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FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide

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Table of Contents Section 1: Introduction and Insta ation


1 Introduction........................................................................................................................................9 1.1 What's New in 9.2.0..................................................................................................................10 1.2 Known Issues............................................................................................................................12 1.3 Hardware Recommendations....................................................................................................12 1.3.1 Architecture.......................................................................................................................12 1.3.2 RAM.................................................................................................................................13 1.3.3 Com act or !"# $%ash.....................................................................................................13 1.3.& "tora'e (is)s and Contro%%ers..........................................................................................1& 1.3.* Networ) Inter+aces............................................................................................................1* 1.3., RAI( -.er.iew................................................................................................................1* 1.3./ 0$" -.er.iew...................................................................................................................1/ 2 Insta%%in' and ! 'radin' $reeNA"1...............................................................................................20 2.1 2ettin' $reeNA"1...................................................................................................................20 2.2 $reeNA"1 in a 3irtua% 4n.ironment.......................................................................................21 2.2.1 3irtua%#o5.........................................................................................................................21 2.2.1.1 Creatin' the 3irtua% Machine......................................................................................21 2.2.1.2 Creatin' (e.ices +or "tora'e and Insta%%ation Media.................................................2, 2.2.1.3 Con+i'urin' the #rid'ed Ada ter............................................................................... 26 2.2.1.& Runnin' $reeNA"1 +rom a !"# Ima'e....................................................................29 2.2.2 3MWare 4"7i..................................................................................................................30 2.3 Insta%%in' +rom C(R-M...........................................................................................................3& 2.& #urnin' an IM2 $i%e................................................................................................................3/ 2.&.1 !sin' 58cat and dd on a $ree#"( or 9inu5 ":stem........................................................3/ 2.&.2 !sin' Ke)a and dd on an -" 7 ":stem...........................................................................3/ 2.&.3 !sin' /;0i and Win32(is)Ima'er on Windows.............................................................36 2.&.& <rou=%eshootin'................................................................................................................39 2.* Initia% "etu ...............................................................................................................................&0 2., ! 'radin' $reeNA"1 ............................................................................................................&3 2.,.1 >re arin' +or the ! 'rade.................................................................................................&& 2.,.2 !sin' the I"- to ! 'rade.................................................................................................&& 2.,.3 !sin' the 2!I to ! 'rade ...............................................................................................&, 2.,.& !n%oc)in' an 4ncr: ted 3o%ume......................................................................................&6 2.,.* I+ "omethin' 2oes Wron'................................................................................................&6 2.,., ! 'radin' a 0$" >oo%......................................................................................................&9

Section 2: Using t!e Gra"!ica Interface


3 ?uic) "tart 2uide and Account Con+i'uration................................................................................*1 3.1 ?uic) "tart 2uide.....................................................................................................................*1 3.1.1 "et the Root >assword......................................................................................................*1 3.1.2 "et the Administrati.e 4mai% Address..............................................................................*1 3.1.3 4na=%e Conso%e 9o''in'...................................................................................................*2 3.1.& Con+i'ure "tora'e.............................................................................................................*2 3.1.* Create !sers@2rou s or Inte'rate with A(@9(A>...........................................................*2 3.1., Con+i'ure >ermissions......................................................................................................*3 3.1./ Con+i'ure "harin'.............................................................................................................*3 FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page # of 274

3.1.6 "tart A %ica=%e "er.iceAsB...............................................................................................*& 3.1.9 <est Con+i'uration +rom C%ient.........................................................................................*& 3.1.10 #ac)u the Con+i'uration...............................................................................................*& 3.2 Account Con+i'uration .............................................................................................................*& 3.2.1 2rou s...............................................................................................................................*& 3.2.2 !sers.................................................................................................................................*/ & ":stem Con+i'uration.......................................................................................................................,0 &.1 Cron Co=s..................................................................................................................................,1 &.2 Init@"hutdown "cri ts...............................................................................................................,2 &.3 N<> "er.ers..............................................................................................................................,3 &.& Rs:nc <as)s..............................................................................................................................,* &.&.1 Creatin' an Rs:nc <as).....................................................................................................,, &.&.2 Con+i'urin' Rs:nc Modu%e Mode #etween <wo $reeNA"1 ":stems............................,6 &.&.3 Con+i'urin' Rs:nc o.er ""H Mode #etween <wo $reeNA"1 ":stems........................./0 &.* ".M.A.R.<. <ests......................................................................................................................./2 &., "ettin's...................................................................................................................................../& &.,.1 2enera% <a=......................................................................................................................./& &.,.2 Ad.anced <a=.................................................................................................................../, &.,.2.1 Autotune......................................................................................................................// &.,.3 4mai% <a=........................................................................................................................../6 &.,.& ""9 <a=............................................................................................................................./9 &./ ":sct%s.......................................................................................................................................61 &.6 ":stem In+ormation..................................................................................................................62 &.9 <una=%es....................................................................................................................................63 &.9.1 Reco.erin' $rom Incorrect <una=%es................................................................................6* * Networ) Con+i'uration.....................................................................................................................6, *.1 2%o=a% Con+i'uration................................................................................................................6, *.2 Inter+aces...................................................................................................................................66 *.3 9in) A''re'ations....................................................................................................................69 *.3.1 Considerations When !sin' 9AC>D M>I-D N$"D or 4"7i .............................................90 *.3.2 Creatin' a 9in) A''re'ation ............................................................................................91 *.& Networ) "ummar:....................................................................................................................9* *.* "tatic Routes.............................................................................................................................9* *., 39ANs......................................................................................................................................9* , "tora'e Con+i'uration......................................................................................................................9, ,.1 >eriodic "na shot <as)s...........................................................................................................9/ ,.1.1 Creatin' a >eriodic "na shot <as)....................................................................................9/ ,.1.2 Mana'in' >eriodic "na shot <as)s..................................................................................99 ,.2 Re %ication <as)s....................................................................................................................101 ,.2.1 Con+i'ure >!99.............................................................................................................101 ,.2.2 Con+i'ure >!"H.............................................................................................................102 ,.2.3 <rou=%eshootin' Re %ication...........................................................................................10& ,.3 3o%umes..................................................................................................................................10* ,.3.1 Auto Im ortin' 3o%umes.................................................................................................10, ,.3.1.1 Auto Im ortin' a 249I;4ncr: ted 0$" >oo%...........................................................10/ ,.3.2 Im ortin' 3o%umes..........................................................................................................106 ,.3.3 !$" 3o%ume Mana'er.....................................................................................................109 FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 4 of 274

,.3.& 0$" 3o%ume Mana'er.....................................................................................................111 ,.3.&.1 4ncr: tion.................................................................................................................113 ,.3.&.2 Creatin' an 4ncr: ted 3o%ume................................................................................. 11& ,.3.* 45tendin' a 0$" 3o%ume................................................................................................11& ,.3., Creatin' 0$" (atasets....................................................................................................11, ,.3.,.1 (edu %ication............................................................................................................11/ ,.3.,.2 Com ression............................................................................................................. 116 ,.3./ Creatin' a 8.o%................................................................................................................116 ,.3.6 3iewin' (is)s.................................................................................................................119 ,.3.9 3iewin' 3o%umes............................................................................................................120 ,.3.9.1 Ke: Mana'ement +or 4ncr: ted 3o%umes................................................................12* ,.3.10 "ettin' >ermissions.......................................................................................................12, ,.3.11 3iewin' Mu%ti aths.......................................................................................................126 ,.3.12 Re %acin' a $ai%ed (ri.e..............................................................................................126 ,.3.12.1 Re %acin' a $ai%ed (ri.e in an 4ncr: ted >oo%......................................................130 ,.3.12.2 Remo.in' a 9o' or Cache (e.ice..........................................................................131 ,.3.13 Re %acin' (ri.es to 2row a 0$" >oo%.........................................................................131 ,.3.13.1 4na=%in' 0$" >oo% 45 ansion A+ter (ri.e Re %acement.......................................132 ,.3.1& " %ittin' a Mirrored 0$" "tora'e >oo%.........................................................................133 ,.& 0$" "cru=s.............................................................................................................................13* / "harin' Con+i'uration....................................................................................................................13, /.1 A %e AA$>B "hares................................................................................................................13/ /.1.1 Creatin' A$> "hares.......................................................................................................13/ /.1.2 Connectin' to A$> "hares As 2uest...............................................................................139 /.1.3 !sin' <ime Machine.......................................................................................................1&2 /.2 !ni5 AN$"B "hares..................................................................................................................1&3 /.2.1 Creatin' N$" "hares.......................................................................................................1&& /.2.2 "am %e N$" "hare Con+i'uration...................................................................................1&, /.2.3 Connectin' to the N$" "hare..........................................................................................1&, /.2.3.1 $rom #"( or 9inu5 C%ients......................................................................................1&, /.2.3.2 $rom Microso+t C%ients.............................................................................................1&/ /.2.3.3 $rom Mac -" 7 C%ients...........................................................................................1&6 /.2.& <rou=%eshootin'..............................................................................................................1*0 /.3 Windows ACI$"B "hares.........................................................................................................1*0 /.3.1 Creatin' CI$" "hares......................................................................................................1*0 /.3.2 Con+i'urin' Anon:mous Access.....................................................................................1*2 /.3.3 Con+i'urin' 9oca% !ser Access......................................................................................1** /.3.& Con+i'urin' "hadow Co ies...........................................................................................1*/ /.3.&.1 >rereEuisites..............................................................................................................1*/ /.3.&.2 Con+i'uration 45am %e.............................................................................................1*/ 6 "er.ices Con+i'uration...................................................................................................................1*9 6.1 Contro% "er.ices......................................................................................................................1,0 6.2 A$>.........................................................................................................................................1,1 6.2.1 <rou=%eshootin'..............................................................................................................1,2 6.3 CI$"........................................................................................................................................1,2 6.3.1 <rou=%eshootin' <i s......................................................................................................1,* 6.& (irector: "er.ices..................................................................................................................1,* FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page $ of 274

6.&.1 Acti.e (irector:..............................................................................................................1,, 6.&.1.1 <rou=%eshootin' <i s................................................................................................ 1,9 6.&.2 9(A>..............................................................................................................................1,9 6.&.3 NI"..................................................................................................................................1/1 6.&.& N<&.................................................................................................................................1/2 6.* (:namic (N".........................................................................................................................1/3 6., $<>.........................................................................................................................................1/& 6.,.1 $<> Con+i'uration - tions.............................................................................................1/* 6.,.2 Anon:mous $<>.............................................................................................................1/6 6.,.3 " eci+ied !ser Access in chroot.....................................................................................1/9 6.,.& 4ncr: tin' $<>...............................................................................................................160 6.,.* <rou=%eshootin'..............................................................................................................160 6./ i"C"I.......................................................................................................................................161 6./.1 Authori8ed Accesses.......................................................................................................162 6./.2 45tents.............................................................................................................................16& 6./.2.1 Addin' an 45tent...................................................................................................... 16& 6./.3 Initiators..........................................................................................................................16* 6./.& >orta%s.............................................................................................................................16/ 6./.* <ar'et 2%o=a% Con+i'uration..........................................................................................169 6./., <ar'ets.............................................................................................................................192 6././ <ar'et@45tents.................................................................................................................19& 6./.6 Connectin' to i"C"I "hare.............................................................................................19& 6./.9 2rowin' 9!Ns................................................................................................................19* 6./.9.1 0.o% #ased 9!N.......................................................................................................19* 6./.9.2 $i%e 45tent #ased 9!N.............................................................................................19, 6.6 N$".........................................................................................................................................19, 6.9 Rs:nc......................................................................................................................................196 6.9.1 Rs:nc Modu%es................................................................................................................196 6.10 ".M.A.R.<.............................................................................................................................200 6.11 "NM>....................................................................................................................................201 6.12 ""H.......................................................................................................................................202 6.12.1 ""H Con+i'uration "creen............................................................................................202 6.12.2 Chrootin' Command 9ine "$<> !sers .......................................................................20& 6.12.3 <rou=%eshootin' ""H Connections...............................................................................20* 6.13 <$<>.....................................................................................................................................20, 6.1& !>".......................................................................................................................................20/ 9 >%u'ins............................................................................................................................................209 9.1 Insta%%in' a $reeNA"1 >#I !sin' >%u'ins............................................................................209 9.1.1 Mana'in' an Insta%%ed $reeNA"1 >#I...........................................................................211 9.1.2 ! datin' an Insta%%ed $reeNA"1 >#I............................................................................212 9.1.3 Insta%%in' Additiona% >#Is...............................................................................................212 9.1.& (e%etin' a >#I.................................................................................................................213 9.2 A.ai%a=%e $reeNA"1 >#Is.....................................................................................................21& 9.2.1 >#I ReEuests...................................................................................................................21* 10 Cai%s...............................................................................................................................................21* 10.1 Cai%s Con+i'uration................................................................................................................21/ 10.2 Addin' Cai%s..........................................................................................................................219 FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page % of 274

10.2.1 Mana'in' Cai%s..............................................................................................................221 10.2.2 Accessin' a Cai% !sin' ""H Instead o+ its "he%% Icon...................................................222 10.2.2.1 4dit a Cai%'s "ettin's.............................................................................................. 223 10.2.2.2 Addin' "tora'e..................................................................................................... 22& 10.3 Cai% <em %ates.......................................................................................................................22/ 10.3.1 Creatin' Four -wn <em %ates......................................................................................226 10.& Insta%%in' $reeNA"1 >#Is ..................................................................................................229 10.* Insta%%in' non;>#I "o+tware ................................................................................................231 10.*.1 Insta%%in' $ree#"( >ac)a'es with )'n'.....................................................................231 10.*.2 Com i%in' $ree#"( >orts with ma)e...........................................................................233 10.*.3 Con+i'urin' and "tartin' Insta%%ed $ree#"( "o+tware................................................23* 11 Re ortin'......................................................................................................................................23, 12 Additiona% - tions.......................................................................................................................23/ 12.1 (is %a: ":stem >rocesses.....................................................................................................23/ 12.2 "he%%......................................................................................................................................236 12.3 Re=oot...................................................................................................................................2&0 12.& "hutdown..............................................................................................................................2&0 12.* He% ......................................................................................................................................2&1 12., 9o' -ut.................................................................................................................................2&2 12./ A%ert......................................................................................................................................2&2

Section #: Getting &e "


13 $reeNA"1 "u ort Resources.....................................................................................................2&3 13.1 We=site and "ocia% Media.....................................................................................................2&3 13.2 $orums..................................................................................................................................2&3 13.3 "u ort (ata=ase..................................................................................................................2&* 13.& IRC........................................................................................................................................2&, 13.* Mai%in' 9ists.........................................................................................................................2&/ 13., >ro+essiona% "u ort.............................................................................................................2&/ 1& !se+u% Command 9ine !ti%ities...................................................................................................2&/ 1&.1 I er+......................................................................................................................................2&6 1&.2 Net er+..................................................................................................................................2*1 1&.3 I-8one...................................................................................................................................2*2 1&.& arcstat....................................................................................................................................2** 1&.&.1 !sin' the "cri ts...........................................................................................................2** 1&.* 7((......................................................................................................................................2,0 1&., twGc%i....................................................................................................................................2,2 1&./ Me'aC%i................................................................................................................................2,3 1&.6 I>MItoo%................................................................................................................................2,& 1&.9 +reenas;de=u'........................................................................................................................2,& 1&.10 tmu5....................................................................................................................................2,* 1&.11 (midecode..........................................................................................................................2,,

Section 4: 'ontri(uting to FreeNAS


1* How to 2et In.o%.ed....................................................................................................................2,, 1*.1 Assist with 9oca%i8ation .......................................................................................................2,, 1*.2 <est an ! comin' 3ersion....................................................................................................2,6 1*.2.1 Ro%%in' Four -wn <estin' "na shot.............................................................................2,6 FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 7 of 274

1, !sin' the $reeNA"1 A>I............................................................................................................2,9 1,.1 #ui%din' a 9oca% Co : o+ the A>Is.......................................................................................2,9 1,.2 A "im %e A>I 45am %e.........................................................................................................2/0 1,.3 A More Com %e5 45am %e...................................................................................................2/2

Section 1: Introduction and Installation


Preface
Written =: users o+ the $reeNA"1 networ);attached stora'e o eratin' s:stem. 3ersion 9.2.0 >u=%ished (ecem=er 21D 2013 Co :ri'ht H 2011;2013 i7s:stems. <his 2uide co.ers the insta%%ation and use o+ $reeNA"1 9.2.0. I+ :ou are runnin' a .ersion o+ $reeNA"1 that is ear%ier than $reeNA"1 9.2.0D it is recommended that :ou u 'rade to or insta%% $reeNA"1 9.2.0. <his .ersion +i5es man: =u's +rom re.ious .ersions and se.era% +eatures mentioned in this 2uide were not a.ai%a=%e in ear%ier .ersions o+ $reeNA"1. <he $reeNA"1 !sers 2uide is a wor) in ro'ress and re%ies on the contri=utions o+ man: indi.idua%s. I+ :ou are interested in he% in' us to im ro.e the 2uideD .isit doc.+reenas.or' and create a wi)i %o'in account. I+ :ou use IRC $reenodeD :ou are we%come to Ioin the J+reenas channe% where :ou wi%% +ind other $reeNA"1 users. <he $reeNA"1 !sers 2uide is +ree%: a.ai%a=%e +or sharin' and redistri=ution under the terms o+ the Creati.e Commons Attri=ution 9icense. <his means that :ou ha.e ermission to co :D distri=uteD trans%ateD and ada t the wor) as %on' as :ou attri=ute i7s:stems as the ori'ina% source o+ the 2uide. $reeNA"1 and the $reeNA"1 %o'o are re'istered trademar)s o+ i7s:stems. 3ware1 and 9"I1 are trademar)s or re'istered trademar)s o+ 9"I Cor oration. Acti.e (irector:1 is a re'istered trademar) or trademar) o+ Microso+t Cor oration in the !nited "tates and@or other countries. A %eD Mac and Mac -" are trademar)s o+ A %e Inc.D re'istered in the !.". and other countries. Che%sio1 is a re'istered trademar) o+ Che%sio Communications. Cisco1 is a re'istered trademar) or trademar) o+ Cisco ":stemsD Inc. and@or its a++i%iates in the !nited "tates and certain other countries. (Ian'o1 is a re'istered trademar) o+ (Ian'o "o+tware $oundation. $ace=oo)1 is a re'istered trademar) o+ $ace=oo) Inc. $ree#"( and the $ree#"( %o'o are re'istered trademar)s o+ the $ree#"( $oundation. $usion;io is a trademar) or re'istered trademar) o+ $usion;ioD Inc. Inte%D the Inte% %o'oD >entium InsideD and >entium are trademar)s o+ Inte% Cor oration in the !.". and@or other countries.

FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide

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9in)edIn1 is a re'istered trademar) o+ 9in)edIn Cor oration. 9inu51 is a re'istered trademar) o+ 9inus <or.a%ds. Mar.e%%1 is a re'istered trademar) o+ Mar.e%% or its a++i%iates. <witter is a trademar) o+ <witterD Inc. in the !nited "tates and other countries. !NI71 is a re'istered trademar) o+ <he - en 2rou . 3irtua%#o51 is a re'istered trademar) o+ -rac%e. 3MWare1 is a re'istered trademar) o+ 3MWareD Inc. Wi)i edia1 is a re'istered trademar) o+ the Wi)imedia $oundationD Inc.D a non; ro+it or'ani8ation. Windows1 is a re'istered trademar) o+ Microso+t Cor oration in the !nited "tates and other countries.

*+"ogra"!ic 'on,entions
<he $reeNA"1 9.2.0 !sers 2uide uses the +o%%owin' t: o'ra hic con.entionsK (o d te-t: re resents a command written at the command %ine. In usa'e e5am %esD the +ont is chan'ed to Courier 10 with an: command out ut dis %a:ed in un=o%ded te5t. itali' te(t) used to re resent de.ice namesD +i%e name athsD or te5t that is in ut into a 2!I +ie%d. bold italic text: used to em hasi8e an im ortant oint.

Introduction

$reeNA"1 is an em=edded o en source networ);attached stora'e ANA"B s:stem =ased on $ree#"( and re%eased under a #"( %icense. A NA" ro.ides an o eratin' s:stem that has =een o timi8ed +or +i%e stora'e and sharin'. Nota=%e +eatures in $reeNA"1 inc%udeK su su orts A$>D CI$"D $<>D N$"D ""H Ainc%udin' "$<>BD and <$<> as +i%e sharin' mechanisms orts e5 ortin' +i%e or de.ice e5tents .ia i"C"I

su orts Acti.e (irector: or 9(A> +or user authentication as we%% as manua% user and 'rou creation su orts the creation and im ort o+ !$"2 =ased .o%umesD inc%udin' 'mirrorD 'stri eD and 'raid3 su orts the creation and im ort o+ 0$" oo%sD ena=%in' man: +eatures not a.ai%a=%e in !$"2 such as EuotasD sna shotsD com ressionD re %icationD and datasets +or sharin' su=sets o+ .o%umes u 'rade rocedure sa.es the current o eratin' s:stem to an inacti.e artitionD a%%owin' +or an eas: re.ersa% o+ an undesira=%e u 'rade s:stem noti+ications are automatica%%: mai%ed to the root user account (Ian'o dri.en 'ra hica% user inter+ace a.ai%a=%e throu'h a we= =rowser secure re %icationD automatic 0$" sna shotsD schedu%in' o+ 0$" scru=sD and cron mana'ement are a%% con+i'ura=%e throu'h the 'ra hica% inter+ace FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 9 of 274

su su

ort +or menu %oca%i8ation and )e:=oard %a:outs ort +or Windows AC9s and !NI7 +i%es:stem ermissions

"MAR< monitorin' and !>" mana'ement in 2!I eriodic 0$" sna shots are .isi=%e in Windows as shadow co ies

inc%udes tmu5D a #"(;%icensed uti%it: simi%ar to 2N! screen

1.1

.!at/s Ne0 in 9.2.0


#ased on $ree#"( 9.2 which adds these +eatures and su orts this hardware.

$reeNA"1 9.2.0 +i5es this %ist o+ =u's and introduces the +o%%owin' +eaturesK "am=a u dated to 3.,.22 which addresses these securit: ad.isories. <he )erne% !MA a%%ocator is now the de+au%t +or 0$". <his resu%ts in hi'her 0$" er+ormance. #: de+au%tD $reeNA"1 now treats a%% dis)s as &K sectorD a%so )nown as ad.anced +ormatD dis)s. <his is a +uture; roo+ settin' that a%%ows ad.anced +ormat dis)s to =e used as re %acement dri.es +or o%derD %e'ac: *12 =:te sector dri.es without com romisin' er+ormance. An a%ert wi%% automatica%%: =e created +or oo%s that are not &K;a%i'ned. 249I im ro.ements mean that there shou%d =e .irtua%%: no er+ormance im act when .o%ume encr: tion is ena=%edD i+ the C>! su orts A4";NI. <he )erne% modu%es +or $ree#"('s +i.e new <C> con'estion contro% a%'orithms ha.e =een added. <hese must =e con+i'ured +rom the command %ine and are meant +or ad.anced users and researchers who wish to e5 eriment in ushin' networ) throu'h ut usin' the new a%'orithms. !"# 3.0 su ort is disa=%ed =: de+au%t as it current%: is not com ati=%e with some hardwareD inc%udin' Haswe%% A9:n5 ointB chi sets. <o ena=%e !"# 3.0 su ortD create a <una=%e named (h'i*loadD set its .a%ue to +,SD and re=oot the s:stem. A.ahiD a%so )nown as mu%ticast (N" or #onIourD is now used to re'ister a%% ser.icesD inc%udin' the we= ser.iceD i+ the s:stem :our =rowser is runnin' on su orts m(N". <his means that :ou no %on'er need to ha.e a monitor attached to the s:stem to )now its initia% I> address. freenas.lo'al is the de+au%t hostnameD un%ess their are mu%ti %e $reeNA"1 s:stems in the networ)D in which case the de+au%t hostname is freenas-n.lo'alD where n is the num=er o+ that s:stem. It a%so means that on%: one ser.er now a ears to Mac -" 7 $inder. I+ the s:stem has A$> sharesD $inder wi%% not dis %a: an: CI$" shares. <his is di++erent +rom 9.1 which showed one ser.er er rotoco% in $inder. $reeNA"1 no %on'er sends dai%: emai%s containin' the securit: run out ut and instead on%: sends an emai% when there is an error conditionD assumin' that the emai% settin's ha.e =een con+i'ured in ":stem L "ettin's L 4mai%. <he =ui%t;in admin user account is no %on'er used and Account L Admin Account has =een remo.ed. <he +irst time the $reeNA"1 'ra hica% inter+ace is accessedD a o ;u menu wi%% rom t +or the root assword. "u=seEuent %o'ins to the 'ra hica% inter+ace wi%% reEuire this assword. FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 10 of 274

<he M>ermit "udoM +ie%d has =een added to the add and edit screens +or !sers and 2rou s. Add a co%umn to 3iew 2rou s and to 3iew !sers to indicate whether or not M>ermit "udoM has =een set. H<<> and H<<>" access to the $reeNA"1 'ra hica% inter+ace are no %on'er mutua%%: e5c%usi.e. <he +ie%ds MWe=2!I H<<> >ortM and MWe=2!I H<<>" >ortM ha.e =een added to ":stem L "ettin's L 2enera%. A M4na=%e automatic u %oad o+ )erne% crash dum sM chec)=o5 has =een added to ":stem L "ettin's L Ad.anced. An M4ditM =utton has =een added to the MHostnameM +ie%d o+ ":stem In+ormation. <he MRecord "i8eM +ie%d in Create 0$" (ataset is now a dro ;down menu o+ a%%owed .a%ues. <he 3iew (is)s screen now shows the si8e o+ the dis)s. <he resu%ts +rom the %atest 0$" scru= now a ear in 3o%ume "tatus. Netata%) has =een u dated to .ersion 3.1.0. "ee its Re%ease Notes +or a %ist o+ chan'es in this re%ease. <he Add A %e AA$>B "hare menu has =een sim %i+ied and a M(e+au%t umas)M o tion has =een added. <he M"er.er NameM +ie%d has =een remo.ed +rom A$>. In Netata%) 3D this .a%ue is automatica%%: deri.ed +rom the s:stem hostname. Add the M4na=%e home directoriesM and MHome directoriesM o tions to A$>. <he AI- o tions ha.e =een remo.ed +rom CI$". <he MNet#I-" NameM +ie%d in the Acti.e (irector: and CI$" screens now auto; o u%ate with the $reeNA"1 hostname. <he documentation now warns users a'ainst chan'in' these de+au%ts as doin' so ma: =rea) A( or CI$" inte'ration. $ourteen <9";re%ated +ie%ds ha.e =een added to the Ad.anced Mode o+ $<>. <he M#ind I> AddressesM +ie%d in N$" now ro.ides the %ist o+ .a%id I> addresses to se%ect. I+ no address is se%ectedD N$" wi%% =ind to 0.0.0.0 Aa%% inter+acesB. >%u'ins now o++er in; %ace u dates. An u date =utton wi%% =e dis %a:ed when a newer .ersion o+ an insta%%ed %u'in =ecomes a.ai%a=%e. A Iai%s tem %atin' s:stem has =een addedD a%%owin' the Euic) de %o:ment o+ new Iai%s +rom e5istin' tem %ates and the a=i%it: to create custom tem %ates. 9inu5 Iai% su ort has =een added and insta%%ation tem %ates are inc%uded +or (e=ian;/.1.0D 2entoo;20130620D !=untu;13.0&D "use;12.3D and Centos;,.&. An MI>.& AddressM co%umn has =een added to the 3iew Cai%s screen. A she%% =utton has =een added to Cai%sD ma)in' it eas: to access the command %ine o+ the se%ected Iai%. A MCreate director:M chec)=o5 has =een added to the Add "tora'e +unction o+ a Iai% so that the user does not ha.e to +irst access the Iai%'s she%% to ma)e sure that the director: a%read: e5ists. A FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 11 of 274

MRead;-n%:M chec)=o5 has a%so =een added to this screen. A %in) to the on%ine $ree#"( manua% a'es has =een added to He% . Added =5eA&B dri.er +or #roadcom Net7treme II 4thernet 102= >CIe ada ter. Added ad%oc)A&B dri.er which ro.ides cr: to'ra hic hardware acce%eration +or 3IA C3D C/ and 4den rocessors. A com %ete re"< A>I has =een createdD a%%owin' a $reeNA"1 instance to =e contro%%ed remote%:. "ee e(am-les.a-i +or some e5am %es and !sin' the $reeNA"1 A>I +or instructions on usin' the A>I docs.

1.2

1no0n Issues
UPGRADES FROM FreeNAS 0.7x ARE UNSUPPORTED. <he s:stem has no wa: to im ort con+i'uration settin's +rom 0./5 .ersions o+ $reeNA"1D meanin' that :ou wi%% ha.e to manua%%: recreate :our con+i'uration. Howe.erD :ou shou%d =e a=%e to im ort su orted $reeNA"1 0./5 .o%umes. The FS !"#rade "roced!re i$ %o%&re'er$ible. (o not u 'rade :our 0$" .ersion un%ess :ou are a=so%ute%: sure that :ou wi%% ne.er want to 'o =ac) to the re.ious .ersion. <here is no re.ersin' a 0$" oo% u 'radeD and there is no wa: +or a s:stem with an o%der .ersion o+ 0$" to access oo%s that ha.e =een u 'raded. <he a.ai%a=%e s ace re orted in the arent 8 oo% ma: not re+%ect rea%it: and can =e con+usin' =ecause the a.ai%a=%e s ace re resented =: datasets or 8.o%s can e5ceed that o+ the arent 8 oo%. (is)s with certain con+i'urations can 'et ro=ed =: 24-M and =ecome essentia%%: unwrita=%e without manua% inter.ention. $or instanceD i+ :ou use dis)s that re.ious%: had a 'mirror on themD the s:stem ma: ic) that u and the dis)s wi%% =e una.ai%a=%e unti% the e5istin' 'mirror is sto ed and destro:ed. <he m s dri.er +or ,'= s 9"I "A" H#As is .ersion 13D which reEuires hase 13 +irmware on the contro%%er. <his is a hard reEuirement and runnin' o%der +irmware can cause man: woesD inc%udin' the +ai%ure to ro=e a%% o+ the attached dis)sD which can %ead to de'raded or una.ai%a=%e arra:s.

#e+ore insta%%in' $reeNA"1 :ou shou%d =e aware o+ the +o%%owin' )nown issuesK

1.#

&ard0are 2eco33endations

"ince $reeNA"1 9.2.0 is =ased on $ree#"( 9.1D it su orts the same hardware +ound in the amd,& and i36, sections o+ the $ree#"( 9.2 Hardware Com ati=i%it: 9ist. Actua% hardware reEuirements wi%% .ar: de endin' u on what :ou are usin' :our $reeNA"1 s:stem +or. <his section ro.ides some 'uide%ines to 'et :ou started. Fou can a%so s)im throu'h the $reeNA"1 Hardware $orum +or er+ormance ti s +rom other $reeNA"1 users or to ost Euestions re'ardin' the hardware =est suited to meet :our reEuirements.

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1.#.1

Arc!itecture

Whi%e $reeNA"1 is a.ai%a=%e +or =oth 32;=it and ,&;=it architecturesD ,&;=it hardware is recommended +or s eed and er+ormance. A 32;=it s:stem can on%: address u to & 2# o+ RAMD ma)in' it oor%: suited to the RAM reEuirements o+ 0$". I+ :ou on%: ha.e access to a 32;=it s:stemD consider usin' !$" instead o+ 0$". 1.#.2 2A4

<he =est wa: to 'et the most out o+ :our $reeNA"1 s:stem is to insta%% as much RAM as ossi=%e. I+ :our RAM is %imitedD consider usin' !$" unti% :ou can a++ord =etter hardware. $reeNA"1 with 0$" t: ica%%: reEuires a minimum o+ 6 2# o+ RAM in order to ro.ide 'ood er+ormance and sta=i%it:. <he more RAMD the =etter the er+ormanceD and the $reeNA"1 $orums ro.ide anecdota% e.idence +rom users on how much er+ormance is 'ained =: addin' more RAM. $or s:stems with %ar'e dis) ca acit: A'reater than 6 <#BD a 'enera% ru%e o+ thum= is 1 2# o+ RAM +or e.er: 1 <# o+ stora'e. <his ost descri=es how RAM is used =: 0$". I+ :ou %an to use :our ser.er +or home useD :ou can o+ten i'nore the thum=ru%e o+ 1 2# o+ RAM +or e.er: 1 <# o+ stora'e. I+ er+ormance is inadeEuate :ou shou%d consider addin' more RAM as a +irst remed:. <he sweet s ot +or most users in home@sma%% =usiness is 1,2# o+ RAM. It is ossi=%e to use 0$" on s:stems with %ess than 6 2# o+ RAM. Howe.erD $reeNA"1 as distri=uted is con+i'ured to =e suita=%e +or s:stems meetin' the si8in' recommendations a=o.e. I+ :ou wish to use 0$" on a sma%%er memor: s:stemD some tunin' wi%% =e necessar:D and er+ormance wi%% =e A%i)e%: su=stantia%%:B reduced. 0$" wi%% automatica%%: disa=%e re;+etchin' Acachin'B on s:stems where it is not a=%e to use at %east & 2# o+ memor: Iust +or 0$" cache and data structures. <his ost descri=es man: o+ the re%e.ant tuna=%es. I+ :our s:stem su orts it and :our =ud'et a%%ows +or itD insta%% 4CC RAM.

I+ :ou %an to use 0$" dedu %icationD a 'enera% ru%e o+ thum= is * 2# RAM er <# o+ stora'e to =e dedu %icated. I+ :ou use Acti.e (irector: with $reeNA"1D add an additiona% 2 2# o+ RAM +or win=ind's interna% cache. I+ :ou are insta%%in' $reeNA"1 on a head%ess s:stemD disa=%e the shared memor: settin's +or the .ideo card in the #I-". I+ :ou on%: %an to use !$"D :ou ma: =e a=%e to 'et =: with as %itt%e as 22# o+ RAM. I+ :ou don't ha.e at %east 62# o+ RAM with 0$" or 22# o+ RAM with !$"D :ou shou%d consider 'ettin' more ower+u% hardware =e+ore usin' $reeNA"1 to store :our data. -therwiseD data %oss ma: resu%t. .A2NING: to ensure consistenc: +or the chec)summin' and arit: ca%cu%ations er+ormed =: 0$"D 4CC RAM is hi'h%: recommended. !sin' non;4CC RAM can cause unreco.era=%e dama'e to a 8 oo% resu%tin' in a %oss o+ a%% data in the oo%. 1.#.# 'o3"act or US5 F as!

<he $reeNA"1 o eratin' s:stem is a runnin' ima'e. <his means that it shou%d not =e insta%%ed onto a FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 1# of 274

hard dri.eD =ut rather to a !"# or com act +%ash de.ice that is at %east 2 2# in si8e. I+ :ou don't ha.e com act +%ashD :ou can instead use a !"# thum= dri.e that is dedicated to the runnin' ima'e and which sta:s inserted in the !"# s%ot. Whi%e technica%%: :ou can insta%% $reeNA"1 onto a hard dri.eD this is discoura'ed as :ou wi%% %ose the stora'e ca acit: o+ the dri.e. In other wordsD the o eratin' s:stem wi%% ta)e o.er the dri.e and wi%% not a%%ow :ou to store data on itD re'ard%ess o+ the si8e o+ the dri.e. <he $reeNA"1 insta%%ation wi%% artition the o eratin' s:stem dri.e into two artitions. -ne artition ho%ds the current o eratin' s:stem and the other artition is used when :ou u 'rade. <his a%%ows :ou to sa+e%: u 'rade to a new ima'e or to re.ert to an o%der ima'e shou%d :ou encounter ro=%ems. !"# 3.0 su ort is disa=%ed =: de+au%t as it current%: is not com ati=%e with some hardwareD inc%udin' Haswe%% A9:n5 ointB chi sets. I+ :ou recei.e a M+ai%ed with error 19M messa'e when tr:in' to =oot $reeNA"1D ma)e sure that 5HCI@!"#3 is disa=%ed in the s:stem #I-". Whi%e this wi%% downc%oc) the !"# orts to 2.0D the =ootu and shutdown times wi%% not =e si'ni+icant%: di++erent. <o see i+ !"# 3.0 su ort wor)s with :our hardwareD create a <una=%e named (h'i*loadD set its .a%ue to +,SD and re=oot the s:stem. 1.#.4 Storage 6is7s and 'ontro ers

<he (is) section o+ the $ree#"( Hardware 9ist %ists the su orted dis) contro%%ers. In additionD su ort +or 3ware ,'= s RAI( contro%%ers has =een added a%on' with the C9I uti%it: t08c i +or mana'in' 3ware RAI( contro%%ers. $reeNA"1 su orts hot %u''a=%e dri.es. Ma)e sure that AHCI is ena=%ed in the #I-". Note that hot %u''in' is %ot the $a(e as hot swa in'. I+ :ou need re%ia=%e dis) a%ertin'D immediate re ortin' o+ a +ai%ed dri.eD and or swa in'D use a +u%%: mana'ea=%e hardware RAI( contro%%er such as a 9"I Me'aRAI( contro%%er or a 3Ware twa;com ati=%e contro%%er. <he current $ree#"( 0$" im %ementation wi%% not notice that a dri.e is 'one unti% :ou re=oot or ut the .o%ume on hi'h %oad. More in+ormation a=out 9"I cards and $reeNA"1 can =e +ound in this +orum ost. "u''estions +or testin' dis)s =e+ore addin' them to a RAI( arra: can =e +ound in this +orum ost. <his artic%e ro.ides a 'ood o.er.iew o+ hard dri.es which are we%% suited +or a NA". I+ :ou ha.e some mone: to s end and wish to o timi8e :our dis) su=s:stemD consider :our read@write needsD :our =ud'etD and :our RAI( reEuirements. I+ :ou ha.e stead:D non;conti'uous writesD use dis)s with %ow see) times. 45am %es are 10K or 1*K "A" dri.es which cost a=out N1@2#. An e5am %e con+i'uration wou%d =e si5 ,00 2# 1*K "A" dri.es in a RAI( 10 which wou%d :ie%d 1.6 <# o+ usa=%e s ace or ei'ht ,00 2# 1*K "A" dri.es in a RAI( 10 which wou%d :ie%d 2.& <# o+ usa=%e s ace. /200 R>M "A<A dis)s are desi'ned +or sin'%e;user seEuentia% I@- and are not a 'ood choice +or mu%ti; user writes. I+ :ou ha.e the =ud'et and hi'h er+ormance is a )e: reEuirementD consider a $usion;I@- card which is o timi8ed +or massi.e random access. <hese cards are e5 ensi.e and are suited +or hi'h end s:stems that demand er+ormance. A $usion;I@- can =e +ormatted with a +i%es:stem and used as direct stora'eO when used this wa:D it does not ha.e the write issues t: ica%%: associated with a +%ash de.ice. A $usion; I@- can a%so =e used as a cache de.ice when :our 0$" dataset si8e is =i''er than :our RAM. (ue to the FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 14 of 274

increased throu'h utD s:stems runnin' these cards t: ica%%: use mu%ti %e 10 2i'4 networ) inter+aces. I+ :ou wi%% =e usin' 0$"D (is) " ace ReEuirements +or 0$" "tora'e >oo%s recommends a minimum o+ 1, 2# o+ dis) s ace. (ue to the wa: that 0$" creates swa D )o! ca% %ot *or(at le$$ tha% + G, o* $"ace -ith FS. Howe.erD on a dri.e that is =e%ow the minimum recommended si8e :ou %ose a +air amount o+ stora'e s ace to swa K +or e5am %eD on a & 2# dri.eD 2 2# wi%% =e reser.ed +or swa . I+ :ou are new to 0$" and are Recommendations +irst. urchasin' hardwareD read throu'h 0$" "tora'e >oo%s

0$" uses d:namic =%oc) si8in'D meanin' that it is ca a=%e o+ stri in' di++erent si8ed dis)s. Howe.erD i+ :ou care a=out er+ormanceD use dis)s o+ the same si8e. $urtherD when creatin' a RAI(0D on%: the si8e o+ the sma%%est dis) wi%% =e used on each dis). 1.#.$ Net0or7 Interfaces

<he 4thernet section o+ the $ree#"( Hardware Notes indicates which inter+aces are su orted =: each dri.er. Whi%e man: inter+aces are su ortedD $reeNA"1 users ha.e seen the =est er+ormance +rom Inte% and Che%sio inter+acesD so consider these =rands i+ :ou are urchasin' a new inter+ace. Rea%te)s wi%% er+orm oor%: under C>! %oad as inter+aces with these chi sets do not ro.ide their own rocessors. At a minimum :ou wi%% want to use a 2i'4 inter+ace. Whi%e 2i'4 inter+aces and switches are a++orda=%e +or home useD it shou%d =e noted that modern dis)s can easi%: saturate 110 M#@s. I+ :ou reEuire a hi'her networ) throu'h utD :ou can =ond mu%ti %e 2i'4 cards to'ether usin' the 9AC> t: e o+ 9in) A''re'ation. Howe.erD an: switches wi%% need to su ort 9AC> which means :ou wi%% need a more e5 ensi.e mana'ed switch rather than a home user 'rade switch. I+ networ) er+ormance is a reEuirement and :ou ha.e some mone: to s endD use 10 2i'4 inter+aces and a mana'ed switch. I+ :ou are urchasin' a mana'ed switchD consider one that su orts 9AC> and Ium=o +rames as =oth can =e used to increase networ) throu'h ut. N9*:: at this time the +o%%owin' are %ot su wire%ess inter+aces. ortedK In+ini#andD $i=reChanne% o.er 4thernetD or

I+ networ) s eed is a reEuirementD consider =oth :our hardware and the t: e o+ shares that :ou create. -n the same hardwareD CI$" wi%% =e s%ower than $<> or N$" as "am=a is sin'%e;threaded. I+ :ou wi%% =e usin' CI$"D use a +ast C>!. Wa)e on 9AN AW-9B su ort is de endent u on the $ree#"( dri.er +or the inter+ace. I+ the dri.er su orts W-9D it can =e ena=%ed usin' i+con+i'A6B. <o determine i+ W-9 is su orted on a articu%ar inter+aceD s eci+: the inter+ace name to the +o%%owin' command. In this e5am %eD the ca a=i%ities %ine indicates that W-9 is su orted +or the re0 inter+aceK
ifconfig -m em0 re0: flags=8943<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,PROMISC,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> metric 0 mtu 1500 options=42098<VLAN_MTU,VLAN_HWTAGGING,VLAN_HWCSUM,WOL_MAGIC,VLAN_HWTSO> capabilities=5399b<RXCSUM,TXCSUM,VLAN_MTU,VLAN_HWTAGGING,VLAN_HWCSUM,TSO4,WOL_UCAST ,WOL_MCAST, WOL_MAGIC,VLAN_HWFILTER,VLAN_H WTSO>

I+ :ou +ind that W-9 su re ort.

ort is indicated =ut not wor)in' +or a articu%ar inter+aceD su=mit a =u'

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1.#.%

2AI6 9,er,ie0

(ata redundanc: and s eed are im ortant considerations +or an: networ) attached stora'e s:stem. Most NA" s:stems use mu%ti %e dis)s to store dataD meanin' :ou shou%d decide which t: e o+ RAI( to use $efore insta%%in' $reeNA"1. <his section ro.ides an o.er.iew o+ RAI( t: es to assist :ou in decidin' which t: e =est suits :our reEuirements. 2AI6 0: ro.ides o tima% er+ormance and a%%ows :ou to add dis)s as needed. Pro'ide$ .ero red!%da%c)/ (ea%i%# i* o%e di$0 *ail$/ all o* the data o% all o* the di$0$ i$ lo$t. <he more dis)s in the RAI( 0D the more %i)e%: the chance o+ a +ai%ure. 2AI6 1: ro.ides redundanc: as data is co ied AmirroredB to two or more dri.es. >ro.ides 'ood read er+ormance =ut ma: ha.e s%ower write er+ormanceD de endin' u on how the mirrors are setu and the num=er o+ 0I9s and 92ARCs. 2AI6 $: reEuires a minimum o+ three dis)s and can to%erate the %oss o+ one dis) without %osin' data. (is) reads are +ast =ut write s eed can =e reduced =: as much as *0P. I+ a dis) +ai%sD it is mar)ed as de'raded =ut the s:stem wi%% continue to o erate unti% the dri.e is re %aced and the RAI( is re=ui%t. Howe.erD shou%d another dis) +ai% =e+ore the RAI( is re=ui%tD a%% data wi%% =e %ost. 2AI6 %: reEuires a minimum o+ +our dis)s and can to%erate the %oss o+ two dis)s without %osin' data. #ene+its +rom ha.in' man: dis)s as er+ormanceD +au%t to%eranceD and cost e++icienc: are a%% im ro.ed re%ati.e%: with more dis)s. <he %ar'er the +ai%ed dri.eD the %on'er it ta)es to re=ui%d the arra:. Reads are .er: +ast =ut writes are s%ower than a RAI( *. 2AI6 10: reEuires a minimum o+ +our dis)s and num=er o+ dis)s is a%wa:s e.en as this t: e o+ RAI( mirrors stri ed sets. <his t: e o+ RAI( can sur.i.e the +ai%ure o+ an: one dri.e. I+ :ou %ose a second dri.e +rom the $a(e mirrored setD :ou wi%% %ose the arra:. Howe.erD i+ :ou %ose a second dri.e +rom a di++erent mirrored setD the arra: wi%% continue to o erate in a de'raded state. RAI( 10 si'ni+icant%: out er+orms RAI(02D es ecia%%: on writes. 2AI6 %0: reEuires a minimum o+ ei'ht dis)s. Com=ines RAI( 0 stri in' with the distri=uted dou=%e arit: o+ RAI( , =: stri in' 2 &;dis) RAI( , arra:s. RAI( ,0 re=ui%d times are ha%+ that o+ RAI( ,. 2AI6;1: 0$" so+tware so%ution that is eEui.a%ent to RAI(*. Its ad.anta'e o.er RAI( * is that it a.oids the write;ho%e and does not reEuire an: s ecia% hardwareD meanin' it can =e used on commodit: dis)s. I+ :our $reeNA"1 s:stem wi%% =e used +or stead: writesD RAI(0 is a oor choice due to the s%ow write s eed. 2AI6;2: dou=%e; arit: 0$" so+tware so%ution that is simi%ar to RAI(;,. Its ad.anta'e o.er RAI( * is that it a%so a.oids the write;ho%e and does not reEuire an: s ecia% hardwareD meanin' it can =e used on commodit: dis)s. RAI(02 a%%ows :ou to %ose one dri.e without an: de'radation as it =asica%%: =ecomes a RAI(01 unti% :ou re %ace the +ai%ed dri.e and resi%.er. At this timeD RAI(02 on $ree#"( is s%ower than RAI(01. 2AI6;#: tri %e; arit: 0$" so+tware so%ution. RAI(03 o++ers three arit: dri.es and can o erate in de'raded mode i+ u to three dri.es +ai% with no restrictions on which dri.es can +ai%. N9*:: instead o+ mi5in' 0$" RAI( with hardware RAI(D it is recommended that :ou %ace :our hardware RAI( contro%%er in C#-( mode and %et 0$" hand%e the RAI(. Accordin' to Wi)i ediaK Q0$" can not +u%%: rotect the user's data when usin' a hardware RAI( contro%%erD as it is not a=%e to er+orm the automatic se%+;hea%in' un%ess it contro%s the redundanc: o+ the dis)s and data. 0$" re+ers directD e5c%usi.e access to the dis)sD with nothin' in =etween that inter+eres. I+ the user insists on usin' FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 1% of 274

hardware;%e.e% RAI(D the contro%%er shou%d =e con+i'ured as C#-( mode Ai.e. turn o++ RAI(; +unctiona%it:B +or 0$" to =e a=%e to 'uarantee data inte'rit:. Note that hardware RAI( con+i'ured as C#-( ma: sti%% detach dis)s that do not res ond in timeO and as such ma: reEuire <94R@CC<9@4RC; ena=%ed dis)s to re.ent dri.e dro outs. <hese %imitations do not a %: when usin' a non;RAI( contro%%erD which is the re+erred method o+ su %:in' dis)s to 0$".R When determinin' the t: e o+ RAI(0 to useD consider whether :our 'oa% is to ma5imum dis) s ace or ma5imum er+ormanceK RAI(01 ma5imi8es dis) s ace and 'enera%%: er+orms we%% when data is written and read in %ar'e chun)s A126K or moreB. RAI(02 o++ers =etter data a.ai%a=i%it: and si'ni+icant%: =etter mean time to data %oss AM<<(9B than RAI(01. A mirror consumes more dis) s ace =ut 'enera%%: er+orms =etter with sma%% random reads. $or =etter er+ormanceD a mirror is stron'%: +a.ored o.er an: RAI(0D uncachea=%eD random read %oads. articu%ar%: +or %ar'eD

When determinin' how man: dis)s to use in a RAI(0D the +o%%owin' con+i'urations ro.ide o tima% er+ormance. Arra: si8es =e:ond 12 dis)s are not recommended. "tart a RAI(01 at at 3D *D or 9 dis)s. "tart a RAI(02 at &D ,D or 10 dis)s. "tart a RAI(03 at *D /D or 11 dis)s. <he recommended num=er o+ dis)s er 'rou is =etween 3 and 9. I+ :ou ha.e more dis)sD use mu%ti %e 'rou s. <he +o%%owin' resources can a%so he% :ou determine the RAI( con+i'uration =est suited to :our stora'e needsK What is the #est RAI(0 Con+i'uration 2ettin' the Most out o+ 0$" >oo%s A C%oser 9oo) at 0$"D 3de.s and >er+ormance N9*:: NO RA1D SO2UT1ON PRO31DES A REP2A4EMENT FOR A RE21A,2E ,A45UP STRATEG6. ,AD STUFF 4AN ST122 7APPEN AND 6OU 8122 ,E G2AD T7AT 6OU ,A45ED UP 6OUR DATA 87EN 1T DOES. "ee >eriodic "na shot <as)s and Re %ication <as)s i+ :ou wou%d %i)e to use 0$" sna shots and rs:nc as art o+ :our =ac)u strate':. 1.#.7 ;FS 9,er,ie0

Whi%e 0$" isn't hardwareD an o.er.iew is inc%uded in this section as the decision to use 0$" ma: im act on :our hardware choices and whether or not to use hardware RAI(. I+ :ou are new to 0$"D the Wi)i edia entr: on 0$" ro.ides an e5ce%%ent startin' oint to %earn a=out its +eatures. <hese resources are a%so use+u% to =oo)mar) and re+er to as neededK

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$ree#"( 0$" <unin' 2uide 0$" Administration 2uide #ecomin' a 0$" NinIa A.ideoB "%ideshow e5 %ainin' 3(e.D 8 oo%D 0I9 and 92ARC and other new=ie mista)esS <he +o%%owin' is a '%ossar: o+ terms used =: 0$"K Poo : a co%%ection o+ de.ices that ro.ides h:sica% stora'e and data re %ication mana'ed =: 0$". <his oo%ed stora'e mode% e%iminates the conce t o+ .o%umes and the associated ro=%ems o+ artitionsD ro.isionin'D wasted =andwidth and stranded stora'e. In $reeNA"1D 0$" 3o%ume Mana'er is used to create 0$" oo%s. 6ataset: once a oo% is createdD it can =e di.ided into datasets. A dataset is simi%ar to a +o%der in that it su orts ermissions. A dataset is a%so simi%ar to a +i%es:stem in that :ou can set ro erties such as Euotas and com ression. ;,o : 0$" stora'e oo%s can ro.ide .o%umes +or a %ications that need raw;de.ice semantics such as swa de.ices or i"C"I de.ice e5tents. In other wordsD a 8.o% is a .irtua% =%oc) de.ice in a 0$" stora'e oo%. Sna"s!ot: a read;on%: oint;in;time co : o+ a +i%es:stem. "na shots can =e created Euic)%: andD i+ %itt%e data chan'esD new sna shots ta)e u .er: %itt%e s ace. $or e5am %eD a sna shot where no +i%es ha.e chan'ed ta)es 0 M# o+ stora'eD =ut i+ :ou chan'e a 10 2# +i%e it wi%% )ee a co : o+ =oth the o%d and the new 10 2# .ersion. "na shots ro.ide a c%e.er wa: o+ )ee in' a histor: o+ +i%esD shou%d :ou need to reco.er an o%der co : or e.en a de%eted +i%e. $or this reasonD man: administrators ta)e sna shots o+ten Ae.'. e.er: 1* minutesBD store them +or a eriod o+ time Ae.'. +or a monthBD and store them on another s:stem. "uch a strate': a%%ows the administrator to ro%% the s:stem =ac) to a s eci+ic time orD i+ there is a catastro hic %ossD an o++;site sna shot can restore the s:stem u to the %ast sna shot inter.a% Ae.'. within 1* minutes o+ the data %ossB. "na shots can =e c%oned or ro%%ed =ac)D =ut the +i%es on the sna shot cannot =e accessed inde endent%:. ' one: a writa=%e co : o+ a sna shot which can on%: =e created on the same 0$" .o%ume. C%ones ro.ide an e5treme%: s ace;e++icient wa: to store man: co ies o+ most%:;shared data such as wor)s acesD so+tware insta%%ationsD and dis)%ess c%ients. C%ones do not inherit the ro erties o+ the arent datasetD =ut rather inherit the ro erties =ased on where the c%one is created in the 0$" oo%. #ecause a c%one initia%%: shares a%% its dis) s ace with the ori'ina% sna shotD its used ro ert: is initia%%: 8ero. As chan'es are made to the c%oneD it uses more s ace. 6edu" ication: the rocess o+ e%iminatin' du %icate co ies o+ data in order to sa.e s ace. -nce dedu %icaton occursD it can im ro.e 0$" er+ormance as %ess data is written and stored. Howe.erD the rocess o+ dedu %icatin' the data is RAM intensi.e and a 'enera% ru%e o+ thum= is * 2# RAM er <# o+ stora'e to =e dedu %icated. 1% (o$t ca$e$/ e%abli%# co("re$$io% -ill "ro'ide co("arable "er*or(a%ce. In $reeNA"1D dedu %ication can =e ena=%ed at the dataset %e.e% and there is no wa: to undedu data once it is dedu %icatedK switchin' dedu %ication o++ has NO AFFE4T on e5istin' data. <he more data :ou write to a dedu %icated datasetD the more RAM it reEuiresD and there is no u er =ound on this. When the s:stem starts storin' the ((<s Adedu ta=%esB on dis) =ecause the: no %on'er +it into RAMD er+ormance craters. $urthermoreD im ortin' an unc%ean oo% can reEuire =etween 3;* 2# o+ RAM er <# o+ dedu ed dataD and i+ the s:stem doesn't ha.e the needed RAM it wi%% anicD with FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 1) of 274

the on%: so%ution =ein' to add more RAM or to recreate the oo%. Thi%0 care*!ll) be*ore e%abli%# ded!"9 ;I<: A0$" Intent 9o'B is e++ecti.e%: a +i%es:stem Iourna% that mana'es writes. <he 0I9 is a tem orar: stora'e area +or s:nc writes unti% the: are written as:nchronous%: to the 0$" oo%. I+ the s:stem has man: s:nc writesD such as +rom a data=ase ser.erD er+ormance can =e increased =: addin' a dedicated %o' de.ice As%o'B usin' 0$" 3o%ume Mana'er. I+ the s:stem has +ew s:nc writesD a s%o' wi%% not s eed u writes to the oo%. A more detai%ed e5 %anation can =e +ound in this +orum ost. A dedicated %o' de.ice wi%% ha.e no a++ect on CI$"D A$>D or i"C"I as these rotoco%s rare%: use s:nc writes. A dedicated %o' de.ice can increase write er+ormance o.er N$"D es ecia%%: +or 4"7i. When creatin' a dedicated %o' de.iceD it is recommended to use a +ast ""( with a su erca acitor or a =an) o+ ca acitors that can hand%e writin' the contents o+ the ""('s RAM to the ""(. I+ :ou don't ha.e access to such an ""(D tr: disa=%in' s:nc writes on the N$" dataset usin' 8+sA6B instead. <he =i stat uti%it: can =e run +rom "he%% to he% determine i+ the s:stem wou%d =ene+it +rom a dedicated 0I9 de.ice. "ee this we=site +or usa'e in+ormation. I+ :ou decide to create a dedicated %o' de.ice to s eed u N$" writesD the ""( can =e ha%+ the si8e o+ s:stem RAM as an:thin' %ar'er than that is unused ca acit:. <he %o' de.ice $ho!ld be (irrored o% a FS':; "ool beca!$e i* o%e o* the lo# de'ice$ *ail$/ the "ool i$ !%reco'erable and the oo% must =e recreated and the data restored +rom a =ac)u . <he %o' de.ice does not need to =e mirrored on a 0$".26 oo% as the s:stem wi%% re.ert to usin' the 0I9 i+ the %o' de.ice +ai%s and on%: the data in the de.ice which had not =een written to the oo% wi%% =e %ost At: ica%%: the %ast +ew seconds o+ writesB. Fou can re %ace the %ost %o' de.ice in the 3iew 3o%umes L 3o%ume "tatus screen. Note that a dedicated %o' de.ice can not =e shared =etween 0$" oo%s and that the same de.ice cannot ho%d =oth a %o' and a cache de.ice. <2A2': 0$" uses a RAM cache to reduce read %atenc:. I+ an ""( is dedicated as a cache de.iceD it is )nown as an 92ARC and 0$" uses it to store more reads which can increase random read er+ormance. Howe.erD addin' a cache de.ice wi%% not im ro.e a s:stem with too %itt%e RAM and wi%% actua%%: decrease er+ormance as 0$" uses RAM to trac) the contents o+ 92ARC. RAM is a%wa:s +aster than dis)sD so a%wa:s add as much RAM as ossi=%e =e+ore determinin' i+ the s:stem wou%d =ene+it +rom a 92ARC de.ice. I+ :ou ha.e a %ot o+ a %ications that do %ar'e amounts o+ random readD on a dataset sma%% enou'h to +it into the 92ARCD read er+ormance ma: =e increased =: addin' a dedicated cache de.ice usin' 0$" 3o%ume Mana'er. ""( cache de.ices on%: he% i+ :our wor)in' set is %ar'er than s:stem RAMD =ut sma%% enou'h that a si'ni+icant ercenta'e o+ it wi%% +it on the ""(. A+ter addin' an 92ARCD monitor its e++ecti.eness usin' too%s such as arcstat. I+ :ou need to increase the si8e o+ an e5istin' 92ARCD :ou can stri e another cache de.ice =: addin' another de.ice. <he 2!I wi%% a%wa:s stri e 92ARCD not mirror itD as the contents o+ 92ARC are recreated at =oot. 9osin' an 92ARC de.ice wi%% not a++ect the inte'rit: o+ the oo%D =ut ma: ha.e an im act on read er+ormanceD de endin' u on the wor)%oad and the ratio o+ dataset si8e to cache si8e. Note that a dedicated 92ARC de.ice can not =e shared =etween 0$" oo%s. Scru(: simi%ar to 4CC memor: scru==in'D a%% data is read to detect %atent errors whi%e the:'re sti%% correcta=%e. A scru= tra.erses the entire stora'e oo% to read e.er: data =%oc)D .a%idates it a'ainst its 2*,;=it chec)sumD and re airs it i+ necessar:.

