12.O 12.0 1 ) T h e m a x . w a l l n g t h s a r e t o b e h a l v e d f o r w a l l s s u p p o r l e d o n S s i d e su1 s u p p o r t e d v e r t i ce d g e ) . al le (n 2) aeratedconcreteunitswhen using MG lll or thin-bed The valuesgiven hereapply to calciumsilicateand autoclaved < mortar,Forwallthicknesses 175 mm and MG llor lla, the valuesareto be halvedwhen usingthesetypesof masonryunits. 175

115 1zo
175

5.0 11.5 6.0 a.0

10.0 10.0 9.0 7,O 8.0 6.0 on no restriction length 120.. 12.0 12.0. 12.0 10.0 9.0 8.0 @tomasonryunitSofc|ayorlightWeightconcreteWithnorma|mortaraSWe||aS autoclaved aeratedconcreteblocksor calciumsilicateunitswith thin-bedmodaror mortarsof mortargroup lll. When aeratedconcreteand calciumsilicatewith normalmortar,reducethe max.wall lengthsas using unitsof autoclaved follows:a) for walls56 and 70 mm thick reduceto 40%; b) for walls90 and 100 mm thick reduceto 50%; c) for walls when for 2 115 and 120 mm thick in location reduceto 50% (no reduction location1). The unitsshouldbe prewetted using mortargroup lll.

5.0 8.0 6.0 9.0 6.0

6.0 9.0 7.0 10.0

7.0 10.0 8.0 12.O

8.0 10.0 9.0 12.O

9.0 12.0 1o.o 12.O

10.0 120 19.q 12.0

131

Masonry details

j 2 . 4 . 1 7 S l i d i n go i n td e t a i l s Slidingjointsbetweenwalls

JTr*ro"n beadoredse
] chamfered with trowel

Cast-in dovetail slot Mineralwool or similar

Anchor position can be adjusted veftically Elastoplastic seal

Slidingjointat undersideof floor

Mineralwool or similar* Aluminiumr o steel section as

- Incombustible materialif requiredto complywith fire protection regulations

Slidingjointat intermediate column lMortar Mineral fibre

Slidinglayer, Flator round bar in bed ioinl e.g. foil strip approx.every400 mm

masonry wall The problemof the free-standing is that it is suppodedonlyat its base,and so The the systemmustspanvertically. exception measures, to thisruleis whensuitable e.g. piersor reinforced masonry concrete columns, to crosswalls closespacing,are introduced at thatthe wall spanshorizontally way by ensure reinforced action by employing or of arching masonry. Without suchmeasures, permisthe owingto sibleheightof the wall is very limited may the fact thatthe cross-section onlycrack as far as the centreof the wall. wallsmustbe Masonry unitsfor free-standing Freeif frostresistant theyare not rendered. masonry wallsare alwaysbuiltwitha standing properbondand withalljoints filled. Thefoundation shouldbe takendownto a level whereit is not affectedby frost.A horizontal moftaror damp proofcourseof water-repellent paintshouldbe included above waterproof groundlevelin orderto protectthe wall against water.Vertical risingdamp and splashing facesof masonry contactwiththe ground in of againstingress shouldalso be protected Thelength an individof moisture fromthe soil. ual segment masonry of shouldnot exceed movelengths should include 6-8m; longer Theyare a numberof ways in Golumnsand free-standingmasonrywalls mentjoints. attracwhich longwallsmay be segmented The Columns tively(seefig.2.4.19). top of thewallmust Columns elements are with a cross-sectional be coveredin sucha way thatwatercannot penetrate, To indeedthat it drainsawayclearof area< 0.01m2. act as a loadbearing elea ment, column a musthavea minimum thefaceof thewall.lf usedas a coping, crossof section 0.004m2,Hence, minimum of the brick-on-edge coursemustconsist whole jointed. Thejointbelow dimensions a loadbearing of column 115 x are bricksand be carefully 365 mm or 175x 240 mm.Columns havea low a brick-on-edge copingmustbe waterproof. moment areaand therefore lowstiffness of thistype of copingis a Owingto the manyjoints, El.Theirhelpin distributing Othertypesof cophorizontal loadsis limitedin its applications. negligible, so theyare notcalleduponto roofing and ing includeclay rooftiles,corrugated loadsin the structural cementor specially carryhorizontal analysis. unitsof fibre-reinforced Alsosuitable preare So columns carryonlyvertical axialloads.They designed copingunits. plastic may be analysed concentric eccentric for unitswith permanently or cast concrete jointslaid in water-repellent mortaror on a compression usingeither simplified the or moreaccurate methodof analysis. simpli- damp proofcourse, metalcappingsof The or galvanized fied methodmakesuse of the reduction either factor steel, copperor aluminium kr = 1.0,andthe moreaccurate nailed screwed method uses or on. the safetyfactory* = 2.0. In this casethe columnshouldconsist one or morewhole of masonry unitsor dividedunitswith < 35% perforations and shouldnotweakened chases bv

Junctionswith adjoining,loadbearing components musttakeaccountof the possible Connections influence deformations adjoining that in components partition. may haveon the internal According DIN4103part'1 the serviceto , ability junctions of mustbe guaranteed. Thejunction details shownin figs.2.4.'17 and 2.4.18 notnormally require further do assessment. Rigidjunctions those whicharefullybondare ed, filled withmortar employ or similar measures(anchors, dowelsor steelinserts). Such detailsare usedfor wallswhereno or very low restraint forcesfromthe adjoining members are expected act on the wall. to Rigidlateral connections usually are limited to (wall housebuilding length < 5.0 m).A rigid | junctionbetween of wall and underside top of floorslabcan be achieved filling joint by the with mortar, Introducing stripof hardfoam a reducesthe influence the deformation the of of adjoining loadbearing construction, guarbut antees transfer horizontal the forcesdue to of the hardfoamstrip beingcompressed the as floorslab deflects. junctions particularly Sliding for are suitable applications whereit is necessary reduce to the riskof crackingdue to unintentional forces beingintroduced the non-loadbearing into partition a resultof the deformation internal as of adjoining components. Sliding connections achieved usingproare by files,grooves and stainless steelanchorsin slots,maybewiththe addition foilto createa of sliding earing b Thejointshould filled be withmineral woolin orderto improve protection sound fire and (see insulation "Non-loadbearing external walls").

factor In or recesses. all othercases,the safety is increased 1, = 2.5. to The reduction factoris consequently defined = as ki = 2.0/2.5 0.8.The useof divided masonry unitsor dividedunitswith> 35% permorevulnerable forations makesthe columns to irregularities flawsin the construetion. and for walls,thesecannotbe compensated Unlike partsof the cross-section and by neighbouring failurehasto be so this high riskof structural takenintoaccountby way of an increased safetyfactor.

