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Example1

Housein Hallertau,Germany

1999

Architect:
WalterStolz,Rosenheim
Assistants:
GeorgTrengler,
ElisabethMehrl(colourscheme),Hofberg
Structuralengineers:
BauerIngenieure,Landshut

The plot is locatedin a new development with


heterogeneous, detachedfamilyhouseson the
edge of this littletown in Bavaria.The house
and garageare positionedat the top end of
this gentlyslopingsite.Togetherwiththe wall
in between,theyforma boundaryon the road
side and enclosethe west-facinggardenwith
its viewtowardsthe town in the valley.The
northelevationof the mainbuildinghas very
few openingsbut includesa glazedporch,
whichacts as a climatebufferand lobbyfor ffi
!u!
the entranceto the house.The livingroomis a nf---ln
few steps belowthe levelof the rest of the nnn
open-plangroundfloorlayoutin orderto follow
the slopeof the gardenoutside.The careful
choiceof materialsand the simple,precise
detailinghavecreateda buildingthat relatesto
bothcontemporary architectureand regional
buildingtraditions.Thewallsare of 365 mm
lightweight clay brictaarorkwiththree-coatlime
renderingpaintedsiennared.The shallow
revealsof the windowsleavethemalmostflush
withthe outsideface and the amountof in-
comingsunlightcan be regulatedby meansof
louvreblindsfittedinternally. The natural-colour
concreterooftilesterminateat the eavesand
vergeswithoutan overhang,simplywith sheet
metalflashings.
The pitchedroof is supportedon two glulam
purlins.Thereis glazingto part of the ridge
betweenthese two purlins.The roof structure
appearsonce againabovethe groundfloorin
the formof two steelbeamsspanninglength-
wiseto shortenthe spanof the timberjoist
floor.
Housein Hallertau

Site layout
scale 1:1000
1st floor
Groundfloor
Sections
s c a l e1 : 2 5 0

239
Example.l

Sections
Verge
s c a l e1 : 2 0

Roof construction:
natural-colourconcrete roof tiles
battens and counterbattens
roofing felt, open to diffusion
wood fibre insulationbatts, 22 + 40 mm
80 x 176 mm rafters,with 100 + 60 mm
thermal insulationbetween
vapourbarner
16 mm spruce boarding
Reinforcedconcrete ring beam,
240 x 300 mm
Lightweightclay toothed bricks,
large block 8-0.8-12DF
3-coat lime rendering

Steelangle,60 x 190 x 10 mm,


with welded dowels
o Timber .ioists,60 x 190 mm
7 Wall heating
I Glassfibre fabric
v Heat-absorbingglass (2 panesof
toughened safety glass)
10 Titanium-zincpedorated sheet
11 Wall plate,60 x 160 mm
Angle,90 x 90 x 7 mm, to.bothsides
of rafter
13 Toughenedsafetyglass,I mm
14 Stainlesssteelangle,25 x 25 x 3 mm
15 WoocYaluminiumwindow
16 Louvreblind
17 Prefabricatedclay lintel
18 Drainagechannel
19 Laminatedveneer lumber (LVL)board,
30 mm
20 Titanium-zincverge flashing
21 Clav channelblock

240
Housein Hallertau

Horizontalsections through chimney


1stfloor. Groundfloor
s c a l e1 : 5 0

22 Seat
23 Refractoryclay briclarvork,sharp-edge moulding, 70 mm
24 Wood-burningoven
25 2 No. 60 x 190 x 10 mm anglesas supportfor floorjoists

241
Example
2

Housingcomplex in Ludwigsburg,Germany

1998

Architects:
HartwigN. Schneider,
withGabrieleMayer,
Stuttgart
Projectarchitects:
AndreasGabriel,IngoPelchen
Assistant:
FranzLuIz

n r^L.ait-t []lrr r'-

Thishousingcomplex,comprising a totalof
60 rentedapadmentsdistributedaccordingto
type amongthe groupof three-storey blocks,is
locatedon the easternedge of Ludwigburg's
citycentre.Thereis one mainblockover80 m
longwhichfacessouth,Attachedto this are
threeL-shaped wingson the roadside,whose
end facadesbreakup the streetscape. The
openspacesbetweenthesewingscontainthe
entrancesto the basementgaragesand the
outsidestairsto the landscapedcourtyards
nrror tho naredae

The buildingfollowsthetopography withvery


smallchangesin heightbetweenthe different
partsof the complex.Accessto the apartments
is by way of variousstaircasearrangements or
an openwalkway. All the housingunitsreceive
daylightfromat leasttwo sidesand faceeither
ontothe semi-public courtyards or the garden
to the south.Furtherdifferentiationis provided
by the different
facadeelements: ribbonwin-
dowswith slidingwoodenshuttersalternate
with regularfenestration,cedar-cladaccess
blockscontrastwiththe areasof darkrender-
ing.
Thewallsof the blockscomprise,in the main,
300 mm aeratedclay brickworkcoveredwith a
colouredmineralrendering, Thejunctions
betweenthe areasof rendering and adjoining
elements, suchas windowsand plinths,are
carefullydetailed.Themasonryon the long
southelevation facingthe gardenis cladwith
cedarwoodelements. Similarelements serve
as slidingshuttersto the room-height glazing.
The balconiesare precastconcreteunitssus-
pendedin frontofthe facadeand
providedwith a thermalbreak.

242
Housingcomplexin Ludwigsburg

Locationplan scale 1:2500

2nd floor. Groundfloor


North elevation. Section
s c a l e1 : 7 5 0

243
Example2

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Housingcomplexin Ludwigsburg

Sectionthroughwest facade 14 Floorconstructionl


Horizontalsectionthroughslidingglazingin 5 mm floor covering
renderedfacade scale 1:20 50 mm cementscreed
Section scale 11500 0.2 mm polyethyleneseparatingmembrane

ilillH
Sectionthrouohsouthfacade scale 1:20 20 mm impact sound insulation
60 mm thermalinsulation
1 Aluminiumtrack,with brushes 180 mm reinforcedconcreteslab
2 Toughenedsafetyglass,I mm, tc Aluminium a n g l e ,6 0 x 3 0 x 5 m m
rearface enamelled to Parapetcladding:14 mm cemenlbound
3 Aluminiumguide shoe,with guide wheel wood fibre board
A
Alumrniumtrack 17 Uppertrack for slidingshutters
N
5 Wallconstruction: 18 Lowertrack
20 mm mineralrendering
h
19 Cedarwood shutters,58 mm h
300 mm Hlz lightweightclay bricks 20 Wall construction: s
15 mm internalplaster 15 mm internalplaster \
6 Lightweightclay channelblock,300 mm 240 mm Hlz lightweightclay bricks s
7 Aluminium c h a n n e l1, 0 0x 5 0 x 5 m m 80 mm mineralwool thermalinsulation
8 Aluminiumexternalwindowsill protectivecovering(non-wovenfabric)
I Wood/aluminium windowwith insulatingglazing prefabricatedcedar wood cladding,58 mm
10 Reconstituted stoneinternalwindowsill 21 Timberclosingpiece,22o x 48 mm
11 Toughenedsafetyglass,S mm 22 Precastconcreteelement,coloured
12 Steelhollowsection,60 x 20 x 3 mm, galvanized 23 Balustradeof steelsections,galvanized,
1 3 T h e r m ailn s u l a t i oenl e m e n tl,o a d b e a r i n g colour-coated

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245
Example
3

Screensand sand catcher facility to sewage


works in Hannover,Germany

1994

Architect:
RolfRamcke,
HannoverMunicipalBuildingAuthority
Structural
engineers:
Schulke& Gerke,ErichSchulke,Hannover

Situated on the raisedbankof the RiverLeine,


thisutilitybuildingappearsas a concisestate-
mentdominating the recreational zoneof the
Leinefloodplain.
Thisplantand processing buildinghousesthe
mechanical preliminary sedimentation of the
city'swastewater.The buildingis dividedinto
two sectionsto matchthe processingof the
wastewater:separatingout solidsby meansof
coarseand finescreensandthe subsequent
separationof the depositsvia sand catcher
lines,as wellas the collection of mineralset-
tlingmaterial for furtherprocessing in the
wastewatertreatmentplant.Thewastewater
passesthroughthetwo sectionsin openchan-
nels.
Theunheatedprocessing areashavea con-
stantinternal temperature of 12 "C and a rela-
tivehumidity of approx.90%.Addedto the
extremebuildingscienceconditions arethe
loadsgeneratedby the aggressivegasesfrom
the wastewater.Temperatures belowthe dew
pointareunavoidable in thissituation, whichis
whyallthewallswerebuiltin single-leaf facing
masonry of solidengineering bricks.
Theclearlyarrangedcomplexwiththe external
wallsand stairsmatchedto the mainbuilding
livesfromthe useof the changingcoloursof
the Bockhorn engineering bricksbuiltin an
irregularbond.Thesmallnumberof formal
interventions are restrictedto the arrangement
of the verticalwindows,whichareformedwith
approx,10 mm thickprofiledpiers.All window
openingsemployglassbricks.Thesouth-east
corneris particularly emphasized by dog-
toothingat an angleof 45'. Thissedatestruc-
turewith its longmasonrywallsand handfulof
interruptions to edgesand enclosures repre-
sentssimplebut powerfulindustrial architec- Sectionthroughscreensbuilding Southelevation
ture. Sectionthroughsand catcher Plan
s c a l e1 , 2 5 0 s c a l e1 : 7 5 0

246
Screensand sandcatcherfacilityto sewageworksin Hannover

1 Screensbuilding
2 Screens containers
3 Sand screening
4 Sandcatcherlines I and ll
5 Rainwaterretentionbasin
6 Inletpumpingplant I

247
Example
3

'l
Sectionthrough north facade Sheetmetalcapping vapour pressure compensation
Horizontalsection through windows 2 NF engineeringbricks memDrane
Elevationon and sectionthroughdoor 3 Thermalinsulation,40 mm 200 mm lightweightconcrete
s c a l e1 : 2 0 Roof construction: pranKS
50 mm gravel Floorconstruction:
waterproofing,3 layers 50 mm reconstitutedstone tiles
thermalinsulationwith 1.57ofall, 30 mm mortar bed
150-270mm polyethyleneseparatingmembrane
vapourbarrier Stainlesssteelchannel,80 mm

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28
Screensand sandcatcherfacilityto sewageworksin Hannover

249
Example4

Extensionto school in Gebenstorf,


Switzerland

1997

Architects:
Urs Burkard,AdrianMeyer& Partner,Berlin
Assistants:
DanielKrieg,AdrianStreich
Structuralengineers:
Gerber+ Partner,Munich

Thisextensionto the existingschoolcomplex


consistsof two sections;a three-storeyclass-
roomwing facingsouth,and to the easta two-
storeyblock with staff-roomand libraryplus the
schoolkitchenon the upperfloor.The north
facade of the three-storeyblock formsthe
boundaryto the schoolyard and features
storey-height glazing,which permitsa viewof
the stairsand the internalwallswiththeirwin-
dowsto the classrooms. Location plan scale 1 1 Library o Textilesworkshop
The buildings,the proportionsof whichremind 2nd floor 2 Staffroom 7 School kitchen
1st floor 3 Hall I Diningroom
us of bricks,are builtentirelyof masonry:
Ground floor 4 Cloakroom I Classroom
single-leaf610 mm externalwallsclad intern- scale 1:400 5 Workshop 10 Group room
ally,and 250 mm internalwallswithfacing
brickrryorkon bothsides.Thetensionwhich
resultsfromthe heavinessof the brickvolumes
and the lightnessof the glazinghelpsto create
this impressivearchitectural statement.
The 320 mm reinforcedconcretefloorslabs
are prestressed to supportthe cantilever.
Theirgood heat storagecapacity reinforces
the simpleenergyconceptof the building.
The single-leaf wall construction employsa
preciselyspecifiedtwo-layercomposite.Hard
clay brickson the outsidewith a bulk densityof
1800kg/mshavebeencombinedwith aerated
masonryunitswith a bulk densityof 1400kg/m3,
Withinthe masonrybond,everyfourthcourse
of engineeringbrickspenetratesdeeperinto
the externalwall.Thisconstruction achievesa
U-valueof 0.34Wm2K,which lieswithinthe
statutoryrequirements for thistype of building.
The advantagesof this systemfoundexpres-
sionin the architecture - the southelevation,
withtall,simplewindowslitsand deep reveals,
doesnot requireany sunshading. The class-
roomwallsadjacentto the corridorsalso
includewindowopeningsto enablethose
passingto observethe activitieswithin.This
schoolhas pointeda new way forwardfor
masonryconstruction in termsof the precise
implementation of the buildingconceptand the
credibility
of the designand the details.

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Extensionto schoolin Gebenstorf

f-t 7.

251
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Example
4

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Eltensionto schoolin Gebenstorf

Section
South-eastelevation
scale 1:400
Section
scale 1:200
Sectionthrough parapet
s c a l e1 : 1 0

1 Aluminium capping,2 mm
2 Waterproofchipboardlaidto fall,18mm
3 Brick-on-odgecourseof facingcantbricks
4 Thermal insulation,
rigidexpanded foam,30mm
5 Roofconstruction:
60 mmgravel
waterproofing,2layersof bitumensheeting
thermalinsulation,
100mmrigidexpandedfoam
vaDourbarrier
320-440mmreinforcedconcreteslab

253
Example4

254
Extensionto schoolin Gebenstorf

Sections
s c a l e1 : 2 0

1 Wall construction:
clay facing bricks in bond with lightweighl
clay bricks,610 mm
MDF boards on timber battens
2 Plinth construction:
250 mm clay facing bricks
250 mm reinforced concrete wall
80 mm thermal insulation
MDF boards on timber battens
3 Floor construction:
linoleumfloor covering, black
10Omm floating cement screed
80 mm thermal insulation
250 mm reinforced concrete slab
perforated plasterboard on timber battens
4 Lintel of clay facing bricks
5 Artificial stone window sill,
oainted brick red
6 Floor construction:
linoleumfloor covering, black
45 mm cement screed
polyethyleneseparating membrane
320 mm prestressedconcrete slab
7 Wooden window with insulatingglazing
8 Laminatedsafety glass, matt finish
I Insulatingglazing
1 0 Internalwall construction:
250 mm clay briclovork
MDF boards on timber battens

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255
Example
5

Housein Bad Sdckingen,Germany

1978

Architect:
Gunterffeifer, L6rrach
Assistant:
RolfBuhler
Structuralengineer:
JUrgenBdhr,Schopfheim

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.l

Thishousestandson the north-westboundary


of a plotwherein the past it formeda counter-
weightto a villadatingfromthe Bauhausera,
whichhas sincebeendemolished. The owners
possessan extensivecollectionof contempo-
rary art.
In orderto providean appropriatesettingfor
the paintings,with differentiatedlighting,the
internalroomsare of differentheights.
The shapeofthe houseis basedon a square
planwhichincludeslargerooftopterraceson
two sides.
The garageand a pergola,whichdenotethe
entrance,enclosea smallplay areain frontof
thechildren's bedrooms. The buildingis set
outon a 1.25m grid.Thecalciumsilicate
masonryleftexposedinternallyand externally
was whitewashed afterthe jointswerefinished
in the sameoperationas the bricklaying.
Justtwo differentwindowsizeswith blinds
behindthe soldiercourselintelsdeterminethe
simplisticappearanceof the house.
The detailswhichwouldtoday no longerbe
acceptablefromthe buildingscienceviewpoint
havenot led to any damageto the building
thanksto the extensivelow-temperature heat-
ingat groundfloorlevel.

256
Housein BadSdckingen

Axonometricview
not to scale

Plans
Sections
scale 1:400

Sectionthrough facade
S c a l e1 : 1 0

Titanium-zincsheet
capping
Soldiercourse,calcium
silicate2 DF bricks
3 Titanium-zinc f lashing
Roof construction:
gravel
walerproofing
80 mm thermalinsulation
vapour barrier
180 mm reinforced
concrete slab
5 Steelangle,galvanized,
gux /bx / mm
o Wooden window, red
cedar with insulating
grazrng
7 Louvreblind
8 Wall construction:
1 1 5m m c a l c i u ms i l i c a t e
2 DF bricks, without
rendering,with white-
wash finish
15 mm air space
50 mm mineralfibre
thermalinsulation
240 mm calciumsilicate
2 DF bricks,with white-
wash finish
Floor construction:
18 mm quarrytiles in
thin-bed mortar
70 mm screed with
underfloorheatingpipes
40 mm thermalinsulation
damp proof membrane
100 mm reinforced
concrete slab

257

J
Example6

Housein Hellerup,Denmark

1995

Architects:
Frederiksen & Knudsen,Copenhagen
Assistants:
UlrikSchwanenf[igel,
CarstenNohrLarsen
Structuralengineer:
KurlThybo,Hellerup

The captivatingdesignof thisthree-storey


detachedhouseis due to its distinctiveposi-
tionwithinthe streetscape,its forecourten-
closedby masonrywalls,the capacioussetting
of the entranceand the clearlinesof the build-
ing itself.The housewas sitedtowardsthe rear
of the plot in orderto retainan existingbay
whichdeterminedthe atmosphereof the loca-
tion.The simpleplan layoutresultsfroma dis-
tinct north-south zoningof the functionalareas
of the house.Arrangingthe levelsof the house
ofiset by half a storeywith respectto the sur-
roundinggroundlevelplacesthe entranceon
the levelof the children's bedrooms. Dining
areaand kitchenlookout ontoa sunkenter-
racein the gardenon the southernside.The
spaciouslivingroomwithfireplaceis located
on the secondfloor;it facessouthand com-
mandsa good viewacrossthe watersof The
Sound.The secondflooralsocontainsa study
and the masterbedroom.
The skillof the designis not apparentat first
sight.The externalwallsof the houseare con-
structedfromtwo 110 mm leaveswith 130mm
cavityinsulation, whilethe single-leafload-
bearingtransversewall is 170mm thick.Pre-
cast concreteplankswere usedfor the floors,
the roofstructureis of timber.Largespans,like
overthe windowopeningsof the southeleva-
tion,makeuseof additionalsteelmembers.
Theotheropeningshavebeenkept smalland
correspondto the structuralrequirements of Location plan
the 110mm masonry.The unorthodoxfacade scale 1:750
Sections
arrangement is explainedby the fact thatthe
Upperfloor
fenestration was chosento suitthe atmosphere Ground floor
of the interiorand providecertainpicturesque Basement
views. scale 1:200
Thewhitewashed masonryis leftexposed
internallyas well,withthe exceptionof the blue
wallsto the staircase.
Thisprojectshowsthat carefulplanning,par-
ticularlywith respectto the buildingservices
normallyencounteredin the walls,and accu-
ratestructuralanalysiscan providea futurefor
masonryin a "slimline"construction as well.