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Insta ing and U"grading FreeNAS

#e+ore insta%%in'D it is im ortant to remem=er that the $reeNA"1 o eratin' s:stem must =e insta%%ed on a se arate de.ice +rom the dri.eAsB that wi%% ho%d the stora'e data. In other wordsD i+ :ou on%: ha.e one dis) dri.e :ou wi%% =e a=%e to use the $reeNA"1 'ra hica% inter+ace =ut won't =e a=%e to store an: dataD which a+ter a%%D is the who%e oint o+ a NA" s:stem. I+ :ou are a home user who is e5 erimentin' with $reeNA"1D :ou can insta%% $reeNA"1 on an ine5 ensi.e !"# thum= dri.e and use the com uter's dis)AsB +or stora'e. <his section descri=es the +o%%owin'K 2ettin' $reeNA"1 $reeNA"1 in a 3irtua% 4n.ironment Insta%%in' +rom C(R-M #urnin' an IM2 $i%e Initia% "etu ! 'radin' $reeNA"1

2.1

Getting FreeNAS

$reeNA"1 9.2.0 can =e down%oaded +rom the down%oad a'e o+ the $reeNA"1 we=site. $reeNA"1 is a.ai%a=%e +or 32;=it A536,B and ,&;=it A5,&B architectures. Fou shou%d down%oad the architecture t: e that matches :our C>!'s ca a=i%ities. N9*:: there are man: =ui%t;in %imitations in the 32;=it .ersion. Fou shou%d on%: insta%% this .ersion i+ :our C>! a=so%ute%: does not su ort ,&;=it. <he down%oad a'e contains the +o%%owin' t: es o+ +i%es. (own%oad one +i%e that meets :our needsK '6 Insta er: this is a =oota=%e insta%%er that can =e written to C(R-M. <his is descri=ed in more detai% in Insta%%in' +rom C(R-M. 6is7 I3age: this is a com ressed ima'e o+ the o eratin' s:stem that needs to =e written to a !"# or com act +%ash de.ice. #urnin' an IM2 $i%e descri=es how to write the ima'e. GUI U"grade or <egac+ U"grade: this is a com ressed +irmware u 'rade ima'e. I+ :our intent is to u 'rade $reeNA"1D down%oad the correct +i%e +or :our architecture and .ersion and see the section on ! 'radin' $reeNA"1. (own%oad the 2!I ! 'rade i+ :ou are u 'radin' +rom .ersion 6.2.0;#4<A3 throu'h 9.1.0. (own%oad the %e'ac: u 'rade i+ :ou are u 'radin' +rom .ersion 6.0.1#4<A3 throu'h 6.2.0;#4<A2.

4ach +i%e has an associated "HA2*, hash which shou%d =e used to .eri+: the inte'rit: o+ the down%oaded +i%e =e+ore writin' it to the insta%%ation media. <he command :ou use to .eri+: the chec)sum .aries =: o eratin' s:stemK on a #"( s:stem use the command s!a2$% na3e8of8fi e on a 9inu5 s:stem use the command s!a2$%su3 na3e8of8fi e on a Mac s:stem use the command s!asu3 >a 2$% na3e8of8fi e FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 20 of 274

on a Windows s:stem or Mac s:stemD :ou can insta%% a uti%it: such as HashCa%c or Hash<a=

2.2

FreeNAS in a ?irtua :n,iron3ent

$reeNA" can =e run inside a .irtua% en.ironment +or de.e%o mentD e5 erimentationD and educationa% ur oses. >%ease note that runnin' $reeNA" in roduction as a .irtua% machine is not recommended. I+ :ou decide to use $reeNA"1 within a .irtua% en.ironmentD read this ost +irst as it contains use+u% 'uide%ines +or minimi8in' the ris) o+ %osin' :our data. In order to insta%% or run $reeNA"1 within a .irtua% en.ironmentD :ou wi%% need to create a .irtua% machine that meets the +o%%owin' minimum reEuirementsK *12 M# =ase memor: si8e A!$" on%:BD &09, M# or more A0$"B a .irtua% dis) at lea$t < G, i% $i.e to ho%d the o eratin' s:stem and swa at %east one more .irtua% dis) at lea$t = G, i% $i.e to =e used as data stora'e a =rid'ed ada ter <his section demonstrates how to create and access a .irtua% machine within the 3irtua%#o5 and 3MWare 4"7i en.ironments.

2.2.1

?irtua 5o-

3irtua%#o5 is an o en source .irtua%i8ation ro'ram ori'ina%%: created =: "un Micros:stems. 3irtua%#o5 runs on WindowsD #"(D 9inu5D MacintoshD and - en"o%aris. It can =e con+i'ured to use a down%oaded $reeNA"1 .iso or .img.(/ +i%eD and ma)es a 'ood testin' en.ironment +or racticin' con+i'urations or %earnin' how to use the +eatures ro.ided =: $reeNA"1.

2.2.1.1

Creating the Virtual Machine

<o create the .irtua% machineD start 3irtua%#o5 and c%ic) the QNewR =uttonD seen in $i'ure 2.2aD to start the new .irtua% machine wi8ard. C%ic) the QNe5tR =utton to see the screen in $i'ure 2.2=. 4nter a name +or the .irtua% machineD then c%ic) the Q- eratin' ":stemR dro ;down menu and se%ect #"(. $or a ,&; =it or 5,& $reeNA"1 insta%%D se%ect Q$ree#"( A,&;=itBR +rom the Q3ersionR dro down. $or a 32;=it or 56, insta%%D se%ect Q$ree#"(R. I+ :ou %an to use more than &09,M# o+ RAMD :ou must se%ect Q$ree#"( A,&;=itBR and use ,&;=it $reeNA"1 insta%% media. C%ic) QNe5tR to see the screen in $i'ure 2.2c.

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Figure 2.2a: Initia ?irtua 5o- Screen

Figure 2.2(: *+"e in a Na3e and Se ect t!e 9"erating S+ste3 for t!e Ne0 ?irtua 4ac!ine

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Figure 2.2c: Se ect t!e A3ount of 4e3or+ 2eser,ed for t!e ?irtua 4ac!ine

Figure 2.2d: Se ect .!et!er to Use an :-isting or 'reate a Ne0 ?irtua 6is7

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<he =ase memor: si8e must =e chan'ed to at lea$t ;:< M,. 1* )o!r $)$te( ha$ e%o!#h (e(or)/ $elect at lea$t =0>? M, $o that )o! ca% !$e FS . When +inishedD c%ic) QNe5tR to see the screen in $i'ure 2.2d. <his screen is used to create the .irtua% hard dis) to insta%% $reeNA"1 into. C%ic) QNe5tR to %aunch the QCreate New 3irtua% (is) Wi8ardR. C%ic) the QNe5tR =utton a'ain to see the screen in $i'ure 2.2e. <he wi8ard can =e used to create the +o%%owin' t: es o+ .irtua% dis) +ormatsK ?6I: 3irtua% (is) Ima'e is the +ormat used =: 3irtua%#o5. "e%ect this o tion i+ :ou down%oaded the I"-. ?461: 3irtua% Machine (is) is the +ormat used =: 3MWare. "e%ect this o tion i+ :ou con.erted the .img +i%e to 3M(K +ormat usin' the instructions in Runnin' $reeNA"1 +rom a !"# Ima'e. ?&6: 3irtua% Hard (is) is the +ormat used =: Windows 3irtua% >C. &66: is the +ormat used =: >ara%%e%s. -nce :ou ma)e a se%ectionD c%ic) the QNe5tR =utton to see the screen in $i'ure 2.2+. Fou can now choose whether :ou want Q(:namica%%: e5 andin' stora'eR or Q$i5ed;si8e stora'eR. <he +irst o tion uses dis) s ace as needed unti% it reaches the ma5imum si8e that :ou wi%% set in the ne5t screen. <he second o tion creates a dis) the same si8e as that s eci+ied amount o+ dis) s aceD whether it is used or not. Choose the +irst o tion i+ :ou are worried a=out dis) s aceO otherwiseD choose the second o tion as it a%%ows 3irtua%#o5 to run s%i'ht%: +aster. -nce :ou se%ect QNe5tRD :ou wi%% see the screen in $i'ure 2.2'. Figure 2.2e: 'reate Ne0 ?irtua 6is7 .i=ard

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Figure 2.2f: Se ect t!e Storage *+"e for t!e ?irtua 6is7

Figure 2.2g: Se ect t!e Fi e Na3e and Si=e of t!e ?irtua 6is7

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<his screen is used to set the si8e Aor u er %imitB o+ the .irtua% machine. 1%crea$e the de*a!lt $i.e to < G,. !se the +o%der icon to =rowse to a director: on dis) with su++icient s ace to ho%d the .irtua% machine. -nce :ou ma)e :our se%ection and ress QNe5tRD :ou wi%% see a summar: o+ :our choices. !se the Q#ac)R =utton to return to a re.ious screen i+ :ou need to chan'e an: .a%ues. -therwiseD c%ic) Q$inishR to +inish usin' the wi8ard. <he .irtua% machine wi%% =e %isted in the %e+t +rameD as seen in the e5am %e in $i'ure 2.2h. Figure 2.2!: *!e Ne0 ?irtua 4ac!ine

2.2.1.2

Creating Devices for Storage and Installation Media

Ne5tD create the .irtua% dis)AsB to =e used +or stora'e. C%ic) the Q"tora'eR h: er%in) in the ri'ht +rame to access the stora'e screen seen in $i'ure 2.2i. C%ic) the QAdd AttachmentR =uttonD se%ect QAdd Hard (is)R +rom the o ;u menuD then c%ic) the QCreate New (is)R =utton. <his wi%% %aunch the Create New 3irtua% (is) Wi8ard Aseen in $i'ures 2.2e and 2.2+B. "ince this dis) wi%% =e used +or stora'eD create a si8e a ro riate to :our needsD ma)in' sure that it is at lea$t = G, in si8e. I+ :ou wish to ractice RAI( con+i'urationsD create as man: .irtua% dis)s as :ou need. Fou wi%% =e a=%e to create 2 dis)s on the I(4 contro%%er. I+ :ou need additiona% dis)sD c%ic) the QAdd Contro%%erR =utton to create another contro%%er to attach dis)s to.

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Ne5tD create the de.ice +or the insta%%ation media. I+ :ou wi%% =e insta%%in' +rom an I"-D hi'h%i'ht the word Q4m t:RD then c%ic) the C( icon as seen in $i'ure 2.2I. C%ic) QChoose a .irtua% C(@(3( dis) +i%e...R to =rowse to the %ocation o+ the .iso +i%e. A%ternate%:D i+ :ou ha.e =urned the .iso to dis)D se%ect the detected QHost (ri.eR. (e endin' u on the e5tensions a.ai%a=%e in :our C>!D :ou ma: or ma: not =e a=%e to use a ,&;=it I"on a ,&;=it s:stem. I+ :ou recei.e the error Q:our C>! does not su ort %on' modeR when :ou tr: to =oot a ,&;=it I"-D :our C>! either does not ha.e the reEuired e5tension or AM(;3@3<;5 is disa=%ed in the s:stem #I-". Fou can sti%% use the 32;=it .ersion o+ the I"-D =ut 0$" er+ormance wi%% =e reduced. N9*:: i+ :ou recei.e a )erne% anic when =ootin' into the I"-D sto the .irtua% machine. <henD 'o to ":stem and chec) the =o5 Q4na=%e I- A>ICR. Figure 2.2i: *!e Storage Settings of t!e ?irtua 4ac!ine

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Figure 2.2@: 'onfiguring t!e IS9 Insta ation 4edia

2.2.1.3

Configuring the Bridged Ada ter

<o con+i'ure the networ) ada terD 'o to "ettin's L Networ). In the QAttached toR dro ;down menu se%ect Q#rid'ed Ada terRD then se%ect the name o+ the h:sica% inter+ace +rom the QNameR dro ;down menu. In the e5am %e shown in $i'ure 2.2)D the Inte% >ro@1000 4thernet card is attached to the networ) and has a de.ice name o+ re0. -nce :our con+i'uration is com %eteD c%ic) the Q"tartR arrow. I+ :ou con+i'ured the I"-D insta%% $reeNA"1 as descri=ed in Insta%%in' +rom C(R-M. -nce $reeNA"1 is insta%%edD ress $12 to access the =oot menu in order to se%ect the rimar: hard dis) as the =oot o tion. Fou can ermanent%: =oot +rom dis) =: remo.in' the C(@(3( de.ice in Q"tora'eR or =: unchec)in' C(@(3(;R-M in the Q#oot -rderR section o+ Q":stemR. I+ :ou con+i'ured the 3M(KD the .irtua% machine wi%% =oot direct%: into $reeNA"1.

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Figure 2.27: 'onfiguring a 5ridged Ada"ter in ?irtua 5o-

2.2.1.!

"unning #ree$AS% fro& a 'SB I&age

I+ :ou wi%% =e runnin' $reeNA"1 +rom an .img.(/ +i%e instead o+ insta%%in' it +rom the I"-D :ou must +irst down%oad and insta%% the -rac%e 3M 3irtua%#o5 45tension >ac) that matches :our .ersion o+ 3irtua%#o5. <he e5tension ac) ena=%es !"# su ort. Ne5tD uncom ress and =urn the $reeNA"1 .img.(/ +i%e usin' the instructions at #urnin' an Ima'e $i%e. -nce the ima'e is =urned to the !"# de.iceD %ea.e the de.ice inserted. <he 3irtua%#o5 2!I does not automatica%%: ro.ide a wa: to se%ect a !"# de.ice to =oot +rom. Howe.erD :ou can use a command %ine uti%it: to %in) the !"# de.ice to a .#mdk +i%e so that it can =e se%ected as a =oot de.ice. <o do this on a Windows s:stemD o en a command rom t in administrati.e mode Ari'ht;c%ic) c3d +rom the Run menu and se%ect Run as administratorBD and run the commands shown in $i'ure 2.2%. #e+ore runnin' these commandsD .eri+: the h:sica% dri.e num=er +rom "tart menu L ri'ht;c%ic) Com uter L Mana'e L "tora'e L (is) Mana'ement. I+ the !"# dri.e is di++erent than (is) 1D chan'e the num=er in 00.01hysi'al ri#e1 to match the dis) num=er. Fou can a%so s eci+: where to sa.e the .#mdk +i%e. Ma)e sure that the securit: ta= o+ the sa.ed +i%e 'i.es Q$u%% contro%R ermissions to !sers so that the +i%e can =e accessed =: 3irtua%#o5. FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 29 of 274

Figure 2.2 : 'reating t!e ,3d7 Fi e in .indo0s

-nce :ou ha.e a .#mdk +i%eD create a new .irtua% machine whi%e the !"# stic) is inserted. When :ou 'et to $i'ure 2.2eD se%ect Q!se e5istin' hard dis)R and =rowse to :our .#mdk +i%e. C%ic) QNe5tRD then QCreateR. <his wi%% create the .irtua% machine and =rin' :ou to $i'ure 2.2h. Fou can then create :our stora'e dis)s and =rid'ed ada ter as usua%. When +inishedD start the .irtua% machine and it wi%% =oot direct%: into $reeNA"1.

2.2.2

?4.are :SAi

I+ :ou are considerin' usin' 4"7iD read this ost +or an e5 %anation o+ wh: i"C"I wi%% =e +aster than N$". 4"7i is is a =are;meta% h: er.isor architecture created =: 3Mware Inc. Commercia% and +ree .ersions o+ the 3MWare ." here H: er.isor o eratin' s:stem A4"7iB are a.ai%a=%e +rom the 3MWare we=site. -nce the o eratin' s:stem is insta%%ed on su orted hardwareD use a we= =rowser to connect to its I> address. <he we%come screen wi%% ro.ide a %in) to down%oad the 3Mware ." here c%ient which is used to create and mana'e .irtua% machines. -nce the 3Mware ." here c%ient is insta%%edD use it to connect to the 4"7i ser.er. <o create a new .irtua% machineD c%ic) $i%e L New L 3irtua% Machine. <he New 3irtua% Machine Wi8ard wi%% %aunch as seen in $i'ure 2.2m. C%ic) QNe5tR and in ut a name +or the .irtua% machine. C%ic) QNe5tR and hi'h%i'ht a datastore. An e5am %e is shown in $i'ure 2.2n. C%ic) QNe5tR. In the screen shown in $i'ure 2.2oD c%ic) Q-therR then se%ect a $ree#"( architecture that matches the $reeNA"1 architecture.

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Figure 2.23: Ne0 ?irtua 4ac!ine .i=ard

Figure 2.2n: Se ect a 6atastore

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Figure 2.2o: Se ect t!e 9"erating S+ste3

C%ic) QNe5tR and create a .irtua% dis) +i%e o+ 2 G, to ho%d the $reeNA"1 o eratin' s:stemD as shown in $i'ure 2.2 . C%ic) QNe5tR then Q$inishR. Four .irtua% machine wi%% =e %isted in the %e+t +rame. Ri'ht;c%ic) the .irtua% machine and se%ect Q4dit "ettin'sR to access the screen shown in $i'ure 2.2E. Increase the QMemor: Con+i'urationR to at lea$t ;:< M, . !nder QC>!sRD ma)e sure that on%: 1 .irtua% rocessor is %istedD otherwise :ou wi%% =e una=%e to start an: $reeNA"1 ser.ices. <o create a stora'e dis)D c%ic) Hard dis) 1 L Add. In the Q(e.ice <: eR menuD hi'h%i'ht QHard (is)R and c%ic)R Ne5tR. "e%ect QCreate a new .irtua% dis)R and c%ic) QNe5tR. In the screen shown in $i'ure 2.2rD se%ect the si8e o+ the dis). I+ :ou wou%d %i)e the si8e to =e d:namica%%: a%%ocated as neededD chec) the =o5 QA%%ocate and commit s ace on demand A<hin >ro.isionin'BR. C%ic) QNe5tRD then QNe5tRD then Q$inishR to create the dis). Re eat to create the amount o+ stora'e dis)s needed to meet :our reEuirements.

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Figure 2.2": 'reate a 6is7 for t!e 9"erating S+ste3

Figure 2.2B: ?irtua 4ac!ine/s Settings

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Figure 2.2r: 'reating a Storage 6is7

2.#

Insta ing fro3 '6294

I+ :ou re+er to insta%% $reeNA"1 usin' a menu;dri.en insta%%erD down%oad the I"- ima'e that matches the architecture o+ the s:stem :ou wi%% insta%% onto A32; or ,&;=itB and =urn it to a C(R-M. N9*:: the insta%%er on the C(R-M wi%% reco'ni8e i+ a re.ious .ersion o+ $reeNA"1 is a%read: insta%%edD meanin' the C(R-M can a%so =e used to u 'rade $reeNA"1. Howe.erD the insta%%er can not er+orm an u 'rade +rom a $reeNA"1 ./ s:stem. Insert the C(R-M into the s:stem and =oot +rom it. -nce the media has +inished =ootin'D :ou wi%% =e resented with the conso%e setu menu seen in $i'ure 2.3a. N9*:: i+ the insta%%er does not =ootD chec) that the C( dri.e is %isted +irst in the =oot order in the #I-". "ome mother=oards ma: reEuire :ou to connect the C(R-M to "A<A0 Athe +irst connectorB in order to =oot +rom C(R-M. I+ it sta%%s durin' =ootD chec) the "HA2*, hash o+ :our I"- a'ainst that %isted in the Re%ease NotesO i+ the hash does not matchD re;down%oad the +i%e. I+ the hash is correctD tr: =urnin' the C( a'ain at a %ower s eed. FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page #4 of 274

Figure 2.#a: FreeNAS 'onso e Setu"

>ress enter to se%ect the de+au%t o tion o+ Q1 Insta%%@! 'rade to hard dri.e@+%ash de.iceD etc.R. <he ne5t menuD seen in $i'ure 2.3=D wi%% %ist a%% a.ai%a=%e dri.esD inc%udin' an: inserted !"# thum= dri.es which wi%% =e'in with da. In this e5am %eD the user is insta%%in' into 3irtua%#o5 and has created a & 2# .irtua% dis) to ho%d the o eratin' s:stem. N9*:: at this timeD the insta%%er does not chec) the si8e o+ the insta%% media =e+ore attem tin' an insta%%ation. A 2 2# de.ice is reEuiredD =ut the insta%% wi%% a ear to com %ete success+u%%: on sma%%er de.icesD on%: to +ai% at =oot. I+ usin' a !"# thum= dri.eD an & 2# dri.e is recommended as man: 2 2# thum= dri.es ha.e a sma%%er ca acit: which wi%% resu%t in a seemin'%: success+u% insta%%ation that +ai%s to =oot. !se :our arrow )e:s to hi'h%i'ht the !"#D com act +%ash de.iceD or .irtua% dis) to insta%% intoD then ta= to -K and ress enter. $reeNA"1 wi%% issue the warnin' seen in $i'ure 2.3cD remindin' :ou not to insta%% onto a stora'e dri.e. >ress enter and $reeNA"1 wi%% e5tract the ima'e +rom the I"- and trans+er it to the de.ice. -nce the insta%%ation is com %eteD :ou shou%d see a messa'e simi%ar to $i'ure 2.3d. >ress enter to return to the +irst menuD seen in $i'ure 2.3a. Hi'h%i'ht Q3 Re=oot ":stemR and ress enter. Remo.e the C(R-M. I+ :ou insta%%ed onto a !"# thum= dri.eD %ea.e the thum= dri.e inserted. Ma)e sure that the de.ice :ou insta%%ed to is %isted as the +irst =oot entr: in the #I-" so that the s:stem wi%% =oot +rom it. $reeNA"1 shou%d now =e a=%e to =oot into the Conso%e setu menu descri=ed in Initia% "etu .

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Figure 2.#(: Se ecting .!ic! 6ri,e to Insta Into

Figure 2.#c: FreeNAS Insta ation .arning

Figure 2.#d: FreeNAS Insta ation 'o3" ete

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2.4

5urning an I4G Fi e

I+ :our s:stem does not ha.e a C(R-M dri.e to insta%% +romD :ou can instead write the o eratin' s:stem direct%: to a com act +%ash card or !"# thum=dri.e. (own%oad the img.(/ +i%eD uncom ress the +i%eD and write it to a com act +%ash card or !"# thum=dri.e that is 2 2# or %ar'er. Fou then =oot into that de.ice to %oad the $reeNA"1 o eratin' s:stem. <his section demonstrates how to write the ima'e usin' se.era% di++erent o eratin' s:stems. <he !net=ootin too% is not su orted at this time. 6ANG:2C <he dd command demonstrated in this section is .er: ower+u% and can destro: an: e5istin' data on the s eci+ied de.ice. #e 'er) $!re that :ou )now the de.ice name to write to and that :ou do not t: o the de.ice name when usin' ddS I+ :ou are uncom+orta=%e writin' the ima'e :ourse%+D down%oad the .iso +i%e instead and use the instructions in Insta%%in' +rom C(R-M. -nce :ou ha.e written the ima'e to the de.iceD ma)e sure the =oot order in the #I-" is set to =oot +rom that de.ice and =oot the s:stem. It shou%d =oot into the Conso%e setu menu descri=ed in Initia% "etu . I+ it does notD tr: the su''estions in the <rou=%eshootin' section. 2.4.1 Using -=cat and dd on a Free5S6 or <inu- S+ste3

-n a $ree#"( or 9inu5 s:stemD the -=cat and dd commands can =e used to uncom ress and write the .(/ ima'e to an inserted !"# thum= dri.e or com act +%ash de.ice. 45am %e 2.&a demonstrates writin' the ima'e to the +irst !"# de.ice A .de#.da0B on a $ree#"( s:stem. "u=stitute the +i%ename o+ :our .(/ +i%e and the de.ice name re resentin' the de.ice to write to on :our s:stem. :-a3" e 2.4a: .riting t!e I3age to a US5 *!u3( 6ri,e
xzcat FreeNAS-9.2.0-RELEASE-x64.img.xz | dd of=/dev/da0 bs=64k 0+244141 records in 0+244141 records out 2000000000 bytes transferred in 596.039857 secs (3355480 bytes/sec)

When usin' the dd commandK ofD re+ers to the out ut +i%eO in our caseD the de.ice name o+ the +%ash card or remo.a=%e !"# dri.e. Fou ma: ha.e to increment the num=er in the name i+ it is not the +irst !"# de.ice. -n 9inu5D use .de#.sdX2 where X re+ers to the %etter o+ the !"# de.ice. (sD re+ers to the =%oc) si8e 2.4.2 Using 1e7a and dd on an 9S A S+ste3

-n an -" 7 s:stemD :ou can down%oad and insta%% Ke)a to uncom ress the ima'e. In $IN(4RD na.i'ate to the %ocation where :ou sa.ed the down%oaded .(/ +i%e. Ri'ht;c%ic) the .(/ +i%e and se%ect Q- en With Ke)aR. A+ter a +ew minutes :ou wi%% ha.e a %ar'e +i%e with the same nameD =ut no .(/ e5tension. Insert the !"# thum= dri.e and 'o to 9aunch ad L !ti%ities L (is) !ti%it:. !nmount an: mounted artitions on the !"# thum= dri.e. Chec) that the !"# thum= dri.e has on%: one artitionD otherwise :ou wi%% 'et artition ta=%e errors on =oot. I+ neededD use (is) !ti%it: to setu one artition on the !"# dri.eO se%ectin' M+ree s aceM when creatin' the artition wor)s +ine. Ne5tD determine the de.ice name o+ the inserted !"# thum= dri.e. $rom <4RMINA9D na.i'ate to :our (es)to then t: e this commandK FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page #7 of 274

diskutil list /dev/disk0 #: TYPE NAME 0: GUID_partition_scheme 1: EFI 2: Apple_HFS Macintosh HD 3: Apple_Boot Recovery HD /dev/disk1 #: TYPE NAME 0: FDisk_partition_scheme 1: DOS_FAT_32 UNTITLED

SIZE *500.1 209.7 499.2 650.0

GB MB GB MB

IDENTIFIER disk0 disk0s1 disk0s2 disk0s3 IDENTIFIER disk1 disk1s1

SIZE *8.0 GB 8.0 GB

<his wi%% show :ou which de.ices are a.ai%a=%e to the s:stem. 9ocate :our !"# stic) and record the ath. I+ :ou are not sure which ath is the correct one +or the !"# stic)D remo.e the de.iceD run the command a'ainD and com are the di++erence. -nce :ou are sure o+ the de.ice nameD na.i'ate to the (es)to +rom <4RMINA9D unmount the !"# stic)D and use the dd command to write the ima'e to the !"# stic). In 45am %e 2.&=D the !"# thum= dri.e is .de#.disk1. "u=stitute the name o+ :our uncom ressed +i%e and the correct ath to :our !"# thum= dri.e. :-a3" e 2.4(: Using dd on an 9S A S+ste3
diskutil unmountDisk /dev/disk1 Unmount of all volumes on disk1 was successful dd if=FreeNAS-9.2.0-RELEASE-x64.img of=/dev/disk1 bs=64k

N9*:: i+ :ou 'et the error QResource =us:R when :ou run the dd commandD 'o to A %ications L !ti%ities L (is) !ti%it:D +ind :our !"# thum= dri.eD and c%ic) on its artitions to ma)e sure a%% o+ them are unmounted. I+ :ou 'et the error QddK @de.@dis)1K >ermission deniedRD run the dd command =: t: in' sudo dd ifDFreeNAS>9.2.0>2:<:AS:>-%4.i3g ofDEde,Edis71 (sD%47D which wi%% rom t +or :our assword. <he dd command wi%% ta)e some minutes to com %ete. Wait unti% :ou 'et a rom t =ac) and a messa'e that dis %a:s how %on' it too) to write the ima'e to the !"# dri.e. 2.4.# Using 7>;i" and .in#26is7I3ager on .indo0s

Windows users wi%% need to down%oad a uti%it: that can uncom ress .(/ +i%es and a uti%it: that can create a !"# =oota=%e ima'e +rom the uncom ressed .img +i%e. <his section wi%% demonstrate how to use /;0i and Win32(is)Ima'er to =urn the ima'e +i%e. When down%oadin' Win32(is)Ima'erD down%oad the %atest .ersion that ends in -$inary./i- and use /;0i to un8i its e5ecuta=%e. -nce =oth uti%ities are insta%%edD %aunch the /;0i $i%e Mana'er and =rowse to the %ocation containin' :our down%oaded .img.(/ +i%eD as seen in $i'ure 2.&a. C%ic) the 45tract =uttonD =rowse to the ath to e5tract toD and c%ic) -K. <he e5tracted ima'e wi%% end in .img and is now read: to =e written to a !"# de.ice usin' Win32(is)Ima'er. Ne5tD %aunch Win32(is)Ima'erD shown in $i'ure 2.&=. !se the =rowse =utton to =rowse to the %ocation o+ the .img +i%e. Insert a !"# thum= dri.e and se%ect its dri.e %etter +rom the (e.ice dro ;down menu. C%ic) the Write =utton and the ima'e wi%% =e written to the !"# thum= dri.e.

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Figure 2.4a: Using 7>;i" to :-tract I3age Fi e

Figure 2.4(: Using .in#26is7I3ager to .rite t!e I3age

2.4.4

*rou( es!ooting

I+ the s:stem does not =oot into $reeNA"1D there are se.era% thin's that :ou can chec) to reso%.e the situation. $irstD chec) the s:stem #I-" and see i+ there is an o tion to chan'e the !"# emu%ation +rom C(@(3(@+%o : to hard dri.e. I+ it sti%% wi%% not =ootD chec) to see i+ the card@dri.e is !(MA com %iant. "ome users ha.e +ound that some =rands o+ 2 2# !"# stic)s do not wor) as the: are not rea%%: 2 2# in si8eD =ut chan'in' to a & 2# stic) +i5es the ro=%em. FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page #9 of 274

I+ :ou are writin' the ima'e to a com act +%ash cardD ma)e sure that it is M"(-" +ormatted. I+ the s:stem starts to =oot =ut han's with this re eated error messa'eK
run_interrupt_driven_hooks: still waiting after 60 seconds for xpt_config

'o into the s:stem #I-" and see i+ there is an on=oard de.ice con+i'uration +or a 139& Contro%%er. I+ soD disa=%e the de.ice and tr: =ootin' a'ain. I+ the =urned ima'e +ai%s to =oot and the ima'e was =urned usin' a Windows s:stemD wi e the !"# stic) =e+ore tr:in' a second =urn usin' a uti%it: such as Acti.eT Ki%%(is). -therwiseD the second =urn attem t wi%% +ai% as Windows does not understand the artition which was written +rom the ima'e +i%e. #e .er: care+u% that :ou s eci+: the !"# stic) when usin' a wi e uti%it:S

2.$

Initia Setu"

When :ou =oot into $reeNA"1D the Conso%e "etu D shown in $i'ure 2.*aD wi%% a ear at the end o+ the =oot rocess. I+ :ou ha.e access to the the $reeNA"1 s:stem's )e:=oard and monitorD this Conso%e "etu menu can =e used to administer the s:stem shou%d the administrati.e 2!I =ecome inaccessi=%e. N9*:: :ou can access the Conso%e "etu menu +rom within the $reeNA"1 2!I =: t: in' EetcEnetc i +rom "he%%. Fou can disa=%e the Conso%e "etu menu =: unchec)in' the M4na=%e Conso%e MenuM in ":stem L "ettin's L Ad.anced. Figure 2.$a: FreeNAS 'onso e Setu" 4enu

<his menu ro.ides the +o%%owin' o tionsK 1F 'onfigure Net0or7 Interfaces: ro.ides a con+i'uration wi8ard to con+i'ure the s:stem's networ) inter+aces. 2F 'onfigure <in7 Aggregation: a%%ows :ou to either create a new %in) a''re'ation or to de%ete an e5istin' %in) a''re'ation.

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#F 'onfigure ?<AN Interface: used to create or de%ete a 39AN inter+ace. 4F 'onfigure 6efau t 2oute: used to set the I>.& or I>., de+au%t 'atewa:. When rom tedD in ut the I> address o+ the de+au%t 'atewa:. $F 'onfigure Static 2outes: wi%% rom t +or the destination networ) and the 'atewa: I> address. Re; enter this o tion +or each route :ou need to add. %F 'onfigure 6NS: wi%% rom t +or the name o+ the (N" domain then the I> address o+ the +irst (N" ser.er. <o in ut mu%ti %e (N" ser.ersD ress enter to in ut the ne5t one. When +inishedD ress enter twice to %ea.e this o tion. 7F 2eset .e(GUI ogin credentia s: i+ :ou are una=%e to %o'in to the 'ra hica% administrati.e inter+aceD se%ect this o tion. <he ne5t time the 'ra hica% inter+ace is accessedD it wi%% rom t to set the root assword. )F 2eset to factor+ defau ts: i+ :ou wish to de%ete all o+ the con+i'uration chan'es made in the administrati.e 2!ID se%ect this o tion. -nce the con+i'uration is resetD the s:stem wi%% re=oot. Fou wi%% need to 'o to "tora'e L 3o%umes L Auto Im ort 3o%ume to re;im ort :our .o%ume. 9F S!e : enters a she%% in order to run $ree#"( commands. <o %ea.e the she%%D t: e e-it. 10F 2e(oot: re=oots the s:stem. 11 S!utdo0n: ha%ts the s:stem. (urin' =ootD $reeNA"1 wi%% automatica%%: tr: to connect to a (HC> ser.er +rom a%% %i.e inter+aces. I+ it success+u%%: recei.es an I> addressD it wi%% dis %a: the I> address which can =e used to access the 'ra hica% conso%e. In the e5am %e seen in $i'ure 2.*aD the $reeNA"1 s:stem is accessi=%e +rom htt-)..132.145.1.60. I+ :our $reeNA"1 ser.er is not connected to a networ) with a (HC> ser.erD :ou can use the networ) con+i'uration wi8ard to manua%%: con+i'ure the inter+ace as seen in 45am %e 2.*a. In this e5am %eD the $reeNA"1 s:stem has one networ) inter+ace Aem0B. :-a3" e 2.$a: 4anua + Setting an IP Address fro3 t!e 'onso e 4enu
Enter an option from 1-11: 1 1) em0 Select an interface (q to quit): 1 Delete existing config? (y/n) n Configure interface for DHCP? (y/n) n Configure IPv4? (y/n) y Interface name: (press enter as can be blank) Several input formats are supported Example 1 CIDR Notation: 192.168.1.1/24 Example 2 IP and Netmask separate: IP: 192.168.1.1 Netmask: 255.255.255.0, or /24 or 24

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IPv4 Address: 192.168.1.108/24 Saving interface configuration: Ok Configure IPv6? (y/n) n Restarting network: ok You may try the following URLs to access the web user interface: http://192.168.1.108

-nce the s:stem has an I> addressD in ut that address into a 'ra hica% we= =rowser +rom a com uter ca a=%e o+ accessin' the networ) containin' the $reeNA"1 s:stem. Fou shou%d =e rom ted to create a assword +or the root userD as seen in $i'ure 2.*=. Figure 2.$(: Set t!e 2oot Pass0ord

"ettin' a assword is mandator: and the assword can not =e =%an). "ince this assword ro.ides access to the administrati.e 2!ID it shou%d =e a hard;to;'uess assword. -nce the assword has =een in ut and con+irmedD :ou shou%d see the administrati.e 2!I as shown in the e5am %e in $i'ure 2.*c.

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Figure 2.$c: FreeNAS Gra"!ica 'onfiguration 4enu

I+ :ou are una=%e to access the I> address +rom a =rowserD chec) the +o%%owin'K Are ro5: settin's ena=%ed in the =rowser con+i'urationU I+ soD disa=%e the settin's and tr: connectin' a'ain. I+ the a'e does not %oadD ma)e sure that :ou can "ing the $reeNA"1 s:stem's I> address. I+ the address is in a ri.ate I> address ran'eD :ou wi%% on%: =e a=%e to access the s:stem +rom within the ri.ate networ). I+ the user inter+ace %oads =ut is unres onsi.e or seems to =e missin' menu itemsD tr: usin' a di++erent we= =rowser. I49 has )nown issues and wi%% not dis %a: the 'ra hica% administrati.e inter+ace correct%: i+ com ati=i%it: mode is turned on. I+ :ou can't access the 2!I usin' Internet 45 %orerD use $ire+o5 instead. I+ :ou recei.e QAn error occurredSR messa'es when attem tin' to con+i'ure an item in the 2!ID ma)e sure that the =rowser is set to a%%ow coo)ies +rom the $reeNA"1 s:stem. <his =%o' ost descri=es some a %ications which can =e used to access the $reeNA"1 s:stem +rom an i>ad or i>hone.

2.%

U"grading FreeNAS

$reeNA"1 ro.ides two methods +or er+ormin' an u 'radeK an I"- u 'rade or an u 'rade usin' the 'ra hica% administrati.e inter+ace. !n%ess the Re%ease Notes indicate that :our current .ersion reEuires an I"- u 'radeD :ou can use either u 'rade method. #oth methods are descri=ed in this section. ,e*ore "er*or(i%# a% !"#rade/ al-a)$ bac0!" )o!r co%*i#!ratio% *ile a%d )o!r data. When u 'radin'D be a-are o* the *ollo-i%# ca'eat$: Neither u 'rade method can =e used to mi'rate +rom $reeNA" 0./5. InsteadD insta%% $reeNA"1 and either auto;im ort su orted so+tware RAI( or im ort su orted +i%es:stems. Fou wi%% need to recreate :our con+i'uration as the insta%%ation rocess wi%% not im ort 0./ con+i'uration settin's. Page 4# of 274

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2.%.1

Pre"aring for t!e U"grade

#e+ore u 'radin' the s:stem to 9.2.0D er+orm the +o%%owin' ste sK 1. (own%oad the .iso or .t(/ +i%e that matches the s:stem's architecture to the com uter that :ou use to access the $reeNA"1 s:stem. 2. 9ocate and con+irm the "HA2*, hash +or the +i%e that :ou down%oaded in the Re%ease Notes +or the .ersion that :ou are u 'radin' to. 3. ,ac0!" the FreeNAS co%*i#!ratio% in ":stem L "ettin's L 2enera% L "a.e Con+i'. &. I+ an: .o%umes are encr: tedD ma)e sure that :ou ha.e set the ass hrase and ha.e co ies o+ the encr: tion )e: and the %atest reco.er: )e:. *. Warn users that the $reeNA"1 shares wi%% =e una.ai%a=%e durin' the u 'radeO :ou shou%d schedu%e the u 'rade +or a time that wi%% %east im act users. ,. "to a%% ser.ices in "er.ices L Contro% "er.ices.

2.%.2

Using t!e IS9 to U"grade

#urn the down%oaded .iso +i%e to a C(R-M. Insert the C(R-M into the s:stem and =oot +rom it. -nce the media has +inished =ootin' into the insta%%ation menuD ress enter to se%ect the de+au%t o tion o+ Q1 Insta%%@! 'rade to hard dri.e@+%ash de.iceD etc.R As with a +resh insta%%D the insta%%er wi%% resent a screen showin' a%% a.ai%a=%e dri.esO se%ect the de.ice $reeNA"1 is insta%%ed into and ress enter. <he insta%%er wi%% reco'ni8e that an ear%ier .ersion o+ $reeNA"1 is insta%%ed on the de.ice and wi%% resent the messa'e shown in $i'ure 2.,a. N9*:: i+ :ou se%ect to con+i'uration. er+orm a Fresh 7nstallD :ou wi%% ha.e to restore the =ac)u o+ :our

<o er+orm an u 'radeD ress enter to acce t the de+au%t o+ 8-grade 7nstall. A'ainD the insta%%er wi%% remind :ou that the o eratin' s:stem shou%d =e insta%%ed on a thum= dri.e. >ress enter to start the u 'rade. -nce the insta%%er has +inished un ac)in' the new ima'eD :ou wi%% see the menu shown in $i'ure 2.,=. <he data=ase +i%e that is reser.ed and mi'rated contains :our $reeNA"1 con+i'uration settin's. >ress enter and $reeNA"1 wi%% indicate that the u 'rade is com %ete and that :ou shou%d re=ootD as seen in $i'ure 2.,c.

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Figure 2.%a: U"grading a FreeNAS Insta ation

Figure 2.%(: FreeNAS 0i Preser,e and 4igrate Settings

(urin' the re=oot there ma: =e a con.ersion o+ the re.ious con+i'uration data=ase to the new .ersion o+ the data=ase. <his ha ens durin' the QA %:in' data=ase schema chan'esR %ine in the re=oot c:c%e. <his con.ersion can ta)e a %on' time to +inish so =e atient and the =oot shou%d com %ete norma%%:. I+ +or some reason :ou end u with data=ase errors =ut the 'ra hica% administrati.e inter+ace is accessi=%eD FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 4$ of 274

'o to "ettin's L 2enera% and use the ! %oad Con+i' =utton to u %oad the con+i'uration that :ou sa.ed =e+ore :ou started the u 'rade. Figure 2.%c: U"grade is 'o3" ete

2.%.#

Using t!e GUI to U"grade

<o er+orm an u 'rade usin' this methodD down%oad the %atest .ersion o+ the .t(/ +i%e that matches the architecture o+ the s:stem A32; or ,&;=itB. <henD 'o to ":stem L "ettin's L Ad.anced L $irmware ! date as shown in $i'ure 2.,d. !se the dro ;down menu to se%ect an e5istin' .o%ume to tem orari%: %ace the +irmware +i%e durin' the u 'rade. A%ternate%:D se%ect QMemor: de.iceR to a%%ow the s:stem to create a tem orar: RAM dis) to =e used durin' the u 'rade. A+ter ma)in' :our se%ectionD c%ic) the A %: ! date =utton to see the screen shown in $i'ure 2.,e. <his screen a'ain reminds :ou to =ac)u :our con+i'uration =e+ore roceedin'. I+ :ou ha.e not :etD c%ic) the Qc%ic) hereR %in). #rowse to the %ocation o+ the down%oaded .t(/ +i%eD then aste its "HA2*, sum. When +inishedD c%ic) the A %: ! date =utton to =e'in the u 'rade ro'ress. #ehind the scenesD the +o%%owin' ste s are occurrin'K the "HA2*, hash is con+irmed and an error wi%% dis %a: i+ it does not matchO i+ :ou 'et this errorD dou=%e;chec) that :ou asted the correct chec)sum and tr: astin' a'ain the new ima'e is uncom ressed and written to the !"# com act or +%ash dri.eO this can ta)e a +ew minutes so =e atient once the new ima'e is writtenD :ou wi%% momentari%: %ose :our connection as the $reeNA"1 s:stem wi%% automatica%%: re=oot into the new .ersion o+ the o eratin' s:stem $reeNA"1 wi%% actua%%: re=oot twiceK once the new o eratin' s:stem %oadsD the u 'rade rocess a %ies the new data=ase schema and re=oots a'ain assumin' a%% went we%%D the $reeNA"1 s:stem wi%% recei.e the same I> +rom the (HC> ser.erO re+resh :our =rowser a+ter a moment to see i+ :ou can access the s:stem FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 4% of 274

Figure 2.%d: U"grading FreeNAS Fro3 t!e GUI

Figure 2.%e: Ste" 2 of 2

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2.%.4

Un oc7ing an :ncr+"ted ?o u3e

I+ :our dis)s are encr: ted and :ou ha.e created a ass hrase and sa.ed the reco.er: )e:D the .o%ume wi%% automatica%%: =e %oc)ed durin' an u 'rade. <his is to re.ent an unauthori8ed user +rom usin' an u 'rade rocedure to 'ain access to the data on the encr: ted dis)s. A+ter the u 'radeD the %oc)ed .o%umes wi%% =e una.ai%a=%e unti% the: are un%oc)ed with the ass hrase and reco.er: )e:. <o un%oc) the .o%umeD 'o to "tora'e L 3o%umes L 3iew 3o%umes and hi'h%i'ht the %oc)ed .o%ume. As seen in $i'ure 2.,+D c%ic)in' the Q!n%oc)R icon wi%% rom t +or the ass hrase or reco.er: )e:. Fou can a%so se%ect which ser.ices to start when the .o%ume is un%oc)ed. Figure 2.%f: Un oc7ing an :ncr+"ted ?o u3e

2.%.$

If So3et!ing Goes .rong

I+ the $reeNA"1 s:stem does not =ecome a.ai%a=%e a+ter the u 'radeD :ou wi%% need h:sica% access to the s:stem to +ind out what went wron'. $rom the conso%e menu :ou can determine i+ it recei.ed an I> address and use o tion Q1B Con+i'ure Networ) Inter+acesR i+ it did not.