Free-standing masonry walls

132

d

walls basement External

Pafiwalls partywalls Forreasons soundinsulation, of (terbetween adjoining residential buildings racedhouses, houses) should semi-detached be builtas twin-leaf wallswith a continuous joint fromfoundation roof. to separati.ng (cavity) lf twin-leaf external wallsare used,the separatingjointmustbe takenthroughthe outerleaf bridge. aswellin order avoidan acoustic to According DIN1053part1, the minimum to be thickness eachleafshould 115 mm. lf the of wall weight the partywallexceeds 100kg/m2 of plaster), widthof thejoint area(including the mustbe at least50 mm: if over 150kg/m'z, 30 mm is permissible 50 mm then but is stillrecommended. comply To withthe the sound insulation requirements DIN4109, of filledwith mineral cavitymustbe completely fibrebatts DIN181 part2. Closed-cell to 65 hardfoamsheetsor wood-fibre boardsare for The unsuitable soundinsulation. insulation mustalways extendabovethe leafbuiltlastin mortarand debrisfallinginto orderto prevent the cavityand possibly formingacoustic Installing insuthe bridges between leaves. the lation two layers in withtheirjointsoffsetis refor the commended improving soundinsulajoint through tion. the separating alsopasses As thefloors, insulation the shouldextendabove be thethickness thefloorduringcasting, of protected suitable meansand supported by on against pressure concrete one side. the of kglm2 lf theweightof a singleleafexceeds2OO jointmay remain wallarea,the separating open.Specialcaremustbe takenhereto ensure that mortaror debrisdoes not drop into Thisis the cavityand formacousticbridges. if whenusing thin-bed mortar less a problem of the mortaris appliedby way of mortarsledges. mortar or concrete whencasting Otherwise, thefloors- can be prevented fromfallinginto battensraised the cavityby usingsuspended as the workproceeds jointforms,which or haveto be removed subsequently.

of or ing authority ceftificate by the provisions for suitable external DIN4108part 4. Products polystyrene sheets, includeextruded insulation bead foamedglasssheetsand polystyrene of bulk density 30 foamsheetswith a minimum kg/m3. to wallsare subjected verExternal basement ticalloadsin the planeof thewalland horizonearth from,for example, tal loadsresulting pressure, perpendicular the planeof the to to loadsare assumed be wall.Earthoressure provided the mainlyactiveearthpressures, thickerthanthe wallsare not substantially requires, the backfill and analysis structural to is material only compacted mediumdensity, an material highly is compacted, lf the backfill e.g. increased earthpressure, earthpressure The earthpressure at rest,mustbe assumed. generates moments thewallwhich in bending of factorin the design the areusually deciding thewall,

2 . 4 . 1 8 R i g i dj o i n td e t a i l s Rigidjointsbetweenwalls Bondedjoint Jointwith anchors

a

Et
Section b-b

Stability of external masonry basement walls

Verticaluniaxialloadbearingaction top wall is supported and botlf the basement thatthe wall acts as a vertom,we can assume in member spanning one ticalloadbearing with a cracked two direction between supports section no morethan halfthe wallthickness. of perpendicular the bed to Thetensilestresses jointsmay not be takenintoaccount(see "Analysis tension tension"). and bending of by Theyare "neutralized" verticalloads. which two DIN1053part1 includes methods in may be applied orderto avoidthe needto The the analyse wallfor earthpressure. followfor ing conditions haveto be satisfied both (seefig.2.4.20) methods ' Clearheight basement h" < 2.60m, wall of thickness walld >240 mm. of . The roofto the basement mustact as a plate the and be ableto accommodate forcesgeneratedby the earthpressure, 'The imposed overthe loadon the ground influences areain whichthe earthpressure wall may not exceed5 kN/m2. the basement At the sametime,the sudaceof the ground fromthe wall and shouldnotslopeupwards the depthof fill h" mustbe lessthanthe clear wall height the basement h". of is criterion the the ln the firstmethod decisive permanent load Noat the top of the basement roof,whichmustlie wall belowthe basement limits: within following the maxNo> No> minNo edge with Compliance the permissible pressure checked using equation the is max No= 0,45d oo

Joint plastered over (onlylocation1)

Rigidjoint at base of wall Wall builton bonded screed Wall builton floor loadbearing

Externalbasementwalls to Basements no longerrestricted subordiare of naterolessuchas the storage food or fuel, butprovide spacefor diverse activities, e.g. guest playroom, washing, hobbies, workshop, room,studyetc,Theyrepresent relatively a floor inexpensive of extending useful way the spaceavailable. the sametime,they correAt spondto the conceptof dense,space-saving construction IB]. Basement roomsnormally heatedrequire additional thermal insulation that of the masonry if External thermalinsulaaloneis notsufficient. tionis recommended. should This consist of but materials coveredby a standard with extra functions regarding resistance water,irost to by buildand earthpressure covered a general

7777777r'.
Mortarjoint

masonry of 2.4,19 Segmentation free-standing walls (planviews)

-+_+ 6

to 8m

d=17.s to 96.5cm

_

-

133

Masonry details

2,4,20 Loading assumptionsfor basement walls without mathematical analysis

whered = wallthickness and oo = basicvalue of permissible compressive stress. Theminimum loadsmin.N^arelisted DIN1053 in part1 tableB (seetablei.+.211. These ensure withthe permissible of compliance eccentricity the basement wall as a resultof axialforceand bendingmoment due to earthpressure. The secondmethodis basedon the findingsof Mann/Bernhardt and enables wailto be the [9] with slightly lessvertical load.The analysed loading axial forceN, resulting frompermanent at halfthe depthof fill mustliewithinthe following limits:

.forb<h":
No > 0.5 ffiiI No rn,"r,u, Nj > 0.5 ffiifl Nuniaxiar

.forb>2h.: No> min Nornia",",
N., > min Nuniaxial

Horizonta loadbearing action I spaced,then it is poslf supports closely are loadof earthpressibleto carrythe horizontal by sureto the supports way of tensilebending parallel the bed joints.Owingto ihe to stresses paralof lowtensilebendingstrength masonry loadlelto the bed joints,thisformof horizontal dxBr/(3y)>Nr>minN particvery limited, bearingactionis, however, withwallswhichneedto be thinin order wnere ularly the space.lf the min N = (p"x h""x h"r)/ (20d) to maximize usableinterior 2.4.21 Min. N^ for basements wallswithoutmathematicaianalysis vertical loadsare very lowowingto, for examcharacteristic compressive strength Fo ple,largewindow Wall openings floorslabs or min Noin kN/m of masonry thicknessd for depth of bacKill heof parallel the basement wall,or if. to spanning safetyfactor v mm 1 . 0m 1 . 5m 2 . 0m 2 . 5m pe of thereare segments wallwith unsupported bulk density fill [kN/m3] of 20 45 75 panels large beneath top edges, e.g.spandrel 300 3 15 30 50 can, windows, structural the system lf the vedical loadsNoand N, do notliewithin basement 365 0 10 25 40 490051530 the arch.However, be takento be a horizontal the givenlimits, basement mustbe the wall by wall mustbe supported designed to external basement according the moreaccurate polation and at a closespacing methodof analysis the transverse elements takingthe earthpressure intoaccount. the to guarantee the arch is formedand the : that This involves analysing comAt horizontal thrustaccommodated. an interoressive stresses well as the slab shear as two resulting fromthe shearforcegenerated the mediate by supportbetween archeswith the roughly equalspansand loads, arch earthpressure. Alternatively, permissible the by thrustsin the planeof the wall canceleach upperand lowerlimitsmay be adjusted 2.4.22 Waterproofing basement of wallsfor the "nonperpendicincreasing thickness thewall,reducing the of otherout and onlythe component pressure"loadingcase hydrostatic by the height thewallby forming basein the ularto wall hasto be resisted the support. of to reinforced concrete, choosing uniVmortar But at an end supporl,resistance horizontal or a Masonry with normal Thick bitumen Thetype of construccombination a higher with compressive shearhasto be proved. joints mortar in bed coating with/withoutmortar to of fulfilsthe requirements This is alsonecessary the design if tionwhichusually strength. perpends in accordance masonry using is to methodof such an analysis reinforced according the moreaccurate with DIN 1053 pt 1 Protective layer The base(e,9.drainageboard) reinforced, concrete-filled specials. analysis takingearthpressure accountis into Cement screed laid in not possible. Finally, load-carrying the capacity mentwallmustbe as thickas possible order Horizontalwateron separatingmembrane "rise"to ensure archto achieve adequate an of the basement wall can be increased by proofing at base of wall it ing action.In addition, crackedsectionup to a usingreinforced masonry by considering or halfthe thickness the wall may be assumed of to spanin two directions horizontally or [154]. at the centreof the arch in the calculations. The perpends mustbe fullyfilledwith mortarin Biaxialloadbearingaction Separating membrane The the Stability can be checkedby assuming the that orderto transfer compression. characwall subjected earth to teristicvaluethat may be usedfor the strength external basement pressure in wall perpenspansin two directions whencrossof the masonry the basement is to wallsor structural dicular the perpends - basedon DIN components, piersor e.g. valueBofor stiffening columns reinforced, of concrete-filled 1053part 3 - the characteristic valuepo the solidunitsand halfthe characteristic channel blocks, support wallat a clear 2,4,23 Walerproofingof basement walls for the "temporarybuild-upof seepagewater" loadingcase perpendicular the to vertical loads for compressive strength spacing < 2 hs.Thenecessary b solidunitsand other maythen be reducedas follows according to bed jointfor perforated perforated values may be units. DIN1053part1 (intermediate Thickbitumen vuaur r9 obtained through linear interpolation):
Horizontal waterproofing at baseof wall Blinding Polyethylene foil > 0 . 2m m Protective screed

134

J

Natural stonemasonry

construction thefloor of during subsequent the Reinforced masonry Reinforced wallsare useful (seefig.2.4.22). external basement of The loading build-up case"temporary whenthe vertical loadsare so lowthat a to a seepagewater"requires layerof blinding cracked sectionlargerthan halfthe thickness witha min. be laidfirstwhichis thencovered occursundervertical biaxialloadbearing or foil the action, whencarrying loadshorizontally 0.2 mm thick polyethylene as a separating or parallel the bed this membrane and thena screedto protect viatensile bendingstresses to joints via horizontal The slab mechanical damage. ground against or archingactionleadsto (seefig. tanking) the uneconomically walls. thick Generally, rein- is thencaston this(internal in 2.4.23). forcement placedhorizontally the bed is joints. However, vertical reinforcement posis Please refer' Ve caI waterp roofing rti siblein conjunction specials. with Waterproof bondedto the wall or masonry" detailsof the defor sheeting to "Reinforced worked cold (modified compounds external sealing signand construction reinforced of spreador thickcoatings) synthetic bitumen basement walls, waterfor sprayedon are suitable the vertical proofing. of The numberof layers waterproof sheeting depend thetypeof sheeting on Waterproofing may be one-or twoThickcoatings As theyare constantly contactwiththe soil, in selected. systems and are always component sealing external basement wallsare permanently subjectedio especially lf arduousconditions. the appliedin two operations at is to or basement an extension the living ancil- Specialcare mustbe exercised the junction The waterproofing. foundawalls withthe horizontal laryspaceof a building, thenthe external protected transition shouldbe roundedoff with a the tion/wall mustbe permanently against radius mm).Theoverlap 40 fillet(min. ingress moisture. concave of as waterproofing shouldbe at least100mm and be formed Together the customary with watercheckjoint. masonry without elaboan overlapped systems, basements, for ratetreatment, satisfy requirements the Protective layer designand construction meetthe loading to part4, to the waterproofing the Thisprotects vertical cases "ground damp"to DIN18195 pressure" DIN 18195part 5 basement mechanical damage "non-hydrostatic wallsagainst to pressure" DIN 18195part6 duringbacKilling subsequent compaction and to and "hydrostatic materials for are, Suitable with"lowload"(temporary build-upof seepage of the excavation. thermal for example, texturedplasticsheeting, water). Mostbasement wallsdesigned the pressure" boardsof no-fines insulation battsor drainage loading with "high case"hydrostatic polystyrene. protective This will to bitumen-bound load"(groundwater) continue be conwaterproofing that water- layerguarantees the vertical in to structed concrete ensureadeouate proofing (external remains functional. fully The mostpopular system tanking). waterproofing for basement systems external membrane wallsare bitumen sheet- Separating and polymerbitumen fabricas a sepaThe inclusion a non-woven of ing;cold-application self-adhesive bitumen waterbetween thick ratingor slidingmembrane sheeting; modified and synthetic bitumen proofing loads layerprevents and protective The of coatings. latterare usedfor the majority from being of due to settlement the backfill waterproofing tasksin housebuilding reand present mosteconomic to causingthisto transferred the waterproofing, the solution [93]. becomedetached. Horizontal waterproofing Horizontal waterproofing the formof a comin Servicepenetrations (e.9.wastewater,fresh plete Building services sealing membrane applied the is to ground water,electricity etc.)mustbe routedin such a cases"ground slabfor the loading In pressure". is is lt way thatthe waterproofing not impaired. damp"and "non-hydrostatic mustbe ableto servicepenetrations addition, extended the outsideat the baseof the to withof accommodate settlement the structure elternalwallsbeneath firstcourseof the masonry withthe vertical out damage. unitsto overlap waterproofing. groundslab mustproject The wallto ensure Constructionjoints sufficiently beyondthe external mustsafelybridgeover Thewaterproofing between horizontal an adequate connection joints. that Any waterstops are inPlacing waterthe construction andvertical waterproofing. to proofing connected the cludedmustbe permanently beneath firstcourseof masonry the thatthe entirefloorconstruction, waterproofing. unitsmeans e.g.floating screed, carried in the dry. is out Nofurtherhorizontal waterproofing required. Transitionto superstructure,plinth is and a It is undesirablebothfroma visual material usually Sheets waterproofing of are pointof view- to continue vertical the technical usedbecause theseare morerobustthan waterproofing abovegroundlevelat the base with regardto mechanical damage coatings