258
Housein Hellerup

1 Lobby
2 Hall
3 Room
4 Bathroom
5 Kitchen
6 Diningarea
7 Guest'sbedroom
8 Wine cellar
I Livingroom
10 Bedroom

259
Example
6

Sectionthroughsouthfacade
Horizontalsectionthroughcornerglazingdetail
Sectionthroughnorthfacade
s c a l e1 : 2 0

l%))1,,
tffil

260
Housein Hellerup

20
22

23
24

1 Sheetzinc capping 15 Reinforcedolaster 28 Wooden planks, courbaril


Laminatedveneer lumber (LVL), 16 mm 16 Corner column, 60 x 60 x 4 mm steel hollow section 29 Lightweightconcrete slab, 180 mm
Window frame, 17 Guard rail mounted on window frame 30 Chipboard,20 mm
50 x 100 x 3.2 mm st€el hollow section 18 Roofconstruction: 3l Doormat
Floorconstruction: waterproofing 32 Steel open-grid flooring
20 mm wooden planks 21 mm wateroroof LVL Steel angle, 80 x 80 mm
50 x 50 mm timber supporting construction Firringpieces 34 Reinforcedconcrete wall, 135 mm
timber levellinglayer 75x2OO mm rafters
180 mm lightweightconcrete slab thermal insulation,180 mm mineralwool
5 Column,115 mm dia. steelcircularhollowsection vaoour barrier
o Woocyaluminiumwindow, with insulatingglazing 50 x 50 mm battens
7 Extendingmarquise 13 mm plasterboard,2 layers
8 Sliding door fittings 19 Wall construction:
o Slidingdoor 115 mm clay brickwork with whitewashfinish
1 0 Concrete paving slabs 110 mm thermalinsulation
1 1 Floorconstruction: 115 mm clay brickworkwith whitewashfinish
20 mm naturalstone tiles in varying lengths 20 Steelangle, 100 x 150 x 10 mm
30 mm mortar bed 21 Steelangle,75 x 100 x I mm
100 mm reinforced concrete 22 Cavity closer, 2 mm aluminiumsheet
75 mm rigid mineralwool 23 Cladding,aluminiumsheet
20Omm gravel 24 Steel channel. 220 mm
12 Bitumensheeting,welded on 25 Steel angle, 50 x 30 x 4 mm, with white coating
13 Lightweightconcrete brickwork 26 Glass door to lobby
1 4 Insulatingglazing, flush with outside face Entrancedoors

261
Example7

Housein Brfih!,Germany
"sr{i "'" Jy
1997
r.j!'
Architect: a""
HeinzBienefeld,Swisttal-Ollheim
Structural
engineer:
R. Mertens,Cologne

l'1
t-l
'ir,

Thefullyglazedeastside,togetherwiththe
roof,seemsto encloseand shelterthe large,
steppedmasonryblock.HeinzBienefeld's
house,completedin 1997,hasalsobecome
his legacy- the archetypalformof the housein
whichthe experiencesand thoughtsof the
architectare portrayed.The steppedformof
the masonryblock,adjacentto the largeopen
hallrisingto the roof,guaranteesinternalper-
spectiveswhichvaryfromfloorto floor.Our
attentionis drawnagainand againto the solid
masonryblock.The sizeof this hallis madeall
the moreobviousby the dramaticchange
betweenthis commodiousvolumeand the rela-
tivelysmall,separaterooms.Thisexperienceis
reflectedin the appearanceof the structure,in
the immediatelegibilityfrom insideand out-
side.
Thesettingdirectsour viewto the essential
components, to the depthof the three-dimen-
sionalencounterand the spatialperception.
Thetwo longitudinal elevationsof the house
exhibitverydifferentcharacters.To the south-
westthereis the regimentalfenestration of the
clay brickfacadewith only minordifferencesin
the sizesof the openings.At almost500 mm
thick,the massof wallwith its seemingly Locationplan
detachedroofand multilevellintelshas an scale 1:2000
almostphysicalpresence
South-westelevation
Contrasting withthis is the glazedlightnessof Attic floor
the north-east facade,which,paradoxically, 1st floor
supportsthe largeroofof claytiles,whichcon- Groundfloor
veysa moreheavyweight impression. How- Basement
s c a l e1 : 2 5 0
ever,the glassfacadeis merelya "second
skin",a concessionto the climaticconditions. 1 Master bedroom
lnside,behindthe glass,thereis the external 2 Bathroom
wallof the masonrystructurewiththe "open-air 3 Child'sbedroom
4 Kitchen
stairs"leadingto the upperfloors,and the cas- 5 Livingroom
cade-likeprofileof the brickwork. 6 Study
Bienefeld's beliefthat "theeffectsof the sur- 7 Hall
facesare partofthe architecture" 8WC
has been
I Hobby room
provedto stillholdtrue in this buildingwith its 10 Workshop
precisedetailing. 11 Sauna

262
Housein Brtihl

! I 9

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263
Example7

Longitudinalsection
throughhall
North-west
elevation
Section
scale1:200

M
Housein Brrihl

T
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Example7

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Glazed door
Elevation. Section
Horizontalsection floor heating pipes
scale 1:20 80 mm thermal insulation
separating membrane
200 m reinforced concrete slab
1 Camberedarch lintel, o Steel channel, 40 x 35 mm,
',|5 integrated in steel hollow
mm rise
2 Galvanizedsteel glazed section, 50 x 25 mm
door, micaceous iron oxide 7 Fixing lug, bent steel flat,
finish,with insulatingglazing 200 mm long
3 Column,120 x 40 x I mm I Wall construction:
galvanizedsteel channel, facing bricks
micaceous iron oxide Taunusstone,NF, 115 mm,
finish with 20 mm bed Joints
4 Precast concrete step 20 mm mortar wall joint
5 Floor construction: lightweightclay brickwork
clay tiles 25 mm lime Dlaster
60 mm mortar bed neat lime finish with
60 mm screed with under marble dust

266
Housingcomplexin Lonach

Housingcomplex in Liirrach, Germany

I OOe

Architect:
GunterPfeifer
in partnership
with RolandMayer,Lorrach
Assistants:
PeterB6hrle,HermannVester,
ElkeHudetz
Structural
engineers:
Greschik& Falk,Lorrach

Thebuildingis situatedon a mainroad leading


intothe bordertownof Lorrach.The urban
approachand the triangularshapeof the plot-
broughtaboutby its positionbetweena fork in
the road- led to the building'sstrikingformof
a semicircleplusa straightwing placedtan-
gentiallyon one side.
In keepingwiththe geometricalappearance,
the buildingis dividedintotwo parts.First,the
semicircular sectioncontainssevenhousing
units.Theseare arrangedradiallyso that living
roornsand balconiesface moreor lesswest,
whileaccessis viathe semicircular courtyard
to the east.Second,thereare anotherfive
housingunitsin the straightwing.Thesehave
basicallythe sameinternallayoutbut herethe
unitsarealignedin a north-south direction,with
accessvia an openwalkwayon the northern
sideandthe livingroomsand balconiesfacing
south.Thepositionsof the small,walledgar-
denschangelikewise.An open
passagewayat the junctionbetweenthe two
blockslinksthe basementgarageswiththe
courtyard. Thisfeatureis bothentranceand
link,and illustratesthe reversalof the layoutsin
an attractive,tangiblemanner.The different
finishesto the externalwallsclarifythe chang-
ingalignmentand hencehelpthe observerto
comprehend the internalzoningof the building.
Thethree-storeysouthelevationmakesuse of
rendered300 mm lightweightclay brickrivork,
whileconcretebrickworkwith air space,insula-
tionanda 175mm calciumsilicateloadbearing
leafwas preferredfor the two-storeyentrance
elevation facingnorth.fhe 24Qmm thick divid-
ingwallsto the walledgardensrepeatthe
exposedmasonryof the accesszone.

ft7
Example8

Sections
scale 1:20O
Elevation' Section
Concrete brickwork facade
s c a l e1 : 5 0

'I
Concrete lintel
Wooden window with insulatingglazing
3 Wall construction:
90 mm concrete bricks in stretcher bond
40 mm air soace
60 mm thermal insulation
175 mm calciumsilicatebricks
15 mm lime-cementolaster

)
I

tr

268
Housingcomplexin Lonach

269
Example
8

270
Housingcomplexin Lorrach

Windowsill,titanium-zinc I Roof construction: 55 mm screed Horizontalsections


sheet 50 mm gravel separatingmembrane Concrete brick facade '
2 Letter box waterproofing 60 mm thermal insulation Rendered facade
J Entrancedoor thermalinsulation, waterproofing,bitumen Verticalsections
Door threshold, 100 mm rigid expanded foam sheeting scale 1:20
5 mm galvanizedsteel vapour barrier 200 mm RC slab
sheet 180 mm RC slab blinding
5 Cavity closer 15 mm lime-cementplaster 17 Wall construction:
6 Wall construction: 10 Thermalinsulation,25 mm 20 mm rendering
90 mm concrete bricks 11 Woodenwindowwith thermalinsulation,50 mm
40 mm air space insulatingglazing rigid expandedfoam
60 mm thermal insulation 12 Wall construction: 240 mm RC wall
'175 20 mm rendering 15 mm lime-cementplaster
mm calciumsilicate
bricks 30Omm ltM clay bricks 18 Flashing,titanium-zincsheet
15 mm lime-cement 15 mm lime-cementplaster 19 Titanium-zincsheet,plastic-
plaster 13 Floorconstruction: laminated
Parapetcapping, linoleum 20 Monopitchroof construction:
titanium-zinc sheet 45 mm screed waterproofing
Parapetconstruction: separating membrane 24 mm timber boarding
20 mm rendering 30 mm thermal insulation 120 x 180 mm rafters
thermalinsulation,35 mm 200 mm RC slab 120 mm thermalinsulation
rigid expandedfoam 15 mm lime-cementplaster 25 mm timber battens
reinforced concrete wall 14 Precast concrete lintel 15 mm plasterboard
thermalinsulation,25 mm 15 Blind 21 Rollerblind box,
'100
rigid expandedfoam 16 Floorconslruction: x 100 mm
waterproofing linoleum Steelangle, 120 x 80 x 8 mm

271
Example
9

Housingcomplex in Groningen,
The Netherlands

1993

Architects:
FelixClaus,KeesKaan,Amsterdam
Assistant:
AndrewDawes
Structural
engineers:
Ingenieurb0ro
Wassenaar,Haren

The surroundingstreetsand pathsdetermine


the urbanarrangement of the wholecomplex,
whichformsan intermittent boundaryon two
sidesof a triangularparkopen at the westend.
On the south-westsidethereareterraced
houseswithwalledgardens,whileon the nodh-
eastsidethereare threeblockscontaining
apartments. Theseformthe backboneof the
complex,splitup by the intervening access
pathsand play areas,On the southernside
facingthe park,the apartmentsarefullyglazed
with slimbalconies.On the otherside,facing
the road,the openwallouayson the upper
floorsarewell lit via the generousexpanseof
glazing.The slimapartmentscontaintwo deep
roomsfacingsouth-west, whichcan be used
as livingroom,bedroomor studyas required.
The kitchenand a furtherroomlie on the walk-
way side.
Theterracedhouseson the southernboundary
of the siteare arrangedin groupsof six,separ-
ated from each other by narrowaccess
passageways.
The loadbearingconstruction consistsof twin-
leafmasonrywallswith precastconcretefloors.
The externalsurfaces- red facingbrickwork
adjacentthe alleyways,verticaltimberboard-
ing facingthe gardensand on the gables- are
skilfullyrelatedto eachother.On the ground

t]LJI rr rl Jl
floorthe almostsquarehousesare dividedinto
an entrancelobby,kitchenand living/dining
area.A windingstairleadsfromthe lobbyup to
the firstfloor,whichcontainsthreeroomsand a /
small,separatetoilet,plus bathroom.The plan
layoutsare suchthatthe housescould be
dividedintoseparateapartmentson ground
2
floorand firstfloorat a laterdate.The apart- o o' qa- - ) / r rv a o c I
mentblocksare differentiated in a similarfash-
ion:storey-height slidingwindowsin frontof ^ \-l-n----1?
glassfacadeson the parkside,clay brickwork U ---t(<AU
to the gables.The groundfloor"plinth"
facingthe road is likewisebuiltin red brick-
work.A partial{illcavitywall is usedthrough-
out,withthe stretcherbond alsocontinuing
acrossthe lintels.Thewindows,withwooden
subframesand insetcasements,are positioned
in the olaneof the thermalinsulationand air
space.Theyemploya contrastingcolournear
the entrancesand are dividedup with a few
reinforcedconcreteelements.

272
Housingcomplexin Groningen

Locationplan scale 1:2000


,] Existingchurch
Shelteredhousing 2 48 shelteredhousingunits
West elevation ' Ground floor 3 24 houseswith walled gardens
s c a l e1 : 2 5 0

273
Example9

Houseswill walled gardens


Section' Groundfloor
s c a l e1 : 2 5 0
Sections
s c a l e1 : 2 0

1 Laminatedveneer lumber (LVL)


board, with bitumen sheet water-
proofing
9 l'\nan narnonrl

3 Wall construction:
102 mm facing clay bricl<work
28 mm air space
60 mm thermal insulation
100 mm calciumsilicatebrickwork
15 mm plaster
4 Damp proof course
5 Steelangle,80 x 80 x 8 mm
6 Woodenwindow,with insulating
glazing
7 Windowsill,aluminiumsheet
8 Built-inbench, precastconcrete
I Bracket, bent steel sheet,
500 x 80 mm
10 Ventilationpipe, grillein facade
11 Waterproofing, bitumensheeting,I layer

274
Housingcomplexin Groningen

tm
nz_r4Fr>,
17

ffil
iltl

iul W
wK//r
tv/ffi
r//a lft 18

,1"...
": l;;
':
" 'ir'"'"'
;i:rl '.'l:-

{'rr,:' L-

12 Thermalinsulation,60-80mm 18 Wall construction: 19 Reconstituted stonecoping


13 Reinforcedconcreteslab, 150 mm profiledboarding,19 mm westernred cedar 20 Movementjoint,2-3 mm
14 Reinforcedclay brickwork 28 x 46 mm timber battenswith cut-outsfor 21 Doorelement
15 Precastconcreteelement ventilation 22 Precast concrete element
16 Reconstitutedstonewindowsill 44 x 63 mm timberstuds with built-inlights
17 Woodenwindow,with externallining 60 mm thermalinsulation 23 Thermalinsulation,60 mm
and insulatingglazing 100 mm calciumsilicatemasonry,15 mm plaster

I
.leA
ryry
--m

21

275
Example10

Two apartment blocks in Berlin, Germany

1997

Architects:
Tim Heideand Verenavon Beckerath,Berlin
Assistants:
RainerSchmitz(projectmanager),
HeikeLauterbach, WolfgangRehn
Sitemanager:
WolfgangGdrsch,Berlin
Structuralengineer:
JdrgWiese,Berlin

Followingon fromthe inter-cityhousingdevelop-


mentsof the 1980s,housingestatescontinued
to be builtand addedto on the north-east
boundaryof BerlinafterGermanunification.
Newurbandevelopment strategieswere
intendedto do justiceto the greatdemandfor
housing.Thesetwo isolatedblocksare partof
a generalplan.Thefour-storeybuildingswith-
out basementsbothcontainthreeapartments
on eachupperfloor(eachwiththreerooms
pluskitchen,bathroom)and two smallerapart-
mentson the groundfloor,which leavesspace
for ancillaryrooms.
Thesimpletwo-apartment formatwas de-
velopedwithinthe scopeof the guidelinesfor
publiclyassistedhousebuilding. Thestaircase
and the groundfloorstoragerooms,which
replacecellars,formthe centralcore.This
arrangement enablesa slimplanlayoutand
enablesoccupantsto utilizethe spaceto the
full.The spacioushallwayscan be usedfor
differentpurposesas requiredand may also
be subdivided by way of a slidingdoor.Bath-
roomsand kitchensare placedon external
wallsto permitnaturallightingand ventilation.
Wallsof calciumsilicatemasonrywith rein-
forcedconcretefloorsand beamsformthe
loadbearing structure.The outerleaf,with air
spacebehind,of blue-brown, facingbricks,
hard-burned almostto vitrification,
formsthe
finishon threesidesof eachblock;on the
gardenelevationall floorshavefull-widthbal-
conies.The masonryfacadesare regularand
identical.Theroom-height glazingis positioned
in the planeof thethermalinsulation and is
combinedwitha slidingshutterof perforated
stainlesssteeland a galvanizedsteel
balustrade. The shutterfinishesflushwiththe
facadeand can be slid intoa shallowrecessin
the masonry,whichresultsfromthe outerleaf
of masonrybeingset back intothe cavity.