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I+ this does not +i5 the ro=%emD 'o into o tion Q9B "he%%R and read the s:stem %o' with this commandK
more /var/log/messages

I+ the data=ase u 'rade +ai%edD a +i%e ca%%ed .data.!-grade-failed shou%d =e created with the detai%s. I+ the ro=%em is not o=.ious or :ou are unsure how to +i5 itD see $reeNA"1 "u ort Resources. $reeNA"1 su orts two o eratin' s:stems on the o eratin' s:stem de.iceK the current o eratin' s:stem andD i+ :ou ha.e er+ormed an u 'radeD the re.ious%: insta%%ed .ersion o+ the o eratin' s:stem. <his a%%ows :ou to re=oot into the re.ious .ersion shou%d :ou e5 erience a ro=%em with the u 'raded .ersion. <he u 'rade rocess automatica%%: con+i'ures the s:stem to =oot +rom the new o eratin' s:stem. I+ the s:stem remains inaccessi=%e and :ou wish to re.ert =ac) to the re.ious insta%%ationD t: e re(oot +rom the she%% or se%ect Q10B Re=ootR +rom the conso%e menu. Watch the =oot screens and ress the other =oot o tion At: ica%%: F2B +rom the $reeNA"1 conso%e when :ou see the +o%%owin' o tions at the .er: =e'innin' o+ the =oot rocess. In this e5am %eD Boot) F1 re+ers to the de+au%t o tion Athe new%: u 'raded .ersionBD so ressin' F2 wi%% =oot into the re.ious .ersion.
F1 FreeBSD F2 FreeBSD Boot: F1

N9*:: i+ a re.ious%: wor)in' $reeNA"1 s:stem han's a+ter a $reeNA"1 u 'radeD chec) to see i+ there is a #I-"@#MC +irmware u 'rade a.ai%a=%e as that ma: +i5 the issue. I+ the u 'rade com %ete%: +ai%sD don't anic. <he data is sti%% on :our dis)s and :ou sti%% ha.e a co : o+ :our sa.ed con+i'uration. Fou can a%wa:sK 1. >er+orm a +resh insta%%ation. 2. Im ort :our .o%umes in "tora'e L Auto Im ort 3o%ume. 3. Restore the con+i'uration in ":stem L "ettin's L ! %oad Con+i'. 2.%.% U"grading a ;FS Poo

0$" oo%s that are created usin' 0$" 3o%ume Mana'er on $reeNA"1 9.5 ha.e 0$" +eature +%a's ena=%ed. $eature +%a's are sometimes re+erred to as 0$" .ersion *000. 0$" oo%s that were created in $reeNA"1 6.3.1 Aan: atch %e.e%B use 0$".26. An: 0$" oo%s that were created in an: re.ious 6.5 .ersions o+ $reeNA"1 use 0$".1*. I+ :ou auto;im ort a 0$" oo% +rom an: 6.5 .ersionD it wi%% remain at its ori'ina% 0$" .ersion un%ess :ou u 'rade the oo%. <his means that the oo% wi%% not understand an: +eature +%a'sD such as 90& com ressionD unti% the oo% is u 'raded. I+ :ou wish to u 'rade an e5istin' 0$".1* or 0$".26 oo%D =e aware o+ the +o%%owin' ca.eats +irstK the 0$" .ersion u 'rade must =e er+ormed +rom the command %ineD it can not =e er+ormed usin' the 2!I. the oo% u 'rade is a one;wa: street meanin' that i* )o! cha%#e )o!r (i%d )o! ca% %ot #o bac0 to a% earlier FS 'er$io% or down'rade to an ear%ier .ersion o+ $reeNA"1 that does not su ort +eature +%a's. =e+ore er+ormin' an: o eration that ma: a++ect the data on a stora'e dis)D al-a)$ bac0!" )o!r FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 49 of 274

data *ir$t a%d 'eri*) the i%te#rit) o* the bac0!". Whi%e it is un%i)e%: that the oo% u 'rade wi%% a++ect the dataD it is a%wa:s =etter to =e sa+e than sorr:. <o er+orm the 0$" .ersion u 'radeD o en "he%%. <he +o%%owin' commands wi%% determine the oo% state and .ersion. In this e5am %eD the oo% name is #ol!me1 and the 0$" .ersion is 26.
zpool status pool: volume1 state: ONLINE status: The pool is formatted using a legacy on-disk format. The pool can still be used, but some features are unavailable. action: Upgrade the pool using 'zpool upgrade'. Once this is done, the pool will no longer be accessible on software that does not support feature flags. scan: none requested config: NAME volume1 gptid/ea16925b-e96e-11e2-9ed5-e06995777a82 gptid/ea8f3a7b-e96e-11e2-9ed5-e06995777a82 gptid/eb064d06-e96e-11e2-9ed5-e06995777a82 gptid/eb7ba402-e96e-11e2-9ed5-e06995777a82 errors: No known data errors zpool get version volume1 NAME PROPERTY VALUE SOURCE volume1 version 28 local STATE ONLINE ONLINE ONLINE ONLINE ONLINE READ WRITE CKSUM 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Ne5tD .eri+: that the status o+ the oo% is hea%th:K


zpool status -x all pools are healthy

N9*:: do not u 'rade the oo% i+ its status does not show as hea%th:. <o u 'rade a oo% named #ol!me1K
zpool upgrade volume1 This system supports ZFS pool feature flags. Successfully upgraded 'volume1' from version 28 to feature flags. Enabled the following features on 'volume1': async_destroy empty_bpobj lz4_compress

<he u 'rade itse%+ shou%d on%: ta)e a seconds and is non;disru ti.e. <his means that :ou do not need to sto an: sharin' ser.ices in order to u 'rade the oo%. Howe.erD :ou shou%d choose to u 'rade when the oo% is not =ein' hea.i%: used. <he u 'rade rocess wi%% sus end I@- +or a short eriodD =ut shou%d =e near%: instantaneous on a Euiet oo%.

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Section 2: Using the Graphical Interface


<his section o+ the 2uide descri=es a%% o+ the con+i'uration screens a.ai%a=%e within the $reeNA"1 'ra hica% administrati.e inter+ace. It =e'ins with a ?uic) "tart 2uide that ro.ides an o.er.iew o+ the $reeNA"1 con+i'uration wor)+%ow. <he con+i'uration screens are %isted in the order that the: a ear within the $reeNA"1 con+i'uration tree +ound in the %e+t +rame o+ the 'ra hica% administrati.e inter+ace. N9*:: it is im ortant to use the 2!I Aor the conso%eB +or a%% con+i'uration chan'es. $reeNA"1 uses a con+i'uration data=ase to store its settin's. Whi%e :ou can use the command %ine to modi+: :our con+i'urationD chan'es made at the command %ine are not written to the con+i'uration data=ase. <his means that an: chan'es made at the command %ine wi%% not ersist a+ter a re=oot and wi%% =e o.erwritten =: the .a%ues in the con+i'uration data=ase durin' an u 'rade.

Guic7 Start Guide and Account 'onfiguration

<his section contains a ?uic) "tart 2uide to 'et :ou started with :our $reeNA"1 con+i'uration. It is +o%%owed =: the account section o+ the 2!I which a%%ows :ou to chan'e the administrati.e assword and mana'e users and 'rou s.

#.1

Guic7 Start Guide

<his section demonstrates the initia% re aration that shou%d =e er+ormed =e+ore :ou start to con+i'ure the $reeNA"1 s:stem. It then ro.ides an o.er.iew o+ the con+i'uration wor)+%ow a%on' with ointers to the section in the 9.2.0 !sers 2uide that contains the detai%s and con+i'uration e5am %es +or each ste in the con+i'uration wor)+%ow. #.1.1 Set t!e 2oot Pass0ord

<he +irst time :ou access the $reeNA"1 administrati.e inter+aceD a o ;u window wi%% rom t :ou to set the root assword. Fou shou%d set a hard to 'uess assword as an:one who )nows this assword can 'ain access to the $reeNA"1 administrati.e 2!I. N9*:: +or securit: reasonsD the ""H ser.ice and root ""H %o'ins are disa=%ed =: de+au%t. !n%ess these are setD the on%: wa: to access a she%% as root is to 'ain h:sica% access to the conso%e menu or to access the we= she%% within the administrati.e 2!I. <his means that the $reeNA"1 s:stem shou%d =e )e t h:sica%%: secure and that the administrati.e 2!I shou%d =e =ehind a ro er%: con+i'ured +irewa%% and rotected =: a secure assword. #.1.2 Set t!e Ad3inistrati,e :3ai Address

$reeNA"1 ro.ides an A%ert icon in the u er ri'ht corner to ro.ide a .isua% indication o+ e.ents that warrant administrati.e attention. <he a%ert s:stem automatica%%: emai%s the root user account whene.er an a%ert is issued. $reeNA"1 a%so sends a dai%: emai% to the root user which shou%d =e read in order to determine the o.era%% hea%th o+ the s:stem. <o set the emai% address +or the root accountD 'o to Account L !sers L 3iew !sers. C%ic) the Chan'e 4;mai% =utton associated with the root user account and in ut the emai% address o+ the erson to recei.e FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page $1 of 274

the administrati.e emai%s. #.1.# :na( e 'onso e <ogging

<o .iew s:stem messa'es within the 'ra hica% administrati.e inter+aceD 'o to ":stem L "ettin's L Ad.anced. Chec) the =o5 Q"how conso%e messa'es in the +ooterR and c%ic) "a.e. <he out ut o+ tai >f E,arE ogE3essages wi%% now =e dis %a:ed at the =ottom o+ the screen. I+ :ou c%ic) the conso%e messa'es areaD it wi%% o ;u as a windowD a%%owin' :ou to scro%% throu'h the out ut and to co : its contents. Fou are now read: to start con+i'urin' the $reeNA"1 s:stem. <: ica%%:D the con+i'uration wor)+%ow wi%% use the +o%%owin' ste s in their %isted order. #.1.4 'onfigure Storage

$reeNA"1 su orts the creation o+ =oth !$" and 0$" .o%umesO howe.erD 0$" .o%umes are recommended to 'et the most out o+ :our $reeNA"1 s:stem. When creatin' a .o%umeD :ou ha.e se.era% choices de endin' u on :our stora'e reEuirements and whether or not data a%read: e5ists on the dis)AsB. <he +o%%owin' o tions are a.ai%a=%eK 1. Auto;im ort an e5istin' !$" dis)D 'stri e ARAI(0BD 'mirror ARAI(1BD or 'raid3 ARAI(3B in "tora'e L 3o%umes L Auto Im ort 3o%ume. 2. Auto;im ort an e5istin' 0$" dis)D stri eD mirrorD RAI(01D RAI(02D or RAI(03 in "tora'e L 3o%umes L Auto Im ort 3o%ume. Auto;im ortin' is descri=ed in more detai% in Auto Im ortin' 3o%umes. 3. Im ort a dis) that is +ormatted with !$"D N<$"D M"(-"D or 47<2 in "tora'e L 3o%umes L Im ort 3o%ume. <his is descri=ed in more detai% in Im ortin' 3o%umes. &. $ormat dis)AsB with !$" and o tiona%%: create a 'stri e ARAI(0BD 'mirror ARAI(1BD or 'raid3 ARAI(3B in "tora'e L 3o%umes L !$" 3o%ume Mana'er. *. $ormat dis)AsB with 0$" and o tiona%%: create a stri eD mirrorD RAI(01D RAI(02D or RAI(03 in "tora'e L 3o%umes L 0$" 3o%ume Mana'er. I+ :ou +ormat :our dis)AsB with 0$"D additiona% o tions are a.ai%a=%eK 1. (i.ide the 0$" oo% into datasets to ro.ide more +%e5i=i%it: when con+i'urin' user access to data. (ataset creation is descri=ed in Creatin' 0$" (atasets. 2. Create a 0.o% to =e used when con+i'urin' an i"C"I de.ice e5tent. 0.o% creation is descri=ed in Creatin' a 8.o%. #.1.$ 'reate UsersEGrou"s or Integrate 0it! A6E<6AP orts a .ariet: o+ user access scenariosK

$reeNA"1 su

the use o+ an anon:mous or 'uest account that e.er:one in the networ) uses to access the stored data the creation o+ indi.idua% user accounts where each user has access to their own 0$" dataset the addition o+ indi.idua% user accounts to 'rou s where each 'rou has access to their own FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page $2 of 274

.o%ume or 0$" dataset the im ort o+ e5istin' accounts +rom an - en9(A> or Acti.e (irector: ser.er When con+i'urin' :our $reeNA"1 s:stemD $elect o%e o* the *ollo-i%#/ de endin' u on whether or not the networ) has an e5istin' - en9(A> or Acti.e (irector: domain. - en9(A> and Acti.e (irector: are mutua%%: e5c%usi.eD meanin' that :ou can not use =oth =ut must choose one or the other. 1. Manua%%: create users and 'rou s. !ser mana'ement is descri=ed in !sers and 'rou mana'ement is descri=ed in 2rou s. 2. Im ort e5istin' Acti.e (irector: account in+ormation usin' the instructions in Acti.e (irector:. 3. Im ort e5istin' - en9(A> account in+ormation usin' the instructions in 9(A>. #.1.% 'onfigure Per3issions

"ettin' ermissions is an im ortant as ect o+ con+i'urin' access to stora'e data. <he 'ra hica% administrati.e inter+ace is meant to set the i%itial ermissions in order to ma)e a .o%ume or dataset accessi=%e as a share. -nce a share is a.ai%a=%eD the c%ient o eratin' s:stem shou%d =e used to +ine;tune the ermissions o+ the +i%es and directories that are created =: the c%ient. Con+i'ured .o%umes and datasets wi%% a ear in "tora'e L 3o%umes. 4ach .o%ume and dataset wi%% ha.e its own Chan'e >ermissions o tionD a%%owin' +or 'reater +%e5i=i%it: when ro.idin' access to data. #e+ore creatin' :our sharesD determine which users shou%d ha.e access to which data. <his wi%% he% :ou to determine i+ mu%ti %e .o%umesD datasetsD and@or shares shou%d =e created to meet the ermissions needs o+ :our en.ironment. #.1.7 'onfigure S!aring

-nce :our .o%umes ha.e =een con+i'ured with ermissionsD :ou are read: to con+i'ure the t: e o+ share or ser.ice that :ou determine is suita=%e +or :our networ). $reeNA"1 su orts se.era% t: es o+ shares and sharin' ser.ices +or ro.idin' stora'e data to the c%ients in a networ). It is recommended that :ou $elect o%l) o%e t)"e o* $hare "er 'ol!(e or data$et in order to re.ent ossi=%e con+%icts =etween di++erent t: es o+ shares. <he t: e o+ share :ou create de ends u on the o eratin' s:stemAsB runnin' in :our networ)D :our securit: reEuirementsD and e5 ectations +or networ) trans+er s eeds. <he +o%%owin' t: es o+ shares and ser.ices are a.ai%a=%eK A"" e HAFPF: $reeNA"1 uses Netata%) to ro.ide sharin' ser.ices to A %e c%ients. <his t: e o+ share is a 'ood choice i+ a%% o+ :our com uters run Mac -" 7. Con+i'uration e5am %es can =e +ound in section /.1. Uni- HNFSF: this t: e o+ share is accessi=%e =: Mac -" 7D 9inu5D #"(D and ro+essiona%@enter rise .ersions o+ Windows. It is a 'ood choice i+ there are man: di++erent o eratin' s:stems in :our networ). Con+i'uration e5am %es can =e +ound in section /.2. .indo0s H'IFSF: $reeNA"1 uses "am=a to ro.ide the "M#@CI$" sharin' ser.ice. <his t: e o+ share is accessi=%e =: WindowsD Mac -" 7D 9inu5D and #"( com utersD =ut it is s%ower than an N$" share. I+ :our networ) contains on%: Windows s:stemsD this is a 'ood choice. Con+i'uration e5am %es can =e +ound in section /.3. F*P: this ser.ice ro.ides +ast access +rom an: o eratin' s:stemD usin' a cross; %at+orm $<> FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page $# of 274

and +i%e mana'er c%ient a %ication such as $i%e8i%%a. $reeNA"1 su +or $<>. Con+i'uration e5am %es can =e +ound in section 6.,.

orts encr: tion and chroot

SS&: this ser.ice ro.ides encr: ted connections +rom an: o eratin' s:stem usin' ""H command %ine uti%ities or the 'ra hica% Win"C> a %ication +or Windows c%ients. Con+i'uration e5am %es can =e +ound in section 6.12. iS'SI: $reeNA"1 uses ist't to e5 ort .irtua% dis) dri.es that are accessi=%e to c%ients runnin' i"C"I initiator so+tware. Con+i'uration e5am %es can =e +ound in section 6./. #.1.) Start A"" ica( e Ser,iceHsF

-nce :ou ha.e con+i'ured :our share or ser.iceD :ou wi%% need to start its associated ser.iceAsB in order to im %ement the con+i'uration. #: de+au%tD a%% ser.ices are o++ unti% :ou start them. <he status o+ ser.ices is mana'ed usin' "er.ices L Contro% "er.ices. <o start a ser.iceD c%ic) its red -$$ =utton. A+ter a second or soD it wi%% chan'e to a =%ue -ND indicatin' that the ser.ice has =een ena=%ed. Watch the conso%e messa'es as the ser.ice starts to determine i+ there are an: error messa'es. #.1.9 *est 'onfiguration fro3 ' ient

I+ the ser.ice success+u%%: startsD tr: to ma)e a connection to the ser.ice +rom a c%ient s:stem. $or e5am %eD use Windows 45 %orer to tr: to connect to a CI$" shareD use an $<> c%ient such as $i%e8i%%a to tr: to connect to an $<> shareD or use $inder on a Mac -" 7 s:stem to tr: to connect to an A$> share. I+ the ser.ice starts correct%: and :ou can ma)e a connection =ut recei.e ermissions errorsD chec) that the user has ermissions to the .o%ume@dataset =ein' accessed. #.1.10 5ac7u" t!e 'onfiguration

-nce :ou ha.e tested :our con+i'urationD =e sure to =ac) it u . 2o to ":stem L "ettin's and c%ic) the "a.e Con+i' =utton. Four =rowser wi%% ro.ide an o tion to sa.e a co : o+ the con+i'uration data=ase. Fou shou%d bac0!" )o!r co%*i#!ratio% -he%e'er )o! (a0e co%*i#!ratio% cha%#e$ a%d al-a)$ be*ore !"#radi%# FreeNAS.

#.2

Account 'onfiguration

<his section descri=es how to manua%%: create and mana'e users and 'rou s. #.2.1 Grou"s

<he 2rou s inter+ace a%%ows :ou to mana'e !NI7;st:%e 'rou s on the $reeNA"1 s:stem. N9*:: i+ Acti.e (irector: or - en9(A> is runnin' on :our networ)D :ou do not need to recreate the networ)'s users or 'rou s. InsteadD im ort the e5istin' account in+ormation into $reeNA"1 usin' "er.ices L (irector: "er.ices L Acti.e (irector: or "er.ices L (irector: "er.ices L 9(A>. <his section descri=es how to create a 'rou and assi'n it user accounts. <he ne5t section wi%% descri=e how to create user accounts. I+ :ou c%ic) 2rou s L 3iew 2rou sD :ou wi%% see a screen simi%ar to $i'ure 3.2a. FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page $4 of 274

Figure #.2a: FreeNAS Grou"s 4anage3ent

A%% 'rou s that came with the o eratin' s:stem wi%% =e %isted. 4ach 'rou has an entr: indicatin' the 'rou I(D 'rou nameD whether or not it is a =ui%t;in 'rou which was insta%%ed with $reeNA"1D and whether or not the 'rou 's mem=ers are a%%owed to use sudo. I+ :ou c%ic) a 'rou entr:D a Mem=ers =utton wi%% a ear. C%ic) this =utton to .iew and modi+: that 'rou 's mem=ershi . + :ou c%ic) the Add 2rou =uttonD :ou wi%% see the screen shown in $i'ure 3.2=. <a=%e 3.2a summari8es the a.ai%a=%e o tions when creatin' a 'rou .

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Figure #.2(: 'reating a Ne0 Grou"

*a( e #.2a: 9"tions .!en 'reating a Grou" Setting 2rou I( ?a ue strin' 6escri"tion the ne5t a.ai%a=%e 'rou I( wi%% =e su''ested +or :ouO =: con.entionD !NI7 'rou s containin' user accounts ha.e an I( 'reater than 1000 and 'rou s reEuired =: a ser.ice ha.e an I( eEua% to the de+au%t ort num=er used =: the ser.ice Ae.'. the sshd 'rou has an I( o+ 22B mandator: i+ chec)edD mem=ers o+ the 'rou ha.e ermission to use sudo a%%ows mu%ti %e 'rou s to share the same 'rou idO this is use+u% when a 2I( is a%read: associated with the !NI7 ermissions +or e5istin' data

2rou strin' Name >ermit "udo chec)=o5 A%%ow re eated chec)=o5 2I(s

-nce the 'rou and users are createdD :ou can assi'n users as mem=ers o+ a 'rou . C%ic) on 3iew 2rou s then the Mem=ers =utton +or the 'rou :ou wish to assi'n users to. Hi'h%i'ht the user in the Mem=er users %ist Awhich shows a%% user accounts on the s:stemB and c%ic) the VV to mo.e that user to the ri'ht +rame. <he user accounts which a ear in the ri'ht +rame wi%% =e added as mem=ers o+ that 'rou . In the e5am %e shown in $i'ure 3.2cD the data1 'rou has =een created and the !ser1 user account has =een created with a rimar: 'rou o+ !ser1. <he Mem=ers =utton +or the data1 'rou has =een se%ected and !ser1 has =een added as a mem=er o+ that 'rou . <o de%ete a 'rou D c%ic) its (e%ete 2rou =utton. <he o ;u messa'e wi%% as) whether or not :ou FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page $% of 274

wou%d a%so %i)e to de%ete a%% mem=ers o+ that 'rou . Note that the =ui%t;in 'rou s do not ro.ide a (e%ete 2rou =utton. Figure #.2c: Assigning a User as a 4e3(er of a Grou"

#.2.2

Users

$reeNA"1 su orts usersD 'rou sD and ermissionsD a%%owin' 'reat +%e5i=i%it: in con+i'urin' which users ha.e access to the data stored on $reeNA"1. In order to assi'n ermissions which wi%% =e used =: sharesD :ou wi%% need to do o%e o* the *ollo-i%#K 1. Create a 'uest account that a%% users wi%% use. 2. Create a user account +or e.er: user in the networ) where the name o+ each account is the same as a %o'on name used on a com uter. $or e5am %eD i+ a Windows s:stem has a %o'in name o+ $o$smithD :ou shou%d create a user account with the name $o$smith on $reeNA"1. I+ :our intent is to assi'n 'rou s o+ users di++erent ermissions to sharesD :ou wi%% need to a%so create 'rou s and assi'n users to the 'rou s. 3. I+ :our networ) uses Acti.e (irector: to mana'e user accounts and ermissionsD ena=%e the Acti.e (irector: ser.ice. &. I+ :our networ) uses an - en9(A> ser.er to mana'e user accounts and ermissionsD ena=%e the 9(A> ser.ice. !ser accounts can =e 'i.en ermissions to .o%umes or datasets. I+ :ou wish to use 'rou s to mana'e ermissionsD :ou shou%d create the user accounts +irstD then assi'n the accounts as mem=ers o+ the 'rou s. <his section demonstrates how to create a user account. FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page $7 of 274

N9*:: i+ Acti.e (irector: or - en9(A> is runnin' on :our networ)D :ou do not need to recreate the networ)'s users or 'rou s. InsteadD im ort the e5istin' account in+ormation into $reeNA"1 usin' "er.ices L Acti.e (irector: or "er.ices L 9(A>. Account L !sers L 3iew !sers ro.ides a %istin' o+ a%% o+ the s:stem accounts that were insta%%ed with the $reeNA"1 o eratin' s:stemD as shown in $i'ure 3.2d. Figure #.2d: 4anaging User Accounts

4ach account entr: indicates the user I(D usernameD rimar: 'rou I(D home director:D de+au%t she%%D +u%% nameD whether or not it is a =ui%t;in user that came with the $reeNA"1 insta%%ationD the emai% addressD whether or not %o'ins are disa=%edD whether or not the user account is %oc)edD and whether or not the user is a%%owed to use sudo. <o reorder the %istD c%ic) the desired co%umn. I+ :ou c%ic) a user accountD the +o%%owin' =uttons wi%% a ear +or that accountK '!ange Pass0ord: ro.ides +ie%ds to enter and con+irm the new assword. 4odif+ User: used to modi+: the account's settin'sD as %isted in <a=%e 3.2=. Au-i iar+ Grou"s: used to ma)e the account a mem=er o+ additiona% 'rou s. '!ange :>3ai : used to chan'e the emai% address associated with the account. N9*:: it is im ortant to set the emai% address +or the =ui%t;in root user account as im ortant s:stem messa'es are sent to the root user. $or securit: reasonsD assword %o'ins are disa=%ed +or the root account and chan'in' this settin' is hi'h%: discoura'ed. 4.er: account that came with the $reeNA"1 o eratin' s:stemD e5ce t +or the root userD is a s:stem account. 4ach s:stem account is used =: a ser.ice and shou%d not =e a.ai%a=%e +or use as a %o'in account. $or this reasonD the de+au%t she%% is no%o'inA6B. $or securit: reasonsD and to re.ent =rea)a'e o+ s:stem ser.icesD :ou shou%d not modi+: the s:stem accounts. <o create a user accountD c%ic) the Add New !ser =utton to o en the screen shown in $i'ure 3.2e. "ome settin's are on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced Mode. <o see these settin'sD either c%ic) the Ad.anced Mode FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page $) of 274

=utton or con+i'ure the s:stem to a%wa:s dis %a: these settin's =: chec)in' the =o5 Q"how ad.anced +ie%ds =: de+au%tR in ":stem L "ettin's L Ad.anced. <a=%e 3.2= summari8es the o tions which are a.ai%a=%e when :ou create or modi+: a user account. Figure #.2e: Adding or :diting a User Account

*a( e #.2(: User Account 'onfiguration Setting !ser I( ?a ue inte'er 6escri"tion 're:ed out i+ user a%read: createdO when creatin' an accountD the ne5t numeric I( wi%% =e su''estedO =: con.entionD user accounts ha.e an I( 'reater than 1000 and s:stem accounts ha.e an I( eEua% to the de+au%t ort num=er used =: the ser.ice 're:ed out i+ user a%read: createdO ma5imum 32 characters to a%%ow +or %on'er A( names thou'h a ma5imum o+ 6 is recommended +or intero era=i%it:O can inc%ude numera%s =ut can not inc%ude a s ace =: de+au%tD a rimar: 'rou with the same name as the user wi%% =e createdO unchec) this =o5 to se%ect a di++erent rimar: 'rou name AN9*:K in !ni5D a rimar: 'rou is not the same as a secondar:@au5i%iar: 'rou B must unchec) "reate a ne9 -rimary gro!- in order to access this menuO +or securit: reasonsD $ree#"( wi%% not 'i.e a user su ermissions i+ 9heel is their rimar: 'rou ;;i+ :our intent is to 'i.e a user su accessD add them to the 9heel 'rou in the Au5i%iar: 'rou s section Page $9 of 274

!sername

strin'

Create a new rimar: 'rou

chec)=o5

>rimar: 2rou

dro ;down menu

FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide

Setting Home (irector: Home (irector: Mode "he%% $u%% Name 4;mai% >assword >assword con+irmation

?a ue

6escri"tion %ea.e as .none(istent +or s:stem accountsD otherwise =rowse to the =rowse =utton name o+ an exi$ti%# .o%ume or dataset that the user wi%% =e assi'ned ermission to access on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced Mode and wi%% =e read;on%: +or =ui%t;in chec)=o5es usersO sets de+au%t ermissions o+ user's home director: dro ;down i+ creatin' a s:stem accountD choose nologinO i+ creatin' a user menu accountD se%ect she%% o+ choice strin' mandator:D ma: contain s aces strin' emai% address associated with the account strin' mandator: un%ess chec) =o5 to disa=%e assword %o'ins strin' must match 1ass9ord when chec)edD the user can not %o' into the $reeNA"1 s:stem or authenticate to a CI$" shareO to undo this settin'D set a assword +or the user usin' the MChan'e >asswordM =utton +or the user in M3iew !sersMO chec)in' this =o5 wi%% 're: out :o'k !ser which is mutua%%: e5c%usi.e a chec)ed =o5 re.ents user +rom %o''in' in unti% the account is un%oc)ed A=o5 is unchec)edBO chec)in' this =o5 wi%% 're: out isa$le -ass9ord login which is mutua%%: e5c%usi.e i+ chec)edD mem=ers o+ the 'rou ha.e ermission to use sudo aste the user's "!blic )e: to =e used +or ""H )e: authentication Ado %ot "a$te the "ri'ate 0e)9B hi'h%i'ht the 'rou AsB :ou wish to add the user to and use the VV =utton to add the user to the hi'h%i'hted 'rou s

(isa=%e assword chec)=o5 %o'in

9oc) user >ermit "udo ""H >u=%ic Ke: Au5i%iar: 'rou s

chec)=o5 chec)=o5 strin' mouse se%ection

S+ste3 'onfiguration
'ron Io(s: ro.ides a 'ra hica% +ront;end to cronta=A*B InitES!utdo0n Scri"ts: used to con+i'ure a command or scri t to automatica%%: e5ecute durin' s:stem startu or shutdown N*P Ser,ers: used to con+i'ure N<> ser.er settin's 2s+nc *as7s: a%%ows :ou to schedu%e rs:nc tas)s S.4.A.2.*. *ests: a%%ows :ou to schedu%e which ".M.A.R.<. tests to run on a er;dis) =asis Settings: used to con+i'ure s:stem wide settin's such as time8oneD emai% setu D H<<>" accessD and +irmware u 'rades

<he ":stem section o+ the administrati.e 2!I contains the +o%%owin' entriesK

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S+sct s: ro.ides a +ront;end +or tunin' the $reeNA"1 s:stem =: interactin' with the under%:in' $ree#"( )erne% S+ste3 Infor3ation: ro.ides 'enera% $reeNA"1 s:stem in+ormation such as hostnameD o eratin' s:stem .ersionD %at+ormD and u time *una( es: ro.ides a +ront;end to %oad additiona% )erne% modu%es at =oot time 4ach o+ these is descri=ed in more detai% in this section.

4.1

'ron Io(s

cronA6B is a daemon that runs a command or scri t on a re'u%ar schedu%e as a s eci+ied user. <: ica%%:D the user who wishes to schedu%e a tas) manua%%: creates a cronta=A*B usin' s:nta5 that can =e er %e5in' to new !ni5 users. <he $reeNA"1 2!I ma)es it eas: to schedu%e when :ou wou%d %i)e the tas) to occur. N9*:: due to a %imitation in $ree#"(D users with account names that contain s aces or e5ceed 1/ characters are una=%e to create cron Io=s. $i'ure &.1a shows the screen that o ens when :ou c%ic) ":stem L Cron Co=s L Add Cron Co=. Figure 4.1a: 'reating a 'ron Io(

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<a=%e &.1a summari8es the con+i'ura=%e o tions when creatin' a cron Io=. *a( e 4.1a: 'ron Io( 9"tions Setting !ser Command "hort descri tion ?a ue dro ;down menu strin' strin' 6escri"tion ma)e sure the se%ected user has ermission to run the s eci+ied command or scri t the *!ll "ath to the command or scri t to =e runO i+ it is a scri tD test it at the command %ine +irst to ma)e sure that it wor)s as e5 ected o tiona%

s%ider or i+ use the s%iderD cron Io= occurs e.er: N minutesO i+ use minute Minute minute se%ectionsD cron Io= occurs at the hi'h%i'hted minutes se%ections s%ider or hour i+ use the s%iderD cron Io= occurs e.er: N hoursO i+ use hour se%ectionsD Hour se%ections cron Io= occurs at the hi'h%i'hted hours s%ider or i+ use the s%iderD cron Io= occurs e.er: N da:sO i+ use da: se%ectionsD (a: o+ month month cron Io= occurs on the hi'h%i'hted da:s each month se%ections Month chec)=o5es cron Io= occurs on the se%ected months (a: o+ wee) chec)=o5es cron Io= occurs on the se%ected da:s Redirect "tdout chec)=o5 disa=%es emai%in' standard out ut to the root user account Redirect "tderr chec)=o5 disa=%es emai%in' errors to the root user account 4na=%ed chec)=o5 unchec) i+ :ou wou%d %i)e to disa=%e the cron Io= without de%etin' it

4.2

InitES!utdo0n Scri"ts

$reeNA"1 ro.ides the a=i%it: to schedu%e commands or scri ts to run at s:stem startu or shutdown. $i'ure &.2a shows the screen that o ens when :ou c%ic) ":stem L Init@"hutdown "cri ts L Add Init@"hutdown "cri t. <a=%e &.2a summari8es the a.ai%a=%e o tions. When schedu%in' a commandD ma)e sure that the command is in :our ath or 'i.e the +u%% ath to the command. -ne wa: to test the ath is to t: e 0!ic! co33and8na3e. I+ the command is not +oundD it is not in :our ath. When schedu%in' a scri tD ma)e sure that the scri t is e5ecuta=%e and has =een +u%%: tested to ensure that it achie.es the desired resu%ts.

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Figure 4.2a: Add an InitES!utdo0n Scri"t

*a( e 4.2a: 9"tions .!en Adding an InitES!utdo0n Scri"t Setting 6escri"tion se%ect +rom "ommand A+or an e5ecuta=%eB or S'ri-t A+or an e5ecuta=%e <: e dro ;down menu scri tB i+ "ommand is se%ectedD in ut the command %us an: desired o tionsO i+ Command strin' S'ri-t is se%ectedD =rowse to the %ocation o+ the scri t se%ect when the command@scri t wi%% runO choices are 1re 7nit A.er: ear%: <: e dro ;down menu in =oot rocess =e+ore +i%es:stems are mountedBD 1ost 7nit Atowards end o+ =oot rocess =e+ore $reeNA" ser.ices are startedBD or Sh!tdo9n ?a ue

4.#

N*P Ser,ers

<he networ) time rotoco% AN<>B is used to s:nchroni8e the time on the com uters in a networ). Accurate time is necessar: +or the success+u% o eration o+ time sensiti.e a %ications such as Acti.e (irector:. #: de+au%tD $reeNA"1 is re;con+i'ured to use three u=%ic N<> ser.ers. I+ :our networ) is usin' Acti.e (irector:D ensure that the $reeNA"1 s:stem and the Acti.e (irector: (omain Contro%%er ha.e =een con+i'ured to use the same N<> ser.ers. $i'ure &.3a shows the de+au%t N<> con+i'uration +or $reeNA"1. I+ :ou wish to chan'e a de+au%t ser.er to match the settin's used =: :our networ)'s domain contro%%erD c%ic) an entr: to access its Q4ditR =utton. A%ternate%:D :ou can de%ete the de+au%t N<> ser.ers and c%ic) QAdd N<> "er.erR to create :our own. $i'ure &.3= shows the QAdd N<> "er.erR screen and <a=%e &.3a summari8es the o tions when addin' or editin' an N<> ser.er. nt .con+A*B e5 %ains these o tions in more detai%.

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Figure 4.#a: 6efau t N*P 'onfiguration

Figure 4.#(: Add or :dit a N*P Ser,er

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*a( e 4.#a: N*P Ser,er 9"tions Setting Address #urst I#urst >re+er ?a ue strin' chec)=o5 chec)=o5 chec)=o5 6escri"tion name o+ N<> ser.er recommended when ;a(. 1oll is 'reater than 10O on%: use on :our own ser.ers i.e. do %ot use with a u=%ic N<> ser.er s eeds the initia% s:nchroni8ation Aseconds instead o+ minutesB shou%d on%: =e used +or N<> ser.ers that are )nown to =e hi'h%: accurateD such as those with time monitorin' hardware ower o+ 2 in secondsO can not =e %ower than < or hi'her than ;a(. 1oll ower o+ 2 in secondsO can not =e hi'her than 16 or %ower than ;in. 1oll +orces the addition o+ the N<> ser.erD e.en i+ it is current%: unreacha=%e

Min. >o%% inte'er Ma5. >o%% inte'er $orce chec)=o5

4.4

2s+nc *as7s

Rs:nc is a uti%it: that automatica%%: co ies s eci+ied data +rom one s:stem to another o.er a networ). -nce the initia% data is co iedD rs:nc reduces the amount o+ data sent o.er the networ) =: sendin' on%: the di++erences =etween the source and destination +i%es. Rs:nc can =e used +or =ac)u sD mirrorin' data on mu%ti %e s:stemsD or +or co :in' +i%es =etween s:stems. <o con+i'ure rs:ncD :ou need to con+i'ure =oth ends o+ the connectionK t!e rs+nc ser,er: this s:stem u%%s Arecei.esB the data. <his s:stem is re+erred to as 18:: in the con+i'uration e5am %es. t!e rs+nc c ient: this s:stem ushes AsendsB the data. <his s:stem is re+erred to as 18S= in the con+i'uration e5am %es. $reeNA"1 can =e con+i'ured as either an rs:nc c%ient or an rs:nc ser.er. <he o osite end o+ the connection can =e another $reeNA"1 s:stem or an: other s:stem runnin' rs:nc. In $reeNA"1 termino%o':D an r:snc tas) de+ines which data is s:nchroni8ed =etween the two s:stems. I+ :ou are s:nchroni8in' data =etween two $reeNA"1 s:stemsD create the rs:nc tas) on the rs:nc c%ient. $reeNA"1 su orts two modes o+ rs:nc o erationK rs+nc 3odu e 3ode: e5 orts a director: treeD and its con+i'ured settin'sD as a s:m=o%ic name o.er an unencr: ted connection. <his mode reEuires that at %east one modu%e =e de+ined on the rs:nc ser.er. It can =e de+ined in the $reeNA"1 2!I under "er.ices L Rs:nc L Rs:nc Modu%es. In other o eratin' s:stemsD the modu%e is de+ined in rs:ncd.con+A*B. rs+nc o,er SS&: s:nchroni8es o.er an encr: ted connection. ReEuires the con+i'uration o+ ""H user and host u=%ic )e:s. <his section summari8es the o tions when creatin' an Rs:nc <as). It then ro.ides a con+i'uration e5am %e =etween two $reeNA"1 s:stems +or each mode o+ rs:nc o eration.

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4.4.1

'reating an 2s+nc *as7

$i'ure &.&a shows the screen that a ears when :ou c%ic) ":stem L Rs:nc <as)s L Add Rs:nc <as). <a=%e &.&a summari8es the o tions that can =e con+i'ured when creatin' an rs:nc tas). Figure 4.4a: Adding an 2s+nc *as7

*a( e 4.4a: 2s+nc 'onfiguration 9"tions Setting 6escri"tion =rowse to the .o%ume@dataset@director: that :ou wish to co :O note >ath =rowse =utton that a ath %en'th 'reater than 2** characters wi%% +ai% Remote Host strin' I> address or hostname o+ the remote s:stem that wi%% store the co : Remote ""H on%: a.ai%a=%e in &syn' o#er SS= modeO a%%ows :ou to s eci+: an inte'er >ort a%ternate ""H ort other than the de+au%t o+ 22 dro ;down Rs:nc mode choices are &syn' mod!le or &syn' o#er SS= menu when usin' &syn' mod!le modeD at %east one modu%e must =e de+ined Remote Modu%e in rs:ncd.con+A*B o+ rs:nc ser.er or in "er.ices L Rs:nc L Rs:nc Name @ Remote strin' Modu%es o+ another $reeNA"1 s:stemO when usin' &syn' o#er SS= >ath modeD in ut the ath on the remote host to ush or u%% Ae.'. .mnt.#ol!meB dro ;down choices are 1!sh or 1!llO de+au%t is to ush +rom the $reeNA"1 (irection menu s:stem to a remote host FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page %% of 274 ?a ue

Setting "hort (escri tion Minute Hour (a: o+ month Month (a: o+ wee) !ser Recursi.e <imes Com ress

?a ue strin' s%ider or minute se%ections s%ider or hour se%ections s%ider or da: se%ections chec)=o5es chec)=o5es dro ;down menu chec)=o5 chec)=o5 chec)=o5

6escri"tion o tiona% i+ use the s%iderD s:nc occurs e.er: N minutesO i+ use minute se%ectionsD s:nc occurs at the hi'h%i'hted minutes i+ use the s%iderD s:nc occurs e.er: N hoursO i+ use hour se%ectionsD s:nc occurs at the hi'h%i'hted hours i+ use the s%iderD s:nc occurs e.er: N da:sO i+ use da: se%ectionsD s:nc occurs on the hi'h%i'hted da:s tas) occurs on the se%ected months tas) occurs on the se%ected da:s o+ the wee) s eci+ied user must ha.e ermission to write to the s eci+ied director: on the remote s:stemO due to a %imitation in $ree#"(D the user name can not contain s aces or e5ceed 1/ characters i+ chec)edD co : wi%% inc%ude a%% su=directories o+ the s eci+ied .o%ume reser.e modi+ication times o+ +i%es recommended on s%ow connections as reduces si8e o+ data to =e transmitted eEui.a%ent to >r "tgo6 Arecursi.eD co : s:m%in)s as s:m%in)sD reser.e ermissionsD reser.e modi+ication timesD reser.e 'rou D reser.e owner Asu er;user on%:BD and reser.e de.ice +i%es Asu er; user on%:B and s ecia% +i%esB de%ete +i%es in destination director: that don't e5ist in sendin' director: su resses in+ormationa% messa'es +rom the remote ser.er reser.es ori'ina% +i%e ermissionsO use+u% i+ !ser is set to root =oth s:stems must su ort e5tended attri=utes

Archi.e

chec)=o5

(e%ete ?uiet >reser.e ermissions >reser.e e5tended attri=utes 45tra o tions 4na=%ed

chec)=o5 chec)=o5 chec)=o5 chec)=o5 strin' chec)=o5

rs:ncA1B o tions not co.ered =: the 2!I unchec) i+ :ou wou%d %i)e to disa=%e the rs:nc tas) without de%etin' it

I+ the r:snc ser.er reEuires assword authenticationD in ut ---ass9ord-file>.1A?=?@.F7:,NA;, in the Q45tra o tionsR =o5D re %acin' .1A?=?@.F7:,NA;, with the a ro riate ath to the +i%e containin' the .a%ue o+ the assword.

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4.4.2

'onfiguring 2s+nc 4odu e 4ode 5et0een *0o FreeNAS S+ste3s

<his con+i'uration e5am %e wi%% con+i'ure rs:nc modu%e mode =etween the two +o%%owin' $reeNA"1 s:stemsK 132.145.2.2 has e5istin' data in .mnt.lo'al.images. It wi%% =e the rs:nc c%ientD meanin' that an rs:nc tas) needs to =e de+ined. It wi%% =e re+erred to as 18S=. 132.145.2.4 has an e5istin' .o%ume named .mnt.remote. It wi%% =e the rs:nc ser.erD meanin' that it wi%% recei.e the contents o+ .mnt.lo'al.images. An rs:nc modu%e needs to =e de+ined on this s:stem and the rs:ncd ser.ice needs to =e started. It wi%% =e re+erred to as 18::. -n 18S=D an rs:nc tas) is de+ined in ":stem L Rs:nc <as)s L Add Rs:nc <as) as shown in $i'ure &.*=. In this e5am %eK the >ath oints to .!sr.lo'al.imagesD the director: to =e co ied the Remote Host oints to 132.145.2.4D the I> address o+ the rs:nc ser.er the Rs:nc Mode is &syn' mod!le the Remote Modu%e Name is $a'k!-sO this wi%% need to =e de+ined on the rs:nc ser.er the (irection is 1!sh the rs:nc is schedu%ed to occur e.er: 1* minutes the !ser is set to root so it has ermission to write an:where the >reser.e >ermissions chec)=o5 is chec)ed so that the ori'ina% o.erwritten =: the root user ermissions are not

-n 18::D an rs:nc modu%e is de+ined in "er.ices L Rs:nc Modu%es L Add Rs:nc Modu%eD shown in $i'ure &.&c. In this e5am %eK the Modu%e Name is $a'k!-sO this needs to match the settin' on the rs:nc c%ient the >ath is .mnt.remoteO a director: ca%%ed images wi%% =e created to ho%d the contents o+ .!sr.lo'al.images the !ser is set to root so it has ermission to write an:where Hosts a%%ow is set to 132.145.2.2D the I> address o+ the rs:nc c%ient (escri tions o+ the con+i'ura=%e o tions can =e +ound in Rs:nc Modu%es. <o +inish the con+i'urationD start the rs:nc ser.ice on 18:: in "er.ices L Contro% "er.ices. I+ the rs:nc is success+u%D the contents o+ .mnt.lo'al.images. wi%% =e mirrored to .mnt.remote.images..

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Figure 4.4(: 'onfiguring t!e 2s+nc ' ient

Figure 4.4c: 'onfiguring t!e 2s+nc Ser,er

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4.4.#

'onfiguring 2s+nc o,er SS& 4ode 5et0een *0o FreeNAS S+ste3s

""H re %ication mode does not reEuire the creation o+ an rs:nc modu%e or +or the rs:nc ser.ice to =e runnin' on the rs:nc ser.er. It does reEuire ""H to =e con+i'ured =e+ore creatin' the rs:nc tas)K a u=%ic@ ri.ate )e: air +or the rs:nc user account At: ica%%: rootB must =e 'enerated on 18S= and the u=%ic )e: co ied to the same user account on 18:: to miti'ate the ris) o+ man;in;the;midd%e attac)sD the u=%ic host )e: o+ 18:: must =e co ied to 18S= the ""H ser.ice must =e runnin' on 18:: <o create the u=%ic@ ri.ate )e: air +or the rs:nc user accountD o en "he%% on 18S=. <he @ +i%es:stem must +irst =e mounted as read;write. <he +o%%owin' e5am %e 'enerates an R"A t: e u=%ic@ ri.ate )e: air +or the root user. When creatin' the )e: airD do not enter the ass hrase as the )e: is meant to =e used +or an automated tas).
mount -o rw / ssh-keygen -t rsa Generating public/private rsa key pair. Enter file in which to save the key (/root/.ssh/id_rsa): Created directory '/root/.ssh'. Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase): Enter same passphrase again: Your identification has been saved in /root/.ssh/id_rsa. Your public key has been saved in /root/.ssh/id_rsa.pub. The key fingerprint is: f5:b0:06:d1:33:e4:95:cf:04:aa:bb:6e:a4:b7:2b:df root@freenas.local The key's randomart image is: +--[ RSA 2048]----+ | .o. oo | | o+o. . | | . =o + | | + + o | | S o . | | .o | | o. | | o oo | | **oE |

$reeNA"1 su orts the +o%%owin' t: es o+ ""H )e:sK ("AD and R"A. When creatin' the )e:D s eci+: the t: e :ou wish to use orD i+ :ou are 'eneratin' the )e: on another o eratin' s:stemD se%ect a t: e o+ )e: the )e: 'eneration so+tware su orts. N9*:: i+ a di++erent user account is used +or the rs:nc tas)D use the su ; command a+ter mountin' the +i%es:stem =ut =e+ore 'eneratin' the )e:. $or e5am %eD i+ the rs:nc tas) is con+i'ured to use the !ser1 user accountD use this command to =ecome that userK
su - user1

Ne5tD .iew and co : the contents o+ the 'enerated u=%ic )e:K

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more .ssh/id_rsa.pub ssh-rsa AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAADAQABAAABAQC1lBEXRgw1W8y8k+lXPlVR3xsmVSjtsoyIzV/PlQPo SrWotUQzqILq0SmUpViAAv4Ik3T8NtxXyohKmFNbBczU6tEsVGHo/2BLjvKiSHRPHc/1DX9hofcFti4h dcD7Y5mvU3MAEeDClt02/xoi5xS/RLxgP0R5dNrakw958Yn001sJS9VMf528fknUmasti00qmDDcp/kO xT+S6DFNDBy6IYQN4heqmhTPRXqPhXqcD1G+rWr/nZK4H8Ckzy+l9RaEXMRuTyQgqJB/rsRcmJX5fApd DmNfwrRSxLjDvUzfywnjFHlKk/+TQIT1gg1QQaj21PJD9pnDVF0AiJrWyWnR root@freenas.local

2o to 18:: and aste Aor a endB the co ied )e: into the ""H >u=%ic Ke: +ie%d o+ Account L !sers L 3iew !sers L root Aor the s eci+ied rs:nc user accountB L Modi+: !ser. <he aste +or the a=o.e e5am %e is shown in $i'ure &.&d. When astin' the )e:D ensure that it is asted as one %on' %ine andD i+ necessar:D remo.e an: e5tra s aces re resentin' %ine =rea)s. Figure 4.4d: Pasting t!e User/s SS& Pu( ic 1e+

Whi%e on 18::D .eri+: that the ""H ser.ice is runnin' in "er.ices L Contro% "er.ices and start it i+ it is not. Ne5tD co : the host )e: o+ 18:: usin' "he%% on 18S=. <he +o%%owin' command co ies the R"A host )e: o+ the 18:: ser.er used in our re.ious e5am %e. #e sure to inc%ude the dou=%e =rac)et AA to re.ent o.erwritin' an: e5istin' entries in the kno9n*hosts +i%e.
ssh-keyscan -t rsa 192.168.2.6 >> /root/.ssh/known_hosts

N9*:: I+ 18S= is a 9inu5 s:stemD use the +o%%owin' command to co : the R"A )e: to the 9inu5 s:stemK
cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub | ssh user@192.168.2.6 'cat >> .ssh/authorized_keys'

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Fou are now read: to create the rs:nc tas) on 18::. <o con+i'ure rs:nc ""H mode usin' the s:stems in our re.ious e5am %eD the con+i'uration wou%d =e as +o%%owsK the >ath oints to .mnt.lo'al.imagesD the director: to =e co ied the Remote Host oints to 132.145.2.4D the I> address o+ the rs:nc ser.er the Rs:nc Mode is &syn' o#er SS= the rs:nc is schedu%ed to occur e.er: 1* minutes the !ser is set to root so it has ermission to write an:whereO the u=%ic )e: +or this user must =e 'enerated on 18S= and co ied to 18:: the 1reser#e 1ermissions chec)=o5 is chec)ed so that the ori'ina% o.erwritten =: the root user ermissions are not

-nce :ou sa.e the rs:nc tas)D the rs:nc wi%% automatica%%: occur accordin' to :our schedu%e. In this e5am %eD the contents o+ .mnt.lo'al.images. wi%% automatica%%: a ear in .mnt.remote.images. a+ter 1* minutes. I+ the content does not a earD use "he%% on 18:: to read .#ar.log.messages. I+ the messa'e indicates a 0n Anew%ine characterB in the )e:D remo.e the s ace in :our asted )e:;;it wi%% =e a+ter the character that a ears Iust =e+ore the 0n in the error messa'e.

4.$

S.4.A.2.*. *ests

".M.A.R.<. A"e%+;Monitorin'D Ana%:sis and Re ortin' <echno%o':B is a monitorin' s:stem +or com uter hard dis) dri.es to detect and re ort on .arious indicators o+ re%ia=i%it:. When a +ai%ure is antici ated =: ".M.A.R.<.D the dri.e shou%d =e re %aced. Most modern A<AD I(4 and "C"I;3 hard dri.es su ort ".M.A.R.<.;;re+er to :our dri.e's documentation i+ :ou are unsure. $i'ure &.*a shows the con+i'uration screen that a ears when :ou c%ic) ":stem L ".M.A.R.<. <ests L Add ".M.A.R.<. <est. <he tests that :ou create wi%% =e %isted under 3iew ".M.A.R.<. <ests. A+ter creatin' :our testsD chec) the con+i'uration in "er.ices L ".M.A.R.<.D then c%ic) the s%ider to -N +or the ".M.A.R.<. ser.ice in "er.ices L Contro% "er.ices. *he ".M.A.R.<. ser.ice wi%% not start i+ :ou ha.e not created an: .o%umes. N9*:: to re.ent ro=%emsD do not ena=%e the ".M.A.R.<. ser.ice i+ :our dis)s are contro%%ed =: a RAI( contro%%er as it is the Io= o+ the contro%%er to monitor ".M.A.R.<. and mar) dri.es as >redicti.e $ai%ure when the: tri .