A of the superstructure. plinthmustbe waterwater proofedand protected against splashing to a heightof about200 mm aboveground paintor suitable waterproof level. Therefore, and is rendering appliedto exposedsurfaces by waterproofing the this mustoverlap vertical the at least100mm. Intwinleafmasonry waterface of the proofingis placedon the outside innerleaf.

Natural stone masonry can be classedas dry Natural stonemasonry formsof various rubblemasonry, walling, or ashlarmasonry faced coursedmasonry, to on depending the degree which masonry the natural stonesareworkedand theirresulting geometry. Drywalling The mortar. is madefromrubblestonewithout in dressing shouldbe laidwithminimal stones a properbond so thatjointsand voidsare as stonesareto be Smaller smallas possible. wedgedintothe voidsto createtension Thishelpsthe wallto the between mainstones. stable.Drywalling keep its shapeand remain In walls. assessing retaining is usedfor gravity the stability, densityusedshouldbe takenas When stone. of halfthe bulk density the natural gravity the walls, natural retaining building the to stonesare allowed pile up against soil the in to be retained orderto improve stability and mostregular(rectof the wall.The largest stonesare usedto framethe wallat angular) the corners and ends,and for the base (see ti7.2.4.24). Uncoursedrandomrubble masonry stonesas theyoccur in is madefromunworked in The roundformof the stonesresults nature. irregular appearance. a highly to susceptible sliding wallis highly Thefinished compresand does not exhibitany noteworthy the despite hardrock used. sivestrength bond,the jointsmust To securethe masonry filledwith mortarand smallpieces be carefully are the In of stone. addition, corners builtusing shapeand the with a moreregular stones with headers(throughcoursesheldtogether everyapprox. trued up horizontally stones) (seefi1.2.4.25). 1.0 m of wallheight Coursedrandomrubble masonry mm The bed facesofthesestones(150-300 onlyminiundergo fromquarries high)obtained sizes stonesof various malworking.Natural courses. are laid in moftarin approximate is randomrubblemasonry truedup Coursed thickness acrossits complete horizontally (>500 mm)every max.1.5m of wallheight. of to Thesameapplies the inclusion a damp proofcourse, which shouldbe builtin approx. 150mm abovegroundlevel.Largestones 135

Masonry details

2,4.24 Dry walling

2.4.25 Uncoursed randomrubble masonry

in shouldbe usedat the baseand at corners bond.Normal orderto securethe masonry on mortar groupll or lla is useddepending of the type of rock. Thesedays,coursedrandomrubblemasonry walls, basement is only usedfor lessimportant wallsand for retaining free-standing boundary (seefig.2.4.26). wallsin vineyards masonry Hammer-dressed of The bed jointsand perpends the stonesin facesare workedto a depthof at exposed stones the least120 mm. However, natural beyondthis depthof wall are eithernotworked ' Vertical and horizontal at all or onlyvery little. jointsare.approximately right-angles; at within a maychange Theheight a course of the.. however, courses; courseand between across masonry to be trued up horizontally is thickness everymax.1.5m of wall its complete and horizonon height,Forinformation mortars ianreferto "Coursed tal damp proofcourses, above(seettg.2.4.27), domrubblemasonry" Irregular coursedmasonry of The bed jointsand perpends the stonesin facesare workedto a depthof at exposed jointsare and horizontal least150mm.Vertical perpendicular eachotherand to approximately to the surface. Perpends and bed jointsmay not be thicker than30 mm.The heightof a coursemay courses, changewithina courseand between is the however, masonry to but not excessively; acrossits complete be trued up horizontally thickness everymax.1.50m of wallheight {see fig.2.4.28).

2.4.26 Coursedrandomrubble masonrv

2.4.27 Hammer-dressedmasonrv

2.4.28 lrregular coursedmasonry

2.4.29 Regularcoursedmasonry

[--']E[][--l
t_l[--'1t----l

[-lL]
2.4.30 Ashlarmasonry 2.4.31 Stonefacing with backingof man-made masonrvunitsor concrete

E[ ][]n[ --l-_l

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> h/3 > 100 lf+ . >)40
+

> 100 g
> 24n
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136

in Openings walls

Regularcoursedmasonry Thestonesshouldbe workedas for irregular coursedmasonry. However, heightof the stonesmay not changewithina course.In addition, heightof everycourseis to be the truedup (seefig.2.4.29). Whenusedfor vaulting, domes and similar constructions, bed jointsmustpass the through complete the thickness the curved of element. Therefore, bed jointsshouldbe the workedoverthe full depth,whileperpends needonlybe workedto a depih of 150 mm. Ashlarmasonry. Thestones ashlar for masonry shouldbe worked accurately the specified to dimensions all and perpends and bed jointsworkedto the full depth.Theprinciples bonding for ashlar masonry basically sameas for masonry are the usingman-made units;all the different types of bondsusingstretchers and headers can be produced. jointthickness The can be 4-30mm; mortar difficult applyto jointsthinner is to than 4 mm.Dryashlarmasonry requires bed the facesto be groundand is hardlyusedthese days(see'fig. 2.4.30). Stone-faced masonry consists a skin of regularcoursedor ashlar of masonry a backingof man-made on unitsor (seefig.2.4.31). concrete Thestonefacingmay be considered part of as the loadbearing cross-section when ' the stonefacingis builtat the sametime as the backingand is bondedto it, ' the stonefacingis bondedto the backingby at least30% headers, . the headers ofthe stonefacingare at least 240mm deeo and are bondedat least 100mm intothe backing, . thethickness the stonefacingis > '1l3its of h e i g ho r m i n .1 ' 1 5 m , t m ' withbackings man-made of units,at least every thirdcourseof natural stoneconsisis entirely headers. of