276
Two aoadmentblocksin Berlin

Groundfloor Upperfloor Facadedetails


Section Horizontalsection . Vertical section
scale1:400 s c a l e1 . 2 0

,l
Titanium-zincsheetcapping 8 Galvanizedsteelangle,20 x 30 x 3 mm
Cast-inslot I Stainlesssteel sheet with elongated per-
3 Wall construction: forations, 1 mm, edges not perforated
115 mm facing brickwork 10 Spandrelelementof 10 x 40 mm
40 mm air space galvanizedsteelsections
thermalinsulation,60 mm mineralwool 11 Plastictrack
or 60 mm externalinsulationbehindsliding 12 Support bracket fixed to cast-in slot
elements 13 Externalinsulation,60 mm rigid expanded
175mm calciumsilicatebrickwork foam
15 mm plaster 14 Reinforcedconcreteground slab
4 Open perpend 15 Waterproofing, bitumensheeting
5 Galvanizedsteelangle,80 x 130 x 10 mm 16 Timberboarding,28 mm
6 Rustprooftrack for twin-wheelroller 17 Rafters,100x 160 mm
7 Galvanizedsteelangle,30 x 30 x 3 mm

12
13

277
Example'l 1

Housingcomplex in Amsterdam,
The Netherlands

1994

Architect:
HansKollhoff.Bedin
withChristianRapp,Berlin/Amsterdam
Structuralengineers:
Heijckmann Consulting
Engineers,
Amsterdam

BE
Thisextensivebuildingcomplex,on a former sE
BE
docksand industryislandnotfar fromthe cen- BE
Es
tre of Amsterdam,is part of an urbanredevel- EB ES gEs OEE BEE EE BE
s EB BEB BSS ESE ss 8S
opmentprogramme. Thisprogrammeallows E SB BEE EEB ES8 ss BE
for individuallargebuildingsto responddiffer-
entlyto the localconditions,existingbuildings
and theiroositionin relationto the water.The
basicoutlineof thisfour-to nine-storey struc-
tureis determined by an existingbuildingon
the southernside of the plot.
Thereare morethan300 aoartmentsaccess-
iblevia a networkof staircases,variousopen
EililEilEHAilEH3ilEHtl
walkwaysand individualstairs.The very deep
apartmentsin mostcasesreceivedaylightfrom
bothsideswhenthey are not locatedon one of
the - sometimes- very longaccesscorridors.
Theentirebuildingcomplexwas builtusing
twin-leaffacingmasonrywith 100mm hard-
burnedbricks.Standardstretcherbondwas
usedthroughout,evenfor the single-leaf
240mm facingmasonryof the balconywalls
and the wallsadjacentthe openwalkways.In
theseinstancestwo 115 mm wallswerebuilt,
one directlybehindthe other,and the under-
sidesof balconies and loggiasadaptedto suit
the windowlintels.Therefore, the entirebuild-
ing has beengivena consistentmasonrytex-
turewhichreinforcesthe placidimmensityof
the complex.The edgesof the roofsare fin-
ishedwithfoldedaluminium sheetwiththe
guttersplacedinternally. Thewoodenwindows
are set back in the planeof the insulation,while
the steelwindowsto the loggiasarefittedflush
withthe masonryfacadein a steelliningwith
peripheral ventilationjoint.Thefoldingmech-
anismof thesewindowsallowsthemto be
openedoutwardsand thus createan ever-
changingpattern, whichanimates thishuge
sculoture. o
278
Housingcomplexin Amsterdam

Northelevation
4th floor . Ground floor
s c a l e1 : 1 2 5 0
Section
scale1:400
Sectionsthrough verge and eaves
s c a l e1: 1 0

1 Aluminiumsheetcapping
2 Galvanizedsteel flat, 2Ox 2 mm
3 Open perpend
4 Wall construction:
100 mm variegated blue facing bricks, hard-burned
35 mm air soace
thermalinsulation,65 mm rockwool
150 mm calcium silicate bricl<work
5 Jointsrecessed 5 mm
6 Sheetaluminiumroof covering,
with double-lockwelted joints
7 Cleat
8 Laminatedveneer lumber (LVL),10 mm
I Vapourbarrier,0.15mm
10 Thermalinsulation,S0 mm mineralwool
11 Aluminiumsheetcapping
12 Aluminiumsheetgutter
13 LVL,18mm
14 T i m b e r s e c t i o n1,4 6 x 7 1 m m
15 Galvanizedsteel flat, 40 x 6 mm
16 Calciumsilicatebrickwork,150 mm
17 Thermalinsulation,40 mm rockwool
'18
Floorconstruction:
50 mm cement screed
180 mm reinforcedconcrete slab
19 Thermalinsulation.
. multilayerlightweightboard,
with plaster,60 mm
20 Rainwaterdownpipe,125 mm NB

279
Example11

(ZAV'/'/)
mm
vvvTv
w{4n
tf'
ill
iltr-
il-

lll
llr-- l
fftrl
lil l---t---'t
--
ll L_-l_ ]I
ILT
--ltrl
lil lT--t---
--
-__l
ll L--ll l
llf
H[E
rzTz
mm
mm
v7zv772

2AO
Housingcomplexin Amsterdam

Sectionthrough externalwall
Horizontal sectionsthroughcornersof buildingwith steel
windows:76.58"- 144.92"- 158.38"
Elevationon steel window
Horizontal sectionthroughsteelwindow
s c a l e1 : 2 0

1 Wallconstruction:
208 mm variegatedblue facing bricks,
hard-burned
2 Jointsrecessed5 mm
3 Open perpend
4 Rainwaterdownpipe,125 mm NB
5 Floorconstruction:
cementscreed laid to falls,coated
180mm reinforcedconcreteslab
cut-outfor drainage
6 Steelangle
7 Titanium-zinc sheetflashing
8 Compressible sealingstrip
9 Steelwindow, powder coated,
4 mm toughenedsafetyglass
10 Steelangle,150 x 150 x 15 mm, with slip joint
11 Steelangle,40 x 20 x 4 mm
1 2 S t e e cl h a n n e l4, 0 x 2 0 x 4 m m
1 3 2 N o .s t e e l a n g l e 4s 0
, x20x4 mm
Example11

Section through north facade


scale 1:20

1 Steel angle support bracket


Dolomitestone coping to balcony
wall, anchored
Balcony wall, 208 mm facing bricks
Balcony floor slab, precast concrete
elementwith 1.57ointegralfall, with
thermal break
Wooden window, red cedar, with
insulatingglazing
o Externalwindow sill, dolomite stone
Wall construction:
100 mm facing bricks
35 mm air space
thermal insulation.65 mm rockwool
100 mm calciumsilicategauged
brickwork
t' Thermalinsulation,lightweightbuild-
ing board, with plaster, 180 mm
I Loggia floor construction:
20 mm dolomite stone floor covering
thin-bed mortar
bitumen sheeting, 2 layers
50 mm thermal insulation
180 mm reinforced concrete slab

282
Housingcomplexin Amsterdam
Example12

Extensionto Hirschberg Palace near


Beilngries,Germany

1992

Architects:
KarljosefSchattner
and Karl-HeinzSchmitz,Eichstat
Structuralengineers:
Sailer,Stepan,Bl0os,Munich

The symmetrical palacestructuredatingfrom


the 18thcenturystandson a narrowhilltopand
thereforeofferedlittlescopefor any extension.
Thiscompletelyrefurbishedbuildingis used by
the churchfor spiritualexercisesand educa-
tion.Besidesextensiveconversionwork,a
new annexwas builtto accommodatekitchen,
dininghalland storagefacilities.
The newsectionis positionedin frontof the
southwing of the palaceand is partlybuiltinto
the side of the hill.A row of tall concrete
columnssupportsthe long,slimstructureclear
of the slopeand henceemphasizes the con-
trastwiththe strictlyuniform,renderedfinishto
the palace.Fair-faceconcreteand concrete
bricksfor the outerleafof the partial-fill cavity
wallunderline the independence of the new
structure.A long,narrow,steel-and-glass hall
providesa cleardemarcationbetweenold and
new.
Theouterleafis clearlydistinguished fromthe
restof the construction; thereis an air soace
behindand thereforethe leafis oositioned
40 mm proudof the reinforcedconcretewall
and the rowof columns.Greysteelangles
markthe cornersof the facingbrickwork,and
a steelchannelformsan elegantfinishto the
top of the walls.The deeplyrecessed,narrow,
verticalwindowslitsare alsoframedin grey
steelwhichprojectsbeyondthe facadeand so
conveysthe impression of very preciselylocat-
ed cut-outs.The steelexternalstairemploysa
particularly delicateconstruction in ordernotto
disturbthe carefulbalancebetweenharmoniz-
ationand indeoendence.
Alltheseclear,simpledetailslendthe annexa
lightness and obviouslanguagewhichis quite
distinctfromthat of the old palace, o
2U
Extensionto HirschbergPalacenearBeilngries

Locationplan scale 1:2000 Baroque entrance


Section scale 1:250 Glasshall
Ground floor Kitchen
scale 1:500 Dininghall

,t::'ffi 2 0fl01[[[[[[0[0[0[[

llllrl
I

26
Example12

286
Extensionto HirschbergPalacenearBeilngries

'
-.L --lL,lL
]TI[]TIt
l[]Flltrt
:tr-l
llrr

lr
Verticalsection through e)dernalwall 1 Steelchannel,280 mm
scale1:20 2 Externalwall construction:
Southelevation concrete bricks, 200 x 200 x 90 mm
scale1:250 40 mm air space
Axonometricview 60 mm thermal insulation
notto scale 160 mm reinforced concrete
Detailof parapet 3 Steelangle, 100 x 65 x 9 mm
scale1:5 4 Screwfixing,M12
Window 5 Steelchannel,140 mm
Elevation. Verticalsection . 6 Steel T-section,50 mm
Horizontalseclion 7 Sheetsteelcapping,galvanized,2mm
scale1:20 8 Timber section, 100 x 60 mm
I Thermalinsulation,60 mm
1 0 Reinforcedconcrete lintel
1 1 Window: steel frame with insulating
glazingin sheetsteellining
1 2 Steel angle support bracket

NI
Example13

Youth hostel in Dachau,Germany

1998

Architect:
RudolfHierl,Munich
Assistants:
PeterHofman(projectmanager),
DominikFischer,MaleenFromm,
NadjaHerrmann,MichaelaOswald,
JeannetteQuecke,UlrikeRechler,
BernhardSchambeck,OliverSchubert,
TanjaWienecke
Structuralengineer:
HansTischner, Dachau

Thisfacility,run by the GermanYouthHostels


Association, is morethanjust a youthhostel.
Situatednearthe formerNaziconcentration
and extermination camp,it acts as a centrefor
gettingto gripswiththe darkside of Germany's
history.The architectural form is intendedto
reflectboththe functionsof the buildingbut
alsothis specialtask.Apartfromthe main
building,thereis alsoa buildingfor the staff
and the separate"Raumder Stille"(Roomof
Silence).Thesethreestructuresframea tran-
quil innercourtyard- a gardenand structured
space,which is idealfor understanding and
experiencing the seriousissuesthat dominate
this place.The restrainedarchitecture
respondsto its surroundings by limitingthe
materialsusedto timberand facingbrickrarork
of light-coloured concretebricks.Thetexture
of the buildingemphasizes the low-rise,elon-
gatedform;bothin termsof the sizeand the
styleof the facade.The mainbuildingcoversa
largeareaand so two storeysare adequate.lt
measures24.5x60 m and is arrangedas two
parallelblockseitherside of a centralcircu-
lationzone.The architectural settingdistin-
guishesbetweenthe differentmaterials.For
instance,on the westside of the building,the
woodenrecessesfor windowsand sunshades
on the groundfloorare juxtaposedwiththe
concretemasonrylintelsand spandrelpanels
of the upperfloor.Placingthe masonryabove
the timberis a reversalof our customaryideas
and introducesa differentrealityto challenge
the perceptionof the observer.This is an artis-
tic contrivance for remindingus of the special
importanceof this place.Thewall construction
is conventional - paftial{illcavitywallwith
outerleafsupportedon individualbrackets-
but incorporates specialdetailsthat emphasize
and preservethe restfuluniformityof the
stretcherbond.Suchdetailsincludethe mortar
jointsrakedout to a depthof 15 mm and the
movementjointswhich zigzaglo followthe
bond.

28
Youthhostelin Dachau

rl
ll [!ll
[--l
I
lil
fll
I
Ilil

[l
1i tl Groundfloor 1 "Raumder Stille"
Upperfloor 2 Staff accommodation
Sections 3 Hall
s c a l e1 : 6 0 0 4 Diningroom
5 Seminarroom
6 Cafeteria
7 Reception
8 Management
9 Library

289
Example13

4
Sectionthrough east facade lrrlrrlrrrlrrlrrrrrrlrlrrlrlrrlrrlrrrlrrlrrrrlrrlrlrrlrrlrlrrlrrlrrlrlrrrlrrlr
scale 1:20
I
ooooo600000000000

Canopy construction:
0.7 mm titanium-zinc
sheet metal roof covering,
with standing seams
bitumenizednon-wovenglass fibre
sheeting
welded bitumen sheeting, 1 layer
24 mm timber boarding
battens to form fall
orecast concrete element
Wedge-shaped insulation,with foil, 45'
Gravel,40/50 mm
4 Flat roof construction:
80 mm vegetation layer
filter, 5 mm non-wovenfabric
40 mm drainage layer
waterproofing,2 mm PVC
thermalinsulation,140 mm rigid
expanded foam
welded bitumen sheeting, 1 layer
bituminousundercoat
180 mm reinforced concrete slab
Liningto opening,larch,20 mm,
glazedfinish
Wooden window, larch,
glazedfinish,insulatingglazing
RolFoverstop, steel channel,
70x60x1mm
Wall construction:
90 mm concrete bricks, water+epellent
60 mm air soace
thermal insulation,80 mm mineralfibre
160 mm reinforced concrete wall 10
Joints,water-repellent,
recessed15 mm 11
reinforcementto some bed joints p
10 Supportfor masonry outer leaf,
individualbrackets
11 Steelangle,85 x 85 x 10 mm
12 Insectscreen,
oerforated aluminiumsheet
13 Multiplexboard,veneered,16 mm
14 Woodenwindow,oak, glazedfinish,
insulatingglazing
15 Terraceconstruction:
20 mm reconstitutedstone pavings
60 mm screed, reinforced
separatingmembrane,0.2 mm poly-
ethylenesheeting
thermalinsulation,80 mm rigid
exoanded foam
welded sheeting,2 layers
bituminousundercoat
screed laid to 1.SVofall
120 mm reinforced concrete slab
16 Grating,galvanized,40 x 3 mm
17 Steel angle, 60 x 60 x 8 mm
18 Waterproofreinforced concrete,
300 mm
19 Plinth construction:
60 mm orecast concrete element
thermalinsulation,60 mm rigid
exoanded foam
welded bitumen sheeting
150 mm reinforced concrete wall
20 Precast concrete parapet
21 Wall construction,timber stud wall:
16 mm multiolexboard
30 x 50 mm battens
0.2 mm airtightmembrane
19 mm chipboard
140 x 60 mm timberstuds
140 mm thermalinsulation
vapourbarrier,aluminiumfoil
20 mm chipboard,maple veneer

290

I
Youthhostelin Dachau

25 26

Sectionthroughparapet 26 Removableliningto window 30 Wall construction:


Horizontal sections opening,laminatedveneerlumber 20 mm timber boarding
s c a l e1 : 2 0 (LVL)1 , 3 6x 1 5 m m 20 mm timber battens
27 Internalplaster,20 mm airtightmembrane
28 Built-incupboard 120 x 80 mm timber studs
22 6mm laminatedsafetyglass + 29 Wall construction,returnwall: thermalinsulation,
I mm toughenedsafetyglass 20 mm multiplexboard 120 mm mineralfibre
outside 0.2 mm airtightmembrane vapourbarrier,0.4mm poly-
23 Precastconcreteelement, 120 x 100 mm timberstuds ethylenesheeting
1 5 0x 1 8 0m m therm.insulation, 100 mm min.fibre 30 mm multiplexboard
24 Thermalinsulation,60 mm rigid vapourbarrier,0,4 mm poly-
pvnendod fnam ethylenesheeting
25 Claybrickworkinternalwa,., 20 mm multiplexboard,screwed
plasteredboth sides,115 mm and gluedto timberframe

291
E x a m p l1
e3

-->-,
.---.
I _=\i :

292
Schoolin Munich

School in Munich, Germany

1999

Architects:
Munich
Schunck-Ullrich-Krausen,
Projectpartner:
NorbertKrausen
Projectmanager:
MartinKerling
Assistants:
RobertKellner,MartinaWulf
Structuralengineers
Sailer,Stepan& Partner,Munich

Location olan scale 1:4000

Theensembleof buildingsformingthis primary


schoolis well soacedout on this siteon the
outskirts of Munich,To the souththereis a
landscapednoisebarrierscreeningthe school
fromthe adjacentrailwayline,and to the east
and north-west the schoolis boundedby hous-
ing.The randomarrangement of the long,low-
risebuildingsdefinescourtyardsand semi-
enclosedspaces,therebyallowingthe school
to meshwith its surroundings.
Thequalityof the architectureis evidenton the
insideas well,with brightlylit passagesand
corridors, whichstructurethe layoutand incor-
poratethe landscape,as well as in the careful
designand construction of the details.
Thedifierentfacadesare partof an energy
concept:whilethe classroomsfacingsouth
employfull-heightglazing(whichleadsto cor-
respondingsolargains),the otherfacadesare
mainlybuiltusinga highlyinsulatedsolidcon-
struction. Theirappearanceis governedby the
partial{illcavitywallwith concretebrick (290x
190x 90 mm)outerleafbuihin a variationof
rakingstretcherbond.
Thebuildingmaterialsused haveessentially
beenleftuntreated.Inside,the roughconcrete
brickscontrastwith the few woodensurfaces
anda numberof colouredelementswhich
havebeenverycarefullyand discreetlyincor-
porated.Outside,the concretesurfaces,the
concretebricks,the galvanizedsteeland the
light-coloured anodizedaluminiumwindow
framesenterintoa dialoguewiththe green
surroundings,
Usingminimalarchitectural means,the school
succeedsin conveyingan impressionof play-
ful and charmingattractiveness. The masonry
unitsof this building,leftuntreated,givethe
schoola "tangible"texture.