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Figure 4.$a: Adding a S.4.A.2.*. *est

<a=%e &.*a summari8es the con+i'ura=%e o tions when creatin' a ".M.A.R.<. test. *a( e 4.$a: S.4.A.2.*. *est 9"tions Setting (is) <: e "hort descri tion Hour (a: o+ month Month (a: o+ wee) ?a ue %ist 6escri"tion hi'h%i'ht dis)AsB to monitor se%ect t: e o+ test to runO see smartct%A6B +or a descri tion o+ each dro ;down menu t: e o+ test Anote that some test t: es wi%% de'rade er+ormance or ta)e dis)AsB o++%ineB strin' s%ider or hour se%ections s%ider or da: se%ections chec)=o5es chec)=o5es o tiona% i+ use the s%iderD test occurs e.er: N hoursO i+ use hour se%ectionsD test occurs at the hi'h%i'hted hours i+ use the s%iderD test occurs e.er: N da:sO i+ use da: se%ectionsD test occurs on the hi'h%i'hted da:s se%ect the months when :ou wish the test to occur se%ect the da:s o+ the wee) when :ou wish the test to occur

Fou can .eri+: which tests wi%% run and when =: t: in' s3artd >B s!o0tests within "he%%. FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 7# of 274

4.%

Settings

<he "ettin's ta=D shown in $i'ure &.,aD contains & ta=sK 2enera%D Ad.ancedD 4mai%D and ""9. Figure 4.%a: Genera *a( of Settings

4.%.1

Genera *a(

<a=%e &.,a summari8es the settin's that can =e con+i'ured usin' the 2enera% ta=K *a( e 4.%a: Genera *a(/s 'onfiguration Settings Setting >rotoco% We=2!I I>.& Address ?a ue 6escri"tion rotoco% to use when connectin' to the administrati.e 2!I +rom a =rowserO i+ dro ;down :ou chan'e the de+au%t o+ =??1 to =??1SD an unsi'ned certi+icate and R"A menu )e: wi%% =e 'enerated and :ou wi%% =e %o''ed out in order to acce t the certi+icate choose +rom a %ist o+ recent I> addresses to %imit the one to use when dro ;down accessin' the administrati.e 2!IO the =ui%t;in H<<> ser.er wi%% automatica%%: menu =ind to the wi%dcard address o+ 0.0.0.0 Aan: addressB and wi%% issue an a%ert i+ Page 74 of 274

FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide

Setting

6escri"tion the s eci+ied address =ecomes una.ai%a=%e choose +rom a %ist o+ recent I>., addresses to %imit the one to use when We=2!I dro ;down accessin' the administrati.e 2!IO the =ui%t;in H<<> ser.er wi%% automatica%%: I>., menu =ind to the wi%dcard address o+ )) Aan: addressB and wi%% issue an a%ert i+ the Address s eci+ied address =ecomes una.ai%a=%e a%%ows :ou to con+i'ure a non;standard ort +or accessin' the administrati.e We=2!I inte'er 2!I o.er H<<>O chan'in' this settin' ma: reEuire :ou to chan'e a +ire+o5 H<<> >ort con+i'uration settin' We=2!I a%%ows :ou to con+i'ure a non;standard ort +or accessin' the administrati.e H<<>" inte'er 2!I o.er H<<>" >ort dro ;down se%ect the %oca%i8ation +rom the dro ;down menu and re%oad the =rowserO :ou 9an'ua'e menu can .iew the status o+ %oca%i8ation at oot%e.+reenas.or' Conso%e dro ;down Ke:=oard se%ect the )e:=oard %a:out menu Ma dro ;down <ime8one se%ect the time8one +rom the dro ;down menu menu I> address or hostname o+ remote s:s%o' ser.er to send $reeNA"1 %o's toO ":s%o' strin' once setD %o' entries wi%% =e written to =oth the $reeNA"1 conso%e and the ser.er remote ser.er can se%ect one o+ A'ti#e ire'tory2 : A12 N7SD or N?<O i+ a ser.ice is (irector: dro ;down se%ectedD an entr: named ire'tory Ser#i'es wi%% =e added to "er.ices L "er.ice menu Contro% "er.ices +or mana'in' that se%ected ser.ice N9*:: =: de+au%tD %o's are stored in RAM as there is no s ace on the em=edded de.ice to store %o's. <his means that %o's are de%eted whene.er the s:stem re=oots. I+ :ou wish to sa.e the s:stem %o'sD eitherK con+i'ure a remote s:s%o' ser.er on another !ni5;%i)e o eratin' s:stemD or create a 0$" dataset ca%%ed syslog and re=oot the s:stemO $reeNA"1 wi%% automatica%%: create a log. director: in this dataset which contains the %o's I+ :ou ma)e an: chan'esD c%ic) the "a.e =utton. <his ta= a%so contains the +o%%owin' =uttonsK Factor+ 2estore: resets the con+i'uration data=ase to the de+au%t =ase .ersion. Howe.erD it does not de%ete user ""H )e:s or an: other data stored in a user's home director:. "ince an: con+i'uration chan'es stored in the con+i'uration data=ase wi%% =e erasedD this o tion is hand: i+ :ou mess u :our s:stem or wish to return a test s:stem to the ori'ina% con+i'uration. Sa,e 'onfig: used to create a =ac)u co : o+ the current con+i'uration data=ase in the +ormat hostname-#ersion-ar'hite't!re. Al-a)$ $a'e the co%*i#!ratio% a*ter (a0i%# cha%#e$ a%d 'eri*) that )o! ha'e a $a'ed co%*i#!ratio% be*ore "er*or(i%# a% !"#rade. <his +orum ost contains a scri t to FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 7$ of 274

?a ue

=ac)u the con+i'uration which cou%d =e customi8ed and added as a cron Io=. <his +orum ost contains an a%ternate scri t which on%: sa.es a co : o+ the con+i'uration when it chan'es. And this +orum ost contains a scri t +or =ac)in' u the con+i'uration +rom another s:stem. U" oad 'onfig: a%%ows :ou to =rowse to %ocation o+ sa.ed con+i'uration +i%e in order to restore that con+i'uration.

4.%.2

Ad,anced *a(

<he Ad.anced ta=D shown in $i'ure &.,=D a%%ows :ou to set some misce%%aneous settin's on the $reeNA"1 s:stem. <he con+i'ura=%e settin's are summari8ed in <a=%e &.,=. Figure 4.%(: Ad,anced *a(

*a( e 4.%(: Ad,anced *a(/s 'onfiguration Settings Setting 4na=%e Conso%e Menu !se "eria% Conso%e "eria% >ort " eed 4na=%e screen sa.er 4na=%e owerd A>ower "a.in' (aemonB "wa si8e ?a ue chec)=o5 chec)=o5 dro ;down menu chec)=o5 chec)=o5 non;8ero inte'er re resentin' 2# 6escri"tion unchec)in' this =o5 remo.es the conso%e menu shown in $i'ure 2.*a do %ot chec) this =o5 i+ :our seria% ort is disa=%ed se%ect the s eed used =: the seria% ort ena=%es@disa=%es the conso%e screen sa.er owerdA6B monitors the s:stem state and sets the C>! +reEuenc: accordin'%: =: de+au%tD a%% data dis)s are created with this amount o+ swa O this settin' does not a++ect %o' or cache de.ices as the: are created without swa

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Setting

?a ue

"how conso%e messa'es in chec)=o5 the +ooter "how trace=ac)s in case o+ chec)=o5 +ata% errors "how ad.anced +ie%ds =: de+au%t 4na=%e autotune 4na=%e de=u' )erne% chec)=o5

chec)=o5 chec)=o5

4na=%e automatic u %oad o+ chec)=o5 )erne% crash dum s M-<( =anner strin'

6escri"tion wi%% dis %a: conso%e messa'es in rea% time at =ottom o+ =rowserO c%ic) the conso%e to =rin' u a scro%%a=%e screenO chec) the Q"to re+reshR =o5 in the scro%%a=%e screen to ause u datin' and unchec) the =o5 to continue to watch the messa'es as the: occur ro.ides a o ;u o+ dia'nostic in+ormation when a +ata% error occurs se.era% 2!I menus ro.ide an Ad.anced Mode =utton to access additiona% +eaturesO ena=%in' this shows these +eatures =: de+au%t ena=%es the autotune scri t which attem ts to o timi8e the s:stem de endin' u on the hardware which is insta%%ed i+ chec)edD ne5t =oot wi%% =oot into a de=u' .ersion o+ the )erne% i+ chec)edD )erne% crash dum s are automatica%%: sent to the $reeNA"1 de.e%o ment team +or dia'nosis in ut the messa'e to =e seen when a user %o's in .ia ""H

I+ :ou ma)e an: chan'esD c%ic) the "a.e =utton. <his ta= a%so contains the +o%%owin' =uttonsK 2e(ui d <6APEA6 'ac!e: c%ic) i+ :ou add a user to Acti.e (irector: who needs immediate access to $reeNA"1O otherwise this occurs automatica%%: once a da: as a cron Io=. Sa,e 6e(ug: used to 'enerate a te5t +i%e o+ dia'nostic in+ormation. t wi%% rom t +or the %ocation to sa.e the A"CII te5t +i%e. Fir30are U"date: used to ! 'rade $reeNA"1.
!.(.2.1 Autotune

$reeNA"1 ro.ides an autotune scri t which attem ts to o timi8e the s:stem de endin' u on the hardware which is insta%%ed. $or e5am %eD i+ a 0$" .o%ume e5ists on a s:stem with %imited RAMD the autotune scri t wi%% automatica%%: adIust some 0$" s:sct% .a%ues in an attem t to minimi8e 0$" memor: star.ation issues. <he Q4na=%e autotuneR chec)=o5 in ":stem L "ettin's L Ad.anced is unchec)ed =: de+au%tO chec) it i+ :ou wou%d %i)e the autotuner to run at =oot time. I+ :ou wou%d %i)e the scri t to run immediate%:D re=oot the s:stem. I+ autotuner +inds an: settin's that need adIustin'D the chan'ed .a%ues wi%% a ear in ":stem L ":sct%s A+or sys'tl.'onf .a%uesB and in ":stem L <una=%es A+or loader.'onf .a%uesB. I+ :ou do not %i)e the chan'esD :ou can modi+: the .a%ues that are dis %a:ed in the 2!I and :our chan'es wi%% o.erride the .a%ues that were created =: the autotune scri t. Howe.erD i+ :ou de%ete a s:sct% or tuna=%e that was FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 77 of 274

created =: autotuneD it wi%% =e recreated at ne5t =oot. <his is =ecause autotune on%: creates .a%ues that do not a%read: e5ist. I+ :ou are tr:in' to increase the er+ormance o+ :our $reeNA"1 s:stem and sus ect that the current hardware ma: =e %imitin' er+ormanceD tr: ena=%in' autotune. I+ :ou wish to read the scri t to see which chec)s are .!sr.lo'al.$in.a!tot!ne. er+ormedD the scri t is %ocated in

4.%.#

:3ai *a(

<he 4mai% ta=D shown in $i'ure &.,cD is used to con+i'ure the emai% settin's on the $reeNA"1 s:stem. <a=%e &.,c summari8es the settin's that can =e con+i'ured usin' the 4mai% ta=. N9*:: it is im ortant to con+i'ure the s:stem so that it can success+u%%: send emai%s. An automatic scri t send a ni'ht%: emai% to the root user account containin' im ortant in+ormation such as the hea%th o+ the dis)s. A%ert e.ents are a%so emai%ed to the root user account. Figure 4.%c: :3ai *a(

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*a( e 4.%c: :3ai *a(/s 'onfiguration Settings Setting $rom emai% -ut'oin' mai% ser.er >ort to connect to <9"@""9 !se "M<> Authentication !sername >assword "end <est Mai% ?a ue strin' 6escri"tion the Fro( emai% address to =e used when sendin' emai% noti+ications

strin' or I> address hostname or I> address o+ "M<> ser.er inte'er dro ;down menu chec)=o5 strin' strin' =utton "M<> ort num=erD t: ica%%: 2*D &,* Asecure "M<>BD or *6/ Asu=missionB encr: tion t: eO choices are 1lainD SS:D or ?:S ena=%es@disa=%es "M<> A!<H usin' >9AIN "A"9 used to authenticate with "M<> ser.er used to authenticate with "M<> ser.er c%ic) to chec) that con+i'ured emai% settin's are wor)in'O this wi%% +ai% i+ :ou do not set the To emai% address =: c%ic)in' the Chan'e 4;mai% =utton +or the root account in Accounts L !sers L 3iew !sers

4.%.4

SS< *a(

When :ou chan'e the >rotoco% .a%ue to H<<>" in ":stem L "ettin's L 2enera%D an unsi'ned R"A certi+icate and )e: are auto;'enerated. -nce 'eneratedD the certi+icate and )e: wi%% =e dis %a:ed in the ""9 Certi+icate +ie%d in ":stem L "ettin's L ""9D shown in $i'ure &.,d. I+ :ou a%read: ha.e :our own si'ned certi+icate that :ou wish to use +or ""9@<9" connectionsD re %ace the .a%ues in the ""9 certi+icate +ie%d with a co :@ aste o+ :our own )e: and certi+icate. <he certi+icate can =e used to secure the H<<> connection Aena=%ed in the "ettin's L 2enera% <a=B to the $reeNA"1 s:stem. <a=%e &.,d summari8es the settin's that can =e con+i'ured usin' the ""9 ta=. <his howto shows how to manua%%: 'enerate :our own certi+icate usin' - en""9 and ro.ides some e5am %es +or the .a%ues shown in <a=%e &.,d.

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Figure 4.%d: SS< *a(

*a( e 4.%d: SS< *a(/s 'onfiguration Settings Setting -r'ani8ation -r'ani8ationa% !nit 4mai% Address 9oca%it: "tate Countr: Common Name >ass hrase ""9 Certi+icate ?a ue strin' strin' strin' strin' strin' strin' strin' 6escri"tion o tiona% o tiona% o tiona% o tiona% o tiona% o tiona% o tiona% i+ the certi+icate was created with a ass hraseD in ut and con+irm itO strin' the .a%ue wi%% a ear as dots in the 2!I strin' aste the ri.ate )e: and certi+icate into the =o5

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N9*:: $reeNA"1 wi%% chec) the .a%idit: o+ the certi+icate and )e: and wi%% +a%%=ac) to H<<> i+ the: a ear to =e in.a%id.

4.7

S+sct s

s:sct%A6B is an inter+ace that is used to ma)e chan'es to the $ree#"( )erne% runnin' on a $reeNA"1 s:stem. It can =e used to tune the s:stem in order to meet the s eci+ic needs o+ a networ). -.er +i.e hundred s:stem .aria=%es can =e set usin' s:sct%A6B. 4ach .aria=%e is )nown as a MI# as it is com rised o+ a dotted set o+ com onents. "ince these MI#s are s eci+ic to the )erne% +eature that is =ein' tunedD descri tions can =e +ound in man: $ree#"( man a'es Ae.'. s:sct%A3BD tc A&B and tunin'A/BB and in man: sections o+ the $ree#"( Hand=oo). 6ANG:2C chan'in' the .a%ue o+ a s:sct% MI# is an ad.anced +eature that immediate%: a++ects the )erne% o+ the $reeNA"1 s:stem. Do %ot cha%#e a M1, o% a "rod!ctio% $)$te( !%le$$ )o! !%der$ta%d the ra(i*icatio%$ o* that cha%#e. A =ad%: con+i'ured MI# cou%d cause the s:stem to =ecome un=oota=%eD unreacha=%e .ia the networ)D or can cause the s:stem to anic under %oad. Certain chan'es ma: =rea) assum tions made =: the $reeNA"1 so+tware. <his means that :ou shou%d a%wa:s test the im act o+ an: chan'es on a test s:stem +irst. $reeNA"1 ro.ides a 'ra hica% inter+ace +or mana'in' s:sct% MI#s. <o add a s:sct%D 'o to ":stem L ":sct%s L Add ":sct%D shown in $i'ure &./a. Figure 4.7a: Adding a S+sct

<a=%e &./a summari8es the o tions when addin' a s:sct%. *a( e 4.7a: Adding a S+sct Setting 3aria=%e ?a ue strin' inte'er or 3a%ue strin' Comment strin' 4na=%ed chec)=o5 6escri"tion must =e in dotted +ormat e.'. kern.i-'.shmma( .a%ue to associate with the MI#O do %ot (a0e thi$ !"D re+er to the su''ested .a%ues in a man a'eD $ree#"( Hand=oo) a'eD or tutoria% o tiona%D =ut a use+u% reminder +or the reason =ehind usin' this MI#@.a%ue unchec) i+ :ou wou%d %i)e to disa=%e the s:sct% without de%etin' it

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As soon as :ou add or edit a s:sct%D the runnin' )erne% wi%% chan'e that .aria=%e to the .a%ue :ou s eci+:. As %on' as the s:sct% e5istsD that .a%ue wi%% ersist across re=oots and u 'rades. Note that an: s:sct% that is read;on%: wi%% reEuire a re=oot to ena=%e the settin' chan'e. Fou can .eri+: i+ a s:sct% is read;on%: =: attem tin' to chan'e it +rom "he%%. $or e5am %eD to chan'e the .a%ue o+ net.inet.t'-.delay*a'k to 1D use the command s+sct net.inet.tc".de a+8ac7D1. I+ the s:sct% .a%ue is read;on%:D an error messa'e wi%% indicate that the settin' is read;on%:. I+ :ou do not 'et an errorD the settin' is now a %ied. Howe.erD +or the settin' to =e ersistent across re=ootsD the s:sct% must =e added in ":stem L ":sct%s. An: MI#s that :ou add wi%% =e %isted in ":stem L ":sct%s L 3iew ":sct%s. <o chan'e the .a%ue o+ a MI#D c%ic) its 4dit =utton. <o remo.e a MI#D c%ic) its (e%ete =utton. At this timeD the 2!I does not dis %a: the s:sct% MI#s that are re;set in the insta%%ation ima'e. 9.2.0 shi s with the +o%%owin' MI#s setK
kern.metadelay=3 kern.dirdelay=4 kern.filedelay=5 kern.coredump=0 net.inet.tcp.delayed_ack=0

Do %ot add or edit the de*a!lt M1,S a$ $)$ctl$ as doin' so wi%% o.erwrite the de+au%t .a%ues which ma: render the s:stem unusa=%e.

4.)

S+ste3 Infor3ation

":stem L ":stem In+ormation dis %a:s 'enera% in+ormation a=out the $reeNA"1 s:stem. An e5am %e is seen in $i'ure &.6a. <he in+ormation inc%udes the hostnameD the =ui%d .ersionD t: e o+ C>! A %at+ormBD the amount o+ memor:D the current s:stem timeD the s:stem's u timeD and the current %oad a.era'e. <o chan'e the s:stem's hostnameD c%ic) its Q4ditR =uttonD t: e in the new hostnameD and c%ic) Q-KR. <he hostname must inc%ude the domain name. I+ the networ) does not use a domain name add .lo'al to the end o+ the hostname.

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Figure 4.)a: S+ste3 Infor3ation *a(

4.9

*una( es

When a $ree#"(;=ased s:stem =ootsD %oader.con+A*B is read to determine i+ an: arameters shou%d =e assed to the )erne% or i+ an: additiona% )erne% modu%es Asuch as dri.ersB shou%d =e %oaded. "ince %oader .a%ues are s eci+ic to the )erne% arameter or dri.er to =e %oadedD descri tions can =e +ound in the man a'e +or the s eci+ied dri.er and in man: sections o+ the $ree#"( Hand=oo). $reeNA"1 ro.ides a 'ra hica% inter+ace +or mana'in' %oader .a%ues. <his ad.anced +unctiona%it: is intended to ma)e it easier to %oad additiona% )erne% modu%es at =oot time. A t: ica% usa'e wou%d =e to %oad a $ree#"( hardware dri.er that does not automatica%%: %oad a+ter a $reeNA"1 insta%%ation. <he de+au%t $reeNA"1 ima'e does not %oad e.er: ossi=%e hardware dri.er. <his is a necessar: e.i% as some dri.ers con+%ict with one another or cause sta=i%it: issuesD some are rare%: usedD and some dri.ers Iust don't =e%on' on a standard NA" s:stem. I+ :ou need a dri.er that is not automatica%%: %oadedD :ou need to add a tuna=%e. 6ANG:2C addin' a tuna=%e is an ad.anced +eature that cou%d ad.erse%: e++ect the a=i%it: o+ the $reeNA"1 s:stem to success+u%%: =oot. It is 'er) i("orta%t that :ou do not ha.e a t: o when addin' a tuna=%e as this cou%d ha%t the =oot rocess. $i5in' this ro=%em reEuires h:sica% access to the FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page )# of 274

$reeNA"1 s:stem and )now%ed'e o+ how to use the =oot %oader rom t as descri=ed in Reco.erin' $rom Incorrect <una=%es. <his means that :ou shou%d a%wa:s test the im act o+ an: chan'es on a test s:stem +irst. <o add a tuna=%eD 'o to ":stem L <una=%es L Add <una=%eD as seen in $i'ure &.9a. Figure 4.9a: Adding a *una( e

<a=%e &.9a summari8es the o tions when addin' a tuna=%e. <he chan'es :ou ma)e wi%% not ta)e e++ect unti% the s:stem is re=ooted as %oader settin's are on%: read when the )erne% is %oaded at =oot time. As %on' as the tuna=%e e5istsD :our chan'es wi%% ersist at each =oot and across u 'rades. An: tuna=%es that :ou add wi%% =e %isted a% ha=etica%%: in ":stem L <una=%es L 3iew <una=%es. <o chan'e the .a%ue o+ a tuna=%eD c%ic) its 4dit =utton. <o remo.e a tuna=%eD c%ic) its (e%ete =utton. *a( e 4.9a: Adding a *una( e Setting 3aria=%e ?a ue strin' inte'er or 3a%ue strin' Comment strin' 4na=%ed chec)=o5 6escri"tion t: ica%%: the name o+ the dri.er to %oadD as indicated =: its man a'e .a%ue to associate with .aria=%eO t: ica%%: this is set to +,S to ena=%e the dri.er s eci+ied =: the .aria=%e o tiona%D =ut a use+u% reminder +or the reason =ehind addin' this tuna=%e unchec) i+ :ou wou%d %i)e to disa=%e the tuna=%e without de%etin' it

At this timeD the 2!I does not dis %a: the tuna=%es that are re;set in the insta%%ation ima'e. 9.2.0 shi s with the +o%%owin' tuna=%es setK
autoboot_delay="2" loader_logo="freenas" loader_menu_title="Welcome to FreeNAS" loader_brand="freenas-brand" loader_version=" " debug.debugger_on_panic=1 debug.ddb.textdump.pending=1 hw.hptrr.attach_generic=0 kern.ipc.nmbclusters="262144"

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vfs.mountroot.timeout="30" hint.isp.0.role=2 hint.isp.1.role=2 hint.isp.2.role=2 hint.isp.3.role=2

Do %ot add or edit the de*a!lt t!%able$ as doin' so wi%% o.erwrite the de+au%t .a%ues which ma: render the s:stem unusa=%e. <he 0$" .ersion used in 9.2.0 de recates the +o%%owin' tuna=%esK
vfs.zfs.write_limit_override vfs.zfs.write_limit_inflated vfs.zfs.write_limit_max vfs.zfs.write_limit_min vfs.zfs.write_limit_shift vfs.zfs.no_write_throttle

I+ :ou u 'rade +rom an ear%ier .ersion o+ $reeNA"1 where these tuna=%es are setD the: wi%% automatica%%: =e de%eted +or :ou. Fou shou%d not tr: to add these tuna=%es =ac). 4.9.1 2eco,ering Fro3 Incorrect *una( es

I+ a tuna=%e is re.entin' the s:stem +rom =ootin'D :ou wi%% need h:sica% access to the $reeNA"1 s:stem. Watch the =oot messa'es and ress the num=er 3 )e: or the 4sc )e: to se%ect Q3. :sca e to %oader rom tR when :ou see the $reeNA"1 =oot menu shown in $i'ure &.9=. Figure 4.9(: FreeNAS 5oot 4enu

<he =oot %oader rom t ro.ides a minima% set o+ commands descri=ed in %oaderA6B. -nce at the rom tD use the unset command to disa=%e a ro=%ematic .a%ueD the set command to modi+: the ro=%ematic .a%ueD or the un oad command to re.ent the ro=%ematic dri.er +rom %oadin'. FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page )$ of 274

45am %e &.9a demonstrates se.era% e5am %es usin' these commands at the =oot %oader rom t. <he +irst command disa=%es the current .a%ue associated with the kern.i-'.nm$'l!sters MI# and wi%% +ai% with a Qno such +i%e or director:R error messa'e i+ a current tuna=%e does not e5ist to set this .a%ue. <he second command disa=%es AC>I. <he third command instructs the s:stem not to %oad the +use dri.er. When +inishedD t: e (oot to continue the =oot rocess. :-a3" e 4.9a: Sa3" e 'o33ands at t!e 5oot <oader Pro3"t
Type '?' for a list of commands, 'help' for more detailed help. OK unset kern.ipc.nmbclusters OK set hint.acpi.0.disabled=1 OK unload fuse OK boot

An: chan'es made at the =oot %oader rom t on%: e++ect the current =oot. <his means that :ou need to edit or remo.e the ro=%ematic tuna=%e in ":stem L <una=%es L 3iew <una=%es to ma)e :our chan'e ermanent and to re.ent +uture =oot errors.

Net0or7 'onfiguration
2%o=a% Con+i'urationK used to to set non;inter+ace s eci+ic networ) settin's. Inter+acesK used to con+i'ure a s eci+ied inter+ace's networ) settin's. 9in) A''re'ationsK used to con+i'ure %in) a''re'ation and %in) +ai%o.er. Networ) "ummar:K ro.ides an o.er.iew o+ the current networ) settin's. "tatic RoutesK used to add static routes. 39ANsK used to con+i'ure I444 602.1E ta''in'.

<he Networ) section o+ the administrati.e 2!I contains the +o%%owin' com onents +or .iewin' and con+i'urin' the $reeNA"1 s:stem's networ) settin'sK

4ach o+ these is descri=ed in more detai% in this section.

$.1

G o(a 'onfiguration

Networ) L 2%o=a% Con+i'urationD shown in $i'ure *.1aD a%%ows :ou to set non;inter+ace s eci+ic networ) settin's. <a=%e *.1a summari8es the settin's that can =e con+i'ured usin' the 2%o=a% Con+i'uration ta=. <he hostname and domain wi%% =e re;+i%%ed +or :ouD as seen in $i'ure *.1aD =ut can =e chan'ed to meet the %oca% networ)'s reEuirements. I+ :ou wi%% =e usin' Acti.e (irector:D set the I> address o+ the (N" ser.er used in the rea%m. I+ :our networ) does not ha.e a (N" ser.er or N$"D ""HD or $<> users are recei.in' Qre.erse (N"R or timeout errorsD add an entr: +or the I> address o+ the $reeNA"1 s:stem in the QHost name data=aseR +ie%d. N9*:: i+ :ou add a 'atewa: to the InternetD ma)e sure that the $reeNA"1 s:stem is rotected =: a ro er%: con+i'ured +irewa%%. FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page )% of 274

Figure $.1a: G o(a 'onfiguration Screen

*a( e $.1a: G o(a 'onfiguration Settings Setting Hostname (omain I>.& (e+au%t 2atewa: I>., (e+au%t 2atewa: Nameser.er 1 Nameser.er 2 Nameser.er 3 6escri"tion s:stem host name s:stem domain name t: ica%%: not set Asee N-<4 =e%owB t: ica%%: not set Asee N-<4 =e%owB rimar: (N" ser.er At: ica%%: in Windows domainB secondar: (N" ser.er tertiar: (N" ser.er i+ ena=%edD networ) ser.ices wi%% not =e started at =oot time unti% 4na=%e netwait +eature chec)=o5 the inter+ace is a=%e to in' the addresses %isted in Net9ait 71 list i+ ,na$le net9ait feat!re is chec)edD %ist o+ I> addresses to in'O Netwait I> %ist strin' otherwiseD in' the de+au%t 'atewa: used to add one entr: er %ine which wi%% =e a ended to Host name data=ase strin' .et'.hostsO use the +ormat 71*address s-a'e hostname where mu%ti %e hostnames can =e used i+ se arated =: a s ace FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page )7 of 274 ?a ue strin' strin' I> address I> address I> address I> address I> address

N9*:: In man: casesD a $reeNA"1 con+i'uration wi%% de%i=erate%: e5c%ude de+au%t 'atewa: in+ormation as a wa: to ma)e it more di++icu%t +or a remote attac)er to communicate with the ser.er. Whi%e this is a reasona=%e recautionD such a con+i'uration does %ot restrict in=ound tra++ic +rom sources within the %oca% networ). Howe.erD omittin' a de+au%t 'atewa: wi%% re.ent the $reeNA"1 s:stem +rom communicatin' with (N" ser.ersD time ser.ersD and mai% ser.ers that are %ocated outside o+ the %oca% networ). In this caseD it is recommended that "tatic Routes =e added in order to reach e5terna% (N"D N<>D and mai% ser.ers which are con+i'ured with static I> addresses.

$.2

Interfaces

Networ) L Inter+aces is used to .iew which inter+aces ha.e =een manua%%: con+i'uredD to add a manua%%: con+i'ured inter+aceD and to edit an inter+ace's manua% con+i'uration. N9*:: t: ica%%: the inter+ace used to access the $reeNA"1 administrati.e 2!I is con+i'ured =: (HC>. <his inter+ace wi%% not a ear in this screenD e.en thou'h it is a%read: d:namica%%: con+i'ured and in use. $i'ure *.2a shows the screen that o ens when :ou c%ic) Inter+aces L Add Inter+ace. <a=%e *.2a summari8es the con+i'uration o tions when :ou Add an inter+ace or 4dit an a%read: con+i'ured inter+ace. Figure $.2a: Adding or :diting an Interface

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*a( e $.2a: Interface 'onfiguration Settings Setting 6escri"tion se%ect the $ree#"( de.ice nameO wi%% =e a read;on%: +ie%d when NIC dro ;down menu editin' an inter+ace Inter+ace Name strin' descri tion o+ inter+ace reEuires static I>.& or I>., con+i'uration i+ unchec)edO note that (HC> chec)=o5 on%: one inter+ace can =e con+i'ured +or (HC> I>.& Address I> address set i+ (HC> unchec)ed I>.& Netmas) dro ;down menu set i+ (HC> unchec)ed Auto con+i'ure on%: one inter+ace can =e con+i'ured +or this o tionO reEuires chec)=o5 I>., manua% con+i'uration i+ unchec)ed and wish to use I>., I>., Address I>., address must =e uniEue on networ) I>., >re+i5 dro ;down menu match the re+i5 used on networ) 9en'th additiona% arameters +rom i+con+i'A6BD one er %ineO +or e5am %eK - tions strin' mt! 3000 wi%% increase the M<! +or inter+aces that su ort Ium=o +rames <his screen a%so a%%ows :ou to con+i'ure an a%ias +or the inter+ace. I+ :ou wish to set mu%ti %e a%iasesD c%ic) the QAdd e5tra a%iasR %in) +or each a%ias :ou wish to con+i'ure. <o de%ete an a%iasD hi'h%i'ht the inter+ace in the tree to access its M4ditM screen. #e sure to chec) the M(e%eteM chec)=o5 associated with the a%ias. I+ :ou instead c%ic) the M(e%eteM =utton at the =ottom o+ this screenD :ou wi%% de%ete the who%e inter+aceD not Iust the a%ias. When con+i'urin' mu%ti %e inter+acesD the: can not =e mem=ers o+ the same su=net. Chec) the su=net mas) i+ :ou recei.e an error when settin' the I> addresses on mu%ti %e inter+aces. When con+i'urin' an inter+ace +or =oth I>.& and I>.,D this screen wi%% not %et :ou set =oth addresses as rimar:. In other wordsD :ou wi%% 'et an error i+ :ou +i%% in =oth the 71#< address and 71#4 address +ie%ds. InsteadD set one o+ these address +ie%ds and create an a%ias +or the other address. ?a ue

$.#

<in7 Aggregations

$reeNA"1 uses $ree#"('s %a''A&B inter+ace to ro.ide %in) a''re'ation and %in) +ai%o.er. <he %a'' inter+ace a%%ows a''re'ation o+ mu%ti %e networ) inter+aces into a sin'%e .irtua% %a'' inter+aceD ro.idin' +au%t;to%erance and hi'h;s eed mu%ti;%in) throu'h ut. <he a''re'ation rotoco%s su orted =: %a'' determine which orts are used +or out'oin' tra++ic and whether a s eci+ic ort acce ts incomin' tra++ic. <he %in) state o+ the %a'' inter+ace is used to .a%idate i+ the ort is acti.e or not. A''re'ation wor)s =est on switches su ortin' 9AC>D which distri=utes tra++ic =i;directiona%%: whi%e res ondin' to +ai%ure o+ indi.idua% %in)s. $reeNA"1 a%so su orts acti.e@ assi.e +ai%o.er =etween airs o+ %in)s. <he 9AC>D $4C and %oad;=a%ance modes se%ect the out ut inter+ace usin' a hash that inc%udes the 4thernet source and destination addressD 39AN ta' Ai+ a.ai%a=%eBD I> source and destination addressD and +%ow %a=e% AI>., on%:B. <he =ene+it can on%: =e o=ser.ed when mu%ti %e c%ients are trans+errin' FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page )9 of 274

+i%es *ro( :our NA". <he +%ow enterin' i%to :our NA" de ends on the 4thernet switch %oad;=a%ance a%'orithm. <he %a'' dri.er current%: su orts the +o%%owin' a''re'ation rotoco%sK

Fai o,er: the de+au%t rotoco%. "ends tra++ic on%: throu'h the acti.e ort. I+ the master ort =ecomes una.ai%a=%eD the ne5t acti.e ort is used. <he +irst inter+ace added is the master ortO an: inter+aces added a+ter that are used as +ai%o.er de.ices. #: de+au%tD recei.ed tra++ic is on%: acce ted when recei.ed throu'h the acti.e ort. <his constraint can =e re%a5edD which is use+u% +or certain =rid'ed networ) setu sD =: settin' net.link.lagg.failo#er*r(*all to a non;8ero .a%ue in ":stem L ":sct%s L Add ":sct%. F:': su orts Cisco 4therChanne% on o%der Cisco switches. <his is a static setu and does not ne'otiate a''re'ation with the eer or e5chan'e +rames to monitor the %in). <A'P: su orts the I444 602.3ad 9in) A''re'ation Contro% >rotoco% A9AC>B and the Mar)er >rotoco%. 9AC> wi%% ne'otiate a set o+ a''re'a=%e %in)s with the eer into one or more %in) a''re'ated 'rou s A9A2sB. 4ach 9A2 is com osed o+ orts o+ the same s eedD set to +u%%;du %e5 o eration. <he tra++ic wi%% =e =a%anced across the orts in the 9A2 with the 'reatest tota% s eedO in most cases there wi%% on%: =e one 9A2 which contains a%% orts. In the e.ent o+ chan'es in h:sica% connecti.it:D %in) a''re'ation wi%% Euic)%: con.er'e to a new con+i'uration. 9AC> must =e con+i'ured on the switch as we%%. <oad 5a ance: =a%ances out'oin' tra++ic across the acti.e orts =ased on hashed rotoco% header in+ormation and acce ts incomin' tra++ic +rom an: acti.e ort. <his is a static setu and does not ne'otiate a''re'ation with the eer or e5chan'e +rames to monitor the %in). <he hash inc%udes the 4thernet source and destination addressD 39AN ta' Ai+ a.ai%a=%eBD and I> source and destination address. ReEuires a switch which su orts I444 602.3ad static %in) a''re'ation. 2ound 2o(in: distri=utes out'oin' tra++ic usin' a round;ro=in schedu%er throu'h a%% acti.e orts and acce ts incomin' tra++ic +rom an: acti.e ort. <his mode can cause unordered ac)et arri.a% at the c%ient. <his has a side e++ect o+ %imitin' throu'h ut as reorderin' ac)ets can =e C>! intensi.e on the c%ient. ReEuires a switch which su orts I444 602.3ad static %in) a''re'ation. None: this rotoco% disa=%es an: tra++ic without disa=%in' the %a'' inter+ace itse%+. N9*:: the $reeNA"1 s:stem must =e re=ooted a+ter con+i'urin' the %a'' de.ice and <C> access wi%% =e %ost durin' re=oot. Do %ot con+i'ure the inter+aces used in the %a'' de.ice =e+ore creatin' the %a'' de.ice. $.#.1 'onsiderations .!en Using <A'PJ 4PI9J NFSJ or :SAi

9AC> =onds 4thernet connections in order to im ro.e =andwidth. $or e5am %eD +our h:sica% inter+aces can =e used to create one me'a inter+ace. Howe.erD it cannot increase the =andwidth +or a sin'%e con.ersation. It is desi'ned to increase =andwidth when mu%ti %e c%ients are simu%taneous%: accessin' the same s:stem. It a%so assumes that Eua%it: 4thernet hardware is used and it wi%% not ma)e much di++erence when usin' in+erior 4thernet chi sets such as a Rea%te). 9AC> reads the sender and recei.er I> addresses andD i+ the: are deemed to =e%on' to the same <C> connectionD a%wa:s sends the ac)et o.er the same inter+ace to ensure that <C> does not need to reorder ac)ets. <his ma)es 9AC> idea% +or %oad =a%ancin' man: simu%taneous <C> connectionsD =ut does nothin' +or increasin' the s eed o.er one <C> connection. FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 90 of 274

M>I- o erates at the i"C"I rotoco% %e.e%. $or e5am %eD i+ :ou create +our I> addresses and there are +our simu%taneous <C> connectionsD M>I- wi%% send the data o.er a%% a.ai%a=%e %in)s. When con+i'urin' M>I-D ma)e sure that the I> addresses on the inter+aces are con+i'ured to =e on se arate su=nets with non;o.er%a in' netmas)s or con+i'ure static routes to do oint;to; oint communication. -therwiseD a%% ac)ets wi%% ass throu'h one inter+ace. 9AC> and other +orms o+ %in) a''re'ation 'enera%%: do not wor) we%% with .irtua%i8ation so%utions. In a .irtua%i8ed en.ironmentD consider the use o+ i"C"I M>I- throu'h the creation o+ an i"C"I >orta%. <his a%%ows an i"C"I initiator to reco'ni8e mu%ti %e %in)s to a tar'etD uti%i8in' them +or increased =andwidth or redundanc:. <his how;to contains instructions +or con+i'urin' M>I- on 4"7i. N$" does not understand M>I-. <here+oreD :ou wi%% need one +ast inter+ace since creatin' an i"C"I orta% wi%% not im ro.e =andwidth when usin' N$". 9AC> does not wor) we%% to increase the =andwidth +or oint;to; oint N$" Aone ser.er and one c%ientB. 9AC> is a 'ood so%ution +or %in) redundanc: or +or one ser.er and man: c%ients. $.#.2 'reating a <in7 Aggregation

#e+ore creatin' a %in) a''re'ationD dou=%e;chec) that no inter+aces ha.e =een manua%%: con+i'ured in Networ) L Inter+aces L 3iew Inter+aces. I+ an: con+i'ured inter+aces e5istD de%ete them as %a'' creation wi%% +ai% i+ an: inter+aces are manua%%: con+i'ured. $i'ure *.3a shows the con+i'uration o tions when addin' a %a'' inter+ace usin' Networ) L 9in) A''re'ations L Create 9in) A''re'ation. Figure $.#a: 'reating a agg Interface

N9*:: i+ inter+aces are insta%%ed =ut do not a ear in the >h:sica% NICs in the 9A22 %istD chec) that a $ree#"( dri.er +or the inter+ace e5ists here. FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 91 of 274

"e%ect the desired a''re'ation rotoco%D hi'h%i'ht the inter+aceAsB to associate with the %a'' de.iceD and c%ic) the -K =utton. -nce the %a'' de.ice has =een createdD it wi%% =e %isted in the tree under an entr: which indicates the t: e o+ rotoco%. As seen in $i'ure *.3=D it wi%% a%so a ear in 3iew 9in) A''re'ations. Figure $.#(: ?ie0ing <in7 Aggregations

C%ic) a %in) a''re'ation entr: to see the =uttons to edit that %a'' inter+aceD de%ete the %in) a''re'ationD or edit the %a'''s mem=er inter+aces. I+ :ou c%ic) the 4dit =utton +or a %a''D :ou wi%% see the con+i'uration screen shown in $i'ure *.3c. <a=%e *.3a descri=es the o tions in this screen. A+ter creatin' the %a'' inter+aceD set the I> address manua%%: or with (HC> and sa.e. <he connection to the we= inter+ace ma: =e %ost at this ointD and i+ soD the s:stem must =e re=ooted +rom the conso%e setu menu. Fou ma: a%so ha.e to chan'e :our switch settin's to communicate throu'h the new %a'' inter+ace. A+ter re=ootD i+ the I> address was set manua%%:D :ou ma: a%so ha.e to manua%%: enter a de+au%t 'atewa: +rom the conso%e setu menu o tion in order to 'et access into the 2!I throu'h the new %a'' inter+ace.

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Figure $.#c: :diting a agg

*a( e $.#a: 'onfigura( e 9"tions for a agg Setting NIC ?a ue strin' 6escri"tion read;on%: as automatica%%: assi'ned ne5t a.ai%a=%e numeric I( =: de+au%t same as de.ice ANICB nameD can =e chan'ed to a more descri ti.e .a%ue chec) i+ the %a'' de.ice 'ets its I> address in+o +rom (HC> ser.er mandator: i+ (HC> is %e+t unchec)ed mandator: i+ (HC> is %e+t unchec)ed chec) on%: i+ (HC> ser.er a.ai%a=%e to ro.ide I>., address in+o o tiona% reEuired i+ in ut I>., address additiona% i+con+i'A6B o tions

Inter+ace Name strin' (HC> I>.& Address I>.& Netmas) Auto con+i'ure I>., I>., Address I>., >re+i5 9en'th - tions chec)=o5 strin' dro ;down menu chec)=o5 strin' dro ;down menu strin'

<his screen a%so a%%ows :ou to con+i'ure an a%ias +or the %a'' inter+ace. I+ :ou wish to set mu%ti %e a%iasesD c%ic) the QAdd e5tra A%iasR %in) +or each a%ias :ou wish to con+i'ure.

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I+ :ou c%ic) the 4dit Mem=ers =uttonD c%ic) the entr: +or a mem=erD then c%ic) its 4dit =uttonD :ou wi%% see the con+i'uration screen shown in $i'ure *.3d. <he con+i'ura=%e o tions are summari8ed in <a=%e *.3=. Figure $.#d: :diting a 4e3(er Interface

*a( e $.#(: 'onfiguring a 4e3(er Interface Setting 9A22 Inter+ace 'rou ?a ue 6escri"tion dro ;down menu se%ect the mem=er inter+ace to con+i'ure order o+ se%ected inter+ace within the %a''O con+i'ure 9A22 >riorit: Num=er inte'er a +ai%o.er to set the master inter+ace to 0 and the other inter+aces to 1D 2D etc. 9A22 >h:sica% NIC dro ;down menu h:sica% inter+ace o+ the se%ected mem=er - tions strin' additiona% arameters +rom i+con+i'A6B N9*:: o tions can =e set at either the %a'' %e.e% Ausin' the 4dit =uttonB or the indi.idua% arent inter+ace %e.e% Ausin' the 4dit Mem=ers =uttonB. <: ica%%:D chan'es are made at the %a'' %e.e% A$i'ure *.3cB as each inter+ace mem=er wi%% inherit +rom the %a''. I+ :ou instead con+i'ure the inter+ace %e.e% A$i'ure *.3dBD :ou wi%% ha.e to re eat the con+i'uration +or each inter+ace within the %a''. Howe.erD some %a'' o tions can on%: =e set =: editin' the inter+ace. $or instanceD the M<! o+ a %a'' is inherited +rom the inter+ace. <o set an M<! on a %a''D set a%% the inter+aces to the same M<!. <o see i+ the %in) a''re'ation is %oad =a%ancin' ro er%:D run the +o%%owin' command +rom "he%%K
systat -ifstat

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More in+ormation a=out this command can =e +ound at s:statA1B.

$.4

Net0or7 Su33ar+

Networ) L Networ) "ummar: a%%ows :ou to Euic)%: .iew the addressin' in+ormation o+ e.er: con+i'ured inter+ace. $or each inter+ace nameD the con+i'ured I> addressAesBD (N" ser.erAsBD and de+au%t 'atewa: wi%% =e dis %a:ed.

$.$

Static 2outes

#: de+au%tD no static routes are de+ined on the $reeNA"1 s:stem. "hou%d :ou need a static route to reach ortions o+ :our networ)D add the route usin' Networ) L "tatic Routes L Add "tatic RouteD shown in $i'ure *.*a. Figure $.$a: Adding a Static 2oute

<he a.ai%a=%e o tions are summari8ed in <a=%e *.*a. *a( e $.$a: Static 2oute 9"tions Setting (estination networ) 2atewa: (escri tion ?a ue inte'er inte'er strin' 6escri"tion use the +ormat A.B.". ., where , is the CI(R mas) in ut the I> address o+ the 'atewa: o tiona%

I+ :ou add an: static routesD the: wi%% show in Q3iew "tatic RoutesR. C%ic) a route's entr: to access its 4dit and (e%ete =uttons.

$.%

?<ANs

$reeNA"1 uses $ree#"('s .%anA&B inter+ace to demu%ti %e5 +rames with I444 602.1E ta's. <his a%%ows nodes on di++erent 39ANs to communicate throu'h a %a:er 3 switch or router. A .%an inter+ace must =e assi'ned a arent inter+ace and a numeric 39AN ta'. A sin'%e arent can =e assi'ned to mu%ti %e .%an inter+aces ro.ided the: ha.e di++erent ta's. I+ :ou c%ic) Networ) L 39ANs L Add 39AND :ou wi%% see the screen shown in $i'ure *.,a. FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 9$ of 274

N9*:: 39AN ta''in' is the on%: 602.1E +eature that is im %emented. Additiona%%:D not a%% 4thernet inter+aces su ort +u%% 39AN rocessin'Wsee the HAR(WAR4 section o+ .%anA&B +or detai%s. Figure $.%a: Adding a ?<AN

<a=%e *.,a summari8es the con+i'ura=%e +ie%ds. *a( e $.%a: Adding a ?<AN Setting 3irtua% Inter+ace 6escri"tion use the +ormat #lanX where X is a num=er re resentin' the .%an strin' inter+ace usua%%: an 4thernet card connected to a ro er%: con+i'ured switch >arent Inter+ace dro ;down menu ortO i+ usin' a new%: created %a'' de.iceD it wi%% not a ear in the dro ;down unti% the $reeNA"1 s:stem is re=ooted 39AN <a' inte'er shou%d match a numeric ta' set u in the switched networ) (escri tion strin' o tiona% <he arent inter+ace o+ a .%an has to =e u D =ut it can ha.e an I> address or it can =e uncon+i'uredD de endin' u on the reEuirements o+ the 39AN con+i'uration. <his ma)es it di++icu%t +or the 2!I to do the ri'ht thin' without tram %in' the con+i'uration. <o remed: thisD a+ter addin' the 39AND 'o to Networ) L Inter+aces L Add Inter+ace. "e%ect the arent inter+ace +rom the NIC dro ;down menu and in the - tions +ie%dD t: e !-. <his wi%% =rin' u the arent inter+ace. I+ an I> address is reEuiredD it can =e con+i'ured usin' the rest o+ the o tions in the Add Inter+ace screen. ?a ue

Storage 'onfiguration
>eriodic "na shot <as)sK used to schedu%e the automatic creation o+ 0$" sna shots. Re %ication <as)sK used to schedu%e the re %ication o+ sna shots o.er an encr: ted connection.

<he "tora'e section o+ the 'ra hica% inter+ace a%%ows :ou to con+i'ure the +o%%owin'K

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3o%umesK used to create and mana'e stora'e .o%umes. 0$" "cru=sK used to schedu%e 0$" scru=s as art o+ on'oin' dis) maintenance.

<hese con+i'urations are descri=ed in more detai% in this section.

%.1

Periodic Sna"s!ot *as7s

A eriodic sna shot tas) a%%ows :ou to schedu%e the creation o+ read;on%: .ersions o+ 0$" .o%umes and datasets at a 'i.en oint in time. "na shots can =e created Euic)%: andD i+ %itt%e data chan'esD new sna shots ta)e u .er: %itt%e s ace. $or e5am %eD a sna shot where no +i%es ha.e chan'ed ta)es 0 M# o+ stora'eD =ut as :ou ma)e chan'es to +i%esD the sna shot si8e chan'es to re+%ect the si8e o+ the chan'es. "na shots ro.ide a c%e.er wa: o+ )ee in' a histor: o+ +i%esD shou%d :ou need to reco.er an o%der co : or e.en a de%eted +i%e. $or this reasonD man: administrators ta)e sna shots o+ten Ae.'. e.er: 1* minutesBD store them +or a eriod o+ time Ae.'. +or a monthBD and store them on another s:stem Ae.'. usin' Re %ication <as)sB. "uch a strate': a%%ows the administrator to ro%% the s:stem =ac) to a s eci+ic time orD i+ there is a catastro hic %ossD an o++;site sna shot can restore the s:stem u to the %ast sna shot inter.a%. #e+ore :ou can create a sna shotD :ou need to ha.e an e5istin' 0$" .o%ume. How to create a .o%ume is descri=ed in 0$" 3o%ume Mana'er.

%.1.1

'reating a Periodic Sna"s!ot *as7

<o create a eriodic sna shot tas)D c%ic) "tora'e L >eriodic "na shot <as)s L Add >eriodic "na shot which wi%% o en the screen shown in $i'ure ,.1a. <a=%e ,.1a summari8es the +ie%ds in this screen. N9*:: i+ :ou Iust need a one;time sna shotD instead use "tora'e L 3o%umes L 3iew 3o%umes and c%ic) the Create "na shot =utton +or the .o%ume or dataset that :ou wish to sna shot.

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Figure %.1a: 'reating a ;FS Periodic Sna"s!ot

*a( e %.1a: 9"tions .!en 'reating a Periodic Sna"s!ot Setting 6escri"tion unchec) to disa=%e the schedu%ed re %ication tas) without 4na=%ed chec)=o5 de%etin' it se%ect an e5istin' 0$" .o%umeD datasetD or 8.o%O i+ :ou 3o%ume@(ataset dro ;down menu se%ect a .o%umeD se arate sna shots wi%% a%so =e created +or each o+ its datasets se%ect this =o5 to ta)e se arate sna shots o+ the .o%ume@dataset and each o+ its chi%d datasetsO i+ unchec)edD Recursi.e chec)=o5 on%: one sna shot is ta)en o+ the .o%ume@dataset s eci+ied in Filesystem . Bol!me how %on' to )ee the sna shot on this s:stemO i+ the inte'er and dro ;down 9i+etime sna shot is re %icatedD it is not remo.ed +rom the recei.in' menu s:stem when the %i+etime e5 ires #e'in dro ;down menu do not create sna shots =e+ore this time o+ da: FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 9) of 274 ?a ue

Setting 4nd Inter.a% Wee)da:

?a ue dro ;down menu dro ;down menu chec)=o5es

6escri"tion do not create sna shots a+ter this time o+ da: how o+ten to ta)e sna shot =etween Begin and ,nd times which da:s o+ the wee) to ta)e sna shots

I+ the Recursi.e =o5 is chec)edD :ou do not need to create sna shots +or e.er: dataset indi.idua%%: as the: are inc%uded in the sna shot. <he downside is that there is no wa: to e5c%ude certain datasets +rom =ein' inc%uded in a recursi.e sna shot. -nce :ou c%ic) the -K =uttonD a sna shot wi%% =e ta)en and this tas) wi%% =e re eated accordin' to :our settin's. %.1.2 4anaging Periodic Sna"s!ot *as7s

A+ter creatin' a eriodic sna shot tas)D an entr: +or the sna shot tas) wi%% =e added to 3iew >eriodic "na shot <as)sD as seen in the e5am %e in $i'ure ,.1=. C%ic) an entr: to access its Modi+: and (e%ete =uttons. Figure %.1(: ?ie0 Periodic Sna"s!ot *as7s

I+ :ou c%ic) the 0$" "na shots ta= Aa=o.e the Add >eriodic "na shot =uttonBD :ou can re.iew the %istin' o+ a.ai%a=%e sna shots. An e5am %e is shown in $i'ure ,.1c. N9*:: i+ sna shots do not a earD chec) that the current time does not con+%ict with the =e'inD endD and inter.a% settin's. I+ the sna shot was attem ted =ut +ai%edD an entr: wi%% =e added to .#ar.log.messages. <his %o' +i%e can =e .iewed in "he%%.