Thethickness the totalwall construction of shouldbe as determined the structural by lessthan500 mm analysis, thisis seldom but for oractical reasons. conditions The described aboveapplysimilarly whenthe backing is is madefromconcrete. Here,the concrete pouredand compacted aftereverycourseof facingstonework prevent to voidsbeing formedbeneath headerstones. the The oerwall construcmissible stressfor the comolete tion is governed the material withthe lowest by permissible stress. Stonefacingsthat do not complywiththe conditions outlined abovemay notbe included partof the loadbearing as cross-section. Coursed stonesmay be laid theirstratification whenthey exagainst only hibita minimum compressive strength of parallel theirstratification. non20 MN/m2 to A loadbearing stonefacingshouldbe anchored and supported for a non-loadbearing as outer leafof a twin-leaf wall.Claddingpanelsmay not be included part of the loadbearing as cross-section a column. of

2.4.32 Atch actionover openingin wall Vertical load

2.4.33 Effective loadsover openingin wall with arch actron

Openingsin walls Openings wallsfor windows, in doorsand largeritems,e.g. ventilation ductsand light wells,are bridgedoverby way of lintels or (masonry "lintels"). arches

Arching action over openings

Whendesigning lintel arch,we can a or assume archingactionin the masonry an abovethe openingin the wall,provided there are no openings adjacent and abovethe to lintelor archand the associated loadtriangle, and thatthe archthrust(horizontal support reactions) be resisted the sidesof the can at Therefore, lintelor arch carries opening. the the loadonlybelow assumed the arch(seefig. 2.4.32). This is takenintoaccountby the (equilateral) loadtriangle masonry abovethe lintel arch. or of

137

Masonry details

2.4.34 Reinforcedconcrete lintel details

Reinforced concrete lintel Reinforced concrete lintel as withcast-in thermal insulationupstandbeamwithchannel (only suitable certain for blocksas permanent formwork applications) to outsideface

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Reinforced concretelintel maskedby channelblocks for facing masonry Calcium ilis cate channel blocks Clay channel blocks 2,4,35 Shallowlinteldetails

compresston zone shallow lintel as tension flange

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tl | zDF a

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2,4.36 Supporting soldiercourse"fake"lintel a

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1 2 3 4 5

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Bolt Angle bracket 6 mm dia. V4A steelanchor Continuous carryingsoldiers(10 dia. V4A steel) bar Continuous hole

lintels reinShallow consist a prefabricated, of their full forcedtension flange and onlyachieve with load-carrying capacityin conjunction a zoneof masonry concrete or or compression both (e.9.masonry and flooror cappingbeam) flangemay be prefabriabove.Thetension catedfromconcrete fromchannel or blocksof concrete, calcium silicate etc.; clay,lightweight filledwith concrete whichthe reinforcement in (prestressed required) placed.In contrast is if to beam-type lintels, shallow lintels carrythe with loadsactingon them in conjunction the wall abovelikea tied frame(a closedsystem). forces The shallow lintel(tie)resists tensile the fromthe arch (frame) compression in and Beam-type lintels which therefore replaces end supports the . Beamsof, for example, timber,steelor reinwouldotherwise necessary accommoto be forcedconcrete transfer loadsactingon the datethe horizontal thrust themto theirsupports each end by way of is at The advantage shallow of lintels thatthey bending. Therefore, beamsmustbe dethe as can easilybe madefromthe samematerial signed resist to wall. in bending and shear forces. the surrounding Thisavoids cracks and properties, Owingto theirexcellent material By the damageto the plaster. matching dimenquitesmall, steelsections be generally lintelto the modular sizes can but sionsof the sl'lallow for reasons offire protection haveto be encased of the surrounding wall,thistype of construc' in concrete to comply withbuilding into without and science tion can be integrated the masonry requirements mustbe provided withthermal havingto adaptor cut the masonry unitsadjacent opening thewall.Thisleads insulation. in to the Reinforced concrete lintels usually are and morerational operasite chosen moreeconomic whenthe lintel can be combined witha reintions.Forfurtherinformation, "Reinforced see forcedconcrete flooror in certainloadingsitu- masonry" and [35] (seefig. 2.4.35). ations. Theymay be precastunitsor cast in situwiththe reinforced concrete floor.A reinforcedconcrete lintelmustalwaysbe provided Masonry lintels and arches with insulation meetthermalinsulation to Prefabricated in-situ lintels horizontally of or requirements. problem The withthis is thatthe reinforced masonry may be usedfor facing effective cross-section the lintelmustbe of work.The loadbearing behaviour corresponds reducedin orderto accommodate insulalintel with the to the tied framemodelof the shallow tion and this createsa substrate plastering wall above.The horizontal for reinforcement is placedeither trough-shaped whichis different the surrounding to wall. in specials or Despite provision a plasterbacking units the of horizontal channel blocksor perforated spanning across thermal the insulation, with a continuous holeto suitthe bond of the this type of detailoftenleadsto cracksin the renfacingmasonry. Designand construction dering and staining thefinish. with of should in accordance DIN1053oart3. be Onesolution thisproblem to provide to is masonry". chan- Please alsoreferto "Reinforced nel blocksin the respective type of masonry facingmasonry outerleafabove the as In twin-leaf permanent formwork instead the reinforced the opening thewallcan be carried nibs in by of The reinforced concrete. concrete lintel(preon the side of the floorslab or by supports cast or in situ)is then integrated this.This into boltedto or cast intothe floorslab (e.9.steel can also be used in conjunction a reinwith anglesor brackets). satisfy To architectural forcedconcrete lintelcasttogether we withthe requirements can alsoprovidea horizontal floorslab.In thisdetail prefabricated in lintel lintel theformof a soldier in course conjunca through unitmadefromchannelblocks(withintegral tionwith brackets and barspassing insulation) formsone side of the formwork for the masonry units. The shear-and tensionthe reinforced lintel. the structural- resistant As to concrete concrete connection a reinforced ly effective widthof this lintelis onlyverysmall, beambehindmeansthatthis is onlva "fake"

Uniformly distributed floorloadsabovethe load triangle nottakenintoaccountwhen are designing construction the opening the over in the wall.Forfloorloadsthat act withinthe load triangle a uniformly as distributed on the load (e.9.floorslabsand joistfloorswith masonry joistspacing 1,25m),onlythe section < which lieswithinthe triangleis assumed transfer to loadontothe lintel. Pointloads,e.g.from whichliewithin nearthe loadtrianbeams, or gle are assumed distribute to theirloads at 60". If pointloadsoccuroutside load the triangle, they needbe takenintoaccountonly if they liewithinthe spanof the lintelor arch and belowa horizontal 250 mm abovethe apex line of the loadtriangle. this casethe self-weight In of the wall belowthe pointloadalsohasto be takenintoaccount(seefig. 2.4.33). lf archingactioncannotbe established the in masonry abovethe loadtriangle overthe opening in thewall,the lintel archmustbe or assumed carrythe entireload abovethe to opening.

it may needto be formedas an upstandbeam. Thereare channelblocksavailable match to formats of the respective and courseheights facingmasonry and thesemay be usedto form prefabricated lintels and employed formas lintel workto the side of a reinforced concrete castin situ(seefig.2.4.34).