293
Example14

2 ll tl ll2 lle ll !10

1 Indoor play area 6 WorkshoP


2 Classroom 7 Sports hall
3 After-schoolsupervision I Void
4 Multiourooseroom 9 Staffroom
5 Music room 10 Management
Schoolin Munich

Upperflool lsometricview of buildings


Groundfloor lsometricview of facade
scale1:1000 not to scale

295
Example14

1 Monopitch roof construction: Flat roof construction:


corrugatedaluminiumsheeting, 100 mm vegetation layer
1 7 7x 5 5 m m 20 mm drainage mat, with non-woven
50 mm battens and counterbattens fabric
waterproofing,3 mm bitumen 15 mm siructure orotection mat
sheeting waterproofing,5 mm plastic sheeting,
24 mm timber boarding resistantto root penetration
80 mm air space 120 mm rigid expandedpolyurethane
thermalinsulation,160 mm mineral insulation
fibre vapour oarrrer
vapour barrier, polyethylenesheeting 200 mm reinforced concrete slab, top
28 mm timber boarding sudace cast to 2% fall
glulampurlin,14 x I mm Internalwall,concretebricks,white,
steelbeam, IPE270 290 x 190 x 190 mm

296
Schoolin Munich

Sectionthroughhall
s c a l e1 : 4 0 0
Sectionthrough clerestoryover internalwall
section through externalwall
s c a l e1 : 2 0
Sectionthroughclassroomwing
Sectionthroughsportshall
s c a l e1 : 4 0 0

Floor construction:
5 mm linoleum
55 mm cementscreed,reinforced
separatingmembrane,polyethylene
sheeting
10 mm impactsound insulation
Damp proof membraneon ground floor
slab, 200 mm reinforcedconcreteslab
6 Thermalinsulation,100 mm rigid
expanded foam
7 Floor construction:
25 mm naturalstonetiles laid in thin
bed
65 mm screed
separatingmembrane,polyethylene
sheeting
10 mm impactsound insulation
200 mm reinforced concrete slab
50 mm multiplexlightweightmineral
buildingboard
8 Aluminiumgutter
9 Post-and-railfacade:
50 mm laminatedveneer lumber (LVL),
birch,clear lacquerto exposedface
insulatingglazing,aluminiumcover
profile, natural-colour anodized
10 Column,steelcircularhollowsection,
8 2 . 5d i a .x 3 . 6 m m
11 Aluminiumsheet,naturaFcolour
anodized
12 LVL rail,birch,530 x 50 mm
13 Reinforcedconcreteslab, 350 mm
14 Wall construction:
outer leafof concretebricks,white,
rakingstretcherbond 290 x 190 x 90
50 mm air space
thermalinsulatron,60 mm mineralwool
240 mm reinforcedconcretewall
15 mm internalplaster
tc Open perpend
tb Precast concrete beam,
300 x 90 x 2585 mm
17 Reinforcedconcretecorbel,
2 1 0 x 2 5 0x 2 5 0 m m

297
Example15

'srp!
School in Ostfildern,Germany

1999

Archilects:
ArnoLederer,J6runnRagnarsd6ttir, MarcOei,
StuttgarUKarlsruhe
Assistants:
JudithHaas(projectmanager),
AlexanderMayer-Steudte (projectmanager),
UlrikeHautau,CorneliaHund
Structuralengineers:
Muller+ Muller,Ostfildern

_)c o o o
LtLroo
Scharnhauser Parkis a redevelooment scheme OCOL]
on the siteof a formermilitarybarracks.The
oooc
OCCC
north-east boundaryof the site is a sweeping
curve- determinedby the new rapidtransit
lightrailwayline.Thedesignfor thisnew
schooloriginatedfroma competition. The oooo
curvingboundaryis integratedin the outside ocoo
facilitiesof the schooland the structuresclear-
ly followthe gridof the development plan. @
The schoolbuildingitself,withthreestoreysin
the southand two in the north,is a simpletwin
parallelblocksystemwith a central,longitud-
inalcirculation zone,whichis brokenup by the
singleflightsof stairsof fair-faceconcreteand
the circularrooflights.The brightupperfloor
benefitsfromthe rooflightsin the V-shaped
roof,whichlikethe stairsfollowsthe longitud- :_::'
inalaxis.Thewindowsto the classroomsare
no largerthan is necessaryto admitsufficient
daylight.Thisis botha contribution to thrifty
and energy-efficient construction, and this sim-
ple,strictdesignrule leadsto a clearlydefined
interfacebetweeninteriorand exterior.For
reasonsof cost,an inexpensive brickfired in a
circularkilnwas chosenwhoseedgesare not
so sharpand whosecolourcan varyfrom light
brownto lightred.Duringbricklaying, attention
was givento producingwidejointsfinishedin
one operationwiththe bricklaying. The sand-
colouredmoftarwas deliberately"smeared"
almostamateurishly, whichresultedin a rough,
coarsesurfacefinish.Thistexturewas contin-
ued internallyalongthe corridors;merelyat the
entrancesto the classroomswas this surface
somewhat"improved".Thereis a largeschool-
yard betweenthe mainbuildingand the sports
hall,terracedto followthe slopeof the land.
Thisresultedin a closeharmony,partlybrought
aboutby the homogeneity of the material.

298
Schoolin Ostfildern

tllll mE Ero Etrtsrqr mmmmnmmul mm


n'-l tllE mm boorstr

Locationplan
scale1:2500
Upperfloor . Groundfloor
Eastelevation
Sectionthroughschoolbuilding
s c a l e1 : 8 0 0

299
Example15

Section
.1:20
scale
Sectionthroughschoolbuilding
s c a l e1 : 4 0 0
Horizontalsection
throughnorthlightroof
s c a l e1 : 2 0

300
Schoolin Ostfildem

Roofconstruction:
0.7mmtitanium-zinc sheet,withstandingseams
24 mmtimberboarding
80x 80 mmcounterbattens (80mmair space
between)
2OO x 12Ommrafters(20Ommmineralfibre
insulationbetween)
2OOx12O mmourlin
24-32mmorientedstrandboard(OSB)
vapourbarrier,0.4mmpolyethylene sheeting
12.5mmplasterboard
Roofconstruction:
extensive planting,
min.120mmvegetation layer
protectionand storagemat
waterproofing, bitumensheeting,2 layers,top layer
resistantto rootpenetration
190mmthermalinsulation
vaoourbarrier
260mmreinforced concreteslab
3 Parapet capping,0.7mmtitanium-zinc sheet
4 Timbersection
5 Thermal insulation,60 mmmineralfibre
6 Openperpend
Blind,natural-colour aluminium,50 mm
d Bracket,stainless steelangle
I Aluminium windowwithinsulating glazing
1 0 Windowsill,MDFboard,lacquered
1 1 Window sill,bent3 mmaluminium sheet,
frontedgerounded
t z Wallconstruction:
''|15mmclayfacingbrickwork
45mmairspace
thermalinsulation. 80 mmmineralfibre
250mmreinforced concretewall
15mminternalDlaster
13 Movement joint
1 4 External insulation, 120mm
Dampproofcourse
16 Parquet flooring,oak,20 mm
1 7 Supportbracket,stainlesssteelsheet
1 8 External insulation,80 mm

301
Example15

Section through sports hall


scale 1:400
Section through east facade of sports hall
s c a l e1 : 2 0

so2
Schoolin Ostfildern

Roof construction: 9 Profiledstructural glass


30 mm sports ground artificial playing 10 Cover, stainlesssteel sheet, 3 mm
surface 11 Thermalinsulation,60 mm mineralfibre
separating membrane, non-woven 12 Waterproofing,welded bitumen
glassfibre, 1 layer sheeting,2 layers
75 mm reinforced concrete plank 13 E)dernalinsulation,60 mm
drainagelayerof 20 mm closed-cell 14 Concreteplinth
polyethylenefoam 15 Junctionwith ground,with
waterproof ing, welded bitumen surface drainage
sheeting,2 layerc,top layer resistant geotextilecovering
to root penetration gravel
thermalinsulation,80 mm rigid protective layer to waterproofing
expandedpolyurethane waterproof ing, bitumensheeting,
welded bitumensheeting,diffusion- 2 layers,top layer resistantto root
resistant penetration
180 mm reinforcedconcreteslab thermalinsulation,100 mm foamed
2 Cover,stainlesssteelsheet,3 mm grass
3 Timbersection vapourbarrier
4 Parapetcapping,titanium-zinc, 250 mm reinforced concrete slab
1 . 5m m 16 Wall construction:
5 Support bracket 60 mm laminateddrainage board
6 Frost-resistantclay facing bricks, non-wovenfabric protection
'115 80 mm external insulation
mm
7 Reinforcedconcrete wall, 250 mm bitumenpaint
8 Frost-resistant
clay facing bricks,240 mm 300 mm reinforced concrete wall

l
tc
I
lrr rl irlr rrrl lrrll ltrt trltrl lrlt lrrl

ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo

303
Example16

Town hall in Fellbach,Germany

1987

Architect:
ErnstGisel,Zurich
Assistants:
OthmarBrugger,HeinrichGerster,
HarryMoor,HeinzSchmid,LeoSchweitzer
Sitemanager:
PeterZimmermann, Filderstadt
Structuralengineer:
HeinrichBechert,Fellbach

"Architecture thatcreatesthetown."ErnstGisel's
workin Fellbachcouldbe viewedin thislight.
The prosperoustownof Fellbachwith its fast-
growingpopulationand the usualoutgrowths
of the 1950sand 1960s,alsonotunknownin
othertowns,was lookingfor a nucleus.The
areaaroundthe Lutheranchurch,once shield-
Location plan
ed by a fortifiedwall,providedan adequate scale 1:1500
settingfor the 1979competitionto redesignthe Section . Ground floor
centreof the town.The briefwas to "create, s c a l e1 : 7 5 0
togetherwith a marketplace, not onlya centre
for the localauthoritybut alsoa livelyzone
whichwouldbe frequentedby the citizens".
Thejury choseGisel'sdesignbecauseof its
"agreeablematter-of-factness". Wellstruc-
tured,clearlyarranged,decisivein its lan-
guage,ErnstGisel'ssolutionmakesexcellent
useof boththe internaland externalspacesof
this urbannode,clarifyingand structuringthe
outercontours.The configuration of the inner
courtyardswiththeirsmallalleywaysand the
squarein frontof the town hallthemselvespro-
videa highurbanquality.
It seemeda naturalchoiceto opt for a twin-leaf
masonryconstruction with a 240 mm load-
bearingouterleaf.However,the thicknessof
the thermalinsulationusedwouldthesedays
no longersatisfythe statutoryrequirements.
The buildingexploitsthe advantagesof a self-
supportingmasonrywallto the full: lesenes,
corbelsand columnsin realmasonrybond,
robustdetailingat the windowreveals,plus
masonrystairsand semicircular arches.
The masonryis complemented by natural
stonefor the windowsillsand lintelsas well as
for the clearlydifferentiatedplinth.
Designedin an age of flourishing post-
modernism, the architecthascreatedan authen-
tic settingwithoutsuperfluous commentswhich,
owingto its internaland externalspatialquali-
ties,its correctuseof the materialsand atten-
tionto detail,has lostnothingof its topicality. ill

304
Town hall in Fellbach

'1
Town square 8 Roomfor civil marriage
2 Garden ceremonies
3 Marketplace I Councilservices
4 Lutheranchurch 10 Offices
5 Churchyard 11 Informationcentre
'12
6 lvlainentrance Restaurant
7 Foyer 13 Cafe
14 Shop

t'| 'tLlt tl
| | llllTlflhr
't-.1,,r*Iri r r lLJl lffil
1o--r- - ---

U9
.-
JL-
+--

305
Example16

!!!!E!U
!!!![

Section
s c a l e1 : 7 5 0
Part-elevation. Section
s c a l e1 : 2 0

1 Cold deck roof construction,5.4" pitch:


copper sheetroof covering,670 x 0.7 mm,
double-lockweltedjoints
roofingfelt
24 mm timber boarding
160 x 80 mm rafters
air space
.100
thermalinsulation, mm mineralwool
reinforced concrete waffle slab,
with white cement
2 Trim,0.7 mm copper sheet
3 Closurestrip,60 x 40 mm
4 Lowertrim,0.7 mm copper sheeton
b u i l d i n gp a p e r
5 F l a s h i n g0, . 7 m m c o p p e r s h e e t
'1
6 Wall plate, 20 x 120 mm
7 Soldiercourse,NF facing bricks
I Reinforcedconcreteupstandbeam
9 Stonecoping to lesene,Lodrinogneiss
10 Thermalinsulation,50 mm mineralfibre
11 Damp proofmembrane
12 Fixingplate,galvanizedsteel,140 x 5 mm
13 Stonelintel,Lodrinogneiss
14 Box for sunshade,1.5 mm copper sheet
15 Cavitycloseras inspectionflap, 1.5 mm copper
sheet,fixed with stainlesssteelscrewsin sleeves
1 6 Woodenwindow,with insulatingglazing
1 7 Column,300 mm dia.
t o Waterchannel
1 9 Stonewindowsill,Lodrinogneiss
20 Wall construction:
240 mm yellowfacing bricksin Englishbond
42 mm air space
thermalinsulation,50 mm mineralfibre
100 mm in-situconcretespandrelpanel
steelsheetcladdingto spandrelpanel
2 1 Waffleslab, reinforcedconcrete,
with white cement
Guide cable for sunshade
23 Windowsill, 1.5 mm copper sheet
24 Steelangle,55 x 75 x 5 mm, galvanized
z3 Claddingto plinth,Maggiagranite,exposed
surfacesknapped,50 mm

306
Town hallin Fellbach

I
L

307
E x a m p l1
e7

Office buildingin Ltinen,Germany

1995

Architects:
Hillebrandt+ Schulz,Cologne
Structuralengineers:
Kleinwechter,Doftmund

Thisofficebuildingis locatedon a newbusi-


nessestatein L0nenon the north-eastern edge
of Germany'sRuhrdistrict.
Thedesignbriefof the municipalbuilding
authoritycalledfor "a road-sidefacadeof fac-
ing brickwork". The architectsrespondedwith
a long,low-rise buildingon thisslightlyelevat-
ed plot in whichthe "facingbrickwork"stipula-
tionbecamean agenda:a subtlydesigned,
articulate buildingwhichattainsa highquality
withrespectto daylighting throughthe special
arrangement of the openings.Eachelevationof
the structurerespondsdifferently to the envi-
ronment.At the north-west cornerthe glass,
framedin steel,protrudesquitenoticeablyfrom
the building.On the southsidethewindows
extendovertwo storeysand are framedby
projectingbrickwork.The smallstaircasefoyer
haswallswhichvary in thicknessand an over-
sizedwindowwith splayedreveals,whichpro-
videsa specialsettingfor the lightingand view
of the outside.The differentiated building
designis accompanied by wellthought-out
windowdetailsand rooflightsin the formof
semi-cupolas at a regularspacing.The primary
loadbearing construction consistsof 300 mm
lightweight concretemasonrywhich is givena
coatof gypsumplasterand in someareasfin-
ishedwithseveralcoatsof limeplaster.The
windowlintelsare of in-situconcreteinsulated
with polystyrene. Thin-format Wittmunderpeat-
firedclay bricksin a randombond are
employed for the 115 mm facingbrickwork of
the outerleaf.Thereis a 50 mm air space
behindthe outerleaf, Locatedin frontof the
groundfloormeetingroomis a
terracedpondfeaturewith masonrywalls;the
playof lighton itssurfaceis an agreeable
reflectionof the atmosphereof the interior.The
useof a singlemasonrymaterialthroughout
fusesthe buildingandthe car parkand
entrancestepsintoone entityand conveysthe
notionof spaciousness as a subtlemeansof
ranraeant4fi6n

308
Officebuildingin Ltinen

1st floor . Ground floor


scale 1:50O
Sections
scale 1:250
Section through south facade
scale 1:20

1 Masonryframe in trass cement


'|50x150x12mm
2 Steelangle,
3 Steel window, with insulating
glazing
4 Panel construction:
15 mm cementrendering,
flush with window, painted
thermalinsulation,multiplex
lightweightboard,50 mm
5 Wall construction:
facing bricks, Wittmunder
peat-firedclay DF, 115 mm
50 mm air space
300 mm lightweightconcrete
masonry,with skim plaster coat

309
E x a m p l1
e7

Sectionthrougheastfacade
Sectionthroughwest facade
s c a l e1 : 2 0

1 Wallconstruction:
cementrendering,reinforced,
finishedwith severalcoats of
smooth,colouredlime rendering
thermalinsulation,multiplexlight-
weightboard,50 mm
250 mm reinforcedconcretelintel
15 mm internalplaster,painted
2 Steelwindow,with tiltingopening
l l g h t ,i n s u l a t i n g l a z i n g
3 Bitumenwaterproofing
4 Floorconslruction:
carpet
60 mm screed
80 mm lhermalinsulation
vapourbarner
160 mm reinforcedconcreteslab
5 Steelwindowin steelflat reveal
6 Woodenreveal,laminatedwith
damp proofmembrane
7 Thermalinsulation,50 + 30 mm
rigid expandedfoam

310
Computercentrein Karlsruhe

Computer centre in Karlsruhe, Germany

1992

Architect:
HeinzMohl,Karlsruhe
Projectmanager:
PeterLitzlbauer
Assistants:
M. Bertram, K. Bohm,H. Ddbbeling, G. Doring,
N. Fostiropolous,S. Hirschfeld,R. Preisser,
S. Ozcam,J. Schneider, M. Wagner,l. Walser,

I
T. Weiler
Sitemanagement:
Stieff+ Trunzler,Karlsruhe
Structuralengineers:
Ingenieurgruppe Bauen,Karlsruhe

Location plan
scale 1:2000

Thefan-shapedstructureof the city of Karls-


ruhe,radiatingout fromthe palace,is domin-
atedby this late-Baroque or classicisticideal-
isticplan.Withinthis historicalradius,the
shapea'ndproportionsof every new develop-
mentmustcomplywiththis overridinggeo-
metry.However,respectfor the city does not
excludethe useof modernformsof construc-
tionand modernmaterials,as the exampleof
thecomputercentremakesabundantlyclear.
Thisstrikingbuildingof facingmasonryis situ-
atedin the directvicinityof the well-known
churchdesignedby FriedrichWeinbrenner.
Thenumberof storeysand heightofthe eaves
matchthe neighbouring buildings. Butthe
largerooftopstructuresand set-backfeatures
of the surroundings are alsoreflectedin the
newbuilding, trueto scaleandwitha new
interpretation.
Theprimaryloadbearingconstruction consists
of a reinforcedconcreteframewith infillpanels
of concretebricks.The bricksare leftexposed
on the spandrelpanelsand someof the intern-
al walls.Concretebrickswerealsochosenfor
the90 mm outerleaf (withair space behind).
Theconsistentmasonrybond lendsthe facade
an evente)dure.Merelythe lintelsoverwin-
dows,doorsand otheropeningsare empha-
sizedby the brick-on-end courses.The com-
plexdetailsat the junctionshavebeenworked
outexactlyand in harmonywiththe patternof
thebond.Thisalsoappliesto the overhanging
canopiesat the top of the facade,the taller
buildingsectionsrisingaboverooflevel,and
theprecastconcreteelements,bothdecorative
andstructural.
Therestrainedcolouringof the differentshades
of greyused- fromthe lightgreyconcrete
bricksto the anthracitewindowframes- binds
thisstructureintothe contextof the city without 'l.ortl*;!11lg|m
denyingits independentcharacter. "o.*..-li;;f