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Figure %.1c: ?ie0ing A,ai a( e Sna"s!ots

<he most recent sna shot +or a .o%ume or dataset wi%% =e %isted %ast and wi%% ha.e 3 icons. <he icons associated with a sna shot a%%ow :ou toK ' one Sna"s!ot: wi%% rom t +or the name o+ the c%one to create. <he c%one wi%% =e a writa=%e co : o+ the sna shot. "ince a c%one is rea%%: a dataset which can =e mountedD the c%one wi%% a ear in the Acti.e 3o%umes ta=D instead o+ the >eriodic "na shots ta=D and wi%% ha.e the word 'lone in its name. 6estro+ Sna"s!ot: a o ;u messa'e wi%% as) :ou to con+irm this action. Chi%d c%ones must =e destro:ed =e+ore their arent sna shot can =e destro:ed. Whi%e creatin' a sna shot is instantaneousD de%etin' a sna shot can =e I@- intensi.e and can ta)e a %on' timeD es ecia%%: when dedu %ication is ena=%ed. In order to de%ete a =%oc) in a sna shotD 0$" has to wa%) a%% the a%%ocated =%oc)s to see i+ that =%oc) is used an:where e%seO i+ it is notD it can =e +reed. 2o (ac7 Sna"s!ot: a o ;u messa'e wi%% as) i+ :ou are sure that :ou want to ro%%=ac) to this sna shot state. I+ :ou c%ic) FesD an: +i%es that ha.e chan'ed since the sna shot was ta)en wi%% =e re.erted =ac) to their state at the time o+ the sna shot. N9*:: ro%%=ac) is a otentia%%: dan'erous o eration and wi%% cause an: con+i'ured re %ication tas)s to +ai% as the re %ication s:stem uses the e5istin' sna shot when doin' an incrementa% =ac)u . I+ :ou do need to restore the data within a sna shotD the recommended ste s areK 1. C%one the desired sna shot. 2. "hare the c%one with the share t: e or ser.ice runnin' on the $reeNA"1 s:stem. 3. -nce users ha.e reco.ered the needed dataD destro: the c%one in the Acti.e 3o%umes ta=. <his a roach wi%% ne.er destro: an: on;dis) data and has no im act on re %ication. >eriodic sna shots can =e con+i'ured to a ear as shadow co ies in newer .ersions o+ Windows 45 %orer. !sers can access the +i%es in the shadow co : usin' 45 %orer without reEuirin' an: interaction with the $reeNA"1 'ra hica% administrati.e inter+ace. <he 0$" "na shots screen a%%ows :ou to create +i%ters to .iew sna shots =: se%ected criteria. <o create a +i%terD c%ic) the (e+ine +i%ter icon Anear the te5t QNo +i%ter a %iedRB. When creatin' a +i%terK se%ect the co%umn or %ea.e the de+au%t o+ An: Co%umn. Page 100 of 274

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se%ect the condition. >ossi=%e conditions areK 'ontains Ade+au%tBD is2 starts 9ith2 ends 9ith2 does not 'ontain2 is not2 does not start 9ith2 does not end 9ithD and is em-ty. in ut a .a%ue that meets :our .iew criteria. c%ic) the $i%ter =utton to sa.e :our +i%ter and e5it the de+ine +i%ter screen. A%ternate%:D c%ic) the X =utton to add another +i%ter.

I+ :ou create mu%ti %e +i%tersD se%ect the +i%ter :ou wish to use =e+ore %ea.in' the de+ine +i%ter screen. -nce a +i%ter is se%ectedD the QNo +i%ter a %iedR te5t wi%% chan'e to QC%ear +i%terR. I+ :ou c%ic) QC%ear +i%terRD a o ;u messa'e wi%% indicate that this wi%% remo.e the +i%ter and a%% a.ai%a=%e sna shots wi%% =e %isted.

%.2

2e" ication *as7s

A re %ication tas) a%%ows :ou to automate the co : o+ 0$" sna shots to another s:stem o.er an encr: ted connection. <his a%%ows :ou to create an o++;site =ac)u o+ a 0$" dataset or oo%. <his section wi%% re+er to the s:stem 'eneratin' the 0$" sna shots as 18S= and the s:stem to recei.e a co : o+ the 0$" sna shots as 18::. #e+ore :ou can con+i'ure a re %ication tas)D the +o%%owin' re;reEuisites must =e metK a 0$" .o%ume must e5ist on =oth 18S= and 18::. a eriodic sna shot tas) must =e created on 18S=. Fou wi%% not =e a=%e to create a re %ication tas) =e+ore the +irst sna shot e5ists. the ""H ser.ice must =e ena=%ed on 18::. <he +irst time the ser.ice is ena=%edD it wi%% 'enerate the reEuired ""H )e:s. A re %ication tas) uses the +o%%owin' )e:sK EdataEss!Ere" ication."u(: the R"A u=%ic )e: used +or authenticatin' the 18S= re %ication user. <his )e: needs to =e co ied to the re %ication user account on 18::. EetcEss!Ess!8!ost8rsa87e+."u(: the R"A host u=%ic )e: o+ 18:: used to authenticate the recei.in' side in order to re.ent a man;in;the;midd%e attac). <his )e: needs to =e co ied to the re %ication tas) on 18S=.

<his section wi%% demonstrate how to con+i'ure a re %ication tas) =etween the +o%%owin' two $reeNA"1 s:stemsK 132.145.2.2 wi%% =e re+erred to as 18S=. <his s:stem has a eriodic sna shot tas) +or the 0$" dataset .mnt.lo'al.data. 132.145.2.4 wi%% =e re+erred to as 18::. <his s:stem has an e5istin' 0$" .o%ume named .mnt.remote which wi%% store the ushed sna shots. %.2.1 'onfigure PU22

A co : o+ the u=%ic )e: +or the re %ication user on 18S= needs to =e asted to the u=%ic )e: o+ the re %ication user on the 18:: s:stem.

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<o o=tain a co : o+ the re %ication )e:K on 18S= 'o to "tora'e L 3iew Re %ication <as)s. C%ic) the 3iew >u=%ic Ke: =utton and co : its contents. An e5am %e is shown in $i'ure ,.2a. Figure %.2a: 'o"+ t!e 2e" ication 1e+

2o to 18:: and c%ic) Account L !sers L 3iew !sers. C%ic) the Modi+: !ser =utton +or the user account :ou wi%% =e usin' +or re %ication A=: de+au%t this is the root userB. >aste the co ied )e: into the Q""H >u=%ic Ke:R +ie%d and c%ic) -K. I+ a )e: a%read: e5istsD a end the new te5t a+ter the e5istin' )e:. -n 18::D ensure that the ""H ser.ice is ena=%ed in "er.ices L Contro% "er.ices. "tart it i+ it is not a%read: runnin'. %.2.2 'onfigure PUS7

-n 18S=D .eri+: that a eriodic sna shot tas) has =een created and that at %east one sna shot is %isted in "tora'e L >eriodic "na shot <as)s L 3iew >eriodic "na shot <as)s L 0$" "na shots. <o create the re %ication tas)D c%ic) "tora'e L Re %ication <as)s L Add Re %ication <as). $i'ure ,.2= shows the reEuired con+i'uration +or our e5am %eK the 3o%ume@(ataset is lo'al.data the Remote 0$" 3o%ume@(ataset is remote the Remote hostname is 132.145.2.4 the #e'in and 4nd times are at their de+au%t .a%uesD meanin' that re %ication wi%% occur whene.er a sna shot is created once the Remote hostname is in utD c%ic) the ""H Ke: "can =uttonO assumin' the address is FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 102 of 274

reacha=%e and the ""H ser.ice is runnin' on 18::D its )e: wi%% automatica%%: =e o u%ated to the Remote host)e: =o5 <a=%e ,.2a summari8es the a.ai%a=%e o tions in the Add Re %ication <as) screen. Figure %.2(: Adding a 2e" ication *as7

*a( e %.2a: Adding a 2e" ication *as7 Setting 4na=%ed 3o%ume@(ataset Remote 0$" 3o%ume@(ataset Recursi.e%: re %icate Initia%i8e remote side 9imit A)#@sB #e'in 4nd Remote hostname ?a ue chec)=o5 dro ;down menu strin' chec)=o5 chec)=o5 inte'er dro ;down menu dro ;down menu strin' 6escri"tion unchec) to disa=%e the schedu%ed re %ication tas) without de%etin' it the 0$" .o%ume or dataset on 18S= containin' the sna shots to =e re %icatedO the dro ;down menu wi%% =e em t: i+ a sna shot does not a%read: e5ist the 0$" .o%ume on 18:: that wi%% store the sna shotsO .mnt. is assumed and shou%d not =e inc%uded in the ath i+ chec)ed wi%% re %icate chi%d datasets and re %ace re.ious sna shot stored on 18:: does a reset once o eration which destro:s the re %ication data on 18:: =e+ore re.ertin' to norma% o erationO use this o tion i+ re %ication 'ets stuc) %imits re %ication s eed to s eci+ied .a%ue in )i%o=:tes@secondO de+au%t o+ 0 is un%imited the re %ication can not start =e+ore this timeO the times se%ected in the Begin and ,nd +ie%ds set the re %ication window +or when re %ication can occur the re %ication must start =: this timeO once startedD re %ication wi%% occur unti% it is +inished Asee N-<4 =e%owB I> address or (N" name o+ 18::

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Setting Remote ort (edicated !ser 4na=%ed (edicated !ser

?a ue strin' chec)=o5 dro ;down menu

6escri"tion must match ort =ein' used =: ""H ser.ice on 18:: a%%ows a user account other than root to =e used +or re %ication on%: a.ai%a=%e i+ edi'ated 8ser ,na$led is chec)edO se%ect the user account to =e used +or re %ication note that the ci her is Euic)er =ecause it has a %ower stren'th use the ""H Ke: "can =utton to retrie.e the u=%ic )e: o+ 18::

4na=%e Hi'h " eed chec)=o5 Ci hers Remote host)e: strin'

#: de+au%tD re %ication occurs when sna shots occur. $or e5am %eD i+ sna shots are schedu%ed +or e.er: 2 hoursD re %ication occurs e.er: 2 hours. <he #e'in and 4nd times can =e used to create a window o+ time where re %ication occurs. Chan'e the de+au%t times Awhich a%%ow re %ication to occur at an: time o+ the da: a sna shot occursB i+ sna shot tas)s are schedu%ed durin' o++ice hours =ut the re %ication itse%+ shou%d occur a+ter o++ice hours. $or the 4nd timeD consider how %on' re %ication wi%% ta)e so that it +inishes =e+ore the ne5t da:'s o++ice hours =e'in. -nce the re %ication tas) is createdD it wi%% a ear in the 3iew Re %ication <as)s o+ 18S=. 18S= wi%% immediate%: attem t to re %icate its %atest sna shot to 18::. I+ the re %ication is success+u%D the sna shot wi%% a ear in the "tora'e L >eriodic "na shot <as)s L 3iew >eriodic "na shot <as)s L 0$" "na shots ta= o+ 18::D as seen in $i'ure ,.2c. I+ the sna shot is not re %icatedD see the ne5t section +or trou=%eshootin' ti s. Figure %.2c: ?erif+ing t!e Sna"s!ot 0as 2e" icated

%.2.#

*rou( es!ooting 2e" ication

I+ :ou ha.e +o%%owed a%% o+ the ste s a=o.e and ha.e 18S= sna shots that are not re %icatin' to 18::D chec) to see i+ ""H is wor)in' ro er%:. -n 18S=D o en "he%% and tr: to ss! into 18::. Re %ace hostname*or*i- with the .a%ue +or 18::K
ssh -vv -i /data/ssh/replication hostname_or_ip

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<his command shou%d not as) +or a assword. I+ it as)s +or a asswordD ""H authentication is not wor)in'. 2o to "tora'e L Re %ication <as)s L 3iew Re %ication <as)s and c%ic) the Q3iew >u=%ic Ke:R =utton. Ma)e sure that it matches one o+ the .a%ues in .C..ssh.a!thori/ed*keys on 18::2 where Y re resents the home director: o+ the re %ication user. A%so chec) .#ar.log.a!th.log on 18:: and .#ar.log.messages on 18S= to see i+ either %o' 'i.es an indication o+ the error. I+ the )e: is correct and re %ication is sti%% not wor)in'D tr: de%etin' a%% sna shots on 18:: e5ce t +or the most recent one. In "tora'e L >eriodic "na shot <as)s L 3iew >eriodic "na shot <as)s L 0$" "na shots chec) the =o5 ne5t to e.er: sna shot e5ce t +or the %ast one Athe one with 3 icons instead o+ 2BD then c%ic) the '%o=a% (estro: =utton at the =ottom o+ the screen. -nce :ou ha.e on%: one sna shotD o en "he%% on 18S= and use the =fs send command. <o continue our e5am %eD the 0$" sna shot on the lo'al.data dataset o+ 18S= is named a!to-20110322.16D3-2hD the I> address o+ 18:: is 132.145.2.4D and the 0$" .o%ume on 18:: is remote. Note that the K is used to se arate the .o%ume@dataset name +rom the sna shot name.
zfs send local/data@auto-20110922.1753-2h | ssh -i 192.168.2.6 zfs receive local/data@auto-20110922.1753-2h /data/ssh/replication \

N9*:: i+ this command +ai%s with the error Qcannot recei.e new +i%es:stem streamK destination has sna shotsRD chec) the =o5 Qinitia%i8e remote side +or onceR in the re %ication tas) and tr: a'ain. I+ the =fs send command sti%% +ai%sD :ou wi%% need to o en "he%% on 18:: and use the =fs destro+ >2 ,o u3e8na3eKsna"s!ot8na3e command to de%ete the stuc) sna shot. Fou can then use the =fs ist >t sna"s!ot on 18:: to con+irm i+ the sna shot success+u%%: re %icated. A+ter success+u%%: transmittin' the sna shotD rechec) a'ain a+ter the time eriod =etween sna shots %a ses to see i+ the ne5t sna shot success+u%%: transmitted. I+ it is sti%% not wor)in'D :ou can manua%%: send an incrementa% =ac)u o+ the %ast sna shot that is on =oth s:stems to the current one with this commandK
zfs send local/data@auto-20110922.1753-2h | ssh -i 192.168.2.6 zfs receive local/data@auto-20110922.1753-2h /data/ssh/replication \

%.#

?o u3es

"ince the stora'e dis)s are se arate +rom the $reeNA"1 o eratin' s:stemD :ou do not actua%%: ha.e a NA" Anetwor);attached stora'eB s:stem unti% :ou con+i'ure :our dis)s into at %east one .o%ume. <he $reeNA"1 'ra hica% inter+ace su orts the creation o+ =oth !$" and 0$" .o%umes. 0$" .o%umes are recommended to 'et the most out o+ :our $reeNA"1 s:stem. N9*:: in 0$" termino%o':D the stora'e that is mana'ed =: 0$" is re+erred to as a oo%. When con+i'urin' the 0$" oo% usin' the $reeNA"1 'ra hica% inter+aceD the term .o%ume is used to re+er to either a !$" .o%ume or a 0$" oo%. >ro er stora'e desi'n is im ortant +or an: NA". 1t i$ reco((e%ded that )o! read thro!#h thi$ e%tire cha"ter *ir$t/ be*ore co%*i#!ri%# )o!r $tora#e di$0$/ $o that )o! are a-are o* all o* the "o$$ible *eat!re$/ 0%o- -hich o%e$ -ill be%e*it )o!r $et!" (o$t/ a%d are a-are o* a%) ca'eat$ or hard-are re$trictio%$.

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%.#.1

Auto I3"orting ?o u3es

I+ :ou c%ic) "tora'e L 3o%umes L Auto Im ort 3o%umeD :ou can con+i'ure $reeNA"1 to use an exi$ti%# so+tware !$" or 0$" RAI( .o%ume. <his action is t: ica%%: er+ormed when an e5istin' $reeNA"1 s:stem is re;insta%%ed Arather than u 'radedB. "ince the o eratin' s:stem is se arate +rom the dis)sD a new insta%%ation does not a++ect the data on the dis)sO howe.erD the new o eratin' s:stem needs to =e con+i'ured to use the e5istin' .o%ume. "u orted .o%umes are !$" 24-M stri es ARAI(0BD !$" 24-M mirrors ARAI(1BD !$" 24-M RAI(3D as we%% as e5istin' 0$" oo%s. !$" RAI(* is not su orted as it is an unmaintained summer o+ code roIect which was ne.er inte'rated into $ree#"(. #e'innin' with .ersion 6.3.1D the im ort o+ e5istin' 249I;encr: ted 0$" oo%s is a%so su Howe.erD the oo% must =e decr: ted =e+ore it can =e im orted. orted.

$i'ure ,.3a shows the initia% o ;u window that a ears when :ou se%ect to auto im ort a .o%ume. I+ :ou are im ortin' a !$" RAI( or an e5istin'D unencr: ted 0$" oo%D se%ect QNoK ")i to im ortR to access the screen shown in $i'ure ,.3=. Figure %.#a: Initia Auto I3"ort ?o u3e Screen

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Figure %.#(: Auto I3"orting a Non>:ncr+"ted ?o u3e

45istin' so+tware RAI( .o%umes shou%d =e a.ai%a=%e +or se%ection +rom the dro ;down menu. In the e5am %e shown in $i'ure ,.3=D the $reeNA"1 s:stem has an e5istin'D unencr: ted 0$" oo%. -nce the .o%ume is se%ectedD c%ic) the Q-KR =utton to im ort the .o%ume. $reeNA"1 wi%% not im ort a dirt: .o%ume. I+ an e5istin' !$" RAI( does not show in the dro ;down menuD :ou wi%% need to fsc7 the .o%ume. I+ an e5istin' 0$" oo% does not show in the dro ;down menuD run ="oo i3"ort +rom "he%% to im ort the oo%. I+ :ou %an to h:sica%%: insta%% 0$" +ormatted dis)s +rom another s:stemD =e sure to e5 ort the dri.es on that s:stem to re.ent an Qin use =: another machineR error durin' the im ort. I+ :ou sus ect that :our hardware is not =ein' detectedD run ca3contro de, ist +rom "he%%. I+ the dis) does not a ear in the out utD chec) to see i+ the contro%%er dri.er is su orted or i+ it needs to =e %oaded =: creatin' a tuna=%e.

(.3.1.1

Auto I& orting a )*+I,*ncr- ted .#S /ool

I+ :ou are im ortin' an e5istin' 249I;encr: ted 0$" oo%D :ou must decr: t the dis)s =e+ore im ortin' the oo%. In $i'ure ,.3aD se%ect QFesK (ecr: t dis)sR to access the screen shown in $i'ure ,.3c.

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Figure %.#c: 6ecr+"ting t!e 6is7s 5efore I3"orting t!e ;FS Poo

"e%ect the dis)s in the encr: ted oo%D =rowse to the %ocation o+ the sa.ed encr: tion )e:D in ut the ass hrase associated with the )e:D then c%ic) -K to decr: t the dis)s. N9*:: the encr: tion )e: is reEuired to decr: t the oo%. I+ the oo% can not =e decr: tedD it can not =e re;im orted a+ter a +ai%ed u 'rade or %ost con+i'uration. <his means that it is 'er) i("orta%t to sa.e a co : o+ the )e: and to remem=er the ass hrase that was con+i'ured +or the )e:. <he 3iew 3o%umes screen is used to mana'e the )e:s +or encr: ted .o%umes. -nce the oo% is decr: tedD it shou%d a ear in the dro ;down menu o+ $i'ure ,.3=. C%ic) the -K =utton to +inish the .o%ume im ort.

%.#.2

I3"orting ?o u3es

<he 3o%ume L Im ort 3o%ume screenD shown in $i'ure ,.3dD is used to im ort a sin'%e dis) or artition that has =een +ormatted with a su orted +i%es:stem. $reeNA"1 su orts the im ort o+ dis)s that ha.e =een +ormatted with !$"D N<$"D M"(-"D or 47<2.

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Figure %.#d: I3"orting a ?o u3e

In ut a name +or the .o%umeD use the dro ;down menu to se%ect the dis) or artition that :ou wish to im ortD and se%ect the t: e o+ +i%es:stem on the dis). #e+ore im ortin' a dis)D =e aware o+ the +o%%owin' ca.eatsK $reeNA"1 wi%% not im ort a dirt: +i%es:stem. I+ a su orted +i%es:stem does not show in the dro ;down menuD :ou wi%% need to fsc7 or run a dis) chec) on the +i%es:stem. ear%ier .ersions o+ $reeNA"1 6 had a =u' that re.ented the success+u% im ort o+ N<$" dri.es. Do%@t tr) to i("ort NTFS i* )o! are r!%%i%# a 'er$io% earlier tha% FreeNAS A.0.:&R4:. $reeNA"1 can not im ort d:namic N<$" .o%umes at this time. A +uture .ersion o+ $ree#"( ma: address this issue. i+ an N<$" .o%ume wi%% not im ortD tr: eIectin' the .o%ume sa+e%: +rom a Windows s:stem. <his wi%% +i5 some Iourna% +i%es that are reEuired to mount the dri.e. %.#.# UFS ?o u3e 4anager

Whi%e the !$" +i%es:stem is su ortedD it is not recommended as it does not ro.ide an: 0$" +eatures such as com ressionD encr: tionD dedu %icationD co :;on;writeD %i'htwei'ht sna shotsD or the a=i%it: to ro.ide ear%: detection and correction o+ corru t data. I+ :ou are usin' !$" as a tem orar: so%ution unti% :ou can a++ord =etter hardwareD note that :ou wi%% ha.e to destro: :our e5istin' !$" .o%ume in order to create a 0$" oo%D then restore :our data +rom =ac)u . N9*:: it is not recommended to create a !$" .o%ume %ar'er than *<# as it wi%% =e ine++icient to fsc7D causin' %on' de%a:s at s:stem =oot i+ the s:stem was not shutdown c%ean%:. <o +ormat :our dis)s with !$"D 'o to "tora'e L 3o%umes L !$" 3o%ume Mana'er A%e'ac:B which wi%% o en the screen shown in $i'ure ,.3e. FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 109 of 274

Figure %.#e: 'reating a UFS ?o u3e

<a=%e ,.3a summari8es the a.ai%a=%e o tions. *a( e %.#a: 9"tions .!en 'reating a UFS ?o u3e Setting 6escri"tion mandator:O it is recommended to choose a name that wi%% stic) out in the 3o%ume name strin' %o's Ae.'. not data or freenasB use the mouse to se%ect the dis)AsB to =e usedO to se%ect mu%ti %e dis)sD Mem=er dis)s se%ection hi'h%i'ht the +irst dis)D then ho%d the shi+t )e: as :ou hi'h%i'ht the %ast dis). " eci+: chec)=o5 o tiona%O use+u% +or creatin' a .#ar +or ersistent %o' stora'e custom ath on%: a.ai%a=%e when S-e'ify '!stom -ath is chec)edO must =e +u%% name o+ >ath strin' .o%ume Ae.'. .mnt.#arB and i+ no ath is ro.idedD it wi%% a end the Bol!me name to .mnt <he Add 3o%ume =utton warns that creati%# a 'ol!(e de$tro)$ all exi$ti%# data o% $elected di$0B$C. In other wordsD creatin' stora'e usin' !$" 3o%ume Mana'er is a destructi.e action that re+ormats the se%ected dis)s. I+ :our intent is to not o.erwrite the data on an e5istin' .o%umeD see i+ the .o%ume +ormat is su orted =: the auto;im ort or im ort actions. I+ soD er+orm the su orted action instead. I+ the current stora'e +ormat is not su ortedD :ou wi%% need to =ac)u the data to an e5terna% mediaD +ormat the dis)sD then restore the data to the new .o%ume. ?a ue

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%.#.4

;FS ?o u3e 4anager

I+ :ou ha.e un+ormatted dis)s or wish to o.erwrite the +i%es:stem Aand dataB on :our dis)sD use the 0$" 3o%ume Mana'er to +ormat the desired dis)s into a 0$" oo%. I+ :ou are new to RAI( conce ts or wou%d %i)e an o.er.iew o+ the di++erences =etween hardware RAI( and 0$" RAI(0ZD s)im throu'h the section on Hardware Recommendations =e+ore usin' 0$" 3o%ume Mana'er. I+ :ou c%ic) on "tora'e L 3o%umes L 0$" 3o%ume Mana'erD :ou wi%% see a screen simi%ar to the e5am %e shown in $i'ure ,.3+. Figure %.#f: 'reating a ;FS Poo Using ?o u3e 4anager

<a=%e ,.3= summari8es the con+i'uration o tions o+ this screen. *a( e %.#(: 9"tions .!en 'reating a ;FS ?o u3e Setting ?a ue 6escri"tion 0$" .o%umes must con+orm to these namin' con.entionsO it is recommended to choose a name that wi%% stic) out in the %o's Ae.'. %ot data or freenasB reEuires an e5istin' 0$" oo% to e5tendO see 45tendin' a 0$" 3o%ume +or instructions read the section on 4ncr: tion =e+ore choosin' to use encr: tion Page 111 of 274

3o%ume name strin' 3o%ume to e5tend 4ncr: tion dro ;down menu chec)=o5

FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide

Setting Initia%i8e "a+e%: A.ai%a=%e dis)s 3o%ume %a:out Add 45tra (e.ice

?a ue chec)=o5 dis %a: dra' and dro =utton

6escri"tion on%: a ears i+ ,na$le f!ll disk en'ry-tion is chec)edO recommended as it writes the dis)s with random data =e+ore ena=%in' encr: tionD howe.er it wi%% ta)e a %on'er time to create the .o%ume dis %a:s the si8e o+ a.ai%a=%e dis)sO ho.er o.er sho9 to %ist the a.ai%a=%e de.ice names c%ic) and dra' the icon to se%ect the desired num=er o+ dis)s se%ect to con+i'ure mu%ti %e oo%s or to add %o' or cache de.ices durin' oo% creation

<o con+i'ure the oo%D c%ic) the X in the QA.ai%a=%e dis)sR section which wi%% automatica%%: add a%% a.ai%a=%e dis)s to the Q3o%ume %a:outR section. <he o tima% con+i'uration wi%% automatica%%: =e se%ected and the resu%tin' stora'e ca acit:D which ta)es swa into accountD wi%% =e dis %a:ed. I+ :ou wish to chan'e the %a:out or the num=er o+ dis)sD use the mouse to dra' the s%ider to the desired .o%ume %a:out. <he dro ;down menu showin' the o tima% con+i'uration can a%so =e c%ic)ed to chan'e the con+i'urationD thou'h the 2!I wi%% turn red i+ the se%ected con+i'uration is not recommended. 0$" 3o%ume Mana'er wi%% a%%ow :ou to sa.e sa.e a non;o tima% con+i'uration. It wi%% sti%% wor)D =ut wi%% er+orm %ess e++icient%: than an o tima% con+i'uration. Howe.erD the 2!I wi%% not a%%ow :ou to se%ect a con+i'uration i+ the num=er o+ dis)s se%ected is not enou'h to create that con+i'uration. C%ic) the too% ti icon to access a %in) to this documentation. <he Add 3o%ume =utton warns that creati%# a 'ol!(e -ill de$tro)$ a%) exi$ti%# data o% the $elected di$0B$C. In other wordsD creatin' a new .o%ume re+ormats the se%ected dis)s. I+ :our intent is to not o.erwrite the data on an e5istin' .o%umeD see i+ the .o%ume +ormat is su orted =: the auto;im ort or im ort actions. I+ soD er+orm the su orted action instead. I+ the current stora'e +ormat is not su ortedD :ou wi%% need to =ac)u the data to an e5terna% mediaD +ormat the dis)sD then restore the data to the new .o%ume. <he 0$" 3o%ume Mana'er wi%% automatica%%: se%ect the o tima% %a:out +or the new oo%D de endin' u on the num=er o+ dis)s se%ected. <he +o%%owin' +ormats are su ortedK Stri"e: reEuires at %east one dis) 4irror: reEuires at %east two dis)s 2AI6;1: reEuires at %east three dis)s 2AI6;2: reEuires at %east +our dis)s 2AI6;#: reEuires at %east +i.e dis)s og de,ice: add a dedicated %o' de.ice As%o'B cac!e de,ice: add a dedicated cache de.ice

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I+ :ou ha.e more than +i.e dis)s and are usin' 0$"D consider the num=er o+ dis)s to use +or =est er+ormance and sca%a=i%it:. An o.er.iew o+ the .arious RAI( %e.e%s and recommended dis) 'rou si8es can =e +ound in the RAI( -.er.iew section. More in+ormation a=out %o' and cache de.ices can =e +ound in the 0$" -.er.iew section. (e endin' u on the si8e and num=er o+ dis)sD the t: e o+ contro%%erD and whether or not encr: tion is se%ectedD creatin' the .o%ume ma: ta)e some time. -nce the .o%ume is createdD the screen wi%% re+resh and the new .o%ume wi%% =e %isted under "tora'e L 3o%umes.
(.3.!.1 *ncr- tion

#e'innin' with 6.3.1D $reeNA"1 su orts 249I +u%% dis) encr: tion when creatin' 0$" .o%umes. It is im ortant to understand the +o%%owin' when considerin' whether or not encr: tion is ri'ht +or :our $reeNA"1 s:stemK <his is %ot the encr: tion method used =: -rac%e 0$".30. <hat .ersion o+ 0$" has not =een o en sourced and is the ro ert: o+ -rac%e. <his is +u%% dis) encr: tion and %ot er;+i%es:stem encr: tion. <he under%:in' dri.es are +irst encr: tedD then the oo% is created on to o+ the encr: ted de.ices. <his t: e o+ encr: tion is rimari%: tar'eted at users who store sensiti.e data and want to retain the a=i%it: to remo.e dis)s +rom the oo% without ha.in' to +irst wi e the dis)'s contents. <his desi'n is on%: suita=%e +or sa+e dis osa% o+ dis)s inde endent o+ the encr: tion )e:. As %on' as the )e: and the dis)s are intactD the s:stem is .u%nera=%e to =ein' decr: ted. <he )e: shou%d =e rotected =: a stron' ass hrase and an: =ac)u s o+ the )e: shou%d =e secure%: stored. -n the other handD i+ the )e: is %ostD the data on the dis)s is inaccessi=%e. A%wa:s =ac)u the )e:S <he encr: tion )e: is er 0$" .o%ume A oo%B. I+ :ou create mu%ti %e oo%sD each oo% has its own encr: tion )e:. I+ the s:stem has a %ot o+ dis)sD there wi%% =e a er+ormance hit i+ the C>! does not su ort A4";NI or i+ no cr: to hardware is insta%%ed. Without hardware acce%erationD there wi%% =e a=out a 20P er+ormance hit +or a sin'%e dis). >er+ormance de'radation wi%% continue to increase with more dis)s. As data is writtenD it is automatica%%: encr: ted and as data is readD it is decr: ted on the +%:. I+ the rocessor does su ort the A4";NI instruction setD there shou%d =e .er: %itt%eD i+ an:D de'radation in er+ormance when usin' encr: tion. <his +orum ost com ares the er+ormance o+ .arious C>!s. (ata in the ARC cache and the contents o+ RAM are unencr: ted. "wa is a%wa:s encr: tedD e.en on unencr: ted .o%umes. <here is no wa: to con.ert an e5istin'D unencr: ted .o%ume. InsteadD the data must =e =ac)ed u D the e5istin' oo% must =e destro:edD a new encr: ted .o%ume must =e createdD and the =ac)u restored to the new .o%ume. H:=rid oo%s are not su orted. In other wordsD new%: created .de.s must match the e5istin' encr: tion scheme. When e5tendin' a .o%umeD 3o%ume Mana'er wi%% automatica%%: encr: t the new .de. =ein' added to the e5istin' encr: ted oo%. FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 11# of 274

N9*:: the encr: tion +aci%it: used =: $reeNA"1 is desi'ned to rotect a'ainst h:sica% the+t o+ the dis)s. It is not desi'ned to rotect a'ainst unauthori8ed so+tware access. 4nsure that on%: authori8ed users ha.e access to the administrati.e 2!I and that ro er ermissions are set on shares i+ sensiti.e data stored on the s:stem.
(.3.!.2 Creating an *ncr- ted Volu&e

<o create an encr: ted .o%umeD chec) the Q4ncr: tionR =o5 shown in $i'ure ,.3+. I+ :ou a%so chec) the QInitia%i8e "a+e%:R chec)=o5D random data wi%% =e written to the dis) =e+ore encr: tin' itD which can increase its cr: to'ra hic stren'th. Howe.erD doin' so si'ni+icant%: adds to the time it ta)es to create the .o%umeD es ecia%%: i+ it contains se.era% dis)s. A+ter ma)in' :our encr: tion se%ectionsD in ut the .o%ume nameD se%ect the dis)s to add to the .o%umeD and c%ic) the Add 3o%ume =utton to ma)e the encr: ted .o%ume. -nce the .o%ume is createdD it i$ extre(el) i("orta%t to set a ass hrase on the )e:D ma)e a =ac)u o+ the )e:D and create a reco.er: )e:. Without theseD it is im ossi=%e to re;im ort the dis)s at a %ater time. <o er+orm these tas)sD 'o to "tora'e L 3o%umes ;V 3iew 3o%umes. <his screen is shown in $i'ure ,.3o. <o set a ass hrase on the )e:D c%ic) the .o%ume name and then the MCreate >ass hraseM =utton Athe )e: sha ed icon in $i'ure ,.3oB. Fou wi%% =e rom ted to in ut the assword used to access the $reeNA"1 administrati.e 2!ID and then to in ut and re eat the desired ass hrase. !n%i)e a asswordD a ass hrase can contain s aces and is t: ica%%: a series o+ words. A 'ood ass hrase is eas: to remem=er A%i)e the %ine to a son' or iece o+ %iteratureB =ut hard to 'uess A eo %e who )now :ou shou%d not =e a=%e to 'uess the ass hraseB. When :ou set the ass hraseD a warnin' messa'e wi%% remind :ou to create a new reco.er: )e: as a new ass hrase needs a new reco.er: )e:. <his wa:D i+ the ass hrase is +or'ottenD the associated reco.er: )e: can =e used instead. <o create the reco.er: )e:D c%ic) the MAdd reco.er: )e:M =utton Asecond %ast )e: icon in $i'ure ,.3oB. <his screen wi%% rom t :ou to in ut the assword used to access the $reeNA"1 administrati.e 2!I and then to se%ect the director: in which to sa.e the )e:. Note that the reco.er: )e: is sa.ed to the c%ient s:stemD not on the $reeNA"1 s:stem. $ina%%:D down%oad a co : o+ the encr: tion )e:D usin' the M(own%oad )e:M =utton Athe )e: icon with a down arrow in $i'ure ,.3oB. A'ainD the encr: tion )e: is sa.ed to the c%ient s:stemD not on the $reeNA"1 s:stem. Fou wi%% =e rom ted to in ut the assword used to access the $reeNA"1 administrati.e 2!I =e+ore the se%ectin' the director: in which to store the )e:. <he ass hraseD reco.er: )e:D and encr: tion )e: need to =e rotected. (o not re.ea% the ass hrase to others. -n the s:stem containin' the down%oaded )e:sD ta)e care that that s:stem and its =ac)u s are rotected. An:one who has the )e:s has the a=i%it: to re;im ort the dis)s shou%d the: =e discarded or sto%en. %.#.$ :-tending a ;FS ?o u3e

<he Q3o%ume to e5tendR dro ;down menu in "tora'e L 3o%umes L 0$" 3o%ume Mana'erD shown in $i'ure ,.3'D can =e used to add additiona% dis)s to an e5istin' 0$" .o%ume. <his dro ;down em t: wi%% =e em t: i+ an e5istin' 0$" .o%ume does not e5ist.

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Figure %.#g: ?o u3e to :-tend Fie d

N9*:: i+ the e5istin' .o%ume is encr: tedD a warnin' messa'e wi%% remind :ou that the o eration o+ e5tendin' a .o%ume wi%% reset the ass hrase and reco.er: )e:. A+ter e5tendin' the .o%umeD :ou shou%d immediate%: recreate =oth. -nce an e5istin' .o%ume has =een se%ected +rom the dro ;down menuD dra' and dro the desired dis)AsB and se%ect the desired .o%ume %a:out. $or e5am %e :ou canK se%ect an ""( or dis) with a .o%ume %a:out o+ :og EF7:G to add a %o' de.ice to the 0$" oo%. "e%ectin' 2 ""(s or dis)s wi%% mirror the %o' de.ice. se%ect an ""( or dis) with a .o%ume %a:out o+ "a'he E:2A&"G to add a cache de.ice to the 0$" oo%. add additiona% dis)s to increase the ca acit: o+ the 0$" oo%. <he ca.eats to doin' this are descri=ed =e%ow. When addin' dis)s to increase the ca acit: o+ a .o%umeD 0$" su orts the addition o+ .irtua% de.icesD )nown as .de.sD to an e5istin' 0$" oo%. A .de. can =e a sin'%e dis)D a stri eD a mirrorD a RAI(01D RAI(02D or a RAI(03. O%ce a 'de' i$ created/ )o! ca% %ot add (ore dri'e$ to that 'de' O howe.erD :ou can stri e a new .de. Aand its dis)sB with the $a(e t)"e o* exi$ti%# 'de' in order to increase the o.era%% si8e o+ 0$" the oo%. In other wordsD when :ou e5tend a 0$" .o%umeD :ou are rea%%: stri in' simi%ar .de.s. Here are some e5am %esK to e5tend a 0$" stri eD add one or more dis)s. "ince there is no redundanc:D :ou do not ha.e to add the same amount o+ dis)s as the e5istin' stri e. FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 11$ of 274

to e5tend a 0$" mirrorD add the same num=er o+ dri.es. <he resu%tin' stri ed mirror is a RAI( 10. $or e5am %eD i+ :ou ha.e 10 dri.esD :ou cou%d start =: creatin' a mirror o+ two dri.esD e5tendin' this mirror =: creatin' another mirror o+ two dri.esD and re eatin' three more times unti% a%% 10 dri.es ha.e =een added. to e5tend a three dri.e RAI(01D add three additiona% dri.es. <he resu%t is a RAI(0X0D simi%ar to RAI( *0 on a hardware contro%%er. to e5tend a RAI(02 reEuires a minimum o+ +our additiona% dri.es. <he resu%t is a RAI(02X0D simi%ar to RAI( ,0 on a hardware contro%%er. I+ :ou tr: to add an incorrect num=er o+ dis)s to the e5istin' .de.D an error messa'e wi%% a earD indicatin' the num=er o+ dis)s that are needed. Fou wi%% need to se%ect the correct num=er o+ dis)s in order to continue. %.#.% 'reating ;FS 6atasets

An e5istin' 0$" .o%ume can =e di.ided into datasets. >ermissionsD com ressionD dedu %icationD and Euotas can =e set on a er dataset =asisD a%%owin' more 'ranu%ar contro% o.er access to stora'e data. A dataset is simi%ar to a +o%der in that :ou can set ermissionsO it is a%so simi%ar to a +i%es:stem in that :ou can set ro erties such as Euotas and com ression as we%% as create sna shots. N9*:: 0$" ro.ides thic) ro.isionin' usin' Euotas and thin ro.isionin' usin' reser.ed s ace. I+ :ou se%ect an e5istin' 0$" .o%ume L Create 0$" (atasetD :ou wi%% see the screen shown in $i'ure ,.3h. -nce a dataset is createdD :ou can c%ic) on that dataset and se%ect Create 0$" (atasetD thus creatin' a nested datasetD or a dataset within a dataset. Fou can a%so create a 8.o% within a dataset. When creatin' datasetsD dou=%e;chec) that :ou are usin' the Create 0$" (ataset o tion +or the intended .o%ume or dataset. I+ :ou 'et con+used when creatin' a dataset on a .o%umeD c%ic) a%% e5istin' datasets to c%ose them;;the remainin' Create 0$" (ataset wi%% =e +or the .o%ume. Figure %.#!: 'reating a ;FS 6ataset

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<a=%e ,.3c summari8es the o tions a.ai%a=%e when creatin' a 0$" dataset. "ome settin's are on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced Mode. <o see these settin'sD either c%ic) the Ad.anced Mode =utton or con+i'ure the s:stem to a%wa:s dis %a: these settin's =: chec)in' the =o5 Q"how ad.anced +ie%ds =: de+au%tR in ":stem L "ettin's L Ad.anced. <hese attri=utes can a%so =e chan'ed a+ter dataset creation in "tora'e L 3o%umes L 3iew 3o%umes. *a( e %.#c: ;FS 6ataset 9"tions Setting (ataset Name ?a ue strin' dro ;down Com ression 9e.e% menu 4na=%e atime ?uota +or this dataset ?uota +or this dataset and a%% chi%dren 6escri"tion mandator: see Com ression +or a com arison o+ the a.ai%a=%e a%'orithms

contro%s whether the access time +or +i%es is u dated when the: are InheritD -nD readO settin' this ro ert: to @ff a.oids roducin' %o' tra++ic when or -++ readin' +i%es and can resu%t in si'ni+icant er+ormance 'ains on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO de+au%t o+ 0 is o++O can s eci+: M inte'er Ame'a=:teBD 2 A'i'a=:teBD or < Atera=:teB as in 20H +or 20 2#D can a%so inc%ude a decima% oint Ae.'. 2.5HB inte'er on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO de+au%t o+ 0 is o++O can s eci+: M Ame'a=:teBD 2 A'i'a=:teBD or < Atera=:teB as in 20H +or 20 2# on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO de+au%t o+ 0 is un%imited A=esides hardwareBO can s eci+: M Ame'a=:teBD 2 A'i'a=:teBD or < Atera=:teB as in 20H +or 20 2# on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO de+au%t o+ 0 is un%imited A=esides hardwareBO can s eci+: M Ame'a=:teBD 2 A'i'a=:teBD or < Atera=:teB as in 20H +or 20 2# read the section on dedu %ication =e+ore ma)in' a chan'e to this settin' on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO whi%e 0$" automatica%%: ada ts the record si8e d:namica%%: to ada t to dataD i+ the data has a +i5ed si8e Ae.'. a data=aseBD settin' the &e'ord Si/e ma: resu%t in =etter er+ormance

Reser.ed s ace +or inte'er this dataset Reser.ed s ace +or this dataset and a%% inte'er chi%dren dro ;down 0$" (edu %ication menu Record "i8e dro ;down menu

(.3.(.1

Dedu lication

<he FFS ed!-li'ation o tion warns that ena=%in' dedu ma: ha.e drastic er+ormance im %ications and that com ression shou%d =e used instead. #e+ore chec)in' the dedu %ication =o5D read the section on dedu %ication in the 0$" -.er.iew +irst. <his artic%e ro.ides a 'ood descri tion o+ the .a%ue ..s. cost considerations +or dedu %ication. U%le$$ )o! ha'e a lot o* RAM a%d a lot o* d!"licate data/ do %ot cha%#e the de*a!lt ded!"licatio% $etti%# o* DO**E. <he dedu ta=%es used durin' dedu %ication need Y6 2# o+ RAM er 1<# o+ data to =e dedu %icated. $or er+ormance reasonsD consider usin' com ression rather than turnin' this o tion on. FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 117 of 274

I+ dedu %ication is chan'ed to @nD du %icate data =%oc)s are remo.ed s:nchronous%:. <he resu%t is that on%: uniEue data is stored and common com onents are shared amon' +i%es. I+ dedu %ication is chan'ed to BerifyD 0$" wi%% do a =:te;to;=:te com arison when two =%oc)s ha.e the same si'nature to ma)e sure that the =%oc) contents are identica%. "ince hash co%%isions are e5treme%: rareD .eri+: is usua%%: not worth the er+ormance hit. N9*:: once dedu %ication is ena=%edD the on%: wa: to disa=%e it is to use the =fs set dedu"Doff dataset8na3e command +rom "he%%. Howe.erD an: data that is a%read: stored as dedu %icated wi%% not =e un;dedu %icated as on%: new%: stored data a+ter the ro ert: chan'e wi%% not =e dedu %icated. <he on%: wa: to remo.e e5istin' dedu %icated data is to co : a%% o+ the data o++ o+ the datasetD set the ro ert: to o++D then co : the data =ac) in a'ain. A%ternate%:D create a new dataset with the FFS ed!-li'ation %e+t as disa=%edD co : the data to the new datasetD and destro: the ori'ina% dataset.
(.3.(.2 Co& ression

Most media Ae.'. .m-3D .m-<D .a#iB is a%read: com ressedD meanin' that :ou wi%% increase C>! uti%i8ation +or no 'ain i+ :ou store these +i%es on a com ressed dataset. Howe.erD i+ :ou ha.e raw .9a# ri s o+ C(s or .#o$ ri s o+ (3(sD :ou wi%% see a er+ormance 'ain usin' a com ressed dataset. When se%ectin' a com ression t: eD :ou need to =a%ance er+ormance with the amount o+ com ression. <he +o%%owin' com ression a%'orithms are su ortedK =4: recommended com ression method as it a%%ows com ressed datasets to o erate at near rea%; time s eed. g=i": .aries +rom %e.e%s 1 to 9 where g/i- fastest A%e.e% 1B 'i.es the %east com ression and g/ima(im!m A%e.e% 9B ro.ides the =est com ression =ut is discoura'ed due to its er+ormance im act. = e: +ast and sim %e a%'orithm to e%iminate runs o+ 8eroes. =@(: ro.ides decent data com ressionD =ut is considered de recated as %8& ro.ides much =etter er+ormance.

I+ :ou %ea.e the de+au%t o+ 7nherit or se%ect @ffD com ression wi%% not =e used on the dataset.

%.#.7

'reating a =,o

A 8.o% is a +eature o+ 0$" that creates a =%oc) de.ice o.er 0$". <his a%%ows :ou to use a 8.o% as an i"C"I de.ice e5tent. <o create a 8.o%D se%ect an e5istin' 0$" .o%ume or dataset L Create 8.o% which wi%% o en the screen shown in $i'ure ,.3i. <he con+i'uration o tions are descri=ed in <a=%e ,.3d. "ome settin's are on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced Mode. <o see these settin'sD either c%ic) the Ad.anced Mode =utton or con+i'ure the s:stem to a%wa:s dis %a: these settin's =: chec)in' the =o5 Q"how ad.anced +ie%ds =: de+au%tR in ":stem L "ettin's L Ad.anced.

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Figure %.#i: 'reating a =,o

*a( e %.#d: =,o 'onfiguration 9"tions Setting 8.o% Name "i8e +or this 8.o% Com ression %e.e% " arse .o%ume ?a ue strin' inte'er dro ;down menu chec)=o5 6escri"tion in ut a name +or the 8.o% s eci+: si8e and .a%ue such as 10H de+au%t o+ 7nherit means it wi%% use the same com ression %e.e% as the e5istin' 8 oo% used to create the 8.o% used to ro.ide thin ro.isionin'O i+ this o tion is se%ectedD writes wi%% +ai% when the oo% is %ow on s ace on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO .a%id si8e is an: ower o+ 2 +rom *12= to 126)= with a de+au%t si8e o+ 6)=O can =e set to match the =%oc) si8e o+ the +i%es:stem which wi%% =e +ormatted onto the i"C"I tar'et

#%oc) si8e

inte'er

%.#.)

?ie0ing 6is7s

"tora'e L 3o%umes L 3iew (is)s a%%ows :ou to .iew a%% o+ the dis)s reco'ni8ed =: the $reeNA"1 s:stem. An e5am %e is shown in $i'ure ,.3I.

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Figure %.#@: ?ie0ing 6is7s

$or each de.iceD the current con+i'uration o+ the o tions descri=ed in <a=%e ,.3e is dis %a:ed. C%ic) a dis)'s entr: and then its 4dit =utton to chan'e its con+i'uration. C%ic)in' a dis)'s entr: wi%% a%so dis %a: its Wi e =utton which can =e used to =%an) a dis) whi%e ro.idin' a ro'ress =ar o+ the wi e's status. !se this o tion =e+ore discardin' a dis). N9*:: shou%d a dis)'s seria% num=er not =e dis %a:ed in this screenD use the s3artct command within "he%%. $or e5am %eD to determine the seria% num=er o+ dis) ada0D t: e s3artct >a Ede,Eada0 L gre" Seria .

%.#.9

?ie0ing ?o u3es

I+ :ou c%ic) "tora'e L 3o%umes L 3iew 3o%umesD :ou can .iew and +urther con+i'ure e5istin' .o%umesD 0$" datasetsD and 8.o%s. <he e5am %e shown in $i'ure ,.3) demonstrates one 0$" .o%ume with two datasets and one 8.o%. #uttons are ro.ided to ro.ide Euic) access to 0$" 3o%ume Mana'erD !$" 3o%ume Mana'erD Im ort 3o%umeD Auto Im ort 3o%umeD and 3iew (is)s. I+ the s:stem has mu%ti ath;ca a=%e hardwareD an e5tra =utton wi%% =e added to 3iew Mu%ti aths.

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Figure %.#7: ?ie0ing ?o u3es

I+ :ou c%ic) the entr: +or a 0$" .o%umeD ei'ht icons wi%% a ear at the =ottom o+ the screen. In order +rom %e+t to ri'htD these icons a%%ow :ou toK 1. 6etac! ?o u3e: a%%ows :ou to either detach a dis) =e+ore remo.in' it +rom the s:stem Aa%so )nown as a 0$" e5 ortB or to de%ete the contents o+ the .o%umeD de endin' u on the choice :ou ma)e in the screen that o s u when :ou c%ic) this =utton. <he o ;u messa'eD seen in $i'ure ,.3%D wi%% show the current used s aceD ro.ide the chec) =o5 QMar) the dis)s as new Adestro: dataBRD rom t :ou to ma)e sure that :ou want to do thisD warn :ou i+ the .o%ume has an: associated shares and as) i+ :ou wish to de%ete themD and the =rowser wi%% turn red to a%ert :ou that :ou are a=out to do somethin' that wi%% ma)e the data inaccessi=%e. 1* )o! do %ot chec0 the box to (ar0 the di$0$ a$ %e-/ the 'ol!(e -ill be ex"orted B FS 'ol!(e$ o%l)C. <his means that the data is not destro:ed and the .o%ume can =e re;im orted at a %ater time. I+ :ou wi%% =e mo.in' a 0$" dri.e +rom one s:stem to anotherD er+orm this e5 ort action +irst. <his o eration +%ushes an: unwritten data to dis)D writes data to the dis) indicatin' that the e5 ort was doneD and remo.es a%% )now%ed'e o+ the oo% +rom the s:stem. 1* )o! do chec0 the box to (ar0 the di$0$ a$ %e-/ the 'ol!(e a%d all o* it$ data/ data$et$/ a%d .'ol$ -ill be de$tro)ed a%d the !%derl)i%# di$0$ -ill be ret!r%ed to their ra- $tate. 2. Scru( ?o u3e: 0$" scru=s and how to schedu%e them are descri=ed in more detai% in 0$" "cru=s. <his =utton a%%ows :ou to manua%%: initiate a scru=. A scru= is I@- intensi.e and can ne'ati.e%: im act er+ormanceD meanin' that :ou shou%d not initiate one whi%e the s:stem is =us:. A cance% =utton is ro.ided shou%d :ou need to cance% a scru=. FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 121 of 274

N9*:: i+ :ou do cance% a scru=D the ne5t scru= wi%% start o.er +rom the =e'innin'D not where the cance%%ed scru= %e+t o++. Figure %.# : 6etac!ing or 6e eting a ?o u3e

3. :dit ;FS 9"tions: a%%ows :ou to edit the .o%ume's com ression %e.e%D atime settin'D dataset EuotaD and reser.ed s ace +or Euota. I+ com ression is new%: ena=%ed on a .o%ume or dataset that a%read: contains dataD e5istin' +i%es wi%% not =e com ressed unti% the: are modi+ied as com ression is on%: a %ied when a +i%e is written. 4. 'reate ;FS 6ataset: a%%ows :ou to create a dataset. $. 'reate =,o : a%%ows :ou to create a 8.o% to use as an i"C"I de.ice e5tent. ,. '!ange Per3issions: a%%ows :ou to edit the .o%ume's userD 'rou D !ni5 rw5 ermissionsD t: e o+ AC9D and to ena=%e recursi.e ermissions on the .o%ume's su=directories. /. 'reate Sna"s!ot: a%%ows :ou to con+i'ure the sna shot's name and whether or not it is recursi.e =e+ore manua%%: creatin' a one;time sna shot. I+ :ou wish to schedu%e the re'u%ar creation o+ sna shotsD instead create a eriodic sna shot tas). 6. ?o u3e Status: as seen in the e5am %e in $i'ure ,.3mD this screen shows the de.ice name and status o+ each dis) in the 0$" oo% as we%% as an: readD writeD or chec)sum errors. It a%so indicates the status o+ the %atest 0$" scru=. I+ :ou c%ic) the entr: +or a de.iceD =uttons wi%% FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 122 of 274

a ear to edit the de.ice's o tions Ashown in $i'ure ,.3nBD o++%ine the de.iceD or re %ace the de.ice Aas descri=ed in Re %acin' a $ai%ed (ri.eB. Figure %.#3: ?o u3e Status

I+ :ou c%ic) a dis) in 3o%ume "tatus and c%ic) its Q4dit (is)R =uttonD :ou wi%% see the screen shown in $i'ure ,.3n. <a=%e ,.3e summari8es the con+i'ura=%e o tions.