Shallow lintels with masonry above

138

Vaulting archfloors and

2.4.37 Semicircular and pointedarchesaccordingto [162]

2.4.38 Camberedand gauged archesaccordingto [162]

o

E o 'o
I

Thespan (S)feasibledependson type of arch, compression arch and verticalloads.The width (M,fof the abutmentdependson the span;the valuesgivenhere apply to abutin mentwidthsessentially withoutverticalload.All valuesare guidelines which may be exceededin an accurateanalysis. facingwork can be Camberedarchesin non-loadbearing builtfor spans up to approx,1.75m withoutthe need for a structural analysis.

lintel (seefig. withno loadbearing function 2.4.36). Masonry lintels the formof archesare priin marily usedin the refurbishmentolderbuildof ings, arealsobeingrediscovered a but as modern designoptionin conjunction facwith ingmasonry. Owing the highlabour to input, thesearchesare oftenproducedas prefabricatedelements, whicharethen liftedintoplace on prepared abutments. Witha favourable rise/span permanent ratioand predominantly loads, deadloadsconsiderably i.e. higher than imposed loads,the arch may be designed according the lineof thrustmethod. to This means thatthe construction subjected is only to axial compression no shear bending and or moments whenthe axisof the arch coincides withthe lineof thrust.However, idealcase this possible practice is hardly in because changingloads, and hencedifferent loading cases, meanthatvariouslinesof thrusthaveto be considered whendesigning arch.'Neverthe theless, ensure to that exclusively compressive stresses without crackedsection a occur in the cross-section the arch,the geometry the of of archshould suchthat,if possible, lines be the of thrust all possible for loading caseslie in the middle thirdof the cross-section. Linesof thrust thusbe usedindependently can ofthe loads oiderto design suitable, in a economic archfor masonry which,in theory, cannot accommodate tension. doingso, we any In assume thatthe structural systemis basedon determining linesof thrustfor a three-pin the archin whichthe pinsare positioned the at pointsand at the crownof the arch. springing Arches withlonger spansand morepronounced changes loading of haveto be designed according elastic to theory.Providing resis-

Camberedand gauged arches haveinclined(skewback) abutments aligned withthe centreof the arch.The bed jointsalso pointto the centreof the arch.The riseof a cambered arch is max.1/50of the widthof the A that archmax.1/12. opening, of a gauged any risemay alsoact cambered archwithout if as an arch in comoression the soldiercourse fromthe vertical and is deviates slightly wedgedintoabutments builtat a veryslight angle. froman odd numThearchlintel produced is Semicircular whichcan makeit necessary and pointedarches ber of courses, Theradius a semicircular is eoual of to to insetthe abutments halfthe widthof a by arch halfthewidthof the opening, for a pointed courseon the masonry the sides.The extraat and archequalto thefullwidthof the opening, with dos shouldalwaysend in a bed jointof the the centres the radiibeingthe respective of masonry abovein orderto avoidlargecompoints. pensating opposite springing The abutments for courses abovethe archor ungussets The sernicircular pointed and arches generally attractive abovethe abutments. are jointthicknesses positioned horizontally the levelof the requirements regarding and at points. arches normally springing The are con- bondingcorrespond thosefor semicircular to (seefig.2.4.38). structed withtaperingbed joints. The thickness and pointed arches of the jointsat the underside the arch (intraof dos)shouldnot be lessthan5 mm,at the outer ring of the arch (extrados) greater not Vaultingand arch floors than 20 mm.Special tapering units(voussoirs) may be necessary smallradii. for Whenusingsmall- Vaults formatunits, sizeof the bed jointsat the or the Theseare roof-like, one-way-spanning, also roof curved extrados the arch increase the arch of as bidirectional arch-like spherical or The typesof becomes thicker. Therefore, thickarchesare constructions masonry. various of alsobuiltin individual rings, oneabovethe vaulting basedon the two fundamental are other.Archesare alwaysconstructed curvature, usingan types:barrelvaultswith cylindrical Besides odd numberof unitsso thatthereis nevera and domeswith spherical curvature. jointat the crownbut ratheralwaysa keystone. the barrelvault,othercylindrical formsinclude perpendicular the Prussian vault;the cloistered Thebed joints vault;the mustbe arranged cap vault. to the lineof thrustand fllustrunthe full deoth troughvault;the cov; and the groined whose formof vaulting of the arch.The bondfor masonry archesis to The dome is a spherical generally be produced to rules form partof the surface a of according the bonding surfaces piers[32,141,1611(tig.2.4.37). sphere(seefig.2.4.39). for masonry tanceto the archthrustat the supports also hasto be takenintoaccountwhen designing an arch.Shallow archeswith a low risegenerate a greaterhorizontal thrustthanarcheswith a smaller radius and larger rise. The horizontal thrustmustbe resisted withoutdisplacement at the supportsirrespective the curvature the of of arch because arch itselfundergoes the a severeincrease stresses in due to the reductionin the riSe evenwithonlvminimal disolacementof the supoorts. 139

Masonry details

2.4.39 Types of masonryvaulting

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Hemispherical

Barrelvault

,'/a r-'ll
Groinedvault

,4''\ /
/,'
Trough vaull Cove

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\/

Cloistered vault

span/ with smaller spans,a favourable Vaults permanent riseratio(f/l> 1/10)and essentially to according the line loading can be designed Theyare builtfromtapered of thrustmethod. unitsthat supporteachotherand are masonry in abutments sucha on supported immovable to way thattheyare onlysubjected compresby sion.The archthrustcan also be resisted of instead abutments. ties(intension) Vaults withlargespansand pronounced to according of are changes loading designed elastic theory.

D-"
Starvaulting Sailvaull

,2r-il 7

Masonry arch floors between beams

2.4.40 Designrequirements masonryarch floors for Arch floor in masonrybond

Risef>1/10x1

"Kuff" bond

Hetringbonebond

Steel beams

-':

Steel -'/ oeams

2,4.41 Assumptions arch thrustfor multi-bay for arch floor

Lateral ..-..: support

-

lE

Directionof span Lateral support

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Length of anchor >1/3 | Detailsof end bay

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17-7-7=7-71.