311
Example18

I
I
L
Section through facade
s c a l e1 : 1 0 0
lsomelric view of eaves cornice
not to scale

I
I
I
Comoutercentrein Kadsruhe

Sectionthrough facade
scale1:20

Concretebricks,white,
2 9 0 x1 9 0 x 9 0 m m
2 Precastconcrete element
3 Rainwaterhopper,
with overflow
4 Insulatingglazingon steel
iramework
5 Stainlesssteel wall tie with
insulation clip and drip disc
o Concretebrick lintel,90 mm
7 Supportbracket, steel angle
I Aluminiumwindow,colour-
coated,with insulatingglazing
Wall construction:
concretebricks, white,
290x 190 x 90 mm
50 mm air space
thermalinsulation,
60 mm mineralfibre
240 mm concrete bricks as
infillpanelsin reinforced
concreteframe
Openperpend
Damp proof course, bitumen
sheetingon stainlesssteel
sheetas support
Waterproofing,bitumen
sheeting,2 layers
Rigidthermalinsulation
Loadbearingreinforced
concretestructure

313
Example19

Mixed-use building in Zlirich, Switzerland

1993

Architects:
Haessig+ Partner,Zurich
FelixB. Haessig,PeterC. Haessig,
BrunoClausen
Structuralengineers:
Schubiger AG,Zurich

The north-west boundaryof the groundsto


ZurichHospitalis denotedby a looselyspac'ed
rowof buildings.Oneof the gapswas filled
withtwo new structurespositionedat a slight
angleto eachother,one with apartments, the
otherwith laboratories,joinedby a glazed
accessblock.The geometryand alignmentof
bothbuildingsfollowthe existinglinesof the
surroundingbuildings.The architectural lan-
guageof the two componentsis relatedbut
variedslightlyto reflectthe differentfunctions.
In termsof volumeand scalethey echothe
regularurbanstructureof the existingbuilding
stock.Likethe neighbouring structures,there
is a plinthwhichcan adaptto the existing
topography.Clad in graniteslabs,the plinth
formsa commonfoundationto the two build-
ings;likewise,the largeoverhangingeaves
createa commontermination to the walls.To
establisha difference,the westernuppermost
storyis set back and providedwith a cladding
of corrugatedaluminiumsheeting.The remain-
ing facadesare, in the main,of calciumsilicate
bricks,120mm thick,builtin stretcherbond.
Thereis an air spaceand 100mm of thermal
insulationbetweenthe facingbriclarorkof the
outerleafand the reinforcedconcreteload-
bearingstructure.Windowlintels,mullionsand
sillscompriseprecastconcreteelementsclad
in 30 mmthickcalciumsilicatebrickslios.All
the masonryis pointedthroughoutwith a grey
cementmortar,evenat the junctionsbetween
the prefabricated and in-situwalls,to create
the impressionof a seamlessmasonrystruc-
ture.The interiorof the buildingalsoemploys
prefabricated facingmasonryerectedwiththe
sameprecisionas the elterior.

314
buildingin Zurich
Mixed-use

dd EE EE EEF

EE EtEtEU lltElLll
|fil[-t
t. l! |
fI fl ti]
LlrtLLrl uu
t-l llt--t lft
uuu

1stfloor. Groundfloor
North-westelevation
s c a l e1 : 4 0 0

315
Example19

Horizontalsectionthroughwindows
Sectionthroughwest facade
Horizontalsectionthroughplinthat entrance
Horizontalsectionthroughstandardstoreyat entrance
Sectionthroughstaircasewall
s c a l e1 : 2 0

Aluminiumwindow,
micaciousironoxide
finish,with insulating
glazing
Windowsill,calcium
silicateelement
Reinforcedconcrete
m u l l i o nw i t hc a l c i u m
silicatecladding
Wall construction:
120mm calciumsilicate
bricks
40 mm air space
thermalinsulation,
100 mm mineralwool
Steelangle,
1 0 0x 3 0 x 3 . 5 m m
Canopyconstruction:
titanium-zincsheet roof
covering,0.7 mm, with
i..1\ double-lockwelted
joints
roofingfelt
100 x 40 mm timber
boardingscrewedto fin
Steelangle,
30x30x4mm
Corrugatedaluminium
sheeting,mlll-finished,
1 8x 7 6 m m
Roof construction:
steelbeam, IPE240
thermalinsulation,
140 mm mineralwool
void
vapourDarner
18 mm plasterboard
10 Sunshade,fabric blind
11 Reinforcedconcrete
lintelwith calcium
silicatecladding
12 Steelangle,
120x60x12mm
13 Stainlesssteel bracket

316
buildingin Zurich
Mixed-use

1 4 Floor construction:
5 mm linoleum
95 mm cement screed
10 mm impactsound
insulation
280 mm reinforced
concrete slab
lc Calciumsilicate
brict<work,120 mm,
without plaster
1 6 Aluminium section, stove
enamelled,with insulat-
ing glazing
1 7 Plinthwall construction:
40 mm graniteslabs,
retaining
and fixing anchors of
stainlesssteel
'100
mm thermal
insulation
180 mm reinforced
concrere
1 8 Steel beam, HEA 140
1 9 Steel circular hollow
section,101.6dia.x5 mm
with 140 x 140 x 10 mm
plates top and bottom
20 Glascrete element
21 Copper sheet
Concrete paving slab,
40 mm
23 Roof construction:
extensiveplanting
waterproofing,bitumen
sheeting,3 layers
40 mm spruce boarding
taperingtimberjoists,
140-180x 100 mm
steel beam, IPE 240
thermal insulation,
140 mm mineralwool
suspendedceiling

317
Example
20

Mixed-usedevelopmentin Berlin,Germany it-

1996 L f-1
Architects: I \-
Petraand PaulKahlfeldt, Berlin
-:-
Assistants:
AnjaHerold,Christoph Haag, ii-
YvesMinssarl, MichaelFuchs,
]"r \ ii
I *r
JornPotting, ThomasKiilber,ConorMoran,
FraukeHellweg,MartinOestlund f'1i ir
Structural engineers: it \1 il
I n g e n i e u r b uFr ion k B
, erlin
i-i
I
-t

Thisensembleof residential
- "Engelhardt
and commercial il 1i
I
til
t-
i
lll
iLl il
J 1l
.l
buildings Hof"- liesin a densely
developedinner-city districtin the immediate
proximity of Charlottenburg Palace.
Thesurrounding buildingsoriginate fromthe
secondhalfof the 19thcenturyand survived
thewar moreor lessundamaged. Theplot
withinthisblockbelongedto a breweryup until
the mid-1980s. Afterproduction ceased,only
the originalofficebuildingandwarehouse
remained.
Thenewdevelopment is dividedintothree
parts.At the north-west cornera blockwith
officesformsthe transitionfromthe surround-
ing housingto the innercourtyard, a U-shaped
commercial development joinson at thefire-
walls,and an apartment buildingechoesthe
historical perimeter blockdevelopment - and
in so doingclosesoff the courtyardto the
south.
Thecommondesignfeaturelinkingallthe
buildingsis the masonryof light-yellow facing
bricks.Theexternal wallsarefull-fillcavity
walls.The differentfacadetreatments, corres-
pondingto eachbuilding's utilization, distin-
guishthe appearance of thewholecomplex.
Theofiicebuildinghasan outerleafin header
bondwithan insetsteel-and-glass facade
whichleadsfromthe publicroadto the court-
yard.Theexternal, fixedglazingprotectsthe
delicatewoodenwindowsbehindagainstthe
effectsof the weatherand offerssoundand
thermalinsulation. Theopeninglightsof the -1- :- ffi--EF=-
I I lL LIL --lL '.1! --ll-
pl flfl
innerleafprovidea meansof naturalventilation r|-' LT--
for the offices.
ln contrast, the masonryconstruction of the Effin iliTr-lpild 'l'
ll',X,
r: t ir+]t tH!l'.X'
commercial blockin the courtyard is reduced
to littlemorethana framewithinfillpanels
EL-l ll
comprisrng generous expansesof glazingin
woodenframes.The outerleafhereon these I
^l
facadeshasbecomecolumnsand lintelsin
Englishbond.Thesideof the apartment block
facingthe landscaped innercourtyard has
beengivencontinuous balconies: the large Locationplan
a\eas al q\aZtnqare \xoken uq ver\\ca\\n\1 scale 1:4000
"':-::\ir\---:s.::\lr:l
:\\\\\=\\\::-\\:1.:.-:S:::l::l{'-=.=:
in Berlin
development
Mixed-use
Example20

I|t lilil|
I tl] ilil|
l4Ellillil
J

mF!tfrm
- -- -Ln- -
ffif
.lllll
tI-!mmF!
- -- -- -- -
mmrumm

Sectionthroughbalcony. Insulatingglazingto office building


Horizontalsection . Vertical section
s c a l e1 : 2 0

Precast concrete element, tc Waterproofing,bitumen


1203mm sheeting
2 Thermalinsulation,100 mm 16 Roof waterproofing, bitumen
3 Wooden window, 3-part, sheeting,3 layers
with insulatingglazing 17 Thermalinsulation,140 mm
4 Divider,acrylic 18 Vapour barrier
5 Rainwaterdownpipe,70 mm dia. 19 Reinforcedconcrete slab,
o Steel section, 30 x 30 mm 200 mm
7 Steel section, 20 mm 20 Gutter
8 Steelsection,120 x 10 mm 21 Reinforcedconcrete upstand
I Anchorplate,150 x 100 x 10 mm 22 Thermalinsulation,30 + 30 mm
10 Grating, cast iron, to cover 23 Steel bracket for supporting
drainagechannel outer leaf
1l Wall construction: 24 Blind
115 mm facing brickwork 25 2 No. steel sections,with single
100 mm thermalinsulation glazing
vapour barrier 26 Ventilation
240 mm reinforced concrete wall 27 Wooden window, with
12 P a r a p e t c a p p i n gz,i n c s h e e t insulatingglazing
13 Timbersection,300 x 40 mm 28 Reinforcedconcrete column,
14 Concrete.200x200mm. as 24Ox24O mm
crenellationsat 900 mm centres

320
Mixed-use in Berlin
develooment

321
Example
21

Extensionto office building in Stuttgart,


Germany

1998

Architects:
ArnoLederer,J6runnRagnarsd6ttir,
MarcOei,
StuttgarVKarlsruhe
Assistants:
MarkoGarcia-Barth,SabineBirk,
AndyBrauneis, OliverCyrus,RolandGoppel,
Alf Hoinkis,
ThiloHolzer,MarcLosch,
AlexanderMayer-Steudte,BorisMiklautsch,
DorotheeStrauss
Structural
engineers:
IBA- Acaturk+ Kiesel,Stuttgart

The new buildinge)dendsthe headquarters of


the localpowercompany,whichdatesfrom
the '1970s. Thatstructure,by the architects
Kammerer,Belz,Kucher+ Partner,was the
expression of a technicallyorientedarchitec-
ture,whichemphasizedthe very latestmateri-
als.The loadbearingframeworkis clad in glass
and dark,anodizedaluminium panels.Ventil-
ationand climatecontrolare mechanical.
ln contrastto this,the architectsof the exten-
siondesigneda passive,ecological energy
concept.The greatmassof the buildingwith
its multilayerexternalskin- with clayfacing
brickworkand reinforcedconcreteloadbearing

il
- achieves, Locationplan
structure on the one hand,a high scale 1: 2000
thermalinertia,and on the other,formsa ther- Sections2nd floor
mal bufferbetweeninteriorand exteriorby way s c a l e1 : 1 0 0 0
of the coupledwindows.
The confinesof this urbansite made it neces-
saryto accommodate the officeson the sides
withgoodlighting. Specially developed
coupledwindowsguarantee,besidesaddition-
al protectionagainstheat,the desireddegree ^ ,'--) I
of soundinsulationand naturalventilation. L)- r---t/ /
Thebuildingenvelopeis formedby a partial{ill ilt t t 1/
l
cavitywallwith a 115 mm anthracite-colour
clay brickwork(KMz28/1.8NF)outerleaf,The iL-,]
t-l
-)
plinthmakesuse of particularlyresistantbricks
and roundedspecialsare usedadjacentthe
entrancedoors.Eachstoreyof the stretcher-
bond masonryis supportedon stainlesssteel
bracketsadjustablefor height.The cavity
measures125mm in total- B0 mm thermal
insulation plus45 mm air space.Pointing of the
wallswas carriedout in a secondoperation -\
/--\ '^,i
rit\i
usingcolouredmortar- whitefor the bed joints / \J .J-)

and blackfor the perpends.The anthracite


brickswiththeirlightmetallicsheenand the
two-colourpointinggivesthe extensiona very
specialcharacterbut alsoallowsit to blend 1 New extension
harmoniously withthe existingbuilding. 2 Existingbuilding

322
Extensionto officebuibingin Stuttgart

323
Extensionto officebuildingin Stuttgart

Sectionthrough restaurant Lightingunitsformingtop of lobby:


s c a l e1 : 1 0 0 2 panesof glass,sand-blasted
Entrancelobby fluorescenttubes
Verticalsection Steelangle as supportto outer leaf
Horizontalsection of facing brickwork
s c a l e1 : 5 0 Canopywith drainagechannel,
in-situreinforcedconcrete
Wall construction:
115 mm facing brickwork
45 mm air space
thermalinsulation,80 mm mineralwool
250 mm reinforced concrete wall
1 Barrel-vaultroof construction (with 15 mm internalplaster
extensiveplanting): Floor construction:
200 mm vegetationand drainagelayer mat in matwell (non-slipsteel tray
non-wovenfabric as protection and with drainage)
filter 60 mm thermalinsulation
protectivemat, granulated rubber 250 mm reinforced concrete slab
waterproofing,2 layers I 300 mm reinforced concrete wall
thermalinsulation,100 mm foamed glass I Lobby element:
waterproofsheeting as temporary roof doors in steel frame
covering door leavesof steel with wooden
150 mm lean-mixconcrete planksand glasselements
240 mm clay brickwork
2 Loadbearingcolumn,490 x 490 mm
facing brickwork

325
Example21

Section through corridor


adjacent offices
Horizontalsection through alcove
in ofiice
Sectjonthroughfacade
Horizontalsectionthrough
coupledwindow
s c a l e1 : 2 0

Acousticceilingpanels:
removableslit MDF
boards laminatedwith
non-wovenfabric, foam
aosoroer
Energy-saving fluores-
cent bulbs
3 Plasterboard,12.5mm
4 Loudspeaker
5 Laminatedveneer
lumber(LVL)board,
beech, removablefor
inspection
b Concretelintel
7 Facingbrickwork,
y e l l o w ,1 1 5m m
Cavity floor with carpet
floor covering,removable
access panelsadjacent
doors

326
Extensionto officebuildingin Stuttgart

l]il
__]- \-
o Fresh-airvent 1 5 Parapet capping, coated 1 8 Louvreblind '[21
10 Pull-out"pharmacist's steel sheet. 4 mm 10mm
1 9 Glasslouvres,
cupboard',LVLboard, 1 6 Wall construction: toughenedsafetyglass ):,'
beech 115 mm facing briclovork 20 Aluminium section
11 Concretecolumn 45 mm air sDace glazing
2 1 Insulating
12 Doorelement,beech thermal insulation, zz Wndowframe,LVL,
veneer,withsidelights 80 mm mineralwool beech
13 Openshelving 250 mm reinforced concrete wall 23 Drivemotor
14 Stainlesssteelsection 1 7 Cover plate, powder-coated Cupboardunit,LVL
withstriplighting aluminium,2mm, black board,beech

327
Example22

Businesspremisesin London,UK

1998

Architects:
MacOreanor LavingtonArchitects,London
Assistants:
TimAnstey,MarieBrunborg,AlexisBurrus,
NicholaDunlop,JeremyKing,
RichardLavington,GerardMacCreanor,
AidanWilliams
Structuralengineers:
AndrewGreig,GrahamLing,London

Thisbuildingis situatedat the south-west


cornerof HoxtonSquare.lt is integratedinto
an existingblockand is onlyvisibleon three
sides:to the east,facingthe square,to the
north,facingthe innercourtyard,and via a
narrowsectionfacingCoronetStreetto the
WESI.
Theplanlayoutis skilfully organized on the
southernside of the olot betweenthe three
opportunities for admittingdaylightand the
small,additional lightwell.Theretailpremises
on the groundfloortakethe formof a semi-
basementand so accommodate the different
heightsof the adjoiningstreets.The extra-high
firstfloorcompensates for thesetopographic
differencesand thereforepossessesa special
facadestructure.Columnsand lintels325 mm
thickclad in darkclay brickworkweresus-
pendedin frontofthe reinforcedconcretecon-
structionas orefabricated facadeelements.
The brickswerein somecasesformedas half-
channelsin the productionprocessfor the pre-
fabricatedelements.
Additionsto the lintelsabovethe groundfloor
and to a numberof wall sectionswerecon-
structedusingsuspendedhalf-brick-thick
claddingand at the parapetwith240 mm load-
bearingclay brickworkwalls.Thethermal
breakis alwayspositionedbetweenthe pre-
fabricatedfacadeand the loadbearingstruc-
I
ture.Thelintelsabovethewindowopenings -7--
" --.ft
divideup the stretcherbondwith horizontal
lines.Emphasizing the effectof the seemingly
continuouscolumnswiththe intervening win- I t-

dow lintelsmakesthe natureof the assemblyof


the claddingveryclear.The choiceof materi-
als and the carefulbut restraineddetailing
roundoff the architectural character.