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Figure %.#n: :diting a 6is7

*a( e %.#e: 6is7 9"tions Setting Name "eria% (escri tion H(( "tand=: Ad.anced >ower Mana'ement Acoustic 9e.e% 4na=%e ".M.A.R.< ".M.A.R.<. e5tra o tions ?a ue strin' strin' strin' dro ;down menu dro ;down menu dro ;down menu chec)=o5 strin' 6escri"tion read;on%: .a%ue showin' $ree#"( de.ice name +or dis) read;on%: .a%ue showin' the dis)'s seria% num=er o tiona% indicates the time o+ inacti.it: Ain minutesB =e+ore the dri.e enters stand=: mode in order to conser.e ener':O this +orum ost demonstrates how to determine i+ a dri.e has s un down de+au%t is isa$ledD can se%ect a ower mana'ement ro+i%e +rom the menu de+au%t is isa$ledD can =e modi+ied +or dis)s that understand AAM ena=%ed =: de+au%t i+ the dis) su orts ".M.A.R.<.O unchec)in' this =o5 wi%% disa=%e an: con+i'ured ".M.A.R.<. <ests +or the dis) smartct%A6B o tions

N9*:: .ersions o+ $reeNA"1 rior to 6.3.1 reEuired a re=oot in order to a %: chan'es to the H(( "tand=:D Ad.anced >ower Mana'ementD and Acoustic 9e.e% settin's. As o+ 6.3.1D chan'es to these settin's are a %ied immediate%:. FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 124 of 274

A 0$" dataset on%: has +i.e icons as the scru= .o%umeD create 0$" .o%umeD and .o%ume status =uttons on%: a %: to .o%umes. In a datasetD the (etach 3o%ume =utton is re %aced with the (estro: (ataset =utton. I+ :ou c%ic) the (estro: (ataset =uttonD the =rowser wi%% turn red to indicate that this is a destructi.e action. <he o ;u warnin' messa'e wi%% warn that destro:in' the dataset wi%% de%ete a%% o+ the +i%es and sna shots o+ that dataset.
(.3.0.1 1e- Manage&ent for *ncr- ted Volu&es

I+ :ou chec) the Q4na=%e +u%% dis) encr: tionR =o5 durin' the creation o+ a 0$" .o%umeD +i.e encr: tion icons wi%% =e added to the icons that are t: ica%%: seen when .iewin' a .o%ume. An e5am %e is seen in $i'ure ,.3o. Figure %.#o: :ncr+"tion Icons Associated 0it! an :ncr+"ted ;FS ?o u3e

<hese icons are used toK 'reateE'!ange Pass"!rase: c%ic) this icon to set and con+irm the ass hrase associated with the 249I encr: tion )e:. Re(e(ber thi$ "a$$"hra$e a$ )o! ca% %ot re&i("ort a% e%cr)"ted 'ol!(e -itho!t it. In other wordsD i+ :ou +or'et the ass hraseD it is ossi=%e +or the data on the .o%ume to =ecome inaccessi=%e. An e5am %e wou%d =e a +ai%ed !"# stic) that reEuires a new insta%%ation on a new !"# stic) and a re;im ort o+ the e5istin' oo%D or the h:sica% remo.a% o+ dis)s when mo.in' +rom an o%der hardware s:stem to a new s:stem. >rotect this ass hrase as an:one who )nows it cou%d re; im ort :our encr: ted .o%umeD thus thwartin' the reason +or encr: tin' the dis)s in the +irst %ace. When :ou c%ic) this iconD a red warnin' is dis %a:edK &emem$er to add a ne9 re'o#ery key as this a'tion in#alidates the -re#io!s re'o#ery key. "ettin' a ass hrase in.a%idates the e5istin' )e:. -nce :ou set the ass hraseD immediate%: c%ic) the Add re'o#ery key =utton to create a new reco.er: )e:. FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 12$ of 274

-nce the ass hrase is setD the name o+ this icon wi%% chan'e to Chan'e >ass hrase. 6o0n oad 1e+: c%ic) this icon to down%oad a =ac)u co : o+ the 249I encr: tion )e:. "ince the 249I encr: tion )e: is se arate +rom the $reeNA"1 con+i'uration data=aseD it i$ hi#hl) reco((e%ded to (a0e a bac0!" o* the 0e). 1* the 0e) i$ e'er) lo$t or de$tro)ed a%d there i$ %o bac0!" 0e)/ the data o% the di$0$ i$ i%acce$$ible. :ncr+"tion 2e>7e+: 'enerates a new 249I encr: tion )e:. <his reEuires the ass hrase +or the current )e:. <: ica%%: this is on%: er+ormed when the administrator sus ects that the current )e: ma: =e com romised. Add reco,er+ 7e+: 'enerates a new reco.er: )e: and rom ts +or a %ocation to down%oad a =ac)u co : o+ the reco.er: )e:. <his reco.er: )e: can =e used i+ the ass hrase is +or'otten. Al-a)$ i((ediatel) add a reco.er: )e: whene.er the ass hrase is chan'ed. 2e3o,e reco,er 7e+: <: ica%%: this is on%: er+ormed when the administrator sus ects that the current reco.er: )e: ma: =e com romised. 1((ediatel) create a new ass hrase and reco.er: )e:. 4ach o+ these icons wi%% rom t +or the assword used to access the $reeNA"1 administrati.e 2!I.

%.#.10

Setting Per3issions

"ettin' ermissions is an im ortant as ect o+ con+i'urin' .o%umes. <he 'ra hica% administrati.e inter+ace is meant to set the i%itial ermissions +or a .o%ume or dataset in order to ma)e it a.ai%a=%e as a share. -nce a share is a.ai%a=%eD the c%ient o eratin' s:stem shou%d =e used to +ine;tune the ermissions o+ the +i%es and directories that are created =: the c%ient. "harin' contains con+i'uration e5am %es +or se.era% t: es o+ ro.ides an o.er.iew o+ the screen that is used to set ermissions. ermission scenarios. <his section

-nce a .o%ume or dataset is createdD it wi%% =e %isted =: its mount oint name in "tora'e L 3o%umes L 3iew 3o%umes. I+ :ou c%ic) the Chan'e >ermissions icon +or a s eci+ic .o%ume@datasetD :ou wi%% see the screen shown in $i'ure ,.3 . <a=%e ,.3+ summari8es the o tions in this screen.

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Figure %.#": '!anging Per3issions on a ?o u3e or 6ataset

*a( e %.#f: 9"tions .!en '!anging Per3issions Setting ?a ue 6escri"tion dro ;down user to contro% the .o%ume@datasetO users which were manua%%: created or -wner AuserB menu im orted +rom Acti.e (irector: or 9(A> wi%% a ear in dro ;down menu dro ;down 'rou to contro% the .o%ume@datasetO 'rou s which were manua%%: created -wner A'rou B menu or im orted +rom Acti.e (irector: or 9(A> wi%% a ear in dro ;down Mode chec)=o5es chec) the desired U%ix ermissions +or userD 'rou D and other !ni5 and Windows AC9s are mutua%%: e5c%usi.eD this means that +ou =u%%et <: e o+ AC9 3ust se ect t!e correct t+"e of A'< to 3atc! t!e s!are O see the se%ection ara'ra hs =e%ow this <a=%e +or more detai%s i+ chec)edD ermissions wi%% a%so a %: to su=directories o+ the .o%ume or "et ermission datasetO i+ data a%read: e5ists on the .o%ume@datasetD it i$ reco((e%ded chec)=o5 recursi.e%: to i%$tead cha%#e the "er(i$$io%$ rec!r$i'el) o% the clie%t $ide to "re'e%t a "er*or(a%ce la# o% the FreeNAS $)$te( When in dou=tD or i+ :ou ha.e a mi5 o+ o eratin' s:stems in :our networ)D se%ect !ni5 AC9s as a%% c%ients understand them. Windows AC9s are a ro riate when the networ) contains on%: Windows c%ients and are the re+erred o tion within an Acti.e (irector: domain. Windows AC9s add a su erset o+ ermissions that au'ment those ro.ided =: !ni5 AC9s. Whi%e Windows c%ients a%so understand FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 127 of 274

!ni5 AC9sD the: won't =ene+it +rom the e5tra ermissions ro.ided =: Acti.e (irector: and Windows AC9s when !ni5 AC9s are used. I+ :ou chan'e :our mind a=out the t: e o+ AC9D :ou do not ha.e to recreate the .o%ume. <hat isD e5istin' data is not %ost i+ the t: e o+ AC9 is chan'ed. Howe.erD i+ :ou chan'e +rom Windows AC9s to !ni5 AC9sD the e5tended ermissions ro.ided =: Windows AC9s wi%% =e remo.ed +rom the e5istin' +i%es. When :ou se%ect Windows AC9sD the ;ode wi%% =ecome 're:ed out as it on%: a %ies to !ni5 ermissions. <he de+au%t Windows AC9s are a%wa:s set to what Windows sets on new +i%es and directories =: de+au%t. <he Windows c%ient shou%d then =e used to +ine;tune the ermissions as reEuired. %.#.11 ?ie0ing 4u ti"at!s

$reeNA"1 uses 'mu%ti athA6B to ro.ide mu%ti ath I@- su ort on s:stems containin' hardware that is ca a=%e o+ mu%ti ath. An e5am %e wou%d =e a dua% "A" e5 ander =ac) %ane in the chassis or an e5terna% C#-(. Mu%ti ath hardware adds +au%t to%erance to a NA" as the data is sti%% a.ai%a=%e e.en i+ one dis) I@- ath has a +ai%ure. $reeNA"1 automatica%%: detects acti.e@acti.e and acti.e@ assi.e mu%ti ath;ca a=%e hardware. An: mu%ti ath;ca a=%e de.ices that are detected wi%% =e %aced in mu%ti ath units with the arent de.ices hidden. <he con+i'uration wi%% =e dis %a:ed in "tora'e L 3o%umes L 3iew Mu%ti athsD as seen in the e5am %e in $i'ure ,.3E. Note that this o tion wi%% not =e dis %a:ed in the "tora'e L 3o%umes tree on s:stems that do not contain mu%ti ath;ca a=%e hardware. Figure %.#B: ?ie0ing 4u ti"at!s

$i'ure ,.3E ro.ides an e5am %e o+ a s:stem with a "A" 0I9 and a "A" hard dri.e. <he 0I9 de.ice is ca a=%e o+ acti.e@acti.e writesD whereas the hard dri.e is ca a=%e o+ acti.e@read. %.#.12 2e" acing a Fai ed 6ri,e

I+ :ou are usin' an: +orm o+ redundant RAI(D :ou shou%d re %ace a +ai%ed dri.e as soon as ossi=%e to re air the de'raded state o+ the RAI(. (e endin' u on the ca a=i%it: o+ :our hardwareD :ou ma: or ma: not need to re=oot in order to re %ace the +ai%ed dri.e. AHCI ca a=%e hardware does not reEuire a re=oot. N9*:: a stri e ARAI(0B does not ro.ide redundanc:. I+ :ou %ose a dis) in a stri eD :ou wi%% need to recreate the .o%ume and restore the data +rom =ac)u . FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 12) of 274

#e+ore h:sica%%: remo.in' the +ai%ed de.iceD 'o to "tora'e L 3o%umes L 3iew 3o%umes L 3o%ume "tatus and %ocate the +ai%ed dis). -nce :ou ha.e %ocated the +ai%ed de.ice in the 2!ID er+orm the +o%%owin' ste sK 1. I+ the dis) is +ormatted with 0$"D c%ic) the dis)'s entr: then its Q-++%ineR =utton in order to chan'e that dis)'s status to -$$9IN4. <his ste is needed to ro er%: remo.e the de.ice +rom the 0$" oo% and to re.ent swa issues. I+ :our hardware su orts hot; %u''a=%e dis)sD c%ic) the dis)'s Q-++%ineR =uttonD u%% the dis)D then s)i to ste 3. I+ there is no Q-++%ineR =utton =ut on%: a QRe %aceR =uttonD then the dis) is a%read: o++%ined and :ou can sa+e%: s)i this ste . N9*:: i+ the rocess o+ chan'in' the dis)'s status to -$$9IN4 +ai%s with a Qdis) o++%ine +ai%ed ; no .a%id re %icasR messa'eD :ou wi%% need to scru= the 0$" .o%ume +irst usin' its "cru= 3o%ume =utton in "tora'e L 3o%umes L 3iew 3o%umes. -nce the scru= com %etesD tr: to -++%ine the dis) a'ain =e+ore roceedin'. 2. I+ the hardware is not AHCI ca a=%eD shutdown the s:stem in order to h:sica%%: re %ace the dis). When +inishedD return to the 2!I and %ocate the -$$9IN4 dis). 3. -nce the dis) is showin' as -$$9IN4D c%ic) the dis) a'ain and then c%ic) its QRe %aceR =utton. "e%ect the re %acement dis) +rom the dro ;down menu and c%ic) the QRe %ace (is)R =utton. I+ the dis) is a mem=er o+ an encr: ted 0$" oo%D :ou wi%% =e rom ted to in ut the ass hrase +or the oo%. -nce :ou c%ic) the QRe %ace (is)R =uttonD the 0$" oo% wi%% start to resi%.er. Fou can use the ="oo status command in "he%% to monitor the status o+ the resi%.erin'. &. I+ the re %aced dis) continues to =e %isted a+ter resi%.erin' is com %eteD c%ic) its entr: and use the Q(etachR =utton to remo.e the dis) +rom the %ist. In the e5am %e shown in $i'ure ,.3rD a +ai%ed dis) is =ein' re %aced =: dis) ada2 in the .o%ume named #ol!me1.

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Figure %.#r: 2e" acing a Fai ed 6is7

(.3.12.1 "e lacing a #ailed Drive in an *ncr- ted /ool

I+ the 0$" oo% is encr: tedD additiona% ste s are needed when re %acin' a +ai%ed dri.e. $irstD ma)e sure that a ass hrase has =een set be*ore attem tin' to re %ace the +ai%ed dri.e. <henD +o%%ow the ste s 1 and 2 as descri=ed a=o.e. (urin' ste 3D :ou wi%% =e rom ted to in ut the ass hrase +or the oo%. Wait unti% the resi%.erin' is com %ete. Ne5tD restore the encr: tion )e:s to the oo%. 1* the *ollo-i%# additio%al $te"$ are %ot "er*or(ed be*ore the %ext reboot/ )o! (a) lo$e acce$$ to the "ool "er(a%e%tl). 1. Hi'h%i'ht the oo% that contains the dis) :ou Iust re %aced and c%ic) the Q4ncr: tion Re;)e:R =utton in the 2!I. Fou wi%% need to enter the root assword. 2. Hi'h%i'ht the oo% that contains the dis) :ou Iust re %aced and c%ic) the QCreate >ass hraseR =utton and enter the new ass hrase. Fou can reuse the o%d ass hrase i+ desired. 3. Hi'h%i'ht the oo% that contains the dis) :ou Iust re %aced and c%ic) the Q(own%oad Ke:R =utton in order to sa.e the new encr: tion )e:. "ince the o%d )e: wi%% no %on'er +unctionD an: o%d )e:s FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 1#0 of 274

can =e sa+e%: discarded. &. Hi'h%i'ht the oo% that contains the dis) :ou Iust re %aced and c%ic) the QAdd Reco.er: Ke:R =utton in order to sa.e the new reco.er: )e:. <he o%d reco.er: )e: wi%% no %on'er +unctionD so it can =e sa+e%: discarded.
(.3.12.2 "e&oving a +og or Cache Device

I+ :ou ha.e added an: %o' or cache de.icesD these de.ices wi%% a%so a ear in "tora'e L 3o%umes L 3iew 3o%umes L 3o%ume "tatus. I+ :ou c%ic) the de.iceD :ou can either use its MRe %aceM =utton to re %ace the de.ice as descri=ed a=o.eD or c%ic) its MRemo.eM =utton to remo.e the de.ice. #e+ore er+ormin' either o+ these o erationsD .eri+: the .ersion o+ 0$" runnin' on the s:stem =: runnin' ="oo u"grade >,L3ore +rom "he%%. I+ the oo% is runnin' 0$".1*D and a non;mirrored %o' de.ice +ai%sD is re %acedD or remo.edD the oo% is unreco.era=%e and the oo% must =e recreated and the data restored +rom a =ac)u . $or other 0$" .ersionsD remo.in' or re %acin' the %o' de.ice wi%% %ose an: data in the de.ice which had not :et =een written. <his is t: ica%%: the %ast +ew seconds o+ writes. Remo.in' or re %acin' a cache de.ice wi%% not resu%t in an: data %ossD =ut ma: ha.e an im act on read er+ormance unti% the de.ice is re %aced. %.#.1# 2e" acing 6ri,es to Gro0 a ;FS Poo

<he recommended method +or e5 andin' the si8e o+ a 0$" oo% is to re; %an the num=er o+ dis)s in a .de. and to stri e additiona% .de.s usin' the 0$" 3o%ume Mana'er as additiona% ca acit: is needed. Howe.erD this is not an o tion i+ :ou do not ha.e o en dri.e orts or the a=i%it: to add a "A"@"A<A H#A card. In this caseD :ou can re %ace one dis) at a time with a %ar'er dis)D wait +or the resi%.erin' rocess to incor orate the new dis) into the oo% com %etesD then re eat with another dis) unti% a%% o+ the dis)s ha.e =een re %aced. <his rocess is s%ow and %aces the s:stem in a de'raded state. "ince a +ai%ure at this oint cou%d =e disastrousD do %ot atte("t thi$ (ethod !%le$$ the $)$te( ha$ a reliable bac0!". N9*:: this method reEuires the 0$" ro ert: autoe5 and. <his ro ert: =ecame a.ai%a=%e startin' with $reeNA"1 .ersion 6.3.0. I+ :ou are runnin' an ear%ier .ersion o+ $reeNA"1D u 'rade =e+ore attem tin' this method. Chec) and .eri+: that the autoe5 and ro ert: is ena=%ed be*ore attem tin' to 'row the oo%. I+ it is notD the oo% wi%% not reco'ni8e that the dis) ca acit: has increased. #: de+au%tD this ro ert: is ena=%ed in $reeNA"1 .ersions 6.3.1 and hi'her. <o .eri+: the ro ert:D use "he%%. <his e5am %e chec)s the 0$" .o%ume named Bol1K
zpool NAME Vol1 Vol1 Vol1 Vol1 Vol1 Vol1 get all Vol1 PROPERTY size capacity altroot health guid version

VALUE 4.53T 31% /mnt ONLINE 8068631824452460057 28

SOURCE local default default

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Vol1 Vol1 Vol1 Vol1 Vol1 Vol1 Vol1 Vol1 Vol1 Vol1 Vol1 Vol1 Vol1

bootfs delegation autoreplace cachefile failmode listsnapshots autoexpand dedupditto dedupratio free allocated readonly comment

on off /data/zfs/zpool.cache wait off on 0 1.00x 3.12T 1.41T off -

default default default local default default local default default

I+ autoe5 ansion is not ena=%edD ena=%e it =: s eci+:in' the name o+ the 0$" .o%umeK
zpool set autoexpand=on Vol1

3eri+: that autoe5 and is now ena=%ed =: re eatin' ="oo get a ?o 1. Fou are now read: to re %ace one dri.e with a %ar'er dri.e usin' the instructions in Re %acin' a $ai%ed (ri.e. Re %ace one dri.e at a time and wait +or the resi%.er rocess to com %ete on the re %aced dri.e =e+ore re %acin' the ne5t dri.e. -nce a%% the dri.es are re %aced and the resi%.er com %etesD :ou shou%d see the added s ace in the oo%. Fou can .iew the status o+ the resi%.er rocess =: runnin' ="oo status ?o 1.
(.3.13.1 *nabling .#S /ool *2 ansion After Drive "e lace&ent

It is recommended to ena=%e the autoe5 and ro ert: =e+ore :ou start re %acin' dri.es. I+ the ro ert: is not ena=%ed =e+ore re %acin' some or a%% o+ the dri.esD e5tra con+i'uration is needed to in+orm 0$" o+ the e5 anded ca acit:. 3eri+: that autoe5 and is set as descri=ed in the re.ious section. <henD =rin' each o+ the dri.es =ac) on%ine with the +o%%owin' commandD re %acin' the .o%ume name and 2>< I( +or each dis) in the 0$" oo%K
zpool online -e Vol1 gptid/xxx

-n%ine one dri.e at a time and chec) the status usin' the +o%%owin' e5am %e. I+ a dri.e starts to resi%.erD :ou need to wait +or the resi%.er to com %ete =e+ore roceedin' to on%ine the ne5t dri.e. <o +ind the 2>< I( in+ormation +or the dri.esD use ="oo status MPoo 8Na3eN which wi%% a%so show :ou i+ an: dri.es are +ai%ed or in the rocess o+ =ein' resi%.eredK
zpool status Vol1 pool: Vol1 state: ONLINE scan: scrub repaired 0 in 16h24m with 0 errors on Sun config: NAME Vol1 raidz1-0 gptid/d5ed48a4-634a-11e2-963c-00e081740bfe

Mar 10 17:24:20 2013 STATE ONLINE ONLINE ONLINE READ WRITE CKSUM 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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gptid/03121538-62d9-11e2-99bd-00e081740bfe gptid/252754e1-6266-11e2-8088-00e081740bfe gptid/9092045a-601d-11e2-892e-00e081740bfe gptid/670e35bc-5f9a-11e2-92ca-00e081740bfe errors: No known data errors

ONLINE ONLINE ONLINE ONLINE

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

A+ter on%inin' a%% o+ the dis)sD t: e ="oo status to see i+ the dri.es start to resi%.er. I+ this ha ensD wait +or the resi%.erin' rocess to com %ete. Ne5tD e5 ort and then im ort the oo%K
zpool export Vol1 zpool import -R /mnt Vol1

-nce the im ort com %etesD a%% o+ the dri.e s ace shou%d =e a.ai%a=%e. 3eri+: that the increased si8e is reco'ni8edK
zpool list Vol1 NAME SIZE ALLOC Vol1 9.06T 1.41T FREE 7.24T CAP 31% DEDUP 1.00x HEALTH ONLINE ALTROOT /mnt

%.#.14

S" itting a 4irrored ;FS Storage Poo

0$".26 ro.ides the a=i%it: to to s %it a (irrored stora'e oo%D which detaches a dis) or dis)s in the ori'ina% 0$" .o%ume in order to create another identica% 0$" .o%ume on another s:stem. N9*:: 8 oo% s %it on%: wor)s on mirrored 0$" .o%umes. In this e5am %eD a 0$" mirror named test contains three dri.esK
zpool status pool: test state: ONLINE scan: resilvered 568K in 0h0m with 0 errors on Wed Jul config: NAME STATE READ WRITE CKSUM test ONLINE 0 0 0 mirror-0 ONLINE 0 0 0 da1 ONLINE 0 0 0 da0 ONLINE 0 0 0 da4 ONLINE 0 0 0

6 16:10:58 2011

<he +o%%owin' command s %its +rom the e5istin' three dis) mirror test a new 0$" .o%ume named migrant containin' one dis)D da<. (is)s da0 and da1 remain in test.
zpool split test migrant da4

At this ointD da< can =e h:sica%%: remo.ed and insta%%ed to a new s:stem as the new oo% is e5 orted as it is created. -nce h:sica%%: insta%%edD im ort the identica% oo% on the new s:stemK
zpool import migrant

<his ma)es the 0$" .o%ume migrant a.ai%a=%e with a sin'%e dis). #e aware that ro erties come a%on' FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 1## of 274

with the c%oneD so the new oo% wi%% =e mounted where the o%d oo% was mounted i+ the mount oint ro ert: was set on the ori'ina% oo%. 3eri+: the status o+ the new oo%K
zpool status pool: migrant state: ONLINE scan: resilvered 568K in 0h0m with 0 errors on Wed Jul config: NAME STATE READ WRITE CKSUM migrant ONLINE 0 0 0 da4 ONLINE 0 0 0 errors: No known data errors

6 16:10:58 2011

-n the ori'ina% s:stemD the status now %oo)s %i)e thisK


zpool status pool: test state: ONLINE scan: resilvered 568K in 0h0m with 0 errors on Wed Jul config: NAME STATE READ WRITE CKSUM test ONLINE 0 0 0 mirror-0 ONLINE 0 0 0 da1 ONLINE 0 0 0 da0 ONLINE 0 0 0 errors: No known data errors

6 16:10:58 2011

At this ointD it is recommended to add dis)s to create a +u%% mirror set. <his e5am %e adds two dis)s named da2 and da3K
zpool attach migrant da4 da2 zpool attach migrant da4 da3

<he migrant .o%ume now %oo)s %i)e thisK


zpool status pool: migrant state: ONLINE scan: resilvered 572K in 0h0m with 0 errors on Wed Jul config: NAME STATE READ WRITE CKSUM migrant ONLINE 0 0 0 mirror-0 ONLINE 0 0 0 da4 ONLINE 0 0 0 da2 ONLINE 0 0 0 da3 ONLINE 0 0 0

6 16:43:27 2011

Now that the new s:stem has =een c%onedD :ou can detach da< and insta%% it =ac) to the ori'ina% s:stem. #e+ore h:sica%%: remo.in' the dis)D run this command on the new s:stemK
zpool detach migrant da4

-nce the dis) is h:sica%%: re;insta%%edD run this command on the ori'ina% s:stemK
zpool attach orig da0 da4

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"hou%d :ou e.er need to create a new c%oneD remem=er to remo.e the o%d c%one +irstK
zpool destroy migrant

%.4

;FS Scru(s

"tora'e L 0$" "cru=s a%%ows :ou to schedu%e and mana'e scru=s on a 0$" .o%ume. >er+ormin' a 0$" scru= on a re'u%ar =asis he% s to identi+: data inte'rit: ro=%emsD detects si%ent data corru tions caused =: transient hardware issuesD and ro.ides ear%: a%erts to dis) +ai%ures. I+ :ou ha.e consumer;Eua%it: dri.esD consider a wee)%: scru==in' schedu%e. I+ :ou ha.e datacenter;Eua%it: dri.esD consider a month%: scru==in' schedu%e. (e endin' u on the amount o+ dataD a scru= can ta)e a %on' time. "cru=s are I@- intensi.e and can ne'ati.e%: im act er+ormance. <he: shou%d =e schedu%ed +or e.enin's or wee)ends to minimi8e the im act to users. A 0$" scru= on%: chec)s used dis) s ace. <o chec) unused dis) s aceD schedu%e a ".M.A.R.<. <est ?y-e o+ :ong Self-?est to run once or twice a month. When :ou create a .o%ume that is +ormatted with 0$"D a 0$" scru= is automatica%%: schedu%ed +or :ou. An entr: o+ the same .o%ume name is added to "tora'e L 0$" "cru=s and a summar: o+ this entr: can =e .iewed in "tora'e L 0$" "cru=s L 3iew 0$" "cru=s. $i'ure ,.&a dis %a:s the de+au%t settin's +or the .o%ume named #ol!me1. <a=%e ,.&a summari8es the o tions in this screen. Figure %.4a: ?ie0ing a ?o u3e/s 6efau t Scru( Settings

*a( e %.4a: ;FS Scru( 9"tions Setting 3o%ume <hresho%d da:s (escri tion ?a ue 6escri"tion dro ;down menu se%ect 0$" .o%ume to scru= num=er o+ da:s =etween scru=sO the de+au%t is a mu%ti %e o+ / to inte'er ensure the scru= a%wa:s occurs on the same da: o+ the wee) strin' o tiona% Page 1#$ of 274

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Setting

?a ue s%ider or minute Minute se%ections s%ider or hour Hour se%ections s%ider or month (a: o+ Month se%ections Month chec)=o5es (a: o+ wee) chec)=o5es 4na=%ed chec)=o5

6escri"tion i+ use the s%iderD scru= occurs e.er: N minutesO i+ use minute se%ectionsD scru= starts at the hi'h%i'hted minutes i+ use the s%iderD scru= occurs e.er: N hoursO i+ use hour se%ectionsD scru= occurs at the hi'h%i'hted hours i+ use the s%iderD scru= occurs e.er: N da:sO i+ use month se%ectionsD scru= occurs on the hi'h%i'hted da:s o+ the se%ected months scru= occurs on the se%ected months scru= occurs on the se%ected da:sO de+au%t is S!nday to %east im act users unchec) to disa=%e the schedu%ed scru= without de%etin' it

Fou shou%d re.iew the de+au%t se%ections andD i+ necessar:D modi+: them to meet the needs o+ :our en.ironment. Whi%e a de%ete =utton is ro.idedD deleti%# a $cr!b i$ %ot reco((e%ded a$ a $cr!b "ro'ide$ a% earl) i%dicatio% o* di$0 i$$!e$ that co!ld lead to a di$0 *ail!re. I+ :ou +ind that a scru= is too intensi.e +or :our hardwareD consider disa=%in' the scru= as a tem orar: measure unti% the hardware can =e u 'raded. I+ :ou do de%ete a scru=D :ou can create a new scru= tas) =: c%ic)in' "tora'e L 3o%umes L 0$" "cru=s L Add 0$" "cru=.

S!aring 'onfiguration

-nce :ou ha.e a .o%umeD create at %east one share so that the stora'e is accessi=%e =: the other com uters in :our networ). <he t: e o+ share :ou create de ends u on the o eratin' s:stemAsB runnin' in :our networ)D :our securit: reEuirementsD and e5 ectations +or networ) trans+er s eeds. <he +o%%owin' t: es o+ shares and ser.ices are a.ai%a=%eK A"" e HAFPF S!aresK the A com uters run Mac -" 7. %e $i%e >rotoco% AA$>B t: e o+ share is a 'ood choice i+ a%% o+ :our

Uni- HNFSF S!aresK the Networ) $i%e ":stem AN$"B t: e o+ share is accessi=%e =: Mac -" 7D 9inu5D #"(D and the ro+essiona%@enter rise .ersions Anot the home editionsB o+ Windows. It is a 'ood choice i+ there are man: di++erent o eratin' s:stems in :our networ). (e endin' u on the o eratin' s:stemD it ma: reEuire the insta%%ation or con+i'uration o+ c%ient so+tware on the des)to . .indo0s H'IFSF S!aresK the Common Internet $i%e ":stem ACI$"B t: e o+ share is accessi=%e =: WindowsD Mac -" 7D 9inu5D and #"( com utersD =ut it is s%ower than an N$" share due to the sin'%e; threaded desi'n o+ "am=a. It ro.ides more con+i'uration o tions than N$" and is a 'ood choice on a networ) containin' on%: Windows s:stems. Howe.erD it is a oor choice i+ the C>! on the $reeNA"1 s:stem is %imitedO i+ :our C>! is ma5ed outD :ou need to u 'rade the C>! or consider another t: e o+ share. I+ :ou are %oo)in' +or a so%ution that a%%ows +ast access +rom an: o eratin' s:stemD consider con+i'urin' the $<> ser.ice instead o+ a share and use a cross; %at+orm $<> and +i%e mana'er c%ient FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 1#% of 274

a %ication such as $i%e8i%%a. "ecure $<> can =e con+i'ured i+ the data needs to =e encr: ted. I+ data securit: is a concern and :our networ)'s users are +ami%iar with ""H command %ine uti%ities or Win"C>D consider con+i'urin' the ""H ser.ice instead o+ a share. It wi%% =e s%ower than unencr: ted $<> due to the o.erhead o+ encr: tionD =ut the data assin' throu'h the networ) wi%% =e encr: ted. N9*:: whi%e the 2!I wi%% %et :ou do itD it is a =ad idea to share the same .o%ume or dataset usin' mu%ti %e t: es o+ access methods. (i++erent t: es o+ shares and ser.ices use di++erent +i%e %oc)in' methods. $or e5am %eD i+ the same .o%ume is con+i'ured to use =oth N$" and $<>D N$" wi%% %oc) a +i%e +or editin' =: an N$" userD =ut a $<> user can simu%taneous%: edit or de%ete that +i%e. <his wi%% resu%t in %ost edits and con+used users. Another e5am %eK i+ a .o%ume is con+i'ured +or =oth A$> and CI$"D Windows users ma: =e con+used =: the e5tra +i%enames used =: Mac +i%es and de%ete the ones the: don't understandO this wi%% corru t the +i%es on the A$> share. >ic) the one t: e o+ share or ser.ice that ma)es the most sense +or the t: es o+ c%ients that wi%% access that .o%umeD and con+i'ure that .o%ume +or that one t: e o+ share or ser.ice. I+ :ou need to su ort mu%ti %e t: es o+ sharesD di.ide the .o%ume into datasets and use one dataset er share. <his section wi%% demonstrate how to create A$>D N$"D and CI$" shares. $<> and ""H con+i'urations are descri=ed in "er.ices Con+i'uration.

7.1

A"" e HAFPF S!ares

$reeNA"1 uses the Netata%) A$> ser.er to share data with A %e s:stems. Con+i'urin' A$> shares is a mu%ti;ste rocess that reEuires :ou to create or im ort users and 'rou sD set .o%ume@dataset ermissionsD create the A$> shareAsBD con+i'ure the A$> ser.iceD then ena=%e the A$> ser.ice in "er.ices L Contro% "er.ices. <his section descri=es the con+i'uration screen +or creatin' the A$> share. It then ro.ides con+i'uration e5am %es +or creatin' a 'uest shareD con+i'urin' <ime Machine to =ac)u to a dataset on the $reeNA"1 s:stemD and +or connectin' to the share +rom a Mac -" 7 c%ient.

7.1.1

'reating AFP S!ares

I+ :ou c%ic) "harin' L A %e AA$>B "hares L Add A %e AA$>B "hareD :ou wi%% see the screen shown in $i'ure /.1a. "ome settin's are on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced Mode. <o see these settin'sD either c%ic) the Ad.anced Mode =utton or con+i'ure the s:stem to a%wa:s dis %a: these settin's =: chec)in' the =o5 Q"how ad.anced +ie%ds =: de+au%tR in ":stem L "ettin's L Ad.anced. <a=%e /.1a summari8es the a.ai%a=%e o tions when creatin' an A$> share. Re+er to "ettin' u Netata%) +or a more detai%ed e5 %anation o+ the a.ai%a=%e o tions. -nce :ou ress the -K =utton when creatin' the A$> shareD a o ;u menu wi%% as) QWou%d :ou %i)e to ena=%e this ser.iceUR C%ic) Fes and "er.ices L Contro% "er.ices wi%% o en and indicate whether or not the A$> ser.ice success+u%%: started.

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Figure 7.1a: 'reating an AFP S!are

*a( e 7.1a: AFP S!are 'onfiguration 9"tions Setting 6escri"tion .o%ume name that wi%% a ear in the Mac com uter's Qconnect to Name strin' ser.erR dia%o'ueO %imited to 2/ characters and can not contain a eriod "hare Comment strin' o tiona% >ath =rowse =utton =rowse to the .o%ume@dataset to share ma5imum o+ 6 charactersO this assword is in addition to the user's "hare assword strin' assword when authenticatin' comma de%imited %ist o+ a%%owed users and@or 'rou s where A%%ow 9ist strin' 'rou name =e'ins with a T comma de%imited %ist o+ denied users and@or 'rou s where (en: 9ist strin' 'rou name =e'ins with a T comma de%imited %ist o+ users and@or 'rou s who on%: ha.e read Read;on%: Access strin' access where 'rou name =e'ins with a T Read;write comma de%imited %ist o+ users and@or 'rou s who ha.e read and write strin' Access access where 'rou name =e'ins with a T ?a ue

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Setting <ime Machine

?a ue chec)=o5

(ata=ase >ath 0ero (e.ice Num=ers No "tat A$>3 !NI7 >ri.s

strin' chec)=o5 chec)=o5

chec)=o5

(e+au%t +i%e chec)=o5es ermission (e+au%t director: chec)=o5es ermission (e+au%t umas) inte'er

6escri"tion due to a %imitation in how Mac dea%s with %ow;dis)s ace issues when mu%ti %e Mac's share the same .o%umeD chec)in' ?ime ;a'hine on mu%ti %e shares is discoura'ed as it ma: resu%t in intermittent +ai%ed =ac)u s s eci+: the ath to store the CNI( data=ases used =: A$> Ade+au%t is the root o+ the .o%umeBO the ath must =e writa=%e on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO ena=%e when the de.ice num=er is not constant across a re=oot on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO i+ chec)edD A$> won't stat the .o%ume ath when enumeratin' the .o%umes %istO use+u% +or automountin' or .o%umes created =: a ree5ec scri t ena=%es !ni5 ri.i%e'es su orted =: -"7 10.* and hi'herO do not ena=%e i+ the networ) contains Mac -" 7 10.& c%ients or %ower as the: do not su ort these on%: wor)s with !ni5 AC9sO new +i%es created on the share are set with the se%ected ermissions on%: wor)s with !ni5 AC9sO new directories created on the share are set with the se%ected ermissions umas) +or new%: created +i%esD de+au%t is 000 Aan:one can readD writeD and e5ecuteB

7.1.2

'onnecting to AFP S!ares As Guest

A$> su orts 'uest %o'insD meanin' that a%% o+ :our Mac -" 7 users can access the A$> share without reEuirin' their user accounts to +irst =e created on or im orted into the the $reeNA"1 s:stem. N9*:: i+ :ou create a 'uest share as we%% a share that reEuires authenticationD A$> wi%% on%: ma users who %o'in as 'uest to the 'uest share. <his means that i+ a user %o's in to the share that reEuires authenticationD the ermissions on the 'uest share ma: re.ent that user +rom writin' to the 'uest share. <he on%: wa: to a%%ow =oth 'uest and authenticated users to write to a 'uest share is to set the ermissions on the 'uest share to /// or to add the authenticated users to a 'uest 'rou and set the ermissions to //5. In this con+i'uration e5am %eD the A$> share has =een con+i'ured +or 'uest access as +o%%owsK 1. A 0$" .o%ume named .mnt.data has its ermissions set to the =ui%t;in no$ody user account and no$ody 'rou . 2. An A$> share has =een created with the +o%%owin' attri=utesK NameK freenas Athis is the name that wi%% a ear to Mac -" 7 c%ientsB >athK .mnt.data "hare >asswordK the assword that wi%% =e used to access the share has =een in ut and con+irmed Page 1#9 of 274

FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide

A%%ow 9istK set to no$ody Read;write AccessK set to no$ody "er.er NameK freenas 2uest AccessK chec)=o5 is chec)ed no$ody is se%ected in the 2uest account dro ;down menu

3. "er.ices L A$> has =een con+i'ured as +o%%owsK

-nce the A$> ser.ice has =een started in "er.ices L Contro% "er.icesD Mac -" 7 users can connect to the A$> share =: c%ic)in' 2o L Connect to "er.er. In the e5am %e shown in $i'ure /.1=D the user has in ut af-).. +o%%owed =: the I> address o+ the $reeNA"1 s:stem. C%ic) the Connect =utton and a %o'in =o5D seen in $i'ure /.1cD wi%% a ear. "ince a assword has =een con+i'ured +or this A$> shareD the user must in ut the share assword Ai.e. not their own asswordB. -nce connectedD $inder wi%% automatica%%: o en. <he name o+ the A$> share wi%% =e dis %a:ed in the "HAR4( section in the %e+t +rame and the contents o+ the share wi%% =e dis %a:ed in the ri'ht +rame. In the e5am %e shown in $i'ure /.1dD .mnt.data has one +o%der named ima'es. <he user can now co : +i%es to and +rom the share. Figure 7.1(: 'onnect to Ser,er 6ia ogue

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Figure 7.1c: Aut!enticating to t!e AFP S!are

Figure 7.1d: ?ie0ing t!e 'ontents of t!e S!are Fro3 a 4ac S+ste3

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<o disconnect +rom the .o%umeD c%ic) the eIect =utton in the "hared side=ar. 7.1.# Using *i3e 4ac!ine

Mac -" 7 inc%udes the <ime Machine a %ication which can =e used to schedu%e automatic =ac)u s. In this con+i'uration e5am %eD <ime Machine wi%% =e con+i'ured to =ac)u to an A$> share on a $reeNA"1 s:stem. <o con+i'ure the A$> share on the $reeNA"1 s:stemK 1. A 0$" dataset named .mnt.data.$a'k!-*!ser1 with a Euota o+ 40H was created in "tora'e L 3o%umes L Create 0$" (ataset. 2. A user account was created as +o%%owsK !sernameK !ser1 Home (irector:K .mnt.data.$a'k!-*!ser1 the $u%% NameD 4;mai%D and >assword +ie%ds were set where the !sername and >assword match the .a%ues +or the user on the Mac -" 7 s:stem >athK .mnt.data.$a'k!-*!ser1 A%%ow 9istK set to !ser1 Read;write AccessK set to !ser1 <ime MachineK chec)=o5 is chec)ed "er.er NameK freenas 2uest AccessK chec)=o5 is unchec)ed

3. An A$> share with a Name o+ $a'k!-*!ser1 has =een created with the +o%%owin' attri=utesK

&. "er.ices L A$> has =een con+i'ured as +o%%owsK

*. <he A$> ser.ice has =een started in "er.ices L Contro% "er.ices. <o con+i'ure <ime Machine on the Mac -" 7 c%ientD 'o to ":stem >re+erences L <ime Machine which wi%% o en the screen shown in $i'ure /.1e. C%ic) -N and a o ;u menu shou%d show the $reeNA"1 s:stem as a =ac)u o tion. In our e5am %eD it is %isted as $a'k!-*!ser1 on IfreenasI. Hi'h%i'ht the entr: re resentin' the $reeNA"1 s:stem and c%ic) the Q!se #ac)u (is)R =utton. A connection =ar wi%% o en and wi%% rom t +or the user account's assword;;in this e5am %eD the assword +or the !ser1 account. <ime Machine wi%% create a +u%% =ac)u a+ter waitin' two minutes. It wi%% then create a one hour incrementa% =ac)u +or the ne5t 2& hoursD and then one =ac)u each da:D each wee) and each month. Si%ce the olde$t bac0!"$ are deleted -he% the FS data$et beco(e$ *!ll/ (a0e $!re that the F!ota $i.e )o! $et i$ $!**icie%t to hold the bac0!"$. Note that a de+au%t insta%%ation o+ Mac -" 7 is Y21 2# in si8e. I+ :ou recei.e a Q<ime Machine cou%d not com %ete the =ac)u . <he =ac)u dis) ima'e cou%d not =e created Aerror &*BR error when =ac)in' u to the $reeNA"1 s:stemD :ou wi%% need to create a s arse=und%e ima'e usin' these instructions.

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I+ :ou recei.e the messa'e Q<ime Machine com %eted a .eri+ication o+ :our =ac)u s. <o im ro.e re%ia=i%it:D <ime Machine must create a new =ac)u +or :ou.R and :ou do not want to er+orm another com %ete =ac)u or %ose ast =ac)u sD +o%%ow the instructions in this ost. Note that this can occur a+ter er+ormin' a scru= as <ime Machine ma: mista)en%: =e%ie.e that the s arse=und%e =ac)u is corru t. Figure 7.1e: 'onfiguring *i3e 4ac!ine on 4ac 9S A <ion

7.2

Uni- HNFSF S!ares

$reeNA"1 su orts the Networ) $i%e ":stem AN$"B +or sharin' .o%umes o.er a networ). -nce the N$" share is con+i'uredD c%ients use the 3ount command to mount the share. -nce mountedD the share a ears as Iust another director: on the c%ient s:stem. "ome 9inu5 distros reEuire the insta%%ation o+ additiona% so+tware in order to mount an N$" share. -n Windows s:stemsD ena=%e "er.ices +or N$" in the !%timate or 4nter rise editions or insta%% an N$" c%ient a %ication. N9*:: +or er+ormance reasonsD i"C"I is re+erred to N$" shares when $reeNA" is insta%%ed on 4"7i. I+ :ou are considerin' creatin' N$" shares on 4"7iD read throu'h the er+ormance ana%:sis at Runnin' 0$" o.er N$" as a 3Mware "tore. Con+i'urin' N$" is a mu%ti;ste rocess that reEuires :ou to create N$" shareAsBD con+i'ure N$" in "er.ices L N$"D then start N$" in "er.ices L "er.ices. It does not reEuire :ou to create users or 'rou s as N$" uses I> addresses to determine which s:stems are a%%owed to access the N$" share.

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<his section demonstrates how to create an N$" shareD ro.ides a con+i'uration e5am %eD demonstrates how to connect to the share +rom .arious o eratin' s:stemsD and ro.ides some trou=%eshootin' ti s. 7.2.1 'reating NFS S!ares

<o create an N$" shareD c%ic) "harin' L !ni5 AN$"B "hares L Add !ni5 AN$"B "hareD shown in $i'ure /.2a. <a=%e /.2a summari8es the o tions in this screen. Figure 7.2a: 'reating an NFS S!are

-nce :ou ress the -K =utton when creatin' the N$" shareD a o ;u menu wi%% as) QWou%d :ou %i)e to ena=%e this ser.iceUR C%ic) Fes and "er.ices L Contro% "er.ices wi%% o en and indicate whether or not the N$" ser.ice success+u%%: started. *a( e 7.2a: NFS S!are 9"tions Setting Comment Authori8ed networ)s Authori8ed I> addresses or hosts A%% directories Read on%: ?uiet ?a ue strin' strin' strin' chec)=o5 chec)=o5 chec)=o5 6escri"tion used to set the share nameO i+ %e+t em t:D share name wi%% =e the %ist o+ se%ected >aths s ace de%imited %ist o+ a%%owed networ) addresses in the +orm 1.2.3.0@2& where the num=er a+ter the s%ash is a CI(R mas) s ace de%imited %ist o+ a%%owed I> addresses or hostnames i+ chec)edD the c%ient can mount an: su=director: within the 1ath rohi=its writin' to the share inhi=its some s:s%o' dia'nostics which can =e use+u% to a.oid some anno:in' error messa'esO see e5 ortsA*B +or e5am %es Page 144 of 274

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Setting ?a ue 6escri"tion Ma root !ser dro ;down menu i+ a user is se%ectedD the root user is %imited to that user's ermissions i+ a 'rou is se%ectedD the root user wi%% a%so =e %imited to that Ma root 2rou dro ;down menu 'rou 's ermissions Ma a%% !ser dro ;down menu the s eci+ied user's ermissions are used =: a%% c%ients Ma a%% 2rou dro ;down menu the s eci+ied 'rou 's ermission are used =: a%% c%ients =rowse to the .o%ume@dataset@director: to shareO c%ic) Add e(tra >ath =rowse =utton -ath to se%ect mu%ti %e aths When creatin' the N$" shareD )ee the +o%%owin' oints in mindK 1. <he Ma root and Ma a%% o tions are e5c%usi.eD meanin' :ou can on%: use one or the other;;the 2!I wi%% not %et :ou use =oth. <he Ma a%% o tions su ersede the Ma root o tions. I+ :ou on%: wish to restrict the root user's ermissionsD set the Ma root o tion. I+ :ou wish to restrict the ermissions o+ a%% usersD set the Ma a%% o tion. 2. 4ach .o%ume or dataset is considered to =e its own +i%es:stem and N$" is not a=%e to cross +i%es:stem =oundaries. 3. <he networ) or host must =e uniEue er share and er +i%es:stem or director:. &. <he QA%% directoriesR o tion can on%: =e used once er share er +i%es:stem. <o =etter understand these restrictionsD consider the +o%%owin' scenario where there areK 2 networ)s named 10.0.0.0.5 and 20.0.0.0.5 a 0$" .o%ume named #ol!me1 with 2 datasets named dataset1 and dataset2 dataset1 has a director: named dire'tory1 #ecause o+ restriction J3D :ou wi%% recei.e an error i+ :ou tr: to create one N$" share as +o%%owsK Aut!ori=ed net0or7s: 10.0.0.0.5 20.0.0.0.5 Pat!: .mnt.#ol!me1.dataset1 and @mnt.#ol!me1.dataset1.dire'tory1 InsteadD :ou shou%d se%ect the >ath o+ .mnt.#ol!me1.dataset1 and chec) the QA%% directoriesR =o5. Howe.erD :ou cou%d restrict that director: to one o+ the networ)s =: creatin' two shares as +o%%ows. $irst N$" shareK Aut!ori=ed net0or7s: 10.0.0.0.5 Pat!: .mnt.#ol!me1.dataset1 "econd N$" shareK Aut!ori=ed net0or7s: 20.0.0.0.5 Pat!: .mnt.#ol!me1.dataset1.dire'tory1 Note that this reEuires the creation o+ two shares as it can not =e accom %ished in one share.