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Sidesupport >1/31 for Structural system transferring horizontal thrust fromend bay

Thesearethe upperpartof an arch built suppotls(see between steelbeamsas vertical for employed The system tig.2,4.40). structural suppotl and horizontal the determining vertical archwith for reactions archfloorsis a three-pin the centrepin at the crown.Withan essentially to loadaccording DIN1055 imposed stationary part3, archfloorswith a thickness basedon spacedat max. rulesandwithbeams empirical approx.2.50m do not needto be analysed thickIn the structurally. thiscase, minimum nessmustbe 115 mm,theymustbe builtusing "Kuff"bond or herringbone bond,and the ratio of riseto span mustbe at least1/10.Centering like arches should, the bricklaying for parallel in itself,be carriedout simultaneously orderto thrustcausedby the arches limitthe horizontal Tiescan be floors. at the end baysof multi-bay thrustfrom the to integrated transfer horizontal floorsto the side the end baysof multi-bay in These mustbe included the end bays walls. parallel the direction spanof the floorat of to equal and at a spacing the endsof the beams to the spanof the end bay but at leastat thirdpoints. orderto consider end plate the In (rigid abutment formedby ties as an adequate the horizontal olate)ableto transfer horizontal thrustto the sides,the widthof the end plate The mustbe equalto one thirdof its length. thanthe minimum tiesusedmustbe longer end widthof the plate.ln the caseof narrow to the necessary extend baysit is sometimes bays(seefig.2.4.41). tiesoverseveral with supports The end baysmustbe provided to at the sideswhichare in the position accept thrustof the middlebayseven the horizontal The whenthe end baysarenotloaded. supportsmay be securedby meansof masonry, permanent or verticalload,anchors othersuitof In ablemeasures. the basements buildings imposedloadof stationary with an essentially without a we max.2.0 kN/m2 can assume, thrust that analysis, the horizontal structural fromarchfloors to 1.3m spancan be up by accommodated meansof 2 m long,240 mm of at thickcrosswalls a spacing max.6.0m. mustbe builtsimultaneously Thecrosswalls with and fully bondedto the end bay support wallsor - in the caseof toothing via a non(see connection fig.2.4.42). mechanical

140

Connections

Pointloads Masonry be subjected point(concencan to trated) loadsfrom beams(e.9.windowlintels); joists joistfloors); columns (e.9. (e.9. or windowmullions, posts). roof Thesegenerate verticalconcentrations stresson the bearing of surfaces and horizontal spitting tensileforces in the loaddispersion zone.The spitting tensile forcescan be accommodated the tensile by strength the masonry of bond, by reinforcementor by reinforced concrete elements. A padstone similaris alwaysintegrated or into the masonry distribute loadfromheavy to the pointloads. Thisis usually reinforced of concretebut may be of steel.The reinforced concretering beamor the suppor/floor strip is oftenused.lt may alsocomprise masonry units of higher strength incorporated the masonry in bondbelowthe pointload.In bothcasesthe designer musttakeaccountof possible cracking in the masonry a resultof restraints as (seefig. causedby the changein material 2.4.43). loaddistribution 60" may be A of assumed withina sectionof wall strengthened withunitsof higherstrength. The strength required this masonry determined the for is by bearing stresses beneath pointload.The the height overwhichthe wall mustbe strengthenedis determined the fact thatthe normal by masonry the wall (of lowerstrength) of mustbe ableto carrythe load beneath 60" loaddisthe persion. Thepermissible stresses masonry for below pointloadsare greater thanfor the restof the wallbecause inclined"struts" the createdby generate biaxial the60'load dispersion a compression condition the pointof actionof the at pointloadwhichincreases load-carrying the capacity the masonry of locally. However, the inclined struts meanthattherearealsohorizontal "ties" the lowercourses thewall,the tenin of sionin whichhasto be resisted horizontal by reinforcement by thefloorslabactingas a tie. or Pointloadsthat act at the end of a wall create an inclined whichis balanced a horistrut, by zontal tension the top of the wall.Thistenat sionleadsto vertical cracks,to tearingof the masonry bearing, it cannotbe accommodatif ed by the masonry bond,the reinforced concretefloorslab or ring beamactingas a tie or by horizontal reinforcement the masonry. in When analysing pointloadandthe the dispersion the loadaccording DIN1053 of to part1, the position the pointload is taken of intoaccount through dimensions the the of point action the load(seefig.2.4.43). of of Pointloadsperpendicular the planeof the to wall,e.g.fromhorizontal impacts, shouldnot exceed0.5p*according the moreaccurate to method analysis DIN 1053part 1 and of in 0,5x2.67 oo = 1.33ooaccording the simplito fiedmethod analysis. addition, shear of In the stresses the bed jointsof the individual in masonry unitsunderloadmustbe analysed for

pointloadsperpendicular the horizontal to planeof the wallwhereF > 3 kN. Perforated and cellular unitsrequire plateor similar a to be incorporated underneath thatthe horiso zontalload is transferred at leasttwo webs to in orderto avoidoverloadinq webs of indithe vidualmasonry units.

2.4.42

Accommodatingthe arch thrust without for arch floor structural analysis a multi-bay over basement

Connections Wallsmustbe connected floorsand roof to framesin orderto guarantee transfer forces of and provision horizontal of supportfor loadbearing and stiffening walls. Thiscan be achieved eitherby anchors throughador hesionand friction. In orderto alsoachieve three-dimensional stability the building, beams for ring mustbe placedin all external and crosswalls whichact platesfor carryinghorizontal as vertical loads (e.9. wind). Thispresupposes thefloors that plates.Floors act as horizontal that do not act as plates(e,9.timberjoistfloors), those or whicharesupported thewallsviasliding on bearings orderthat deformations not in are (e.9.roofslabs)require restrained thatthe gainhorizontal walls, and hence building, the restraint way of cappingbeamsor other by eouivalent measures. structural

2.4.43 Load dispersion belowpoint load

Masonryof higherstrength 01 from point load (beam,column,joist)

Connecting walls to floors and roof frames

In principle, walls- including internal walls all or paftywallsseparating buildings mustbe connected floorssuchthatforcescan be to provided floorsare intended transferred, the to providelateral supportto the walls. Connection using anchors Anchors(withvertical strapsin the caseof timber joistfloors)mustalwaysbe includedin loadbearing areasof wallsand neverin nonpanels. loadbearing spandrel Onlyby providing verticalloadis the wall in a position to accommodate anchorforcesand guaranthe tee the transfer forcesto the floor.A lackof of verticalloadmightdictatethe useof a dng beam.Generally, spacingbetween the anchors shouldnot exceed2.0 m in orderto limitthe forcesplacedon them.However, spacing the may be increased max.4.0 m in exceptional to circumstances the particular if construction does not permitany othersolution. Wallsparallel the direction spanof the to of floorrequire strapswhichextendat least1.0m intothe floorand are fixedto at leasttwo floor joistsin the caseof ribs or Mo beams(three timberfloors). Thisdistribution loadover of several ribs or beams/joists necessary is becauseotherwise restraint the forcessubjectthe floormembers lateral to bending(seefig. 2.4.46). Beams spliced overinternal wallsand tied to the perimeter wallsmusthavea tensionresistant spliceconnection. Thisis necessary