328
premises
Business in London

L-
2nd floor ' 1st floor
-1-----i-l \
Ground flool Section

\\kf \I # t
t{-t-]1j
s c a l e1 : 4 0 0
Locationplan

\r \
I f-
scale 1: 2500

\T

rj
l{-ilt_ F

ffiHWu, #
LDr-mD

329
Example22

Axonometricview of facade
structure
not to scale
Sectionthroughfacade
s c a l e1 : 2 0 _:_l
l
_lL---
_]r

Precastconcretecolumn,
with brick cladding
2 Positioning/fixlngbolts
3 Stainlesssteel brackets,
with elongatedholes
Stainlesssteelsection,
cast into precastelement
5 Stainlesssteel bracket,
cast into precast element
Il
o Parapetcoping, precast
lll , =-1
7
concrele
Damp proof course
ltl r- .
8 Beam,precastconcrete, ll-.-Fl F-rz
with brick cladding, l| t-tr
li -
325 x 450 mm
I ln-situreinforced
concreteslab,350 mm
10 Steelflat, galvanized,
200 x 8 mm, as load-
bearingrail at steel
window,frame galvan-
ized and powder
coated,with insulating
g l a z i n g2, 4 m m
11 Steelflat, galvanized,
150 x 8 mm, as load-
bearingpost
12 Balustradeof steelflats,
galvanizedand powder
coated
13 Heatingpipes in floor
duct
14 Steelopen-gridflooring,
galvanized
15 Aluminium p l a t e ,4 m m
16 Slidingdoors in frameof
steelsections,galvan-
ized and powder coated,
with insulatingglazing
17 Stainlesssteelsupport
bracket
18 Clay brickswith stainless
steel support system

330
Businessstart-upcentrein Hamm

Businessstart-up centre in Hamm, Germany

1998

Architects:
HeggerHeggerSchleiff,Kassel
Projectmanager:
GerhardGreiner
Assistants:
AchimDahl,BeritSchaal,TobiasSchaffrin
Structural
engineer:
ReinholdMeyer,Kassel
Servicesengineers:
Hausladen, Kirchheim
bei MUnchen

Sections
Groundfloor
scale 1:1000

Thisbusinessstart-uocentrewas builton one


of the countlessformerindustrialsitesthat
todayare beingput to new uses.The aim of
thisprojectwas to provideassistancefor eco-
logicallyorientedmanualtradesand service
companies in the buildingindustry. Thecom-
plexconsistsof a four-storey officeblockand a
numberof two-storeyunitsgroupedarounda
courtyard. Theseunitscan be dividedin a vari-
etyof ways and so can accommodateup to
24 businesses.
Thefour-storey officeblock,with circulation
zonealongone side,consistsof 240 mm calci-
umsilicatemasonrywith compositefloorsof
boardslaidon edge cast in concrete.The
partial{illcavitywallswereconstructedusing
recycledbricksfromdemolished buildings.
Thelintelswereformedfrom bricksin stretcher
bondsupportedon a steelanglein orderto
highlightthe rowsof windows.Theseare
placedin the planeof the thermalinsulation.
Junctions with partitionsare characterized by a
claddingof woodenpanels.The sunshades
areclearlyvisiblebeneaththe lintelsin frontof
thewindows,
Theunitsare basedon a steelframeworkwith
infillpanels,alsoof recycledclay bricks.Their
barrel-vaultroofscomprisecurvedglulamribs
withthermalinsulationbetweenand extensive
plantingas the rooffinish.
Thisecologically orientedprojectwas investi-
gatedand optimizedwith respectto the energy
balance(consumption figuresas well as pri-
maryenergyconsumptionduringproductionof
buildingmaterials). One of the outcomesof this
wasthe useof a four-storey air collectorover
thewindowless south-east facade.An earth
channelensuresthatthe air is precooledin
summer. Thanksto the use of recycledfacing
brickswiththeirvividcolouringand irregulari-
ties,thisbuildinghelpsto remindus thatthis
locationwas oncethe homeof the localcollierv. a
Sill
Example
23

Unitfacade Sectionthroughofficeblock
Section . Elevation s c a l e1 : 2 5 0
s c a l e1 : 5 0 Sectionthroughfacade
s c a l e1 : 2 0

332
Businessstart-uocentrein Hamm

Post-and-railfacade,glu- 12 Wall construction:


lam, coverstripsof oiled 2 1 7 x 1 0 0x 6 6 m m
oak, steel beams with recycled bricks
brackets 50 mm air space
2 Recycledbricks,240 mm airtightmembrane
3 Reinforcedconcrete 90 mm thermalinsulation
ground slab, waterproof, 240 mm calcium
250 mm silicatebrickwork
A
Dome rooflight 15 mm internalplaster
5 Parapetcapping,zinc 13 Mortarfilling,5Omm
sheet '14
Thermalinsulation,
o Roof construction: 80 mm foamedglass
50 mm vegetation layer 15 Concrete,waterproof,
sheeting,resistantto root 22Omm
penetration 16 Roofconstruction:
waterproofing extensiveplanting
22 mm plywood sheeting, resistantto
240 mm thermalinsulation root penetration
160 x 240 mm glulamrib, waterproofing
barrel-vaultsegment 100 mm thermal
vapourbarrier insulation
22 mm plywood vapourbarrier
7 Open perpend 260 mm timber-
d Angle bracket reinforced concrete
I Acrylicshellfor aluminium composite roof
sunshade 17 Internalwindowsill,
10 Wooden window, grey laminatedveneer
glazedfinish,with insulat- lumber(LVL)board,
ing glazing birch,30 mm
11 Externalwindowsill,zinc
sheet

33it
Example24

Housingcomplex in Amsterdam,
The Netherlands

1998

Architects:
AtelierZeinstra,van der Pol,Amsterdam
Projectarchitect:
HermanZeinstra
Assistants:
HarrietDil,MartinFredriks,SjoerdLandmann,
Mechthild Stuhlmacher
Structural
engineers:
Bouwstart,Amsterdam

Development of the two peninsulasof Sporen-


borgand Borneofor inner-cityhousingin the
easternpartof Amsterdam'sdockyardsbegan
in 1987.The docksherehad not beenusedfor
manyyearsandthe buildings wereoccupied
by squattersand artists.Refurbishment had
beenplannedsincethe 1970sandwas long
overdue.The masterplan rigorouslypre-
scribeda three-storey blanketdevelopment
disectedby parallelstreetsevery30-40m.
The development plan providedfor a number
of differenttypesof housingwhich,however,
hadto complywithverystrictrules.For
instance,the groundfloorhad to be 3.5 m high
in orderto guaranteealternative uses,and
eachbuildinghadto occupyan entireplot,
including parkingand external facilities.And all
thefacadeshad to be uniform- finishedwith
the sametype of brick.
The"back-to-back" apaftmentsdo not have
individualcarportsbut a garagewithinthe
blockinstead.The constrictedplan layouts
measuring 4.2 m wideand 14.5m longare lit
via a patio.The secondfloorcontainsone bed-
room,a smallbathroomand a rooftopterrace.
Theshortspansenablethe useof 190mm
reinforcedconcreteslabsspanningtransverse-
ly whichare supportedon the 230 mm con-
cretepartywalls.Consequently, the external
wallson the southand northelevationscan be
of a lightweight timberconstruction.
Nevertheless, the stipulation to use brickswas
compliedwith by constructing the infillpanels
betweenthe glulambeamsand columnsin
110mm facingbrickwork. Openingpanelsare
incorporated in the side of a recessin the
southfacade.Fixedwindowsare positioned
flushwiththe loadbearingtimbermembers.
Theelegantinterplaybetweenbrickwork,tim-
berand glasslendsthesebuildings theirspe-
cial character.

334
Housingcomplexin Amsterdam

Locationplan 1 Hall 4 Livingroom 7 Bedroom


scale1: 7500 2 Storage 5 Kitchen I Bathroom
Sections 3 Garage 6 Patio I Terrace
Groundfloor . 1st floor . 2nd floor
scale1: 200

a :i.- -.i :a

nn
tt tl
UU

335
Example24

Section through facade


Horizontalsection through recess in facade
s c a l e1 : 2 0

Parapettrim, aluminiumsection, 1 9 Thermal insulation,50 mm rigid


40 mm dia., coated expanded foam
2 Laminatedveneer lumber (LVL) 20 Sheeting,waterrepellent
board, 18 mm 2 1 Capping, bent sheet steel
Fibre-reinforcedcement Upstand, gas concrete, 100 mm
board, 16 mm 23 Waterproofing,2 layers
4 nnan narnanrl Thermalinsulation,rigid
5 Foil, water-repellent expanded foam with integral
o Thermalinsulation, falls
75 mm mineralwool zc Sheet steel brackets at
7 Wall construction: 1000 mm centres
100 mm facing brickwork 26 Steelangle, 100x 120 x 10 mm
48 mm air space 27 Flashing,lead sheet
foil, water-repellent,open to 28 Steelangle,90 x 90 x 10 mm
diffusion 29 Fixing bolts
timber post-and-railconstruction, 30 Glulambeam, impregnated,
1 1 9x 3 8 m m 3 5 3 x 1 1 0m m
thermalinsulation,120 mm glass 31 Wall construction:
wool 100 mm facing brickwork
vapourbarrier,polyethylene 45 mm air space
sheeting thermal insulation,75 mm
12.5mm plasterboard mineralwool
8 Sole plate 230 mm reinforcedconcrete
v Thermalinsulation, o1 G l u l a mc o l u m n 3, 1 6 x 1 1 0m m
80 mm mineralwool 33 Constructionof opening panel:
1 0 Fixinganchor,steelangle,cast in 20 mm profiled boards
1 1 Reinforcedconcreteslab, 190 mm 15 mm air space
1 2 Steelangle, 140 x 40 x 8 mm, foil, water-repellent,open to
fixed to slab diffusion
Floorfinish,50 mm thermal insulation,70 mm rigid
1 4 LVL board, 12 mm expanded foam
t o Steelangle support vapourbarrier
1 6 LVL board, 15 mm LVL board, 12 mm
1 7 Ribbed reinforced concrete floor
1 8 Precast concrete element,30 mm

14

15

ql6
Housingcomplexin Amsterdam

337
Example25

Housing development in Rungsted,


Denmark

1999

Architects:
BojeLundgaard& LeneTranberg,
Copenhagen
Assistants:
HenrikSchmidt,NielsFriis,SdrenAabling,

e^Jg"t ,-,
MereteAdler
Structuralengineers:
Birch& Krogboe,Copenhagen

q$ogo

Bel ColleParkis locatednearthe town of Hors-


holmin the vicinityof The Soundamid an
undulatinglandscapewith a good stockof
large,maturetrees.Locally,it is one of the
mostsought-afterareas among house-buyers.
The group of 18 two-storeysemidetached
propertiesis arrangedto followthe topography
of the site.
The land slooesdown towardsthe south-east
and in doingso formsa shallowdepression.
The houseshavebeencarefullyplaced
betweenthe existingtreestowardsthe top of
the slope.Accessis by meansof a private
driveway(cul-de-sac) on the northernside
whichcurvesto followthe topography.
Twotypesof houseare available:semi-
detachedwith or withoutbay. Furtherdiffer-
encesare evidentin the shaoeof the windows
and in slightvariationsto the livingrooms,
whichleadsto minordifferencesin the usable
spaceavailable.Eachblockof two housesis
dividedin the centreand the plan layoutsare
mirrored.Onlythe roomson the firstfloorcould
be assignedalternative uses.
The loadbearinginternaland externalwallsof
the buildingscomprise120 mm precastcon-
creteelements,the non-loadbearing wallsgas
concretepanels.Hollowconcreteplanksform
the upper floorsand the roof structuresare of
timber.The loadbearingleafof the external
wall is enclosedby 150mm cavityinsulation,
whilethe 115mm outerleafof facingbriclarork
empbyd'stretcher bondwithflushjoints.The
windows,partlyfixed lights,partlyopeningout-
wards,are positionedflushwiththe outside
face of lhe masonry.The cantilevering bays
are supportedon steelcolumnsand beams.
ThesebUildingswiththeirlight-coloured facing
masonry,longoverhangingeavesand simple
timberdetailsblendin harmoniouslv withtheir
naturalsurrqundings.

338
Housingdevelopmentin Rungsted

Locationplan
scale 1: 20000
Type 1
Upperfloor
Groundfloor
Type 2
Upper floor
Groundfloor
scale 1: 250

3it9
Example
25

340
in Rungsted
Housingdevelopment

@' :::F,:i'',',:l,shnorthracade
\ 2 Sectionthrough south facade
\ s c a l e1 : 2 0

1 Timber section, 95 x 45 mm 10 Wall construction:


Timber section, 240 x 35 mm 115 mm facing brickwork
3 Roof construction: 150 mm thermalinsulation
standlngseam roof covering,zinc vapour barrier
sheet 120 mm reinforced concrete
roofing felt 11 Damp proof course
laminatedveneerlumber(LVL) 12 Shallowlintel,clay
board, 16 mm 1 3 R e n d e r i n g , 2m
0m
220 mm rafters 14 Lightvveight clay bricks,
200 mm thermal insulation 150 x 90 mm
between rafters 15 Lightweightclay bricks,
vapour barrier 190 x 400 mmm
20 mm boarding 16 Timbersection,oak
20 mm battens 17 Floorconstruction:
13 mm plasterboard parquetflooringon supporting
Timber section, 50 x 50 mm members
5 LVL board, 12 mm, waterproof damp proof membrane
6 Zinc flashing reinforcedconcrele slab
7 Singleglazing,fixed 18 Plasterboard, 13 mm
8 Hardwood frame, oiled, with 19 Windowsill,MDF board,30 mm
insulatingglazing
Thermalinsulation,30 mm rigid
expanded foam

41
Example26

Apartmentblock in Salamanca,Spain

1998

Architect:
Jes0sMariaAparicioGuisado,Madrid
Assistants:
LuislgnacioAguirreLopez,
DanielHuertasNadel,
H6ctorFern6ndez Elorza,
CarlosPesqueiraCalvo
Structural
engineer:
Valeriano
de Diego

Thisapartmentblockis situatedin SantaMarta


de Tormes,a suburbof the Spanishuniversity
townof Salamanca. Setamidthe typicalapart-
mentblockarchitecture, it standsout conspic-
uouslyfromits surroundings.
Thisis a crisp-outlined,five-storeyblock,one
sideof whichabutsa neighbouring building.
Fourred-brickmasonrystoreysare supported
on a rough-finish concreteplinth.The central
sectionis characterized by the restrained
fenestration.The long ribbonwindowsat the
endscontinuearoundthe cornersof the open
end of the buildingand terminate on the nar-
row side.Thisfour unitsper floorlayoutwith its
elongatedstairshaftcontainswell-structured
apartments, eachwiththreelarge,separate
roomsof almostequalsizeplus a spaciousliv-
ing areawith kitchen,bathroom,storagespace
and built-incupboards.
Theentrancelobbiesare smallbut functional
and well proportioned.
Thetop storey,with its largeopeningsframed
in concrete,guaranteesa conspicuous
appearance. Therefore,this storeystandsout
clearlyfromthe others,signalling a usagedif-
ferentto thatof the standardfloors.
Thereare onlytwo apartmentson the top floor.
Theseweregivenan additionalexternalzone,
withenoughspacefor a rooftopgardenand
evena smallpoolfor each apartment,by plac-
ing the externalwallsto the apartmentsback
withinthe building.Theenclosingmasonry
wallscreatea private,couftyard-type area.The
largeopeningsin the outerwallspermitgener-
ousviewsof the surroundings. Thequalityof
thisapartment blockliesin suchcarefully
formulated,uncommonsoatialsituations. Their
effectis reinforcedby the use of just a few,
coordinated materials and simoledetails.

u2
blockin Salamanca
Aoartment

Top storey
Standard storey
Sectionsthrough top storey
s c a l e1 : 4 0 0
LUUauur I prar I

s c a l e1 : 3 0 0 0
Example26

w
Aoartmentblockin Salamanca

Sectionthrough west facade


s c a l e1 : 2 0

Upsrde-downroof construction: screed laid to falls,max. 120 mm


gravel 240 mm reinforced concrete slab
thermalinsulation,40 mm rigid 20 mm plaster
expandedfoam 5 Balustrade,12 mm laminatedsafety glass
waterproofing o Reveal,fair-face concrete
screedlaid to falls, 140-80mm 7 Wall construction:
240 mm reinforced concrete slab 115 mm clay brickwork,flushmortarjoints
15 mm plaster 15 mm plasterfill,waterrepellent
Fixedglazing,12 mm laminated thermalinsulation,60 mm glasswool
safety glass 70 mm air space
Floorconstruction,top storey: 70 mm horizontallyperforated clay bricks
naturalstoneslabs, 20 mm olaster
600 x 300 x 20 mm 6 Rollershutter box
20 mm mortar bed I Aluminiumwindow,stoveenamelled,
20 mm sand with insulatingglazing
10 mm levellingmortar 10 Soandrelwall construction:
45 mm precast concrete tiles 115 mm clay brickwork,flush mortarjoints
sleeperwalls 15 mm plasterfill,water-repellent
240 mm reinforced concrete slab thermalinsulation,60 mm glasswool
20 mm plaster 70 mm horizontallyperforated clay bricks
Roof construction,terrace: 20 mm plaster
naturalstone slabs, 11 Floor construction,standard storey:
600 x 300 x 20 mm naturalstone slabs, 600 x 300 x 20 mm
sleeperwalls,precastconcrete 20 mm mortar bed
elements 20 mm sand
thermalinsulation,30 mm rigid 240 mm reinforced concrete slab
expandedfoam
expandedclay, max. 55 mm on
waterproofing

345
Example2T

Gommunity centre in Lochau, Austria

1998

Architects:
Baumschlager & Eberle
KarlBaumschlager, DietmarEberle,
Lochau
Projectmanager:
RainerHuchler
Structuralengineer:
ErnstMader,Bregenz

The centreof the ratherrural-lookingtown of Locationplan


Lochauat the easterneltremity of Lake Con- scale1:2000
2ndfloor
stanceis dominatedby a busy throughroad 10 il ii 3 1stfloor
carryingtrafficto and from the nearbyborder. ll ll Groundfloor
Situatedon this road are the church,the coun- ilililii Northelevation
i-_-] i:t ii-----------rt iT----ri ir----------i i:i
cil offices,a numberof smallhotelsand the Southelevation
scale1:40O
new,detachedvicarage.This clarifiesin a sim- i-i
-----------t i-i;-i
-----------tt ----------------tt r iffifi
-fl
u lt
ple way the spatialrelationshipsboth to the il il _fl|
churchand to the surroundinghouses,lending lll l lll l s i l Bil' J r fmrr
fi
ll NTrnm
structureand intensityto the urban planningof uuu|ffi

the centreof the town.This no-nonsensebuild-


ing solvesproblemsof functionand architec-
turalform within its simplestructure.
Two arcadeshelp to overcomethe change in
levelsatthe edge ofthe churchsquare,but 1 Arcade
2 Entrance
also createa referencepointfor the 3 Youthactivitiss
streetscape,the open square.At street level 4 Shop
thereis a shop behindthe arcade;the floor 5 Forecourttovicarage
abovecontainsthe largeparishhall,which 6 Foyer
7 Parishhall
looksout ontothe forecourtto the vicarage. 8 Kitchen
The hall can be divided into two sectionsby I Parishsecretariat
way of a glazedslidingpartition.Thefacades 10 Choirroom
of the buildingare plain,withoutrecessesor
projections,the windowsflush with the outside
face. They conveythe impressionof a homo-
geneousenvelopeenclosingthe building.
Merelythe arcades providetextureand depth.
The loadbearingconsfuctionof the building
consistsof a reinforcedconcreteframewith
floorsof hollowconcreteplanks.Timberstud
wallsformthe infillpanelsto the frame-with
columnson a 3,0 m grid.Therefore, the
'120
mm outerskin had to be built as a free-
standingmasonryledfextendingthe full height
of the building,The brickworkis connectedto
the concreteframe via stainlesssteelanchors.
All lintelsare carriedon stainlesssteelangles
so that the stretcherbond of the facing brick-
work and hencethe structureof the envelooe
is maintained throughout.Alongthe arcades
the brickrruork skin is reducedto a 25 mm brick
slip claddingto the concretelintels.This [-r
cladding,in a slightlydifferentcolour,is also
caried aroundthe cornersof the buildingto
match.