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7.2.2

Sa3" e NFS S!are 'onfiguration

#: de+au%t the Ma a%% o tions shown in $i'ure /.2a show as N.A. <his means that when a user connects to the N$" shareD the: connect with the ermissions associated with their user account. <his is a securit: ris) i+ a user is a=%e to connect as root as the: wi%% ha.e com %ete access to the share. A =etter scenario is to do the +o%%owin'K 1. " eci+: the =ui%t;in no$ody account to =e used +or N$" access. 2. In the ermissions o+ the .o%ume@dataset that is =ein' sharedD chan'e the owner and 'rou to no$ody and set the ermissions accordin' to :our s eci+ications. 3. "e%ect no$ody in the Ma a%% !ser and Ma a%% 2rou dro ;down menus +or the share in "harin' L !ni5 AN$"B "hares. With this con+i'urationD it does not matter which user account connects to the N$" shareD as it wi%% =e ma ed to the no$ody user account and wi%% on%: ha.e the ermissions that :ou s eci+ied on the .o%ume@dataset. $or e5am %eD e.en i+ the root user is a=%e to connectD it wi%% not 'ain root access to the share. 7.2.# 'onnecting to t!e NFS S!are

In the +o%%owin' e5am %esD an N$" share on a $reeNA"1 s:stem with the I> address o+ 132.145.2.2 has =een con+i'ured as +o%%owsK 1. A 0$" .o%ume named .mnt.data has its ermissions set to the no$ody user account and the no$ody 'rou . 2. A N$" share has =een created with the +o%%owin' attri=utesK
3.2.3.1

>athK .mnt.data Authori8ed Networ)K 132.145.2.0.2< Ma A%% !ser and Ma A%% 2rou are =oth set to no$ody the A%% (irectories chec)=o5 has =een chec)ed

#ro& BSD or +inu2 Clients

<o ma)e this share accessi=%e on a #"( or a 9inu5 s:stemD run the +o%%owin' command as the su eruser Aor with sudoB +rom the c%ient s:stem. Re eat on each c%ient that needs access to the N$" shareK
mount -t nfs 192.168.2.2:/mnt/data /mnt

<he 3ount command uses the +o%%owin' o tionsK >t nfs: s eci+ies the t: e o+ share. 192.1%).2.2: re %ace with the I> address o+ the $reeNA"1 s:stem E3ntEdata: re %ace with the name o+ the N$" share E3nt: a mount oint on the c%ient s:stem. <his must =e an e5istin'D e("t) director:. <he data in the N$" share wi%% =e made a.ai%a=%e to the c%ient in this director:. FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 14% of 274

<he 3ount command shou%d return to the command rom t without an: error messa'esD indicatin' that the share was success+u%%: mounted. -nce mountedD this con+i'uration a%%ows users on the c%ient s:stem to co : +i%es to and +rom .mnt Athe mount ointB and a%% +i%es wi%% =e owned =: no$ody)no$ody. An: chan'es to .mnt wi%% =e sa.ed to the $reeNA"1 s:stem's .mnt.data .o%ume. "hou%d :ou wish to ma)e an: chan'es to the N$" share's settin's or wish to ma)e the share inaccessi=%eD +irst unmount the share on the c%ient as the su eruserK
umount /mnt

3.2.3.2

#ro& Microsoft Clients

4nter rise .ersions o+ Windows s:stems can connect to N$" shares usin' "er.ices +or N$". Connectin' to N$" shares is o+ten +aster than connectin' to CI$" shares due to the sin'%e;threaded %imitation o+ "am=a. Instructions +or connectin' +rom an 4nter rise .ersion o+ Windows / can =e +ound at Mount 9inu5 N$" "hare on Windows /. N9*:: "er.ices +or N$" is on%: a.ai%a=%e in the !%timate or 4nter rise editions o+ Windows. I+ :our Windows c%ient is runnin' a Home 4dition o+ Windows /D Ne)odri.e ro.ides an o en source 'ra hica% N$" c%ient. <o use this c%ientD :ou wi%% need to insta%% the +o%%owin' on the Windows s:stemK /8i to e5tract the Ne)odri.e down%oad +i%es N$"C%ient and N$"9i=rar: +rom the Ne)odri.e down%oad a'eO once down%oadedD e5tract these +i%es usin' /8i .N4< $ramewor) &.0 -nce e.er:thin' is insta%%edD run the N$"C%ient e5ecuta=%e to start the 2!I c%ient. In the e5am %e shown in $i'ure /.2=D the user has connected to the e5am %e .mnt.data share o+ the $reeNA"1 s:stem at 132.145.2.2. N9*:: Ne)odri.e does not su this uti%it: instead. ort 45 %orer dri.e ma in' .ia N$". I+ :ou need this +unctiona%it:D tr:

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Figure 7.2(: Using t!e Ne7odri,e NFS' ient fro3 .indo0s 7 &o3e :dition

3.2.3.3

#ro& Mac 4S 5 Clients

<o mount the N$" .o%ume +rom a Mac -" 7 c%ientD c%ic) on 2o L Connect to "er.er. In the "er.er Address +ie%dD in ut nfs).. +o%%owed =: the I> address o+ the $reeNA"1 s:stem and the name o+ the .o%ume@dataset =ein' shared =: N$". <he e5am %e shown in $i'ure /.2c continues with our e5am %e o+ 132.145.2.2).mnt.data. -nce connectedD $inder wi%% automatica%%: o en. <he I> address o+ the $reeNA"1 s:stem wi%% =e dis %a:ed in the "HAR4( section in the %e+t +rame and the contents o+ the share wi%% =e dis %a:ed in the ri'ht +rame. In the e5am %e shown in $i'ure /.2dD .mnt.data has one +o%der named images. <he user can now co : +i%es to and +rom the share.

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Figure 7.2c: 4ounting t!e NFS S!are fro3 4ac 9S A

Figure 7.2d: ?ie0ing t!e NFS S!are in Finder

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7.2.4

*rou( es!ooting

"ome N$" c%ients do not su ort the N9M ANetwor) 9oc) Mana'erB rotoco% used =: N$". Fou wi%% )now that this is the case i+ the c%ient recei.es an error that a%% or art o+ the +i%e ma: =e %oc)ed when a +i%e trans+er is attem ted. <o reso%.e this errorD add the o tion >o no oc7 when runnin' the 3ount command on the c%ient in order to a%%ow write access to the N$" share. I+ :ou recei.e an error a=out a Qtime out 'i.in' u R when tr:in' to mount the share +rom a 9inu5 s:stemD ma)e sure that the ortma er ser.ice is runnin' on the 9inu5 c%ient and start it i+ it is not. I+ ortma er is runnin' and :ou sti%% recei.e timeoutsD +orce it to use <C> =: inc%udin' >o tc" in :our 3ount command. I+ :ou recei.e an error QR>CK >ro'ram not re'isteredRD u 'rade to the %atest .ersion o+ $reeNA"1 and restart the N$" ser.ice a+ter the u 'rade in order to c%ear the N$" cache. I+ :our c%ients are recei.in' Qre.erse (N"R or errorsD add an entr: +or the I> address o+ the $reeNA"1 s:stem in the QHost name data=aseR +ie%d o+ Networ) L 2%o=a% Con+i'uration. I+ the c%ient recei.es timeout errors when tr:in' to mount the shareD add the I> address and hostname o+ the c%ient to the MHost name data =aseM +ie%d o+ Networ) L 2%o=a% Con+i'uration.

7.#

.indo0s H'IFSF S!ares

$reeNA"1 uses "am=a to share .o%umes usin' Microso+t's CI$" rotoco%. CI$" is =ui%t into the Windows and Mac -" 7 o eratin' s:stems and most 9inu5 and #"( s:stems re;insta%% the "am=a c%ient which ro.ides su ort +or CI$". I+ :our distro did notD insta%% the "am=a c%ient usin' :our distro's so+tware re ositor:. Con+i'urin' CI$" shares is a mu%ti;ste rocess that reEuires :ou to set ermissionsD create CI$" shareAsBD con+i'ure the CI$" ser.ice in "er.ices L CI$"D then ena=%e the CI$" ser.ice in "er.ices L Contro% "er.ices. I+ :our Windows networ) has a Windows ser.er runnin' Acti.e (irector:D :ou wi%% a%so need to con+i'ure the Acti.e (irector: ser.ice in "er.ices L (irector: "er.ices L Acti.e (irector:. (e endin' u on :our authentication reEuirementsD :ou ma: need to create or im ort users and 'rou s. <his section wi%% demonstrate some common con+i'uration scenariosK 7.#.1 I+ :ou wou%d %i)e an o.er.iew o+ the con+i'ura=%e arametersD see Creatin' CI$" "hares. I+ :ou wou%d %i)e an e5am %e o+ how to con+i'ure access that does not reEuire authenticationD see Con+i'urin' Anon:mous Access. I+ :ou wou%d %i)e each user to authenticate =e+ore accessin' the shareD see Con+i'urin' 9oca% !ser Access. I+ :ou wou%d %i)e to use "hadow Co iesD see Con+i'urin' "hadow Co ies. I+ :ou are ha.in' ro=%ems accessin' :our CI$" shareD see <rou=%eshootin' <i s. 'reating 'IFS S!ares

$i'ure /.3a shows the con+i'uration screen that a ears when :ou c%ic) "harin' L Windows ACI$" "haresB L Add Windows ACI$"B "hare. "ome settin's are on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced Mode. <o see FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 1$0 of 274

these settin'sD either c%ic) the Ad.anced Mode =utton or con+i'ure the s:stem to a%wa:s dis %a: these settin's =: chec)in' the =o5 Q"how ad.anced +ie%ds =: de+au%tR in ":stem L "ettin's L Ad.anced. <a=%e /.3a summari8es the o tions when creatin' a CI$" share. sm=.con+A*B ro.ides more detai%s +or each con+i'ura=%e o tion. -nce :ou ress the -K =utton when creatin' the CI$" shareD a o ;u menu wi%% as) QWou%d :ou %i)e to ena=%e this ser.iceUR C%ic) Fes and "er.ices L Contro% "er.ices wi%% o en and indicate whether or not the CI$" ser.ice success+u%%: started. Figure 7.#a: Adding a 'IFS S!are

*a( e 7.#a: 9"tions for a 'IFS S!are Setting Name Comment >ath 45 ort Read -n%: #rowsa=%e to Networ) C%ients Inherit -wner ?a ue strin' strin' =rowse =utton chec)=o5 chec)=o5 chec)=o5 6escri"tion mandator:O name o+ share o tiona% descri tion se%ect .o%ume@dataset@director: to share rohi=its write access to the share ena=%es Windows c%ients to =rowse the shared director: usin' Windows 45 %orer i+ chec)edD ownershi +or new +i%es and directories is inherited +rom arent director: rather than +rom the user Page 1$1 of 274

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Setting Inherit >ermissions 45 ort Rec:c%e #in

?a ue

chec)=o5

chec)=o5

"how Hidden $i%es chec)=o5 A%%ow 2uest Access chec)=o5

-n%: A%%ow 2uest chec)=o5 Access Hosts A%%ow strin'

Hosts (en: Au5i%iar: >arameters

strin'

strin'

6escri"tion i+ chec)edD the UN1G ermissions on new +i%es and directories are inherited +rom arent director:O this can =e use+u% on %ar'e s:stems with man: users as it a%%ows a sin'%e homes share to =e used +%e5i=%: =: each userO do %ot chec0 i* T)"e o* A42 i$ $et to 8i%do-$ i% the 3ol!(e@$ "er(i$$io%$ de%eted +i%es are instead mo.ed to a hidden .re'y'le director: in the root +o%der o+ the share i+ ena=%edD wi%% dis %a: +i%enames that =e'in with a dot A!ni5 hidden +i%esB i+ chec)edD no assword is reEuired to connect to the share and a%% users share the ermissions o+ the 'uest user de+ined in "er.ices L CI$" reEuires Allo9 g!est a''ess to a%so =e chec)edO +orces 'uest access +or a%% connections on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO commaD s aceD or ta= de%imited %ist o+ a%%owed hostnames or I> addressesO see N-<4 =e%ow on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO commaD s aceD or ta= de%imited %ist o+ denied hostnames or I> addressesO a%%owed hosts ta)e recedence so can use A:: in this +ie%d and s eci+: a%%owed hosts in =osts Allo9O see N-<4 =e%ow on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO add additiona% [share\ sm=.con+ arameters not co.ered =: other o tion +ie%ds

N9*:: hostname %oo)u s add some time to accessin' the CI$" share. I+ :ou on%: use I> addressesD unchec) the QHostnames %oo)u sR =o5 in "er.ices L CI$". I+ :ou wish some +i%es on a shared .o%ume to =e hidden and inaccessi=%e to usersD ut a #eto files> %ine in the Au5i%iar: >arameters +ie%d. <he s:nta5 +or this %ine and some e5am %es can =e +ound here. 7.#.2 'onfiguring Anon+3ous Access

<o share a .o%ume without reEuirin' users to in ut a asswordD con+i'ure anon:mous CI$" sharin'. <his t: e o+ share can =e con+i'ured as +o%%owsK 1. 'reate a #!e$t user account to (e used for anon+3ous access in Account L !sers L Add !ser with the +o%%owin' attri=utesK !sernameK g!est Home (irector:K =rowse to the .o%ume to =e shared chec) the (isa=%e %o'ins =o5

2. Associate t!e guest account 0it! t!e ,o u3e in "tora'e L 3o%umes. 45 and the .o%ume's name then c%ic) Chan'e >ermissions. "e%ect g!est as the -wnerAuserB and -wnerA'rou B and chec) that the ermissions are a ro riate +or the share. I+ non;Windows s:stems wi%% =e FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 1$2 of 274

accessin' the CI$" shareD %ea.e the t: e o+ ermissions as !ni5. -n%: chan'e the t: e o+ ermissions to Windows i+ the share is o%l) accessed =: Windows s:stems. 3. 'reate a 'IFS s!are in "harin' L Windows ACI$"B "hares L Add Windows ACI$"B "hare with the +o%%owin' attri=utesK NameK freenas >athK =rowse to the .o%ume to =e shared chec) the =o5es Allo9 H!est A''ess and @nly Allo9 H!est A''ess Hosts A%%owK add the addresses which are a%%owed to connect to the shareO acce ta=%e +ormats are the networ) or su=net address with CI(R mas) Ae.'. 132.145.2.0.2< or 132.145.2.32.26B or s eci+ic host I> addressesD one address er %ine Authentication Mode%K Anonymo!s 2uest AccountK g!est chec) the =o5es =o5es Allo9 ,m-ty 1ass9ord and ,na$le =ome ire'tories Home (irectoriesK =rowse to the .o%ume to =e shared

&. 'onfigure t!e 'IFS ser,ice in "er.ices L CI$" with the +o%%owin' attri=utesK

*. Start t!e 'IFS ser,ice in "er.ices L Contro% "er.ices. C%ic) the c%ic) the red -$$ =utton ne5t to CI$". A+ter a second or soD it wi%% chan'e to a =%ue -ND indicatin' that the ser.ice has =een ena=%ed. %. *est t!e s!are. <o test the share +rom a Windows s:stemD o en 45 %orerD c%ic) on Networ) and :ou shou%d see an icon named F&,,NAS. "ince anon:mous access has =een con+i'uredD :ou shou%d not =e rom ted +or a username or assword in order to see the share. An e5am %e is seen in $i'ure /.3=. I+ :ou c%ic) on the F&,,NAS iconD :ou can .iew the contents o+ the CI$" share. <o re.ent Windows 45 %orer +rom han'in' when accessin' the shareD ma the share as a networ) dri.e. <o do thisD ri'ht;c%ic) the share and se%ect QMa networ) dri.e...R as seen in $i'ure /.3c.

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Figure 7.#(: Accessing t!e 'IFS S!are fro3 a .indo0s 'o3"uter

Figure 7.#c: 4a""ing t!e S!are as a Net0or7 6ri,e

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Choose a dri.e %etter +rom the dro ;down menu and c%ic) the $inish =utton as shown in $i'ure /.3d. Figure 7.#d: Se ecting t!e Net0or7 6ri,e <etter

7.#.#

'onfiguring <oca User Access

I+ :ou wou%d %i)e each user to authenticate =e+ore accessin' the CI$" shareD con+i'ure %oca% user access as +o%%owsK 1. If +ou are not using Acti,e 6irector+ or <6APJ create a user account for eac! user in Account L !sers L Add !ser with the +o%%owin' attri=utesK !sername and >asswordK matches the username and assword on the c%ient s:stem Home (irector:K =rowse to the .o%ume to =e shared Re eat this rocess to create a user account +or e.er: user that wi%% need access to the CI$" share

2. If +ou are not using Acti,e 6irector+ or <6APJ create a grou" in Account L 2rou s L Add FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 1$$ of 274

2rou . -nce the 'rou is createdD c%ic) its Mem=ers =utton and add the user accounts that :ou created in ste 1. 3. Gi,e t!e grou" "er3ission to t!e ,o u3e in "tora'e L 3iew 3o%umes. When settin' the ermissionsK set -wnerAuserB to no$ody set the -wnerA'rou B to the one :ou created in "te 2 ModeK chec) the write chec)=o5 +or the 2rou as it is unchec)ed =: de+au%t

&. 'reate a 'IFS s!are in "harin' L CI$" "hares L Add CI$" "hare with the +o%%owin' attri=utesK NameK in ut the name o+ the share >athK =rowse to the .o%ume to =e shared )ee the #rowsa=%e to Networ) C%ients =o5 chec)ed

N9*:: =e care+u% a=out unchec)in' the #rowsa=%e to Networ) C%ients =o5. When this =o5 is chec)ed Athe de+au%tBD other users wi%% see the names o+ e.er: share that e5ists usin' Windows 45 %orerD =ut the: wi%% recei.e a ermissions denied error messa'e i+ the: tr: to access someone e%se's share. I+ this =o5 is unchec)edD e.en the owner o+ the share won't see it or =e a=%e to create a dri.e ma in' +or the share in Windows 45 %orer. Howe.erD the: can sti%% access the share +rom the command %ine. !nchec)in' this o tion ro.ides %imited securit: and is not a su=stitute +or ro er ermissions and assword contro%. $. 'onfigure t!e 'IFS ser,ice in Ser,ices O 'IFS as +o%%owsK Authentication Mode%K i+ :ou are not usin' Acti.e (irector: or 9(A>D se%ect :o'al 8ser Wor)'rou K i+ :ou are not usin' Acti.e (irector: or 9(A>D set to the name =ein' used on the Windows networ)O un%ess it has =een chan'edD the de+au%t Windows wor)'rou name is J@&KH&@81 ,. Start t!e 'IFS ser,ice in "er.ices L Contro% "er.ices. C%ic) the c%ic) the red -$$ =utton ne5t to CI$". A+ter a second or soD it wi%% chan'e to a =%ue -ND indicatin' that the ser.ice has =een ena=%ed. /. *est t!e s!are. <o test the share +rom a Windows s:stemD o en 45 %orer and c%ic) on Networ). $or this con+i'uration e5am %eD a s:stem named F&,,NAS shou%d a ear with a share named $a'k!-s. I+ :ou c%ic) on $a'k!-sD a Windows "ecurit: o ;u screen shou%d rom t +or the user's username and assword. -nce authenticatedD the user can co : data to and +rom the CI$" share. N9*:: since the share is 'rou writa=%eD an: authenticated user can chan'e the data in the share. I+ :ou wish to setu shares where a 'rou o+ users ha.e access to some +o%ders =ut on%: indi.idua%s ha.e access to other +o%ders Awhere a%% these +o%ders reside on the same .o%umeBD create these directories and set their ermissions usin' "he%%. Instructions +or doin' so can =e +ound at the +orum ost "et >ermission to a%%ow users to share a common +o%der ] ha.e ri.ate ersona% +o%der.

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7.#.4

'onfiguring S!ado0 'o"ies

"hadow Co iesD a%so )nown as the 3o%ume "hadow Co : "er.ice A3""B or >re.ious 3ersionsD is a Microso+t ser.ice +or creatin' .o%ume sna shots. "hadow co ies a%%ow :ou to easi%: restore re.ious .ersions o+ +i%es +rom within Windows 45 %orer. "hadow Co : su ort is =ui%t into 3ista and Windows /. Windows 7> or 2000 users need to insta%% the "hadow Co : c%ient. When :ou create a eriodic sna shot tas) on a 0$" .o%ume that is con+i'ured as a CI$" share in $reeNA"1D it is automatica%%: con+i'ured to su ort shadow co ies.
3.3.!.1 /rere6uisites

#e+ore usin' shadow co ies with $reeNA"1D =e aware o+ the +o%%owin' ca.eatsK i+ the Windows s:stem is not +u%%: atched to the %atest ser.ice ac)D "hadow Co ies ma: not wor). I+ :ou are una=%e to see an: re.ious .ersions o+ +i%es to restoreD use Windows ! date to ma)e sure that the s:stem is +u%%: u ;to;date. at this timeD shadow co : su ort on%: wor)s +or 0$" oo%s or datasets. <his means that the CI$" share must =e con+i'ured on a .o%ume or datasetD not on a director:. (irector: su ort wi%% =e added in a +uture .ersion o+ $reeNA"1. since directories can not =e shadow co ied at this timeD i+ :ou con+i'ure Q4na=%e home directoriesR on the CI$" ser.iceD an: data stored in the user's home director: wi%% not =e shadow co ied. shadow co ies wi%% not wor) with a manua% sna shotD :ou must create a eriodic sna shot tas) +or the oo% or dataset =ein' shared =: CI$" or a recursi.e tas) +or a arent dataset. At this timeD i+ mu%ti %e sna shot tas)s are created +or the same oo%@dataset =ein' shared =: CI$"D shadow co ies wi%% on%: wor) on the %ast e5ecuted tas) at the time the CI$" ser.ice started. A +uture .ersion o+ $reeNA"1 wi%% address this %imitation. the eriodic sna shot tas) shou%d =e created and at %east one sna shot shou%d e5ist be*ore creatin' the CI$" share. I+ :ou created the CI$" share +irstD restart the CI$" ser.ice in "er.ices L Contro% "er.ices. a ro riate ermissions must =e con+i'ured on the .o%ume@dataset =ein' shared =: CI$". users can not de%ete shadow co ies on the Windows s:stem due to the wa: "am=a wor)s. InsteadD the administrator can remo.e sna shots +rom the $reeNA"1 administrati.e 2!I. <he on%: wa: to disa=%e shadow co ies com %ete%: is to remo.e the eriodic sna shot tas) and de%ete a%% sna shots associated with the CI$" share.
3.3.!.2 Configuration *2a& le

In this e5am %eD a Windows / com uter has two usersK !ser1 and !ser2. <o con+i'ure $reeNA"1 to ro.ide shadow co : su ortK 1. $or the 0$" .o%ume named .mnt.dataD create two 0$" datasets in "tora'e L 3o%umes L @mnt@data L Create 0$" (ataset. <he +irst dataset is named .mnt.data.!ser1 and the second dataset is named .mnt.data.!ser2. 2. I+ :ou are not usin' Acti.e (irector: or 9(A>D create two usersD !ser1 and !ser2 in Account L FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 1$7 of 274

!sers L Add !ser. 4ach user has the +o%%owin' attri=utesK !sername and >asswordK matches that user's username and assword on the Windows s:stem Home (irector:K =rowse to the dataset created +or that user

3. "et the ermissions on .mnt.data.!ser1 so that the -wnerAuserB and -wnerA'rou B is !ser1. "et the ermissions on .mnt.data.!ser2 so that the -wnerAuserB and -wnerA'rou B is !ser2. $or each dataset's ermissionsD ti'hten the Mode so that -ther can not read or e5ecute the in+ormation on the dataset. &. Create two eriodic sna shot tas)s in "tora'e L >eriodic "na shot <as)s L Add >eriodic "na shotD one +or each dataset. A%ternati.e%:D :ou can create one eriodic sna shot tas) +or the entire data .o%ume. ,e*ore co%ti%!i%# to the %ext $te"/ con+irm that at %east one sna shot +or each dataset is dis %a:ed in the 0$" "na shots ta=. When creatin' :our sna shotsD )ee in mind how o+ten :our users need to access modi+ied +i%es and durin' which da:s and time o+ da: the: are %i)e%: to ma)e chan'es. *. Create two CI$" shares in "harin' L Windows ACI$"B "hares L Add Windows ACI$"B "hare. <he +irst CI$" share is named !ser1 and has a >ath o+ .mnt.data.!ser1O the second CI$" share is named !ser2 and has a >ath o+ .mnt.data.!ser2. When creatin' the +irst shareD c%ic) the No =utton when the o ;u =utton as)s i+ the CI$" ser.ice shou%d =e started. When the %ast share is createdD c%ic) the Fes =utton when the o ;u =utton rom ts to start the CI$" ser.ice. 3eri+: that the CI$" ser.ice is set to -N in "er.ices L Contro% "er.ices. ,. $rom a Windows s:stemD %o'in as !ser1 and o en Windows 45 %orer L Networ) L $R44NA". <wo shares shou%d a earD named !ser1 and !ser2. (ue to the ermissions on the datasetsD !ser1 shou%d recei.e an error i+ the: c%ic) on the !ser2 share. (ue to the ermissions on the datasetsD !ser1 shou%d =e a=%e to createD addD and de%ete +i%es and +o%ders +rom the !ser1 share. $i'ure /.3e ro.ides an e5am %e o+ usin' shadow co ies whi%e %o''ed in as !ser1. In this e5am %eD the user ri'ht;c%ic)ed modified file and se%ected QRestore re.ious .ersionsR +rom the menu. <his articu%ar +i%e has three .ersionsK the current .ersionD %us two re.ious .ersions stored on the $reeNA"1 s:stem. <he user can choose to o en one o+ the re.ious .ersionsD co : a re.ious .ersion to the current +o%derD or restore one o+ the re.ious .ersionsD which wi%% o.erwrite the e5istin' +i%e on the Windows s:stem.

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Figure 7.#e: ?ie0ing Pre,ious ?ersions 0it!in :-" orer

Ser,ices 'onfiguration
A$> CI$" (irector: "er.ices (:namic (N" $<>

<he "er.ices section o+ the 2!I a%%ows :ou to con+i'ureD startD and sto the .arious ser.ices that shi with the $reeNA"1 s:stem. $reeNA"1 su orts the +o%%owin' =ui%t;in ser.icesK

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i"C"I N$" Rs:nc ".M.A.R.<. "NM> ""H <$<> !>"

<his section demonstrates how to start a $reeNA"1 ser.ice then descri=es the a.ai%a=%e con+i'uration o tions +or each $reeNA"1 ser.ice.

).1

'ontro Ser,ices

"er.ices L Contro% "er.icesD shown in $i'ure 6.1aD a%%ows :ou to Euic)%: determine which ser.ices are current%: runnin'D to start and sto ser.icesD and to con+i'ure ser.ices. #: de+au%tD a%% ser.ices Ae5ce t +or the ".M.A.R.<. ser.iceB are o++ unti% :ou start them. Figure ).1a: 'ontro Ser,ices

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A ser.ice is sto ed i+ its icon is a red -$$. A ser.ice is runnin' i+ its icon is a =%ue -N. <o start or sto a ser.iceD c%ic) its -N@-$$ icon. <o con+i'ure a ser.iceD c%ic) the wrench icon associated with the ser.ice or c%ic) the name o+ the ser.ice in the "er.ices section o+ the tree menu. I+ a ser.ice does not startD 'o to ":stem L "ettin's L Ad.anced and chec) the =o5 Q"how conso%e messa'es in the +ooterR. Conso%e messa'es wi%% now show at the =ottom o+ :our =rowser. I+ :ou c%ic) the conso%e messa'es areaD it wi%% o ;u as a windowD a%%owin' :ou to scro%% throu'h the out ut and to co : messa'es. Watch these messa'es +or errors when :ou sto and start the ro=%ematic ser.ice. I+ :ou wou%d %i)e to read the s:stem %o's to 'et more in+ormation a=out a ser.ice +ai%ureD o en "he%% and t: e 3ore E,arE ogE3essages.

).2

AFP

<he A %e $i%in' >rotoco% AA$>B is a networ) rotoco% that o++ers +i%e ser.ices +or Mac com uters. #e+ore con+i'urin' this ser.iceD :ou shou%d +irst create :our A$> "hares in "harin' L A %e AA$>B "hares L Add A %e AA$>B "hare. A+ter con+i'urin' this ser.iceD 'o to "er.ices L Contro% "er.ices to start the ser.ice. <he A$> shares wi%% not =e a.ai%a=%e on the networ) i+ this ser.ice is not runnin'. "tartin' this ser.ice wi%% o en the +o%%owin' orts on the $reeNA"1 s:stemK <C> *&6 Aa+ dB <C> &/99 AcnidGmetadataB !(> *3*3 and a random !(> ort Aa.ahiB

$i'ure 6.2a shows the con+i'uration o tions which are descri=ed in <a=%e 6.2a. Figure ).2a: AFP 'onfiguration

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*a( e ).2a: AFP 'onfiguration 9"tions Setting 2uest Access 2uest Account ?a ue chec)=o5 dro ;down menu 6escri"tion i+ chec)edD c%ients wi%% not =e rom ted to authenticate =e+ore accessin' the A$> share se%ect account to use +or 'uest accessO the se%ected account must ha.e ermissions to the .o%ume@dataset =ein' shared ma5imum num=er o+ simu%taneous connections i+ chec)edD an: user home directories %ocated under =ome dire'tories wi%% =e a.ai%a=%e o.er the share se%ect the .o%ume or dataset which contains user home directories

Ma5 Connections inte'er 4na=%e home chec)=o5 directories Home directories #rowse =utton

When con+i'urin' home directoriesD it is recommended to create a dataset to ho%d the home directories which contains a chi%d dataset +or each user. As an e5am %eD create a dataset named #ol!me1.homedirs and =rowse to this dataset when con+i'urin' the QHome directoriesR +ie%d o+ the A$> ser.ice. <henD as :ou create each userD +irst create a chi%d dataset +or that user. $or e5am %eD create a dataset named #ol!me1.homedirs.!ser1. When :ou create the !ser1 userD =rowse to the #ol!me1.homedirs.!ser1 dataset in the QHome (irector:R +ie%d o+ the QAdd New !serR screen. ).2.1 *rou( es!ooting

I+ :ou recei.e a Q"omethin' wron' with the .o%ume's CNI( (#R error messa'eD run the +o%%owin' command +rom "he%%D re %acin' the ath to the ro=%ematic A$> shareK
dbd -rf /path/to/share

<his command ma: ta)e a whi%eD de endin' u on the si8e o+ the .o%ume or dataset =ein' shared. <his command wi%% wi e the CNI( data=ase and re=ui%d it +rom the CNII(s stored in the A %e(ou=%e +i%es.

).#

'IFS

<he Common Internet $i%e ":stem ACI$"B is a networ) rotoco% that o++ers +i%e ser.ices +or At: ica%%:B Windows com uters. !ni5;%i)e s:stems that ro.ide a CI$" c%ient can a%so connect to CI$" shares. #e+ore con+i'urin' this ser.iceD :ou shou%d +irst create :our CI$" shares in "harin' L Windows ACI$"B "hares L Add Windows ACI$"B "hare. A+ter con+i'urin' this ser.iceD 'o to "er.ices L Contro% "er.ices to start the ser.ice. <he CI$" shares wi%% not =e a.ai%a=%e on the networ) i+ this ser.ice is not runnin'. N9*:: a+ter startin' the CI$" ser.iceD it ma: ta)e se.era% minutes +or the master =rowser e%ection to occur and +or the $reeNA"1 s:stem to =ecome a.ai%a=%e in Windows 45 %orer. "tartin' this ser.ice wi%% o en the +o%%owin' orts on the $reeNA"1 s:stemK <C> 139 Asm=dB <C> &&* Asm=dB !(> 13/ Anm=dB Page 1%2 of 274

FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide

!(> 136 Anm=dB

$i'ure 6.3a shows the con+i'uration o tions which are descri=ed in <a=%e 6.3a. <his con+i'uration screen is rea%%: a +ront;end to sm=.con+A*B. Figure ).#a: 'onfiguring 'IFS

*a( e ).#a: 'IFS 'onfiguration 9"tions Setting Authentication Mode% Net#I-" Name Wor)'rou (escri tion (-" Charset !NI7 Charset 9o' 9e.e% ?a ue dro ;down menu strin' strin' strin' dro ;down menu dro ;down menu dro ;down menu 6escri"tion choices are Anonymo!s or :o'al 8serL this settin' is i'nored i+ the Acti.e (irector: or 9(A> ser.ice is runnin' must =e %owercase and and is automatica%%: o u%ated with the hostname o+ the $reeNA"1 s:stemO it (!$t =e di++erent +rom the Jorkgro!- name must match Windows wor)'rou nameO this settin' is i'nored i+ the Acti.e (irector: or 9(A> ser.ice is runnin' o tiona% the character set "am=a uses when communicatin' with (-" and Windows 95@M4 c%ientsO de+au%t is "1<36 de+au%t is 8?F-5 which su orts a%% characters in a%% %an'ua'es

choices are ;inim!mD NormalD F!llD or e$!g

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Setting 9oca% Master

?a ue chec)=o5

<ime "er.er +or (omain 2uest Account $i%e mas) (irector: mas) 4A "u ort "u ort (-" $i%e Attri=utes A%%ow 4m t: >assword

chec)=o5 dro ;down menu inte'er inte'er chec)=o5 chec)=o5 chec)=o5

Au5i%iar: strin' arameters 4na=%e home chec)=o5 directories 4na=%e home chec)=o5 directories =rowsin' =rowse Home directories =utton Homes au5i%iar: arameters !ni5 45tensions 0erocon+ share disco.er: strin' chec)=o5 chec)=o5

6escri"tion determines whether or not the $reeNA"1 s:stem artici ates in a =rowser e%ectionO shou%d =e disa=%ed when networ) contains an A( or 9(A> ser.er and is not necessar: i+ 3ista or Windows / machines are resent determines whether or not the $reeNA"1 s:stem ad.ertises itse%+ as a time ser.er to Windows c%ientsO shou%d =e disa=%ed when networ) contains an A( or 9(A> ser.er account to =e used +or 'uest accessO that account must ha.e ermission to access the shared .o%ume@dataset o.errides de+au%t +i%e creation mas) o+ 0,,, which creates +i%es with read and write access +or e.er:=od: o.errides de+au%t director: creation mas) o+ 0/// which 'rants director: readD write and e5ecute access +or e.er:=od: ena=%es e5tended attri=utes a%%ows a user who has write access to a +i%e to modi+: the ermissionsD e.en i+ not the owner o+ the +i%e i+ chec)edD users can Iust ress enter when rom ted +or a asswordO reEuires that the username@ assword =e the same +or the $reeNA"1 user account and the Windows user account sm$.'onf o tions not co.ered e%sewhere in this screenO see the "am=a 2uide +or additiona% settin's i+ chec)edD a +o%der with the same name as the user account wi%% =e created +or each user users can =rowse A=ut not write toB other users' home directories se%ect .o%ume@dataset where the home directories wi%% =e created o tions s eci+ic to the [homes\ section o+ sm$.'onfO +or e5am %eD !ide dot fi es D +es hides +i%es =e'innin' with a dot in home directories a%%ows non;Windows CI$" c%ients to access s:m=o%ic %in)s and hard %in)sD has no a++ect on Windows c%ients ena=%e i+ Mac c%ients wi%% =e connectin' to the CI$" share a%%ows :ou to s eci+: hostnames rather than I> addresses in the Hosts A%%ow or Hosts (en: +ie%ds o+ a CI$" shareO unchec) i+ :ou on%: use I> addresses as it sa.es the time o+ a host %oo)u

Hostnames %oo)u s chec)=o5

#e'innin' with $reeNA"1 6.0.3;R494A"4D chan'es to CI$" settin's and CI$" shares ta)e e++ect immediate%:. $or re.ious .ersionsD chan'es wi%% not ta)e e++ect unti% :ou manua%%: sto and start the FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 1%4 of 274

CI$" ser.ice. N9*:: do not set the dire'tory name 'a'he si/e as an au5i%iar: arameter. (ue to di++erences in how 9inu5 and #"( hand%e +i%e descri torsD director: name cachin' is disa=%ed on #"( s:stems in order to im ro.e er+ormance. ).#.1 *rou( es!ooting *i"s

"am=a is sin'%e threadedD so C>! s eed ma)es a =i' di++erence in CI$" er+ormance. Four t: ica% 2.*2h8 Inte% Euad core or 'reater shou%d =e ca a=%e to hand%e s eeds in e5cess o+ 2= 9AN whi%e %ow ower C>!s such as Inte% Atoms and AM( C;30s^4;3*0^4;&*0 wi%% not =e a=%e to achie.e more than a=out 30;&0M#@sec t: ica%%:. Remem=er that other %oadin' such as 0$" %oadin' wi%% a%so reEuire C>! resources and ma: cause "am=a er+ormance to =e %ess than o tima%. "am=a's Qwrite cacheR arameter has =een re orted to im ro.e write er+ormance in some con+i'urations and can =e added to the Au5i%iar: >arameters +ie%d. !se an inte'er .a%ue which is a mu%ti %e o+ G"CG>A24"I04 At: ica%%: &09,B to a.oid memor: +ra'mentation. <his wi%% increase "am=a's memor: reEuirements and shou%d not =e used on s:stems with %imited RAM. I+ :ou wish to increase networ) er+ormanceD read the "am=a section on soc)et o tions. It indicates which o tions are a.ai%a=%e and recommends that :ou e5 eriment to see which are su orted =: :our c%ients and im ro.e :our networ)'s er+ormance. Windows automatica%%: caches +i%e sharin' in+ormation. I+ :ou ma)e chan'es to a CI$" share or to the ermissions o+ a .o%ume@dataset =ein' shared =: CI$" and are no %on'er a=%e to access the shareD tr: %o''in' out and =ac) into the Windows s:stem. A%ternate%:D users can t: e net use Ede ete P +rom the command %ine to c%ear their "M# sessions. Windows a%so automatica%%: caches %o'in in+ormation. I+ :ou wish users to =e rom ted to %o'in e.er: time access is reEuiredD reduce the cache settin's on the c%ient com uters. Where ossi=%eD a.oid usin' a mi5 o+ case in +i%enames as this ma: cause con+usion +or Windows users. Re resentin' and reso%.in' +i%enames with "am=a e5 %ains this in more detai%. I+ ermissions wor) +or Windows users =ut not +or -" 7 usersD tr: disa=%in' 8ni( ,(tensions and restartin' the CI$" ser.ice. I+ the CI$" ser.ice wi%% not startD run this command +rom "he%% to see i+ there is an error in the con+i'urationK
testparm /usr/local/etc/smb.conf

<he Common 4rrors section o+ the "am=a documentation contains additiona% trou=%eshootin' ti s.

).4

6irector+ Ser,ices
orts the +o%%owin' director: ser.icesK Acti.e (irector: A+or Windows 2000 and hi'her networ)sB 9(A> NI"

$reeNA"1 su

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N<& A+or Windows networ)s o%der than Windows 2000B <his section summari8es each o+ these ser.ices and their a.ai%a=%e con+i'urations within the $reeNA"1 2!I. N9*:: at this timeD on%: one director: ser.ice can =e con+i'ured. <hat ser.ice must +irst =e se%ected in the ":stem L "ettin's L 2enera% L (irector: "er.ice dro ;down menu. -nce se%ectedD a (irector: "er.ice entr: wi%% =e added to "er.ices L Contro% "er.ices so that the ser.ice can =e startedD sto edD and con+i'ured. ).4.1 Acti,e 6irector+

Acti.e (irector: AA(B is a ser.ice +or sharin' resources in a Windows networ). A( can =e con+i'ured on a Windows ser.er that is runnin' Windows "er.er 2000 or hi'her or on a !ni5;%i)e o eratin' s:stem that is runnin' "am=a .ersion &. "ince A( ro.ides authentication and authori8ation ser.ices +or the users in a networ)D :ou do not ha.e to recreate these user accounts on the $reeNA"1 s:stem. InsteadD con+i'ure the Acti.e (irector: ser.ice so that it can im ort the account in+ormation and im orted users can =e authori8ed to access the CI$" shares on the $reeNA"1 s:stem. N9*:: i+ :our networ) contains an N<& domain contro%%erD or an: domain contro%%er containin' a .ersion which is ear%ier than Windows 2000D con+i'ure N<& instead. Man: chan'es and im ro.ements ha.e =een made to Acti.e (irector: su ort within $reeNA"1. I+ :ou are not runnin' $reeNA"1 9.2.0;R494A"4D it is stron'%: recommended that :ou u 'rade =e+ore attem tin' Acti.e (irector: inte'ration. ,e*ore co%*i#!ri%# the Acti'e Director) $er'ice D ensure name reso%ution is ro er%: con+i'ured =: "ingin' the domain name o+ the Acti.e (irector: domain contro%%er +rom "he%% on the $reeNA"1 s:stem. I+ the "ing +ai%sD chec) the (N" ser.er and de+au%t 'atewa: settin's in Networ) L 2%o=a% Con+i'uration on the $reeNA"1 s:stem. Ne5tD add a (N" record +or the $reeNA"1 s:stem on the Windows ser.er and .eri+: that :ou can "ing the hostname o+ the $reeNA"1 s:stem +rom the domain contro%%er. Acti.e (irector: re%ies on Ker=erosD which is a time sensiti.e rotoco%. <his means that the time on =oth the $reeNA"1 s:stem and the Acti.e (irector: (omain Contro%%er can not =e out o+ s:nc =: more than a +ew minutes. <he =est wa: to ensure that the same time is runnin' on =oth s:stems is to con+i'ure =oth s:stems toK use the same N<> ser.er Aset in ":stem L N<> "er.ers on the $reeNA"1 s:stemB ha.e the same time8one =e set to either %oca%time or uni.ersa% time at the #I-" %e.e% $i'ure 6.&a shows the screen that a ears when :ou c%ic) "er.ices L (irector: "er.ices L Acti.e (irector:. <a=%e 6.&a descri=es the con+i'ura=%e o tions. "ome settin's are on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced Mode. <o see these settin'sD either c%ic) the Ad.anced Mode =utton or con+i'ure the s:stem to a%wa:s dis %a: these settin's =: chec)in' the =o5 Q"how ad.anced +ie%ds =: de+au%tR in ":stem L "ettin's L Ad.anced.

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Figure ).4a: 'onfiguring Acti,e 6irector+

*a( e ).4a: Acti,e 6irector+ 'onfiguration 9"tions Setting 6escri"tion name o+ Acti.e (irector: domain Ae.'. e(am-le.'omB or chi%d (omain Name strin' domain Ae.'. sales.e(am-le.'omB automatica%%: o u%ated with the hostname o+ the $reeNA"1 Net#I-" Name strin' s:stemO !$e ca!tio% -he% cha%#i%# thi$ $etti%# as settin' an incorrect .a%ue can corru t an A( insta%%ation Wor)'rou Name strin' name o+ Windows ser.er's wor)'rou A+or o%der Microso+t c%ientsB Administrator Name strin' name o+ the Acti.e (irector: administrator account Administrator >assword strin' assword +or the Acti.e (irector: administrator account on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO i+ chec)edD %o's attem ts to 3er=ose %o''in' chec)=o5 Ioin the domain to .#ar.log.messages on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO o%l) chec) this =o5 i+ the A( ser.er has =een e5 %icit%: con+i'ured to ma ermissions +or !NI7 e5tensions chec)=o5 !NI7 usersO chec)in' this =o5 ro.ides ersistent !I(s and 2!I(sD otherwiseD users@'rou s 'et ma ed to the !I(@2!I( ran'e con+i'ured in "am=a FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 1%7 of 274 ?a ue

Setting

6escri"tion on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO shou%d on%: =e ena=%ed i+ networ) has acti.e domain@+orest trusts and :ou need to mana'e A%%ow <rusted (omains chec)=o5 +i%es on mu%ti %e domainsO use with caution as it wi%% 'enerate more win=indd tra++icD s%owin' down the a=i%it: to +i%ter throu'h user@'rou in+ormation on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO when unchec)edD the domain name is re ended to the usernameO i+ Allo9 ?r!sted omains is !se de+au%t domain chec)=o5 chec)ed and mu%ti %e domains use the same usernamesD unchec) this =o5 to re.ent name co%%isions on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO can =e used to s eci+: (omain Contro%%er strin' hostname o+ domain contro%%er to use on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO can =e used to s eci+: 2%o=a% Cata%o' "er.er strin' hostname o+ '%o=a% cata%o' ser.er to use on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO can =e used to s eci+: Ker=eros "er.er strin' hostname o+ )er=eros ser.er to use Ker=eros >assword on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO can =e used to s eci+: strin' "er.er hostname o+ )er=eros assword ser.er to use on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO in secondsD increase i+ the A( A( timeout inte'er ser.ice does not start a+ter connectin' to the domain on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO in secondsD increase i+ A( (N" timeout inte'er (N" Eueries timeout N9*:: Acti.e (irector: %aces restrictions on which characters are a%%owed in (omain and Net#I-" names. I+ :ou are ha.in' ro=%ems connectin' to the rea%mD .eri+: that :our settin's do not inc%ude an: disa%%owed characters. A%soD the Administrator >assword cannot contain the M character. I+ a M e5ists in the domain administrator's asswordD )init wi%% re ort a Q>assword IncorrectR error and %da G=ind wi%% re ort an QIn.a%id credentia%s A&9BR error. -nce :ou ha.e con+i'ured the Acti.e (irector: ser.iceD start it in "er.ices L Contro% "er.ices L (irector: "er.ices. It ma: ta)e a +ew minutes +or the Acti.e (irector: in+ormation to =e o u%ated to the $reeNA"1 s:stem. -nce o u%atedD the A( users and 'rou s wi%% =e a.ai%a=%e in the dro ;down menus o+ the ermissions screen o+ a .o%ume@dataset. $or er+ormance reasonsD e.er: a.ai%a=%e user ma: not show in the %istin'. Howe.erD it wi%% autocom %ete a%% a %ica=%e users i+ :ou start t: in' in a username. Fou can .eri+: which Acti.e (irector: users and 'rou s ha.e =een im orted to the $reeNA"1 s:stem =: usin' these commands within the $reeNA"1 "he%%K
wbinfo -u wbinfo -g

?a ue

Ato .iew usersB Ato .iew 'rou sB

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In additionD 0(info >t wi%% test the connection andD i+ success+u%D wi%% 'i.e a messa'e simi%ar toK
checking the trust secret for domain YOURDOMAIN via RPC calls succeeded

<o manua%%: chec) that a s eci+ied user can authenticateK


net ads join -S dcname -U username

I+ no users or 'rou s are %isted in the out ut o+ those commandsD these commands wi%% ro.ide more trou=%eshootin' in+ormationK
getent passwd getent group

7.!.1.1

Troubleshooting Ti s

I+ :ou are runnin' A( in a 2003@2006 mi5ed domainD see this +orum ost +or instructions on how to re.ent the secure channe% )e: +rom =ecomin' corru t. Acti.e (irector: uses (N" to determine the %ocation o+ the domain contro%%ers and '%o=a% cata%o' ser.ers in the networ). !se the !ost >t sr, 8 da".8tc".do3ainna3e.co3 command to determine the networ)'s "R3 records andD i+ necessar:D chan'e the wei'ht and@or riorit: o+ the "R3 record to re+%ect the +astest ser.er. More in+ormation a=out "R3 records can =e +ound in the <echnet artic%e How (N" "u ort +or Acti.e (irector: Wor)s. <he rea%m that is used de ends u on the riorit: in the "R3 (N" recordD meanin' that (N" can o.erride :our Acti.e (irector: settin's. I+ :ou are una=%e to connect to the correct rea%mD chec) the "R3 records on the (N" ser.er. <his artic%e descri=es how to con+i'ure K(C disco.er: o.er (N" and ro.ides some e5am %es o+ records with di++erin' riorities. I+ the cache =ecomes out o+ s:nc due to an A( ser.er =ein' ta)en o++ and =ac) on%ineD res:nc the cache usin' ":stem L "ettin's L Ad.anced L Re=ui%d 9(A>@A( Cache. An e5 ired assword +or the administrator account wi%% cause )init to +ai% so ensure that the assword is sti%% .a%id. <r: creatin' a Com uter entr: on the Windows ser.er's -!. When creatin' this entr:D enter the $reeNA"1 hostname in the name +ie%d. Ma)e sure it is the same name as the one set in the =ostname +ie%d in Networ) L 2%o=a% Con+i'uration and the NetB7@S Name in "er.ices L (irector: "er.ices L Acti.e (irector: settin's. Ma)e sure the hostname o+ the domain contro%%er is set in the omain "ontroller +ie%d o+ "er.ices L (irector: "er.ices L Acti.e (irector:. ).4.2 <6AP

$reeNA"1 inc%udes an - en9(A> c%ient +or accessin' in+ormation +rom an 9(A> ser.er. An 9(A> ser.er ro.ides director: ser.ices +or +indin' networ) resources such as users and their associated ermissions. 45am %es o+ 9(A> ser.ers inc%ude Microso+t "er.er A2000 and newerBD Mac -" 7 "er.erD No.e%% e(irector:D and - en9(A> runnin' on a #"( or 9inu5 s:stem. I+ an 9(A> ser.er is runnin' on :our networ)D :ou shou%d con+i'ure the $reeNA"1 9(A> ser.ice so that the networ)'s FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 1%9 of 274

users can authenticate to the 9(A> ser.er and thus =e ro.ided authori8ed access to the data stored on the $reeNA"1 s:stem. N9*:: 9(A> wi%% not wor) with CI$" shares unti% the 9(A> director: has =een con+i'ured +or and o u%ated with "am=a attri=utes. <he most o u%ar scri t +or er+ormin' this tas) is sm=%da ;too%s and instructions +or usin' it can =e +ound at <he 9inu5 "am=a;- en9(A> Howto. $i'ure 6.&= shows the 9(A> Con+i'uration screen that is seen when :ou c%ic) "er.ices L (irector: "er.ices L 9(A>. Figure ).4(: 'onfiguring <6AP

<a=%e 6.&= summari8es the a.ai%a=%e con+i'uration o tions. I+ :ou are new to 9(A> termino%o':D s)im throu'h the - en9(A> "o+tware 2.& Administrator's 2uide. *a( e ).4(: <6AP 'onfiguration 9"tions Setting Hostname #ase (N A%%ow Anon:mous #indin' Root =ind (N ?a ue strin' strin' chec)=o5 strin' 6escri"tion hostname or I> address o+ 9(A> ser.er to %e.e% o+ the 9(A> director: tree to =e used when searchin' +or resources Ae.'. d'>test2d'>orgB instructs 9(A> ser.er to not ro.ide authentication and to a%%ow read@write access to an: c%ient name o+ administrati.e account 'n>;anager2d'>test2d'>orgG on 9(A> ser.er Ae.'.

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Setting Root =ind assword >assword 4ncr: tion !ser "u++i5 2rou "u++i5 >assword "u++i5 Machine "u++i5 4ncr: tion Mode "e%+ si'ned certi+icate Au5i%iar: >arameters

?a ue strin' dro ;down menu strin' strin' strin' strin' dro ;down menu strin' strin'

6escri"tion assword +or &oot $ind N se%ect a t: e su orted =: the 9(A> ser.erD choices areK 'lear Aunencr: tedBD 'ry-tD mdDD ndsD ra'fD adD e(oo tiona%D can =e added to name when user account added to 9(A> director: Ae.'. de t. or com an: nameB o tiona%D can =e added to name when 'rou added to 9(A> director: Ae.'. de t. or com an: nameB o tiona%D can =e added to assword when assword added to 9(A> director: o tiona%D can =e added to name when s:stem added to 9(A> director: Ae.'. ser.erD accountin'B choices are @ffD SS:D or ?:S used to .eri+: the certi+icate o+ the 9(A> ser.er i+ ""9 connections are usedO aste the out ut o+ the command o"enss s8c ient >connect ser,er:"ort >s!o0certs %da .con+A*B o tionsD one er %ineD not co.ered =: other o tions in this screen

N9*:: $reeNA"1 automatica%%: a ends the root (N. <his means that :ou shou%d not inc%ude the sco e and root (N when con+i'urin' the userD 'rou D asswordD and machine su++i5es. A+ter con+i'urin' the 9(A> ser.iceD start it in "er.ices L Contro% "er.ices L (irector: "er.ices. I+ the ser.ice wi%% not startD re+er to the Common errors encountered when usin' - en9(A> "o+tware +or common errors and how to +i5 them. When trou=%eshootin' 9(A>D o en "he%% and %oo) +or error messa'es in .#ar.log.a!th.log. <o .eri+: that the users ha.e =een im ortedD t: e getent "ass0d +rom "he%%. <o .eri+: that the 'rou s ha.e =een im ortedD t: e getent grou".

).4.#

NIS

Networ) In+ormation "er.ice ANI"B is a ser.ice which maintains and distri=utes a centra% director: o+ !ni5 user and 'rou in+ormationD hostnamesD emai% a%iases and other te5t;=ased ta=%es o+ in+ormation. I+ a NI" ser.er is runnin' on :our networ)D the $reeNA"1 s:stem can =e con+i'ured to im ort the users and 'rou s +rom the NI" director:. A+ter con+i'urin' this ser.iceD start it in "er.ices L Contro% "er.ices L (irector: "er.ices. $i'ure 6.&c shows the con+i'uration screen which o ens when :ou c%ic) "er.ices L (irector: "er.ices L NI". <a=%e 6.&c summari8es the con+i'uration o tions.