Masonry of lower strength or : to be carriedby masonryof higherstrength oz : to be carried by masonry of lower strength

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141

Masonry details

2.4.44 Supportoptionsfor gable walls

Unbracedgable wall Anchorat apex

Suooort via braced roof frame

Supportvia integralcolumn

2.4,45 Load distribution a ring beam for building of stiffened bv floor olates

Ringbeamsmay be madefromtimber,steel, concrete. reinforced masonry reinforced or forceof for Theyare to be designed a tensile 30 kN underserviceloads.Thisfigurecorrespondsto the forcesto be expectedin buildshould The ingsof normal dimensions. beams forceswhena for tensile be designed greater analysis the wall plate,floorplate of structural results largerfigin deformation or differential must masonry ures.Ringbeamsof reinforced protection, reinforcecomplywiththe corrosion Connection using adhesionand friction and mentarrangement mortaror concrete Securesupportfor wallsby way of adhesion of floors coverrequirements DIN1053paft3. Ring and frictionis providedby concrete musthaveat concrete beamsof reinforced whenthe depthof bearingof the slab on the barsto 10 leasttwo continuous mm reinforcing wall is at least'100 mm;anchorsarethen be laps Thereinforcement should in unnecessary. adhesion/friction An connection DIN1045. if with and staggered that a connection caoableof transfer- accordance DIN1045, assumes alone, oossible. ringforcesis generated the adhesion by for required ring beamsof The reinforcement and is only reinforced the frictionarising by may concrete masonry reinforced or the reinforced fromvertical loadsif necessary; however, presence frictionis not absolutely of essential. includethe full cross-section continuous of in not reinforcement fullyutilized floorslabsor We can alsoassume this situation the juncat no windowlintels morethan500 mm fromthe tionbetween walland a cappingbeam. a to of centreline the wall or floorparallel the The beam(seetig.2.4.47). useof different and the ring beam materials the masonry for Ring beams and capping beams Aboveall, in can leadto damageto masonry. Theseare horizontal straight members the in planeof the wall.Ringbeamsaccommodate deformations ring severe temperature generally wellas the shrinkage of as whichensues a beams as tension within wallplate, the ring beamsin padicular concrete resultof external loadsor differential deforma- reinforced Temperathe of can leadto cracksin the masonry. tion,and henceincreases stability the by can ture deformations be minimized includwallsand that of the wholestructure. thermal insulation, shrinkage ing adequate as Capping beams alsoserve ringbeams and by of reducedby latestriking the formwork whentheyforma complete ring aroundthe To treating concrete. minithe wholebuilding. Furthermore, reinforcetheir subsequently cona mizecrackingin rendering, reinforced mentarrangement allows themto accommocretering beamshouldmakeuse of fabric to dateloadsperpendicular the planeof the shouldbe fabrior, reinforcement alternatively, wallby way of bending. catedfrom channelblocksto matchthe surwall and henceprovidea consistent rounding Ring beams Thisor the useof for They substrate the rendering. together. act as tiesto holdthe structure that masonry a ring beammeans as with morethantwo full reinforced are required buildings in the of the disadvantages changing material storeys, thoselongerthan 1Bm at wall eleor avoided. are,on thewhole, mentsprovided stabilizing structure for the (external partywalls,crosswalls walls,twin-leaf Cappingbeams etc.)at or immediately beloweveryfloorlevel. forcesbut also not Ringbeams may be interrupted whentheir are subjected onlyto tensile only loads. from horizontal to bendingmoments is by effectiveness guaranteed othercompowhenfloorsdo in nents, window lintels landings thecase Cappingbeamsare necessary or e.g. or not act as plates,e.g.timberjoistfloors, are of continuous windows a staircase. to where iheyare bearings withsliding It is alsonecessary holdthe structure to together provided on supporled the wallsand so do not provide by way of ring beamsin the caseof wallswith The ring beam restraint floorlevel. at lateral manyor particularly largeopenings; is this the especially casewhenthe sum of the widths becomesa cappingbeamand takeson a stabeamit transtask.As a rigid horizontal bilizing of the openings exceed60% of the lengthof of loadsfromwind,reversal the wall or 40%;othe caseof windowsgreater fersthe horizontal in etc. forces,earthquakes to the shearwalls(see thanA3 of the storeyheight. 'fi7.2.4.48). functions ringbeamsareto act as a tie Other of to The cappingbeamand its connections the floor for the compression arch in a horizontal plate;to act as a tie for the vedicalmasonry for shearwallsshouldbe designed a horizontal plate;and to accommodate loadof the in loadequalto 1/100of the vertical tensilestresses of deforma- wallsand for a proportion the wind loads.In the masonry a resultof differential as bearsliding addition, cappingbeamsbeneath tion causedby temperature fluctuations, forcesfrom ings musttakeaccountof tensile of shrinkage differential or settlement the subforcesof the floors. friction the residual soil[54] (seefig.2.4.45). in orderto linkopposingexternal wallstogether and ensurean effective connection between wallsand floors. external via to Gablewallscan be connected anchors they a bracedroofframe.Alternatively, gain theirstability way of crosswalls other by or (e.9.reinforced measures concrete columns piers) restrained the floorslab,masonry by (seefig.2.4.44).

142

Connections

2.4.46 Fixinglensionanchorsin masonry Shear wallsmustbe analysed ensure to they >240 canaccommodate supportreactions the of > 240 t--| TT capping beams, and thattheyadequately transfer forcesto the foundations. the lf a capping beamdoesnotfulfil ringbeam Strap> 15 x 50 mm functions the sametime,it needsonlyto at Gable anchormust be fixed to 3 joists extend far as necessary iransferits supas to O N portreactions another to element. Capping beams maybe madeof timber, steelor rein: O 6 forcedconcrete. Theymustbe rigid enoughto prevent cracksin the masonry any due to deformations. reouirement This meansthatthe feasible spanof sucha beamis sometimes limited. Reinforced concrete cappingbeams Strutting must haveshearlinks and at least one longitureinforcing in eachcorner the link. Fixingto masonryin directionof span of floor dinal bar of to Fixingto masonryat right-angles span of floor Capping beams should treated ring be like withregardto the problemof the riskof beams 2.4.47 Delailsof ring beamstaking into accountparallelreinforcement cracksin masonry causedby a changeof material between wall and beam,Thisalso applies the useof channel to blocks achieve to Reinforcement plaster a consistent substrate. r betweenplanks

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2.4.48 Capping beam action

143

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