346
Communitycentrein Lochau

4HH4H

u7
Example27

Sections
s c a l e1 : 4 0 0

:lr+ll!ii,.r$f',i,1ri$

348
Communitvcentrein Lochau

Horiz.section through door-pier junction Section


Horizontalsection through pier-fixed s c a l e1 : 2 0
glazingjunction

Wall construction: thermalinsulation,80 mm mineralwool


127 mm facing brickvvorkanchored to 360 mm hollow concrete planks, with
concrete frame skim coat and paint finish
40 mm air space o Ventilationslot
thermal insulation,60 mm glass wool 7 Facingbrickwork,115 mm, with
concrete frame: 200m concrete horizontalreinforcementevery
beamVcolumns 4th-sth course
15 mm thermalinsulation Timber stud wall construction:
12.5mm plasterboard 5 mm hardboard
vapour barrier 120 x 60 mm timberstuds
12.5mm plasterboard,with skim coat thermal insulation,120 mm mineralwool
and paintfinish 18 mm orientedstrandboard (OSB)
Thermalinsulation,100 mm rigid servicesplane,with thermalinsulation,
expanded foam 50 mm mineralwool
Siliconejoint 12.5mm plasterboard
4 Woodenwindow,opening light,oak, vapour barrier
with tripleglazing 12.5mm plasterboard,with skim coat
Floor construction: and paintfinish
100 mm oak planking Stainlesssteel Z-section,with
60 x 80 mm timber battens elongated holes

349
Example
27

350
centrein Lochau
Communitv

Sectionthrougharcadefacade
Horizontalsectionthroughwindow
Horizontalsectionthroughfixed glazing
s c a l e1 : 2 0

1 Parapetcapping,stainlesssteelsheet Concrete upstand


2 Multiplexboard,25 mm 5 Lintel,precastconcrete,clad
3 Roof construction: in 25 mm brick slips
50 mm gravel 6 Concretecolumn,
waterproofing 230 x 250 mm, with facing
thermalinsulation,200 mm rigid brickworkcladding
aYnan.la.l f^^m Thermalinsulation,
vapourbarrier 120 mm rigid expandedfoam
screed laid to falls Reinforcedconcrete wall,
360 mm hollowconcreteplanks,with waterproof,250 mm
skim coat and paintfinish

351
Example28

Church and communitycentre in


Neu-Anspach,Germany

1998

Architects:
HahnHeltenArchitekten,Aachen
Assistants:
HaraldSchdfer(projectmanager),
BettinaNoppeney,JuttaPieper,DirkLenzner,
BettinaHorn,GregorDewey
Structuralengineers:
St6ffIer-Abraham-Fdth,
Darmstadt

The new communitycentrewith churchand


parishhallis locatedin the immediateproxim-
ity of the market-place. The scaleof this large,
detachedcube integrateswellwiththe hetero-
geneousarchitecture of the town centre.The
designand shapebf the churchstructurepro-
videsan unobtrusive settingfor introspective
quietness.
The glazedfoyerlinksthe two blocksroughly
equalin size:the introverted churchon one
side,the communitycentrewith offices,meet-
ing roomsand apartmentson the other.The
internallayoutis determinedby the spacious
foyer.A glazedpartitionwith large,glassslid-
ingscreensto the church,and the common
roofconstruction createa visualbond.When
the slidingscreensare open,the foyerserves
I
as an extensionto the church.
Besidesthe graphicconfiguration of the overall
building, thetwo partsarealsodistinguished
by the choiceof facadematerialand the open-
ings.Reinforcedconcretewallsconstitutethe )
primaryloadbearingstructure.Theseenable
diverseopeningsfor windowsand loggiasto F
be positionedas required.Thefacadesof the
two partsare different:the almostcompletely
plainsurfacesof the churchstructurecontrast
withthe carefullyworkedrenderedsurfaces
withtheirpreciselylocatedwindows.The ren-
deredsurfacesconceala "thermoskin" with
mineral fibreinsulation.Parapetcappingsand
windowrevealsmakeuse of narrowaluminium
sheets.The churchemploysa partial-fill cavity
wallconstruction; blocksof Noruuegian white
concretewereusedfor the outerleaf.
One essentialcharmof thisfine materialdiffer-
entiationliesin the treatmentof the whitemason-
ry.The evenstretcherbond is givena pattern
by the graphicarrangement of the necessary
movementjoints.In eachcasethe bond
restartsat the joint.The cornerswere builtin
bond in sucha way thatthe observeris given
the impressioo of a continuousexternalskin.

352
centrein Neu-Anspach
Churchand community

Section 1 Foyer
Upperfloor Church
Groundfloor 3 Sacramenthouse
scale 1:500 I
Parishhall
Section 5 Parish secretariat
s c a l e1 : 2 0 0 6 Meetingroom
7 Apartment

35it
Example
28

Sectionthrough roof
Sectionthrough facade to church
Horizontalsection through window slit
s c a l e1 : 2 0

354
Churchand communitycentrein Neu-Anspach

1 Parapetcapping,0.8 mmzincsheet Aluminium sheet,3mm,


2 Wallconstruction: bentto suit
90 mmwhiteconcretebricks Floorconstruction:
6Ommair soace 20 mmnaturalstoneslabs
80 mmmineralfibre
thermalinsulation, 20 mmmortarbed
250mmreinforced concrete 50 mmcementscreed
95 mmair soace separatingmembrane, 0.2mm
115mmwhiteconcretebricks polyethylene sheeting
Anglebracket,8 mmstainless st€el impactsoundinsulation,60mm
4 Aluminium glaz-
window,withinsulating rigidexpandedfoam
ing,innerpaneof I mmlaminated 200mmreinforced concreteslab
safetyglass,sand-blasted 50 mmthermalinsualtion

355
Example28

Cornerwindowto church 5 Fresh-airduct, 500 x 300 mm,


Horizontalsection . Vertical section sheetsteel,galvanized
s c a l e1 : 2 0 o Wall construction:
15 mm mineralrendering
1 Stainlesssteelangle,8 mm 120 mm thermalinsulation
2 Aluminiumsheet,3 mm, bent to suit 240 mm reinforced concrete wall
3 Aluminiumwindow,with insulatingglazing, 15 mm internalplaster
innerpane of I mm laminatedsafetyglass,
sand blasted
4 Ventilationgrille,50 x 15 x 2 mm aluminium
sections

356
in lragna
buildings
Community

Gommunitybuildingsin lragna,Switzerland

1995

Architects:
RaffaeleCavadini,Locarno
Assistants:
FabioTrisconi,SilvanaMarzari
Structuralengineers:
GiorgioMasotti,Bellinzona(townhall),
PaoloRegolati, Minusio(chapel),
WalterPerlini,Lodrino(squaredesign)

LocatedbetweenSt Gotthardand Bellinzona


in the TicinoAlps,a traditionalgranitemining
district,this communitywas givenseveralnew
buildingsto meetthe needsof today'sinfra-
structurebut providea respectfulcomplement
to the old, intact,villagestructure.One after
the other,the chapel,the town halland the
squarein the southernpart of lragnawere
realizedby the samearchitects.The use of
the localstonewith its oowerfultextureillus-
tratesthe bond betweenthe new structures
andthe historyof the village.Usingsimple
buildinggeomelriesthey relateto the character
of the village,althoughthe structuresthem-
selvesare a deliberate,contemporary com-
menton theirsurroundings.

The highlightingof structuralelements,likethe


plinthin fair-faceconcreteor the exposed
edgesof the floors,seryeas a stylizedarchi-
-t-zt
tecturallinkbetweentraditionand modernism.
Thisapproachmakespossiblelargeribbon t\ |Z12t"' 'o
windowson the town hall,likewiselargepanels
of glassbricks.Withouterleavesof natural
stone,the buildingsgeneratea referenceto
the authenticity of the villagewithoutintruding.
Thetwin-leafexternalwallsare madefrom
squaredgneissstones,insulationand plas-
teredclay brict<work. The hammer-dressed
naturalstonemasonryin Romanbond is built
usingcementmortarand a galvanizedrein-
forcinglatticein frontof the 80 mm thickther-
mal insulation. The floorswhichpassthrough
the wallsand act as supportsare providedwith
stripsof insulationinternally(a formof con-
structionwhich is hardlyfeasibleon the north
sideof the Alpsowingto the climateand the
strictregulations). Therefore,it is possibleto
seethe stonemasonrywall not as a mere
envelopebut also in its structuralcapacity.
Example
29

ol

Town hall
2nd floor
1st floor
Groundfloor
Northelevation
Sections
s c a l e1 : 4 0 0

Sectionthroughnorthfacade
s c a l e1 : 2 0
1 Roofconstruction:
60 mm gravel
protectivemembrane,non-wovenfabric
waterproofingand thermalinsulationof 80 mm in-situ
plasticfoam
200 mm reinforcedconcreteslab
15 mm gypsum plaster
2 C a p p i n g 0, . 2 m m c o p p e rs h e e t
3 M D Fb o a r d ,1 5 m m
Wall construction:
gneissstone,200-500x 100-170x 100-250mm
cementmortarwith galvanizedreinforcinglattice
thermalinsulation,80 mm in-situfoam
150.mmclay brickwork
15 mm gypsum plaster
Floorconstruction:
10 mm parquetflooring
70 mm cementscreed
separatingmembrane
20 mm jmpact sound insulation
220 mm reinforcedconcreteslab
15 mm gypsum plaster
6 Fair-faceconcretesurface
7 Thermalinsulation,30 mm rigid expandedfoam
I Windowsill,40 mm reconstitutedstone
I Column,steelcircularhollowsection,200 dia. x 5.6 mm
1 0 Glassbricks,200 x 200 x 80 mm
- 1 1 S t e e lc h a n n e l1, 2 0x 8 0 x 5 m m
1 2 Precastconcretethreshold
I J Graniteslabs,40 mm, on sand or cementbed

358
in lragna
buildings
Community

W IL
Wtll
wttl
ffiil
trfi(tlll

359
Example
30

Bank extensionin Schiinaich,Germany

1999

Architects:
Kaag + Schwarz,Stuttgart
WernerKaag,RudolfSchwarz
Assistants:
ThorstenKock,AlmutSchwabe,
HorstFischer,MarcusLembach
Structural
engineers:
Merkt+ Le,Boblingen

The specialfeatureof this extensionto an


existingbankbuildingliesin the unusualcon-
structionof the naturalstonefacade.lt is built
from115mmthickGauinger travertinestone.
In contrastto conventional techniquesusingas
thinas possiblea claddingof slabs, thereare
currentlyfew examplesof the use of this mater-
ial in a properand structurally lucidform.
The proporlionsof the extensionare derived
fromthe existingurbanrelationships and build-
ing lines.Thebuildingis madeup of a stone-
faced structureand a glasslinkwhichcontains
the verticaland horizontalaccessroutes.The
newfacadesembracethe forecourtadjacent
the streetand clearlyassignthisto the bank
comprex,
The loadbearingconstruction consistsof rein-
forcedconcretewalls200 mm thickand flat
slabs,whichcan be usedas heatstorage
media.The outermostlayerof the partial-fill
cavitywall construction employslargenatural
stoneblockswiththinjointsbuiltin stretcher
bond.Thesizesof the stonesdecreasetowards
the tops of the walls.Nearthe parapetin par-
ticular,the stonesare shallowerand narrower.
Thishasan economicadvantagebecause
thereis lesswastage,but anotherbenefitis that
thisformof construction reinforcesthe natural
and animatedeffectof the bush-hammered
stonesurfaces.Lintelsto doorsand windows
are madefroma singlestonein eachcase.
Therelieving lintelaboveis slightlycambered,
whichmakesit visibleas a structuralelement
and illustratesthe jointingprinciplesof a stone
facade.

360
Bank extensionin Schonaich

lFE_r- -l
lh
- +_s l
- lLl lll - lJ
ll!
Lllltl

Section Wa I constructon, externa: 3 lvortar f I ng, 20 [r[r


2nd floor 11 5 r n mG a un g e rt r a v e r t l nset o n e n r n a s o n r yb o n d 4 Reir.lforcedcorcfete wa I
scale1:500 bush-hanrnrere su dr f a c e 5 Stee -anclglass facade of we ded stee llats w tll
Horizonta section through door to []eet ng roo|lr 20mmarspace n s u l a tn g g a z n g
intefl.ra wa I on 2r'rd floor tl-reflr-lal nsulaton, I00 lrlr n-rir.rera woo F l o o r c o n s t r u c t i o n .g r o l n d l l o o r t o c e r l t r a l l a l :
S a I o r l ' - r o r , J h J J . .O o r l o ^ r l r . l . l - 1 ' r r , 1 ' c l 2 0 0 m m r e n f o r c e dc o n c [ e t e 20 nrn natural stone TaUern greetr
scae1:10 G a u n g e rt r a v e r t i nset o n e n l u a s o r r rby o n d 11 5 t t r r n . 20 rr-r-l r.lrortar bed
b u s h - h a r r r r e r esdl r r f a c ed o o r l i n t e p
l r o v i d e dw i t h 6 0 i r n r a n h y d r i t e s c r e e d w t h t l t r d e r f l o o rh e a t i n g
c a n t b e rf o r s t r u c t u r ar e le l 50 n.r-r tllenral and rupact sottrlcl irlslr at orl

llll
irei^ t\t.
, : ,^.6
t
,rli1J

-.
r '.1 e

t
q

=__l *
lT
-il]
iLt

361
Example30

":'N

West facade
Horizontalsections' Verticalsection
s c a l e1: 1 0

1 Parapet coping, Gauinger travertinestone, o Fixedglazingin aluminiumsections,I mm + 16 mm


smooth surface cavity + 12 mm laminatedsafety glass
Lintel to uppermost row of windows, provided with 7 Floor duct for heating
camber, Gauinger travertinestone in masonry bond, I Roof construction:
115 mm, bush-hammeredsurface elitensive planting/ 100 mm gravel
Openinglightsfor night-timeventilation,opened sheeting, resistantto root penetration
individuallyas required,10 mm toughenedsafety filter, non-wovenfabric
glass + 18 mm cavitywith sunshadinglight- waterproofing,bitumen sheeting,2 layers,top layer
deflectinggrid + 10 mm toughenedsafetyglass,in with slate granule surfacing
black anodizedaluminiumsections,plus anti-intruder .140
thermalinsulation, mm rigid expandedfoam
bars at ground floor only vaoour oarner
4 Revolvinglight,black anodizedaluminium, 250 mm reinforced concrete slab. with undercoat
8 mm + 16 mm cavity + 12 mm laminatedsafety glass '15
mm internalolaster
Guidetrack for sunshadeblind

362
Bank extensionin Schonaich

' 'ut -i. , r

, ,
'i. :*
r ; !...?i1 .'
t,- r -
: r{ n ii:,:,
:ii i.r" Ii

'
. '.:.,.,.r,
litt
: ) ' -r
i ' '
.. t. " .i ..

363
Example
31

Library of the Technological Institute in


Cork, lreland

1996

Architects:
Shanede Blacam& JohnMeagher
with BoydBarrett,MurphyO'Connor,Dublin
Structuralengineers:
HorganLynch& Partners,Cork

t<or--\

Et-]E

Locationplan
scale l:5000
Groundfloor . 1st floor
s c a l e1 : 5 0 0
The librarybuildingis partof the overallurban
planfor the Technological Institute.
The shape 1 Entrancefoyer
of the buildingwith its sweepingsouthfacade 2 lnformationdesk
3 Readingroom
is explainedby the geometryof the overall 4 Bookstack
comotex. 5 Librarians
Thereis a verystrictorganization of the internal 6 Deliveries
functionsfromsouthto north,whichstartswith 7 Periodicalsgallery
8 Seminarrooms
the two-storeyreadingroomand unfoldsby . "[l
way of livelyinterventions with stairsand
galleries.Up to 500 studentscan be accom-
ilEb " ]tlJ t
"d
LF OI " it
modatedin the largereadingroomand on the -n
"_.tl|l "q P. ilL. J
galleries.The shelveshavespacefor about
70,000books,periodicalsand videofilms.
-lFE E[ill EE IilE
rtrl\l :a _El F" |ltl,.
"qq___tr
i

:
0I 1
Likewiseintegratedin the linearstructureare
roomsfor seminarsand the librarymanage-
ment.The differentheightsof the buildingand
.

.E
{l
B.ilU
q___E
" fll
.HE.l|U
.+t.
il qF
.HE,lt$"I
[n q_F [n rLF lll
lill. !
iltl
P. lll-r
: I
I
-
'ffi"lllb'
I
i
,l-6
the associatedchanginglightingconditions lTlt. . fll .{F. IIll.{r, llll I
qF qP
givethe interioran evenmorepronounced ililrE ltil il iltl i
three-dimensional effect.Local,traditional |lu.d b" |Ju
It qF tt
t x_EdL
,E E.[Uq FE.ll[
q F r "E
.HE.llli,
I qp I
[-Ert xEdL[EdLN
i
,l
II
buildingmaterialswere usedfor the construc-
tion:clay and calciumsilicate,oak for the win- -)
I
dow frames,panellingand furniture.Concrete !-_
qP
[
qFqF
u_ [ ![] ,
bricksalternating with clay brickscreate
3 E qFqF 3
.1
Eh U
tr tr otr tre
impressivepatternson wallsand columns.
I
JF -1hrlh" oo
:F
Claybrickworkcladdingwas positionedin the iE :E:E ! PnE

I EF - * [
II
formworkbeforecastingthe in-situreinforced oq P qr
ll F
concretecolumnsand arches.The diaphragm iF
at
wallconstruction(max.spacingbetween !E
leaves550 mm)offersnumerousopportunities i F|
q Ftft
for projectionsand recesseswhichcan be
II
usedfor built-infurniture.The curvingsouth
elevationalmostdevoidof windowsoresentsa
w,P I
starkcontrastto the brightlylit and contrasting I
interiorof the library.
I
364

I
Institutein Cork
Libraryof the Technological

F
F
!!u!

365
Example31

--tr
EE_
---
HHH
-trR
HHH

Section scale 1:250 Wallconstruction: 1 2 Waterproofing,bitumensheeting


Facade 100mmclaybriclovork aa
Windowlintel,calciumsilicateblock,65 mm
Elevation. Horizontalsection . Vertical section 310mmcavity 1 4 Roofingslates,severallayers
scale 1:20 50 mmthermalinsulation IA
Roofingslates,2 layers,laidto fall
100mmconcretebrickwork 1 6 Floorconstruction:
1 Parapetcapping,calciumsilicateslab,450x 20 mm Floorconstruction,gallery: coconutfibrecarpet
Dripplate,stainlessste€|,bentto suit coconutfibrecarpet 150mmin-situconcrete
Roofconstruction: 150mmin-situconcrete separatingmembrane
20 mmmasticasphalton separatingmembrane 75 mmprecastconcreteplanks thermalinsulation,50 mmrigidexpandedfoam
60 mmthermalinsulation 7 Built-inbookshelves, MDFboard,coated cementlevellingcoat
vapourbarrier d Precastconcreteperipheral frame hardcore
150mmin-situreinforced concrete I Perforatedplate elementfor permanentventilation 17 Leanmixconcretefilling
75 mmprecastconcreteplanks 1 0 Liningto reveal,oak, 150 x 25 mm 18 Calciumsilicatepavingseliternally
4 Cross-ribsof concret€briclovork 1 1 Wooden window, oak, with insulatingglazing
A

ilil titl lil


il tl l
iltl

tll

tl

ilil

il il tl tiltl I
ittl lttl iltl
illttl 1
il tl ill iltl
ilitll
il tl til tl

366
Institutein Cork
Libraryof the Technological

v,/,/ )
m
ru
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
Example
31

368
Engineering
Mechanical of Aveiro
FacultyBuibingof the University

MechanicalEngineeringFaculty Buildingof
the University of Aveiro, Portugal

1996

Architect:
AdalbertoDias,Porto
Assistants:
C, Veloso,J. Eus6bio,
A. Teixeira, V. Gama,
J. Miguelote,N. Rocha
Structuralengineer:
A. Dinis

tll|ll
Ill
Lltul
Since1985a generalplan has beenin force
for all newlyerectedbuildingson the new cam-
pus of the University
m-il
of Aveiro.Oneof the
primeconsiderations was to limitthe choiceof
architect,if feasible,to membersof the "Pot1o
School"in orderto givethe buildingsby differ-
ent architectsan innerarchitectural coherency.
The effectof this strategyis thatthe campusis
now also a showcasefor Porto'smost notable
architects. EEEE
IIEEHE
IIEEEE
O
OIIEEEE
Thebuildingdesignedby AdalbertoDiasfor OI]EEEE
OIIEEEE
the Mechanical Engineering Facultyis in the
immediate vicinityof the buildings for geology
(EduardoSoutode Moura)and mathematics
(CarlosPrata). OOEEO

The predefinedinteriorlayoutof the building


led to an obvioussolution.The south-westele-
vation- withvirtuallyno openings- formsone
wallto the accesszone,which incorporates the
stairsand is lit fromabovevia a long,continu-
ous rooflight.The loadbearingstructureof the
buildingconsistsof reinforcedconcretein con-
junctionwith steelbeamsand columnsfor
wallsand floors,someof which haveto span
ouiteconsiderabledistancesabovethe lecture
theatres.The externalwallsare providedwith a
masonryouterleafof approx.70 mm high
coursesof facingbrickworkbuiltin stretcher
bond.In orderto emphasizethe radicalnature
of the concept,the externalmasonryis givena
horizontalprofile.This is achievedby recess-
ing everysecondcourseby 30 mm.To do this,
the bricksweresawnto 80 mm width.Steel
sectionsat the transitionbetweenmasonryand
glassfacadeand alongthe edge of the roof
stressthe horizontal formatof the structure.
The externalwall alongsidethe rooflightalso
3rd floor ' 2nd floor. Groundfloor
featuresfacingbrictcrrrork on the inside;the s c a l e1 : 7 5 0
irregularitiesof this masonryproducea very
livelytexturewhen illuminatedby the dramatic
diagonal, overheadlighting.

369
Example
32

South-westelevation 1 Clay bricks 12 mm air space 10 Floorconstruction:


Sections 2 Capping,zinc sheeton cork board thermalinsulation,40 mm rigid 40 mm naturalstone alsbs
scale 1:500 3 Steelchannel,180 mm expanded foam levellingmortarbed
Sectionthrough facade 4 Steelround section,75 mm dia. 195 mm reinforced concrete thermalinsulation,30 mm rigid
s c a l e1 : 2 0 5 Spandrelpanelcapping,zinc sheet clay bricks expanded foam
on cork board 30 mm synthetic resin plaster damp proof membrane
6 Steelchannel,160 mm tJ Steelwindow,with insulatingglazing screed laid to falls
7 Spandrelpanel: v Windowsill, naturalstone thermalinsulation,50 mm rigid
clay brickwork expandedfoam
'180
mm reinforced concrete

370
of Aveiro
FacultyBuildingof the University
MechanicalEngineering

1 1 Roof construction: IJ Synthetic resin plaster, 50 mm


40 mm reconstitutedstone pavings 1 4 Clay bricks
levellingbed 1 5 Internalplaster, 20 mm
thermalinsulation,30 mm rigid t o Floor construction:
expanded foam floor finish of stone slabs
waterproofing 20 mm mortar bed
screed laid to falls 40 mm screed
180 mm reinforced concrete slab 180 mm reinforced concrete
40 mm synthetic resin plaster 40 mm timber battens
Wood/steelwindow 40 mm synthetic resin plaster

371
Example32

372
of Aveiro
FacultyBuildingof the University
MechanicalEngineering

Sections
North-eastelevation
scale 1:500
Section through facade
s c a l e1 : 2 0

17 Wall construction: 1 9 Plinthconstruction:


110 x 80 mm clay bricksin stretcher clay brickwork
bond 50 mm mortarfilling
'195
12 mm air space mm reinforcedconcrete
thermalinsulation,40 mm rigid 20 Horizontalglazing, laminatedsafety
expanded foam glass in steel frame
195 mm reinforced concrete Steelangle,60 x 70 x 8 mm
clay bricks in stretcherbond, 22 Guide rail for inspectioncradle
1 1 5m m 23 Plasterboard
18 Glazedsteeldoor

373
Example
33

Office building in Essen,Germany


1996

Architect:
DetlefSommerof
EckertNegwerSommerSuselbeek,Berlin
Assistant:
MarcJordi
Sitemanager:
HelmutHeimeshoff , Essen
Structural
engineers:
A. Bruns,B. Szafranski,
Berlin

Thisofficebuildingat the Christine Collierypro-


videsa linkbetweenthe once separateoffices
andthe existingproductlon building.Thesmall
plot made it necessaryto erecta four-storey
building. Thiscontainssimpleplanlayoutswith
six officesper flooras well as the associated
verticaland horizontalaccesszonesand ser-
vicecore.Theroomsarearrangedalongside a
centralcorridor.The offsetbetweenthe two
halvesof the buildinggivesriseto an interest-
ing spatialeffect.
Storey-height, narrowwindowsbreakup the
simplecube,whilethe piersprovidea rhythmic
structureto the facade.The layoutof the
masonryis suchthatthe observergetsthe
impression of a framework.However,the quali-
ty of the designconceptmanifestsitselfin the
skilfulbalancebetweenpiersand openings.
Consequently, specialattentionwas paid to
carefuldetailing of the openings.
Thefacingbrickworkof the outerleafconsists
of Wittmunderpeat-firedbrickswiththe Olden-
burgformat.Cavityinsulationand loadbearing
calciumsilicatemasonrycompletethe external
wallconstruction. Thewindowrevealsare car-
ried aroundthe cornerswith a one-brick-deep Locationplan
s c a l e1 : 1 2 5 0
bond.
East elevation
Thewindowsillsconsistof brick-on-edge 3rd floor
courses,the lintelsof reinforcedconcreteclad Groundfloor
in facingbrickwork.The windowswiththeir s c a l e1 : 2 5 0
fixedglazing,woodenrevealsand wooden
openingslightsfittedbehindthe outerleafform
a distinctcontrastto the piersin orderto rein-
forcetheireffect.
lronically,the closedopeningslights,offset
fromthe planeof the window,formtheirown
pierwithinthe openingand henceconsum-
matethe architectural setting.
The loadbearing wallsadjacentthe internal
corridorsare madefromthe samematerialas
the outerleavesof the externalwalls.Theyillu-
stratethe simplestructuralsystem:the ex-
rr)
posedin-situconcretefloorsspanningbetween -------------....-...--/ ''
externalwall and corridorwall,Masonryarchi-
tecturebecomescontemporary whenused in
suchan exciting,simpleyet subtleway. ,-: ":t

374
Officebuildingin Essen

1 Lobby
2 Reception
3 Office
4 Tea kitchen
5 Meeting room
6 Existingbuilding

375
Example33

T
!
T
T

--
tlir
illi tr
tt: lr

lliil
376
Officebuildingin Essen

Sections A
scale1:250
Window )ooooJoooooooo
Elevation. Horizontalsection
Sectionthrough facade I Floor construction:
scale 1:20 13 mm caroet
60 mm screed
separating membrane
'17
mm impactsound insulation
Roof construction: 220 reinforced concrete slab, soffit exposed,
50 mm gravel rough formwork finish
waterproofing,bitumen sheeting, 3 layers I Brick-on-edgewindow sill, Wittmunderpealfired
thermal insulation,rigid expanded foam, with bricks, Oldenburg format, 52 x 1O5x 22Omm
integralfalls,300-120mm 10 Thermalinsulation,110 mm mineralfibre
'11
220 reinforced concrete slab, soffit exposed, rough Reinforcedconcretelintel,brick slip cladding
formworkfinish 12 Peripheraltimber cover strip,125 x 15 mm
'13
Laminatedveneer lumber (LVL) board, 450 x 25 mm Convector heating under grating
Timber section. 22Ox7O mm 14 Openingpanelwith timber infill,merantiwith
4 Flashing,1 mm zinc sheet, pre-weathered glazedfinish
Parapetcapping, 1 mm zinc sheet, pre-weathered, 15 Wall construction:
on separating membrane V 13 facing brickwork,Wittmunder peat-fired bricks,
6 Concreteupstand,160x400 mm Oldenburg format, 52 x 105 x 220 mm
7 Wooden window, merantiwith glazed finish, fixed thermalinsulation,110 mm mineralfibre
glazing,insulatingglazingwith laminatedsafety 240 mm calcium silicate brickwork
grass '15
mm gypsum plaster

377
Example34

Housingcomplex in Hannover,Germany
tl
'1999

Architects:
Fink+ Jocher,Munich
_f_-1
Assistants: T..-J L-i-t ---------fr I
| I
lvanGrafl,UlrikeWietzorrek,
RudigerKrisch
Structuralengineers:
Bergmann+ Partner,Hannover
-l
t--------------
-__,_a____r__r=;

!
{_-]

t
! tl

Situatedon the north-western edge of the


developmentbuiltto coincidewith EXPO2000,
this urbancomponentwith87 apartments,
publicamenitiesand shopsformsthe gateway
to Kronsberg,an entirelynew city suburb.The
two mainfacadesof the buildinghavebeen
givendifferenttreatments: a brickworkfacade
with peat-firedfacingbricksand room-height
Frenchwindowswithfoldingshuttersfacing
the city,and a timberfacadebehindcontinu-
ous,deep loggiasfacingthe innercourtyard.
The sculpturedformof the blockwith equal-
sizedwindowelementsdistributedevenlyover
the facadein an intriguingstaggeredarrange-
mentlendsthe buildingbothstabilityand
vitality.A largenumberof differentapartments,
fromsimplelayoutwith hallto open plan,ofiers
diversepossibilitieswith a constantbasic
structure.
The entireloadbearingstructureof the building
was builtin precastconcrete.Thisresultedin
fasterectionand low buildingcosts.Thereis
an outerleafof 115 mm facingbrickswith a
10 mm air spaceand 120mm thermalinsula-
tion.A contrastingprecastconcretecoping
completesthe parapet.The windowlintels,
alsoprecast,are clad with clay bricksin
stretcherbond in orderto matchthe deothand
appearanceof the 240 mm reveals.Fittedinto
the revealsarewoodenfoldingshutterswhich
helpto assertthe characterof the building.The
precastconcretewindowsillsroundoff the
homogeneous appearanceof the complex.
Thefacadesto the innercourtyard,withtheir
deep loggias,are clad in birchplywood.These
loggiasraisethe livingstandardsof the com-
plexand formthe transitionto the landscaped
innercourtyard,generatinga contrastto the
urbanenvironment.

378
complexin Hannover
Housing

Locationplan
scale 1:3000
North-westelevation
Standardfloor
scale 1:1000
Apartment layouts
s c a l e1 : 5 0 0

q Standard layoul

?
?
q
)(

)_r
Semi-openplan

J
l-
ffi ro
b
379
Example34

Section
scale 1:250
Horizontalsection through junction betweenfacing brick-
work and timber panel facade
Horizontalsection through apartmentwindow
Horizontalsection through staircasewindow
Section through street facade
scale 1:20

1 Plywood panel, 18 mm birch, both sides coated


with phenolic resin
2 Woodenlining,20Ox 40 mm
3 Wooden glazed door, with insulatingglazing
4 Supporting construction,40 x 40 mm timber sections
5 Wall construction:
peat-firedfacing bricks,NF 115 mm
10 mm air space
thermal insulation,120 mm mineralfibre
180 mm reinforced concrete
6 4-part folding shutters of s-ply timber boarding,with
edge beading in weatherproofglue, guide tracks top
and bottom,2 No. 15 mm
7 Balustradeof steel flats, galvanized,micacious
ironoxide coating,35 x 8 mm
8 \Mndow sill, precast concrete, overhang with drip,
50 mm
9 Wooden window, 2 lights, with insulatingglazing
10 Horizontal-pivotwindow, with insulatingglazing,
spandrel pane fixed, inner pane of laminated
safety glass
11 Plasterboard,12.5mm
12 Thermal insulation,80 mm
'13
Ring beam, autoclaved aerated concrete
channelblock
14 Rendering,25 mm
15 Tenaceconstruction:
pavingsin gravelbed
15 mm impactsound insulation
waterproofing
200 mm thermal insulation
vapour barrier
220 mm reinforced concrete slab
16 Sheet metal flashing
17 ParapeYspandrelpanel:
peat-burned facing bricks in stretcher bond,
N F 1 1 5m m
10 mm air soace
thermalinsulation,120 mm mineralfibre
175 mm aerated concrete
1 8 Open perpend
1 9 Thermal insulation,60 mm rigid expanded foam
20 Horizontalgroove, with fall to outside
2 1 Ventilationelement
22 Steel angle as support for window sill

380
Housingcomplexin Hannover

381
Example34

Section
s c a l e1 : 2 0

,..

H-
Parapetcoping, precast 5 Wall construction: 10 HorizontaFpivotwooden win- vapourbarrier
concrete peat-burnedfacing bricks, dow, wjth insulatingglazing, 220 mm reinforced
Reinforcedconcretelintel,with N F 1 1 5m m spandrelpane fixed, inner concreteslab
clay brick slip cladding 1 0 m m a i rs p a c e pane of laminatedsafety glass 16 Roof to balcohy, precast
Flashing,1 mm titanium-zinc thermalinsulation,120 mm 11 Thermalinsulation,80 mm concreteelement
sheet m i n e r afli b r e 1 2 Plasterboard,12.5mm 17 Wall construction:
Roof constructionwith extensive 180mm reinforcedconcretewall 13 Timbersection,180 x 70 mm plywood,18 mm birch,both
planting: 6 L i g h t i n g4, 5 0 x 1 0 0x 1 0 0 m m 1 4 Laminatedveneerlumber sides coatedwith phenolic
vegetationlayer 7 Woodenframe door,with inset (LVL)board,with solidwood resin
filterlayer steelframeand insulating e d g e b e a d i n g2
, 8 mm 40 mm air space
120 mm drainagelayer glazing 1 5 Terrace construction: thermalinsulation,120 mm
waterproofing 8 Kickerplate,1 mm brushed pavingsin gravelbed mineralfibre
200 mm thermalinsulation stainlesssteel 15 mm impactsound 180 mm reinforcedconcrete
waterproofing 9 Reinforcedconcrete, water- insulation watl
220 mm reinforced proof,250 mm waterproofing 18 Mat in steelangleframe
concreteslab 200 mm thermalinsulation 19 220 mm reinforcedconcreteslab

82
Housingcomplexin Hannover

383