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Figure ).4c: NIS 'onfiguration

*a( e ).4c: NIS 'onfiguration 9"tions Setting NI" domain NI" ser.ers "ecure mode Man:cast ?a ue strin' strin' 6escri"tion name o+ NI" domain comma de%imited %ist o+ hostnames or I> addresses i+ chec)edD : =indA6B wi%% re+use to =ind to an: NI" ser.er that is not runnin' chec)=o5 as root on a <C> ort num=er o.er 102& i+ chec)edD : =ind wi%% =ind to the ser.er that res onds the +astestO this is chec)=o5 use+u% when no %oca% NI" ser.er is a.ai%a=%e on the same su=net

).4.4

N*4

<his ser.ice shou%d on%: =e con+i'ured i+ the Windows networ)'s domain contro%%er is runnin' N<&. I+ it is notD :ou shou%d con+i'ure Acti.e (irector: instead. $i'ure 6.&d shows the con+i'uration screen that a ears when :ou c%ic) "er.ices L (irector: "er.ices L N<&. <hese o tions are summari8ed in <a=%e 6.&d. A+ter con+i'urin' the N<& ser.iceD start it in "er.ices L Contro% "er.ices L (irector: "er.ices.

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Figure ).4d: N*4 'onfiguration 9"tions

*a( e ).4d: N*4 'onfiguration 9"tions Setting (omain Contro%%er Net#I-" Name Wor)'rou Name Administrator Name Administrator >assword ?a ue strin' strin' strin' strin' strin' 6escri"tion hostname o+ domain contro%%er hostname o+ $reeNA"1 s:stem name o+ Windows ser.er's wor)'rou name o+ the domain administrator account in ut and con+irm the assword +or the domain administrator account

).$

6+na3ic 6NS

(:namic (N" A((N"B is use+u% i+ :our $reeNA"1 s:stem is connected to an I"> that eriodica%%: chan'es the I> address o+ the s:stem. With d:namic (N"D the s:stem can automatica%%: associate its current I> address with a domain nameD a%%owin' :ou to access the $reeNA"1 s:stem e.en i+ the I> address chan'es. ((N" reEuires :ou to re'ister with a ((N" ser.ice such as (:n(N". $i'ure 6.*a shows the ((N" con+i'uration screen and <a=%e 6.*a summari8es the con+i'uration o tions. <he .a%ues :ou need to in ut wi%% =e 'i.en to :ou =: the ((N" ro.ider. A+ter con+i'urin' ((N"D don't +or'et to start the ((N" ser.ice in "er.ices L Contro% "er.ices.

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Figure ).$a: 'onfiguring 66NS

*a( e ).$a: 66NS 'onfiguration 9"tions Setting >ro.ider (omain name !sername >assword ! date eriod $orced u date eriod Au5i%iar: arameters ?a ue 6escri"tion se.era% ro.iders are su ortedO i+ :our ro.ider is not %istedD %ea.e this dro ;down +ie%d =%an) and s eci+: the custom ro.ider in the A!(iliary -arameters menu +ie%d strin' +u%%: Eua%i+ied domain name Ae.'. yo!rname.dyndns.orgB strin' username used to %o'on to the ro.ider and u date the record strin' assword used to %o'on to the ro.ider and u date the record in secondsO =e care+u% with this settin' as the ro.ider ma: =%oc) :ou +or inte'er a=use i+ this settin' occurs more o+ten than the I> address chan'es in seconds so =e care+u% with this settin' as the ro.ider ma: =%oc) :ou inte'er +or a=useO issues a ((N" u date reEuest e.en when the address has not chan'ed so that the ser.ice ro.ider )nows that the account is sti%% acti.e additiona% arameters assed to the ro.ider durin' record u dateO an strin' e5am %e o+ s eci+:in' a custom ro.ider is dyndns*system defa!ltN-ro#ider.'om

).%

F*P

$reeNA"1 uses the ro+t d $<> ser.er to ro.ide $<> ser.ices. -nce the $<> ser.ice is con+i'ured and startedD c%ients can =rowse and down%oad data usin' a we= =rowser or $<> c%ient so+tware. <he ad.anta'e o+ $<> is that eas:;to;use cross; %at+orm uti%ities are a.ai%a=%e to mana'e u %oads to and FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 174 of 274

down%oads +rom the $reeNA"1 s:stem. <he disad.anta'e o+ $<> is that it is considered to =e an insecure rotoco%D meanin' that it shou%d not =e used to trans+er sensiti.e +i%es. I+ :ou are concerned a=out sensiti.e dataD see 4ncr: tin' $<>. <his section ro.ides an o.er.iew o+ the $<> con+i'uration o tions. It then ro.ides e5am %es +or con+i'urin' anon:mous $<>D s eci+ied user access within a chroot en.ironmentD encr: tin' $<> connectionsD and trou=%eshootin' ti s. ).%.1 F*P 'onfiguration 9"tions

$i'ure 6.,a shows the con+i'uration screen +or "er.ices L $<>. "ome settin's are on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced Mode. <o see these settin'sD either c%ic) the Ad.anced Mode =utton or con+i'ure the s:stem to a%wa:s dis %a: these settin's =: chec)in' the =o5 Q"how ad.anced +ie%ds =: de+au%tR in ":stem L "ettin's L Ad.anced. Figure ).%a: 'onfiguring F*P

<a=%e 6.,a summari8es the a.ai%a=%e o tions when con+i'urin' the $<> ser.erK *a( e ).%a: F*P 'onfiguration 9"tions Setting >ort C%ients Connections 9o'in Attem ts ?a ue inte'er inte'er inte'er inte'er 6escri"tion ort the $<> ser.ice %istens on ma5imum num=er o+ simu%taneous c%ients ma5imum num=er o+ connections er I> address where 0 means un%imited ma5imum num=er o+ attem ts =e+ore c%ient is disconnectedO increase this i+ users are rone to t: os Page 17$ of 274

FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide

Setting <imeout A%%ow Root 9o'in A%%ow Anon:mous 9o'in >ath A%%ow 9oca% !ser 9o'in

?a ue inte'er chec)=o5 chec)=o5 =rowse =utton chec)=o5

6escri"tion ma5imum c%ient id%e time in seconds =e+ore c%ient is disconnected discoura'ed as increases securit: ris) ena=%es anon:mous $<> %o'ins with access to the director: s eci+ied in 1ath root director: +or anon:mous $<> connections

reEuired i+ Anonymo!s :ogin is disa=%ed messa'e dis %a:ed to %oca% %o'in users a+ter authenticationO (is %a: 9o'in strin' not dis %a:ed to anon:mous %o'in users on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO sets de+au%t ermissions $i%e >ermission chec)=o5es +or new%: created +i%es on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO sets de+au%t ermissions (irector: >ermission chec)=o5es +or new%: created directories on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO ena=%es $i%e e7chan'e 4na=%e $7> chec)=o5 >rotoco% which is discoura'ed as it ma)es the ser.er .u%nera=%e to $<> =ounce attac)s A%%ow <rans+er Resum tion chec)=o5 a%%ows $<> c%ients to resume interru ted trans+ers a %oca% user is on%: a%%owed access to their home director: A%wa:s Chroot chec)=o5 un%ess the user is a mem=er o+ 'rou 9heel ReEuire I(4N< on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO wi%% resu%t in timeouts i+ chec)=o5 Authentication identd is not runnin' on the c%ient >er+orm Re.erse (N" er+orm re.erse (N" %oo)u s on c%ient I>sO can cause %on' chec)=o5 9oo)u s de%a:s i+ re.erse (N" is not con+i'ured u=%ic I> address or hostnameO set i+ $<> c%ients can not MasEuerade address strin' connect throu'h a NA< de.ice on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO used =: c%ients in >A"3 Minimum assi.e ort inte'er modeD de+au%t o+ 0 means an: ort a=o.e 1023 on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO used =: c%ients in >A"3 Ma5imum assi.e ort inte'er modeD de+au%t o+ 0 means an: ort a=o.e 1023 9oca% user u %oad on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO in K#@sD de+au%t o+ 0 inte'er =andwidth means un%imited 9oca% user down%oad on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO in K#@sD de+au%t o+ 0 inte'er =andwidth means un%imited Anon:mous user u %oad on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO in K#@sD de+au%t o+ 0 inte'er =andwidth means un%imited Anon:mous user down%oad on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO in K#@sD de+au%t o+ 0 inte'er =andwidth means un%imited 4na=%e <9" chec)=o5 on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO ena=%es encr: ted FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 17% of 274

Setting

?a ue

<9" o%ic:

<9" a%%ow c%ient rene'otiations

<9" a%%ow dot %o'in

<9" a%%ow er user <9" common name reEuired <9" ena=%e dia'nostics <9" e5 ort certi+icate data

<9" no certi+icate reEuest

<9" no em t: +ra'ments <9" no session reuse reEuired <9" e5 ort standard .ars <9" use im %icit ""9 <9" (N" name reEuired <9" I> address reEuired

6escri"tion connectionsO i+ not ro.idedD a certi+icate wi%% automatica%%: =e 'enerated and wi%% a ear in the "ertifi'ate and -ri#ate key =o5 once :ou c%ic) -K on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO the se%ected o%ic: dro ;down de+ines whether the contro% channe%D data channe%D =oth menu channe%sD or neither channe%D o+ an $<> session must occur o.er ""9@<9"O the o%icies are descri=ed here on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO chec)in' this =o5 is %ot recommended as it =rea)s se.era% securit: measuresO +or this chec)=o5 and the rest o+ the <9" +ie%dsD re+er to modGt%s +or more detai%s on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO i+ chec)edD the user's home director: is chec)ed +or a .tlslogin +i%e which contains chec)=o5 one or more >4M;encoded certi+icatesO i+ not +oundD the user wi%% =e rom ted +or assword authentication on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO i+ chec)edD the user's chec)=o5 assword ma: =e sent unencr: ted on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO i+ chec)edD the common chec)=o5 name in the certi+icate must match the $?(N o+ the host on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO i+ chec)ed when chec)=o5 trou=%eshootin' a connectionD wi%% %o' more .er=ose%: on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO i+ chec)edD e5 orts the chec)=o5 certi+icate en.ironment .aria=%es on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO tr: chec)in' this =o5 i+ the c%ient can not connect and :ou sus ect that the c%ient chec)=o5 so+tware is not ro er%: hand%in' the ser.er's certi+icate reEuest on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO chec)in' this =o5 is %ot chec)=o5 recommended as it =: asses a securit: mechanism on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO chec)in' this =o5 reduces chec)=o5 the securit: o+ the connection so on%: do so i+ the c%ient does not understand reused ""9 sessions on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO i+ chec)edD sets se.era% chec)=o5 en.ironment .aria=%es on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO i+ chec)edD wi%% =rea) chec)=o5 c%ients that e5 ect e5 %icit connections on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO i+ chec)edD the c%ient's chec)=o5 (N" name must reso%.e to its I> address and the cert must contain the same (N" name chec)=o5 on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO i+ chec)edD the c%ient's certi+icate must contain the I> address that matches the I> Page 177 of 274

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Setting Certi+icate and ri.ate )e: Au5i%iar: arameters

?a ue strin' strin'

6escri"tion address o+ the c%ient on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO the ""9 certi+icate and ri.ate )e: to =e used +or <9" $<> connections on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO inc%ude ro+t dA6B arameters not co.ered e%sewhere in this screen arameters that wi%% re.ent a%% users +rom

<he +o%%owin' e5am %e demonstrates the au5i%iar: er+ormin' the $<> (494<4 commandK
<Limit DELE> DenyAll </Limit>

).%.2

Anon+3ous F*P

Anon:mous $<> ma: =e a ro riate +or a sma%% networ) where the $reeNA"1 s:stem is not accessi=%e +rom the Internet and e.er:one in :our interna% networ) needs eas: access to the stored data. Anon:mous $<> does not reEuire :ou to create a user account +or e.er: user. In additionD asswords are not reEuired so :ou don't ha.e to mana'e chan'ed asswords on the $reeNA"1 s:stem. <o con+i'ure anon:mous $<>K 1. Gi,e t!e (ui t>in ft" user account "er3issions to the .o%ume@dataset to =e shared in "tora'e L 3o%umes as +o%%owsK -wnerAuserBK se%ect the =ui%t;in ft- user +rom the dro ;down menu -wnerA'rou BK se%ect the =ui%t;in ft- 'rou +rom the dro ;down menu ModeK re.iew that the ermissions are a ro riate +or the share

N9*:: +or $<>D the t: e o+ c%ient does not matter when it comes to the t: e o+ AC9. <his means that :ou a%wa:s use !ni5 AC9sD e.en i+ Windows c%ients wi%% =e accessin' $reeNA"1 .ia $<>. 2. 'onfigure anon+3ous F*P in "er.ices L $<> =: settin' the +o%%owin' attri=utesK chec) the =o5 Allo9 Anonymo!s :ogin >athK =rowse to the .o%ume@dataset@director: to =e shared

3. Start t!e F*P ser,ice in Contro% "er.ices. C%ic) the red -$$ =utton ne5t to $<>. A+ter a second or soD it wi%% chan'e to a =%ue -N D indicatin' that the ser.ice has =een ena=%ed. &. *est t!e connection +rom a c%ient usin' a uti%it: such as $i%e8i%%a. In the e5am %e shown in $i'ure 6.,=D a user has in ut the +o%%owin' in+ormation into the $i%e8i%%a c%ientK I> address o+ the $reeNA"1 ser.erK 132.145.1.113 !sernameK anonymo!s FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 17) of 274

>asswordK the emai% address o+ the user Figure ).%(: 'onnecting Using Fi e=i a

<he messa'es within the c%ient indicate that the $<> connection is success+u%. <he user can now na.i'ate the contents o+ the root +o%der on the remote site_this is the .o%ume@dataset that was s eci+ied in the $<> ser.ice con+i'uration. <he user can a%so trans+er +i%es =etween the %oca% site Atheir s:stemB and the remote site Athe $reeNA"1 s:stemB. ).%.# S"ecified User Access in c!root

I+ :ou reEuire :our users to authenticate =e+ore accessin' the data on the $reeNA"1 s:stemD :ou wi%% need to either create a user account +or each user or im ort e5istin' user accounts usin' Acti.e (irector: or 9(A>. I+ :ou then create a 0$" dataset +or each userD :ou can chroot each user so that the: are %imited to the contents o+ their own home director:. (atasets ro.ide the added =ene+it o+ con+i'urin' a Euota so that the si8e o+ the user's home director: is %imited to the si8e o+ the Euota. <o con+i'ure this scenarioK 1. 'reate a ;FS dataset for eac! user in "tora'e L 3o%umes. C%ic) an e5istin' 0$" .o%ume L Create 0$" (ataset and set an a ro riate Euota +or each dataset. Re eat this rocess to create a dataset +or e.er: user that wi%% need access to the $<> ser.ice. 2. If +ou are not using A6 or <6APJ create a user account for eac! user in Account L !sers L Add !ser. $or each userD =rowse to the dataset created +or that user in the =ome ire'tory +ie%d. Re eat this rocess to create a user account +or e.er: user that wi%% need access to the $<> ser.iceD ma)in' sure to assi'n each user their own dataset. 3. Set t!e "er3issions for eac! dataset in "tora'e L 3o%umes. C%ic) the Chan'e >ermissions =utton +or a dataset to assi'n a user account as -wner o+ that dataset and to set the desired ermissions +or that user. Re eat +or each dataset. N9*:: +or $<>D the t: e o+ c%ient does not matter when it comes to the t: e o+ AC9. <his means that :ou a%wa:s use !ni5 AC9sD e.en i+ Windows c%ients wi%% =e accessin' $reeNA"1 .ia $<>. &. 'onfigure F*P in "er.ices L $<> with the +o%%owin' attri=utesK >athK =rowse to the arent .o%ume containin' the datasets

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ma)e sure the =o5es +or Allo9 Anonymo!s :ogin and Allo9 &oot :ogin are !%chec0ed chec) the =o5 Allo9 :o'al 8ser :ogin chec) the =o5 Al9ays "hroot

*. Start t!e F*P ser,ice in Contro% "er.ices. C%ic) the red -$$ =utton ne5t to $<>. A+ter a second or soD it wi%% chan'e to a =%ue -N D indicatin' that the ser.ice has =een ena=%ed. ,. *est t!e connection fro3 a c ient usin' a uti%it: such as $i%e8i%%a. <o test this con+i'uration in $i%e8i%%aD use the I> address o+ the $reeNA"1 s:stemD the !sername o+ a user that has =een associated with a datasetD and the >assword +or that user. <he messa'es shou%d indicate that the authori8ation and the $<> connection are success+u%. <he user can now na.i'ate the contents o+ the root +o%der on the remote site_this time it is not the entire .o%ume =ut the dataset that was created +or that user. <he user shou%d =e a=%e to trans+er +i%es =etween the %oca% site Atheir s:stemB and the remote site Atheir dataset on the $reeNA"1 s:stemB. ).%.4 :ncr+"ting F*P

<o con+i'ure an: $<> scenario to use encr: ted connectionsK 1. :na( e *<S in "er.ices L $<>. Chec) the =o5 ,na$le ?:S. -nce :ou ress -KD a certi+icate and )e: wi%% automatica%%: =e 'enerated +or :ou and ro+t d wi%% restart and =e con+i'ured to use that certi+icate. I+ :ou re+er to use :our own certi+icateD de%ete the automatica%%: 'enerated one that a ears in the "ertifi'ate and -ri#ate key field and aste in :our own certi+icate and )e:. 2. S"ecif+ secure F*P 0!en accessing t!e FreeNAS s+ste3. $or e5am %eD in $i%e8i%%a in ut ft-s)..71*address A+or an im %icit connectionB or ft-es)..71*address A+or an e5 %icit connectionB as the Host when connectin'. <he +irst time a user connectsD the: shou%d =e resented with the certi+icate o+ the $reeNA"1 s:stem. C%ic) -K to acce t the certi+icate and ne'otiate an encr: ted connection. <o +orce encr: ted connectionsD add the +o%%owin' %ine to Au5i%iar: >arametersK
TLS Required on

).%.$

*rou( es!ooting

<he $<> ser.ice wi%% not start i+ it can not reso%.e the s:stem's hostname to an I> address usin' (N". <o see i+ the $<> ser.ice is runnin'D o en "he%% and issue the commandK
sockstat -4p 21

I+ there is nothin' %istenin' on ort 21D ro+t d isn't runnin'. <o see the error messa'e that occurs when $reeNA"1 tries to start the $<> ser.iceD 'o to ":stem L "ettin's L Ad.ancedD chec) the =o5 Q"how conso%e messa'es in the +ooterR and c%ic) "a.e. Ne5tD 'o to "er.ices L Contro% "er.ices and switch the $<> ser.ice o++ then =ac) on in the 2!I. Watch the conso%e messa'es at the =ottom o+ the =rowser +or errors. I+ the error re+ers to (N"D either create an entr: in :our %oca% (N" ser.er with the $reeNA"1 s:stem's hostname and I> address or add an entr: +or the I> address o+ the $reeNA"1 s:stem in the QHost name FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 1)0 of 274

data=aseR +ie%d o+ Networ) L 2%o=a% Con+i'uration.

).7

iS'SI

i"C"I is a rotoco% standard +or the conso%idation o+ stora'e data. i"C"I a%%ows $reeNA"1 to act %i)e a stora'e area networ) A"ANB o.er an e5istin' 4thernet networ). " eci+ica%%:D it e5 orts dis) de.ices o.er an 4thernet networ) that i"C"I c%ients Aca%%ed initiatorsB can attach to and mount. <raditiona% "ANs o erate o.er +i=re channe% networ)s which reEuire a +i=re channe% in+rastructure such as +i=re channe% H#AsD +i=re channe% switchesD and discrete ca=%in'. i"C"I can =e used o.er an e5istin' 4thernet networ)D a%thou'h dedicated networ)s can =e =ui%t +or i"C"I tra++ic in an e++ort to =oost er+ormance. i"C"I a%so ro.ides an ad.anta'e in an en.ironment that uses Windows she%% ro'ramsO these ro'rams tend to +i%ter QNetwor) 9ocationR =ut i"C"I mounts are not +i%tered. $reeNA"1 uses ist't to ro.ide i"C"I. #e+ore con+i'urin' the i"C"I ser.iceD :ou shou%d =e +ami%iar with the +o%%owin' i"C"I termino%o':K '&AP: an authentication method which uses a shared secret and three;wa: authentication to determine i+ a s:stem is authori8ed to access the stora'e de.ice and to eriodica%%: con+irm that the session has not =een hiIac)ed =: another s:stem. In i"C"ID the initiator Ac%ientB er+orms the CHA> authentication. 4utua '&AP: a su erset o+ CHA> in that =oth ends o+ the communication authenticate to each other. Initiator: a c%ient which has authori8ed access to the stora'e data on the $reeNA"1 s:stem. <he c%ient reEuires initiator so+tware to connect to the i"C"I share. *arget: a stora'e resource on the $reeNA"1 s:stem. :-tent: the stora'e unit to =e shared. It can either =e a +i%e or a de.ice. <UN: stands +or 9o'ica% !nit Num=er and re resents a %o'ica% "C"I de.ice. An initiator ne'otiates with a tar'et to esta=%ish connecti.it: to a 9!NO the resu%t is an i"C"I connection that emu%ates a connection to a "C"I hard dis). Initiators treat i"C"I 9!Ns the same wa: as the: wou%d a raw "C"I or I(4 hard dri.eO rather than mountin' remote directoriesD initiators +ormat and direct%: mana'e +i%es:stems on i"C"I 9!Ns. $reeNA"1 su orts mu%ti %e i"C"I dri.es. When con+i'urin' mu%ti %e i"C"I 9!NsD create a new tar'et +or each 9!N. >orta% 'rou s and initiator 'rou s can =e reused without an: issue. "ince ist't mu%ti %e5es a tar'et with mu%ti %e 9!Ns o.er the same <C> connectionD :ou wi%% e5 erience contention +rom <C> i+ there is more than one tar'et er 9!N. In order to con+i'ure i"C"IK 1. (ecide i+ :ou wi%% use authenticationD and i+ soD whether it wi%% =e CHA> or mutua% CHA>. I+ usin' authenticationD create an authori8ed access. 2. Create either a de.ice e5tent or a +i%e e5tent to =e used as stora'e. 3. (etermine which hosts are a%%owed to connect usin' i"C"I and create an initiator. &. Create at %east one orta%. *. Re.iew the tar'et '%o=a% con+i'uration arameters. ,. Create a tar'et. /. Associate a tar'et with an e5tent. FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 1)1 of 274

6. "tart the i"C"I ser.ice in "er.ices L Contro% "er.ices. <he rest o+ this section descri=es these ste s in more detai%. ).7.1 Aut!ori=ed Accesses

I+ :ou wi%% =e usin' CHA> or mutua% CHA> to ro.ide authenticationD :ou must create an authori8ed access in "er.ices L I"C"I L Authori8ed Accesses L Add Authori8ed Access. <his screen is shown in $i'ure 6./a. N9*:: this screen sets %o'in authentication. <his is di++erent +rom disco.er: authentication which is set in <ar'et 2%o=a% Con+i'uration. Figure ).7a: Adding an iS'SI Aut!ori=ed Access

<a=%e 6./a summari8es the settin's that can =e con+i'ured when addin' an authori8ed accessK *a( e ).7a: Aut!ori=ed Access 'onfiguration Settings Setting 2rou I( ?a ue 6escri"tion a%%ows di++erent 'rou s to =e con+i'ured with di++erent authentication inte'er ro+i%esO +or instanceD a%% users with a 2rou I( o+ 1 wi%% inherit the authentication ro+i%e associated with 2rou 1 name o+ user account that wi%% =e created on the $reeNA"1 de.ice +or strin' CHA> authentication with the user on the remote s:stemO man: initiators de+au%t to usin' the initiator name as the user assword to =e associated with 8serO the i"C"I standard reEuires that this strin' =e at %east 12 characters %on' Page 1)2 of 274

!ser "ecret

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Setting >eer !ser >eer "ecret

?a ue 6escri"tion on%: in ut when con+i'urin' mutua% CHA>O in most cases it wi%% need to =e strin' the same .a%ue as 8ser the mutua% secret assword which (!$t be di**ere%t tha% the Secret O strin' reEuired i+ the 1eer 8ser is set

N9*:: CHA> does not wor) with 2%o=a%"AN initiators on Mac -" 7. As authori8ed accesses are addedD the: wi%% =e %isted under 3iew Authori8ed Accesses. In the e5am %e shown in $i'ure 6./=D three users A test1D test2D and test3B and two 'rou s A1 and 2B ha.e =een createdD with 'rou 1 consistin' o+ one CHA> user and 'rou 2 consistin' o+ one mutua% CHA> user and one CHA> user. C%ic) an authori8ed access entr: to dis %a: its 4dit and (e%ete =uttons. Figure ).7(: ?ie0ing Aut!ori=ed Accesses

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).7.2

:-tents

In i"C"ID the tar'et .irtua%i8es somethin' and resents it as a de.ice to the i"C"I c%ient. <hat somethin' can =e a de.ice e5tent or a +i%e e5tentK 6e,ice e-tent: .irtua%i8es an un+ormatted h:sica% dis)D RAI( contro%%erD 8.o%D 8.o% sna shotD or an e5istin' HA"< de.ice. 3irtua%i8in' a sin'%e dis) is s%ow as there is no cachin' =ut .irtua%i8in' a hardware RAI( contro%%er has hi'her er+ormance due to its cache. <his t: e o+ .irtua%i8ation does a ass;throu'h to the dis) or hardware RAI( contro%%er. None o+ the =ene+its o+ 0$" are ro.ided and er+ormance is %imited to the ca a=i%ities o+ the dis) or contro%%er. 3irtua%i8in' a 8.o% adds the =ene+its o+ 0$" such as its read cache and write cache. 4.en i+ the c%ient +ormats the de.ice e5tent with a di++erent +i%es:stemD as +ar as $reeNA"1 is concernedD the data =ene+its +rom 0$" +eatures such as =%oc) chec)sums and sna shots. Fi e e-tent: a%%ows :ou to e5 ort a ortion o+ a 0$" .o%ume. <he ad.anta'e o+ a +i%e e5tent is that :ou can create mu%ti %e e5 orts er .o%ume. In theor:D a 8.o% and a +i%e e5tent shou%d ha.e identica% er+ormance. In racticeD a +i%e e5tent out er+orms in reads@writes =ut this is on%: noticea=%e at 10 2# 4thernet s eeds or hi'her. $or hi'h er+ormanceD +i%e e5tents are recommended at this time. $uture chan'es to $ree#"('s 8.o% code wi%% increase its er+ormance.

7.3.2.1

Adding an *2tent

<o add an e5tentD 'o to "er.ices L I"C"I L 45tents L Add 45tent. In the e5am %e shown in $i'ure 6./cD the de.ice e5tent is usin' the e(-ort 8.o% that was re.ious%: created +rom the .mnt.#ol!me1 .o%ume. N9*:: in $reeNA"1 .ersions rior to 6.3.1D i+ a h:sica% dis) was used instead o+ a 8.o% to create a de.ice e5tentD a =u' wi ed the artition ta=%e on the dis)D resu%tin' in data %oss. <his =u' was +i5ed in 6.3.1. <a=%e 6./= summari8es the settin's that can =e con+i'ured when creatin' an e5tent. Note that *ile exte%t creatio% -ill *ail i* )o! do %ot a""e%d the %a(e o* the *ile to be created to the 'ol!(eHdata$et %a(e.

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Figure ).7c: Adding an iS'SI :-tent

*a( e ).7(: :-tent 'onfiguration Settings Setting 45tent Name 45tent <: e >ath to the e5tent (e.ice 45tent si8e Comment ?a ue strin' 6escri"tion name o+ e5tentO i+ the ,(tent si/e is not 0D it can not =e an e5istin' +i%e within the .o%ume@dataset

dro ;down se%ect +rom File or e#i'e menu on%: a ears i+ File is se%ectedO either =rowse to an e5istin' +i%e and use 0 =rowse as the ,(tent si/eD or =rowse to the .o%ume or datasetD c%ic) the C%ose =utton =uttonD a end the ,(tent Name to the athD and s eci+: a .a%ue in ,(tent si/e dro ;down on%: a ears i+ e#i'e is se%ectedO se%ect the un+ormatted dis)D contro%%erD menu 8.o%D 8.o% sna shotD or HA"< de.ice on%: a ears i+ File is se%ectedO i+ the si8e is s eci+ied as 0D the +i%e must inte'er a%read: e5ist and the actua% +i%e si8e wi%% =e usedO otherwise s eci+ies the si8e o+ the +i%e to create strin' o tiona%

).7.#

Initiators

<he ne5t ste is to con+i'ure authori8ed initiatorsD or the s:stems which are a%%owed to connect to the i"C"I tar'ets on the $reeNA"1 s:stem. <o con+i'ure which s:stems can connectD use "er.ices L FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 1)$ of 274

I"C"I L Initiators L Add InitiatorD shown in $i'ure 6./d. Figure ).7d: Adding an iS'SI Initiator

N9*:: =e'innin' with 6.2.0D $reeNA"1 contains iscontro%A6B. <his uti%it: a%%ows the $reeNA"1 s:stem to act as an initiator Arather than a tar'etB and must =e run +rom the command %ine. I+ :ou create a custom con+i'uration +or iscontro D =ac) it u as it wi%% not sur.i.e a re=oot o+ the s:stem. <a=%e 6./c summari8es the settin's that can =e con+i'ured when addin' an initiator. *a( e ).7c: Initiator 'onfiguration Settings Setting Initiators Authori8ed networ) Comment ?a ue 6escri"tion use A:: )e:word or a %ist o+ initiator hostnames se arated =: commas with strin' no s ace use A:: )e:word or a networ) address with CI(R mas) such as strin' 132.145.2.0.2< strin' o tiona% descri tion

In the e5am %e shown in $i'ure 6./eD two 'rou s ha.e =een created. 2rou 1 a%%ows connections +rom an: initiator on an: networ)O 2rou 2 a%%ows connections +rom an: initiator on the 10.10.1.0.2< networ). C%ic) an initiator's entr: to dis %a: its 4dit and (e%ete =uttons. N9*:: i+ :ou de%ete an initiatorD a warnin' wi%% indicate i+ an: tar'ets or tar'et@e5tent ma in's de end u on the initiator. I+ :ou con+irm the de%eteD these wi%% =e de%eted as we%%.

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Figure ).7e: Sa3" e iS'SI Initiator 'onfiguration

).7.4

Porta s

A orta% s eci+ies the I> address and ort num=er to =e used +or i"C"I connections. "er.ices L I"C"I L >orta%s L Add >orta% wi%% =rin' u the screen shown in $i'ure 6./+. <a=%e 6./d summari8es the settin's that can =e con+i'ured when addin' a orta%. I+ :ou need to assi'n additiona% I> addresses to the orta%D c%ic) the %in) QAdd e5tra >orta% I>R.

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Figure ).7f: Adding an iS'SI Porta

*a( e ).7d: Porta 'onfiguration Settings Setting Comment I> address >ort ?a ue strin' dro ;down menu inte'er 6escri"tion o tiona% descri tionO orta%s are automatica%%: assi'ned a numeric 'rou I( se%ect the I> address associated with an inter+ace or the wi%dcard address o+ 0.0.0.0 Aan: inter+aceB <C> ort used to access the i"C"I tar'etO de+au%t is 3240

$reeNA"1 s:stems with mu%ti %e I> addresses or inter+aces can use a orta% to ro.ide ser.ices on di++erent inter+aces or su=nets. <his can =e used to con+i'ure mu%ti; ath I@- AM>I-B. M>I- is more e++icient than a %in) a''re'ation. I+ the $reeNA"1 s:stem has mu%ti %e con+i'ured inter+acesD orta%s can a%so =e used to ro.ide networ) access contro%. $or e5am %eD consider a s:stem with +our inter+aces con+i'ured with the +o%%owin' addressesK 192.1,6.1.1@2& 192.1,6.2.1@2& 192.1,6.3.1@2& 192.1,6.&.1@2&

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Fou cou%d create a orta% containin' the +irst two I> addresses A'rou I( 1B and a orta% containin' the remainin' two I> addresses A'rou I( 2B. Fou cou%d then create a tar'et named A with a >orta% 2rou I( o+ 1 and a second tar'et named # with a >orta% 2rou I( o+ 2. In this scenarioD ist't wou%d %isten on a%% +our inter+acesD =ut connections to tar'et A wou%d =e %imited to the +irst two networ)s and connections to tar'et # wou%d =e %imited to the %ast two networ)s. Another scenario wou%d =e to create a orta% which inc%udes e.er: I> address exce"t +or the one used =: a mana'ement inter+ace. <his wou%d re.ent i"C"I connections to the mana'ement inter+ace.

).7.$

*arget G o(a 'onfiguration

"er.ices L i"C"I L <ar'et 2%o=a% Con+i'urationD shown in $i'ures 6./'D contains settin's that a %: to a%% i"C"I shares. <a=%e 6./e summari8es the settin's that can =e con+i'ured in the <ar'et 2%o=a% Con+i'uration screen. <he inte'er .a%ues in the ta=%e are used to tune networ) er+ormanceO most o+ these .a%ues are descri=ed in R$C 3/20. 9!C A9o'ica% !nit Contro%%erB is an A>I ro.ided =: ist't to contro% remo.a=%e media =: ro.idin' +unctions to %ist tar'etsD %oad or un%oad a media to a unitD chan'e media +i%eD or reset a 9!N. In order to d:namica%%: add or remo.e tar#et$ without restartin' the i"C"I ser.iceD which can disru t i"C"I initiatorsD set the +o%%owin' o tionsK chec) the ,na$le :8" =o5 %ea.e the "ontroller 71 address and "ontrol A!thori/ed Net9ork at their de+au%t .a%ues chan'e the "ontroller A!th ;ethod to None N9*:: the +o%%owin' o erations do reEuire that the i"C"I ser.ice =e restartedK editin' a tar'etD addin' or de%etin' 9!NsD or chan'in' the si8e o+ an e5istin' e5tent.

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Figure ).7g: iS'SI *arget G o(a 'onfiguration ?aria( es

*a( e ).7f: *arget G o(a 'onfiguration Settings Setting #ase Name (isco.er: Auth Method ?a ue 6escri"tion see the QConstructin' i"C"I names usin' the iEn. +ormatR section strin' o+ R$C 3/21 i+ :ou are un+ami%iar with this +ormat con+i'ures the authentication %e.e% reEuired =: the tar'et +or dro ;down disco.er: o+ .a%id de.icesD where None wi%% a%%ow anon:mous menu disco.er:D "=A1 and ;!t!al "=A1 reEuire authenticationD and A!to %ets the initiator decide the authentication scheme de ends on (isco.er: Auth Method settin'K reEuired i+ set to dro ;down "=A1 or ;!t!al "=A1D o tiona% i+ set to A!toD and not needed menu i+ set to None inte'er sets the %imit on how %on' an I@- can =e outstandin' =e+ore an re resentin' error condition is returnedO .a%ues ran'e +rom 0;300 with a seconds de+au%t o+ 30 Page 190 of 274

(isco.er: Auth 2rou

I@- <imeout

FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide

Setting N->IN Inter.a%

Ma5. "essions Ma5. Connections Ma5. re;send R2<

Ma5-utstandin'R2<

$irst =urst %en'th

Ma5 =urst %en'th Ma5 recei.e data se'ment %en'th (e+au%t<ime2Wait

?a ue 6escri"tion inte'er how o+ten the tar'et sends a N->;IN ac)et to )ee a disco.ered re resentin' session a%i.eO .a%ues ran'e +rom 0;300 with a de+au%t o+ 20 seconds %imits the num=er o+ sessions the tar'et orta% wi%% create@acce t inte'er +rom initiator orta%sO .a%ues ran'e +rom 1;,**3, with a de+au%t o+ 14 the num=er o+ connections a sin'%e initiator can ma)e to a sin'%e inte'er tar'etO .a%ues ran'e +rom 1;,**3, with a de+au%t o+ 5 inte'er .a%ues ran'e +rom 1;2** with a de+au%t o+ 32 the ma5imum num=er o+ read: to recei.e ac)ets AR2<sB the tar'et can ha.e outstandin' +or a sin'%e i"C"I commandD where %ar'er .a%ues shou%d :ie%d er+ormance increases unti% inte'er Ma5-utstandin'R2< e5ceeds the si8e o+ the %ar'est Write I@di.ided =: Ma5#urst9en'thO .a%ues ran'e +rom 1;2** with a de+au%t o+ 14 ma5imum amount in =:tes o+ unso%icited data an i"C"I initiator inte'er ma: send to the tar'et durin' the e5ecution o+ a sin'%e "C"I commandO .a%ues ran'e +rom 1; 2`32 with a de+au%t o+ 4D2D34 ma5imum write si8e in =:tes the tar'et is wi%%in' to recei.e inte'er =etween R2<sO .a%ues ran'e +rom 1;2`32 with a de+au%t o+ 24221<< inte'er inte'er in =:tesO .a%ues ran'e +rom 1;2`32 with a de+au%t o+ 24221<< minimum time in seconds to wait =e+ore attem tin' a %o'out or an acti.e tas) reassi'nment a+ter an une5 ected connection termination or resetO .a%ues ran'e +rom 1;300 with a de+au%t o+ 2 ma5imum time in seconds a+ter <ime2Wait =e+ore which an acti.e tas) reassi'nment is sti%% ossi=%e a+ter an une5 ected connection termination or resetO .a%ues ran'e +rom 1;300 with a de+au%t o+ 40 chec) i+ :ou need to d:namica%%: add and remo.e tar'etsO i+ chec)edD the ne5t three +ie%ds are acti.ated and reEuired )ee the de+au%t .a%ue o+ 126.0.0.1 ossi=%e .a%ues ran'e +rom 102&;,**3* with a de+au%t .a%ue o+ 3241 )ee the de+au%t .a%ue o+ 126.0.0.0.5 choices are NoneD A!toD "=A1D or ;!t!al "=A1 reEuired i+ Contro%%er Auth Method is set to "=A1 or ;!t!al "=A1D o tiona% i+ set to A!toD and not needed i+ set to None Page 191 of 274

(e+au%t<ime2Retain

inte'er

4na=%e 9!C Contro%%er I> address Contro%%er <C> ort

chec)=o5 I> address inte'er

Contro%%er Authori8ed su=net mas) netmas) Contro%%er Auth dro ;down Method menu dro ;down Contro%%er Auth 2rou menu FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide

I+ the settin's in this screen di++er +rom the settin's on the initiatorD set them to =e the same. When ma)in' chan'esD a%wa:s match the %ar'er settin'. I+ :ou are chan'in' inte'er .a%ues to o timi8e the connectionD re+er to the i"C"I initiator's documentation. $or e5am %eD the +o%%owin' modi+ications are recommended i+ the i"C"I initiator is runnin' on 7enser.erK Ma5. re;send R2<K 2DD Ma5-utstandin'R2<K 4< $irst =urst %en'thK 24221<< Ma5 =urst %en'thK 2203621D2

).7.%

*argets

Ne5tD create a <ar'et usin' "er.ices L I"C"I L <ar'ets L Add <ar'etD as shown in $i'ure 6./h. A tar'et com=ines a orta% I(D a%%owed initiator I(D and an authentication method. <a=%e 6./+ summari8es the settin's that can =e con+i'ured when creatin' a <ar'et. N9*:: an i"C"I tar'et creates a =%oc) de.ice that ma: =e accessi=%e to mu%ti %e initiators. A c%ustered +i%es:stem is reEuired on the =%oc) de.iceD such as 3M$" used =: 3MWare 4"7@4"7iD in order +or mu%ti %e initiators to mount the =%oc) de.ice read@write. I+ a traditiona% +i%es:stem such as 47<D 7$"D $A<D N<$"D !$"D or 0$" is %aced on the =%oc) de.iceD care must =e ta)en that on%: one initiator at a time has read@write access or the resu%t wi%% =e +i%es:stem corru tion. I+ :ou need to su ort mu%ti %e c%ients to the same data on a non;c%ustered +i%es:stemD use CI$" or N$" instead o+ i"C"I or create mu%ti %e i"C"I tar'ets Aone er c%ientB.

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Figure ).7!: Adding an iS'SI *arget

*a( e ).7f: *arget Settings Setting <ar'et Name <ar'et A%ias "eria% <ar'et $%a's ?a ue strin' strin' strin' 6escri"tion reEuired .a%ueO =ase name wi%% =e a ended automatica%%: i+ it does not start with iOn o tiona% user;+riend%: name uniEue I( +or tar'et to a%%ow +or mu%ti %e 9!NsO the de+au%t is 'enerated +rom the s:stem's MAC address choices are read-9rite or read-only %ea.e em t: or se%ect num=er o+ e5istin' orta% to use se%ect which e5istin' initiator 'rou has access to the tar'et choices are NoneD A!toD "=A1D or ;!t!al "=A1 None or inte'er re resentin' num=er o+ e5istin' authori8ed access see this ost +or an e5 %anation o+ the math in.o%.edO .a%ues are 0; 2** where 0 is disa=%ed and de+au%t is 32 Page 19# of 274

dro ;down menu dro ;down >orta% 2rou I( menu dro ;down Initiator 2rou I( menu dro ;down Auth Method menu Authentication dro ;down 2rou num=er menu ?ueue (e th inte'er

FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide

Setting

?a ue

9o'ica% #%oc) "i8e inte'er

6escri"tion shou%d on%: =e chan'ed to emu%ate a h:sica% dis)'s si8e or to increase the =%oc) si8e to a%%ow +or %ar'er +i%es:stems on an o eratin' s:stem %imited =: =%oc) countO de+au%t is D12

).7.7

*argetE:-tents

<he %ast ste is associatin' an e5tent to a tar'et within "er.ices L I"C"I L <ar'et@45tents L Add <ar'et@45tent. <his screen is shown in $i'ure 6./i. !se the dro ;down menus to se%ect the e5istin' tar'et and e5tent. Figure ).7i: Associating iS'SI *argetsE:-tents

<a=%e 6./' summari8es the settin's that can =e con+i'ured when associatin' tar'ets and e5tents. *a( e ).7g: *argetE:-tents 'onfiguration Settings Setting <ar'et 45tent ?a ue dro ;down menu dro ;down menu 6escri"tion se%ect the re;created tar'et se%ect the re;created e5tent

It is recommended to a%wa:s associate e5tents to tar'ets in a 1K1 mannerD e.en thou'h the 2!I wi%% a%%ow mu%ti %e e5tents to =e associated with the same tar'et. -nce i"C"I has =een con+i'uredD don't +or'et to start it in "er.ices L Contro% "er.ices. C%ic) the red -$$ =utton ne5t to i"C"I. A+ter a second or soD it wi%% chan'e to a =%ue -ND indicatin' that the ser.ice has started. ).7.) 'onnecting to iS'SI S!are

In order to access the i"C"I tar'etD c%ients wi%% need to use i"C"I initiator so+tware. An i"C"I Initiator c%ient is re;insta%%ed with Windows /. A detai%ed how;to +or this c%ient can =e +ound here. A c%ient +or Windows 2000D 7>D and 2003 can =e +ound here. <his how;to shows how to create an i"C"I tar'et +or a Windows / s:stem. Mac -" 7 does not inc%ude an initiator. '%o=a%"AN is a commercia%D eas:;to;use Mac initiator. #"( s:stems ro.ide command %ine initiatorsK iscontro%A6B comes with $ree#"(D iscsi;initiatorA6B FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 194 of 274

comes with Net#"(D and iscsidA6B comes with - en#"(. "ome 9inu5 distros ro.ide the command %ine uti%it: iscsiad3 +rom - en;i"C"I. !se a we= search to see i+ a ac)a'e e5ists +or :our distri=ution shou%d the command not e5ist on :our 9inu5 s:stem. I+ :ou add a 9!N whi%e iscsiad3 is a%read: connectedD it wi%% not see the new 9!N unti% :ou rescan usin' iscsiad3 >3 node >2. A%ternate%:D use iscsiad3 >3 disco,er+ >t st >" Q"orta 8IPR to +ind the new 9!N and iscsiad3 >3 node >* Q<UN8Na3eR > to %o' into the 9!N. Instructions +or connectin' +rom a 3Mware 4"7i "er.er can =e +ound at How to con+i'ure $reeNA" 6 +or i"C"I and connect to 4"7AiB. Note that the reEuirements +or =ootin' ." here &.5 o++ i"C"I di++er =etween 4"7 and 4"7i. 4"7 reEuires a hardware i"C"I ada ter whi%e 4"7i reEuires s eci+ic i"C"I =oot +irmware su ort. <he ma'ic is on the =ootin' host sideD meanin' that there is no di++erence to the $reeNA"1 con+i'uration. "ee the i"C"I "AN Con+i'uration 2uide +or detai%s. I+ :ou can see the tar'et =ut not connect to itD chec) the disco.er: authentication settin's in <ar'et 2%o=a% Con+i'uration. I+ the 9!N is not disco.ered =: 4"7iD ma)e sure that romiscuous mode is set to Acce t in the .switch. <o determine which initiators are connectedD t: e istgtcontro info within "he%%. ).7.9 Gro0ing <UNs

<he method used to 'row the si8e o+ an e5istin' i"C"I 9!N de ends on whether the 9!N is =ac)ed =: a +i%e e5tent or a 8.o%. #oth methods are descri=ed in this section. A+ter the 9!N is e5 anded usin' one o+ the methods =e%owD use the too%s +rom the initiator so+tware to 'row the artitions and the +i%es:stems it contains.
7.3.0.1 .vol Based +'$

#e+ore 'rowin' a 8.o% =ased 9!ND ma)e sure that a%% initiators are disconnected. "to the i"C"I ser.ice in Contro% "er.ices. - en "he%% and identi+: the 8.o% to =e 'rownK
zfs list -t volume NAME USED tank/iscsi_zvol 4G AVAIL 17.5G REFER 33.9M MOUNTPOINT -

<henD 'row the 8.o%. <his e5am %e 'rows tank.is'si*/#ol +rom &2 to ,2K
zfs set volsize=6G tank/iscsi_zvol zfs set refreservation=6G tank/iscsi_zvol

3eri+: that the chan'es ha.e ta)en e++ectK


zfs list -t volume NAME USED tank/iscsi_zvol 6G AVAIL 17.5G REFER 33.9M MOUNTPOINT -

Fou can now start the i"C"I ser.ice and a%%ow initiators to connect.

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7.3.0.2

#ile *2tent Based +'$

#e+ore 'rowin' a +i%e e5tent =ased 9!ND ma)e sure that a%% initiators are disconnected. "to the i"C"I ser.ice in Contro% "er.ices. <henD 'o to "er.ices L i"C"I L $i%e 45tents L 3iew $i%e 45tents to determine the ath o+ the +i%e e5tent to 'row. - en "he%% to 'row the e5tent. <his e5am %e 'rows .mnt.#ol!me1.data =: 22K
truncate -s +2g /mnt/volume1/data

2o =ac) to "er.ices L i"C"I L $i%e 45tents L 3iew $i%e 45tents and c%ic) the 4dit =utton +or the +i%e e5tent. "et the si8e to 0 as this causes the i"C"I tar'et to use the new si8e o+ the +i%e. Fou can now start the i"C"I ser.ice and a%%ow initiators to connect.

).)

NFS

Networ) $i%e ":stem AN$"B is a rotoco% +or sharin' +i%es on a networ). #e+ore con+i'urin' this ser.iceD :ou shou%d +irst create :our N$" "hares in "harin' L !ni5 AN$"B "hares L Add !ni5 AN$"B "hare. A+ter con+i'urin' this ser.iceD 'o to "er.ices L Contro% >ane% to start the ser.ice. "tartin' this ser.ice wi%% o en the +o%%owin' orts on the $reeNA"1 s:stemK <C> and !(> 111 Aused =: r"c(indB <C> 20&9 Aused =: nfsdB

Additiona%%:D 3ountd and r"c(ind wi%% each =ind to a random%: a.ai%a=%e !(> ort. $i'ure 6.6a shows the con+i'uration screen and <a=%e 6.6a summari8es the con+i'uration o tions +or the N$" ser.ice.

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Figure ).)a: 'onfiguring NFS

*a( e ).)a: NFS 'onfiguration 9"tions Setting 6escri"tion run s+sct >n 7ern.s3".c"us +rom "he%% to determine the num=erO Num=er o+ ser.ers inte'er do not e5ceed the num=er %isted in the out ut o+ that command A%%ow non;root mount chec)=o5 chec) this =o5 on%: i+ the N$" c%ient reEuires it se%ect the I> addressAesB to %isten +or N$" reEuestsO i+ %e+t #ind I> Addresses chec)=o5es unchec)edD N$" wi%% %isten on a%% a.ai%a=%e addresses mountdA6B =ind ort inte'er o tiona%O s eci+: ort +or mountdA6B to =ind to r c.statdA6B =ind ort inte'er o tiona%O s eci+: ort +or r c.statdA6B to =ind to r c.%oc)dA6B =ind ort inte'er o tiona%O s eci+: ort +or r c.%oc)dA6B to =ind to ?a ue

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).9

2s+nc

"er.ices L Rs:nc is used to con+i'ure an rs:nc ser.er when usin' rs:nc modu%e mode. "ee Con+i'urin' Rs:nc Modu%e Mode +or a con+i'uration e5am %e. <his section descri=es the con+i'ura=%e o tions +or the rs+ncd ser.ice and rs:nc modu%es. $i'ure 6.9a shows the rs:ncd con+i'uration screen which is accessed +rom "er.ices L Rs:nc L Con+i'ure Rs:ncd. Figure ).9a: 2s+ncd 'onfiguration

<a=%e 6.9a summari8es the o tions that can =e con+i'ured +or the rs:nc daemonK *a( e ).9a: 2s+nc 'onfiguration 9"tions Setting ?a ue 6escri"tion <C> >ort inte'er ort +or rs+ncd to %isten onD de+au%t is 563 Au5i%iar: arameters strin' additiona% arameters +rom rs:ncd.con+A*B

).9.1

2s+nc 4odu es

$i'ure 6.9= shows the con+i'uration screen that a ears when :ou c%ic) "er.ices L Rs:nc L Rs:nc Modu%es L Add Rs:nc Modu%e. <a=%e 6.9= summari8es the o tions that can =e con+i'ured when creatin' a rs:nc modu%e.

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Figure ).9(: Adding an 2s+nc 4odu e

*a( e ).9(: 2s+nc 4odu e 'onfiguration 9"tions Setting Modu%e name Comment >ath Access Mode Ma5imum connections !ser ?a ue strin' strin' =rowse =utton dro ;down menu inte'er 6escri"tion mandator:O needs to match the settin' on the rs:nc c%ient o tiona% descri tion .o%ume@dataset to ho%d recei.ed data choices are &ead and JriteD &ead-onlyD or Jrite-only 0 is un%imited se%ect user that +i%e trans+ers to and +rom that modu%e shou%d ta)e %ace as se%ect 'rou that +i%e trans+ers to and +rom that modu%e shou%d ta)e %ace as see rs:ncd.con+A*B +or a%%owed +ormats see rs:ncd.con+A*B +or a%%owed +ormats additiona% arameters +rom rs:ncd.con+A*B

dro ;down menu dro ;down 2rou menu Hosts a%%ow strin' Hosts den: strin' Au5i%iar: arameters strin'

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).10 S.4.A.2.*.
$reeNA"1 uses the smartdA6B ser.ice to monitor dis) ".M.A.R.<. data +or dis) hea%th. <o +u%%: con+i'ure ".M.A.R.<. :ou need toK 1. "chedu%e when to run the ".M.A.R.<. tests in ":stem L ".M.A.R.<. <ests L Add ".M.A.R.<. <est. 2. 4na=%e or disa=%e ".M.A.R.<. +or each dis) mem=er o+ a .o%ume in 3o%umes L 3iew 3o%umes. #: de+au%tD this is a%read: ena=%ed on a%% dis)s that su ort ".M.A.R.<. 3. Chec) the con+i'uration o+ the ".M.A.R.<. ser.ice as descri=ed in this section. &. "tart the ".M.A.R.<. ser.ice in "er.ices L Contro% "er.ices $i'ure 6.10a shows the con+i'uration screen that a ears when :ou c%ic) "er.ices L ".M.A.R.<. Figure ).10a: S.4.A.2.* 'onfiguration 9"tions

N9*:: s3artd wi%% wa)e u at e.er: "he'k 7nter#al con+i'ured in $i'ure 6.10a. It wi%% chec) the times :ou con+i'ured in :our tests Adescri=ed in $i'ure &.*aB to see i+ an: tests shou%d =e run. "ince the sma%%est time increment +or a test is an hour A,0 minutesBD it does not ma)e sense to set a chec) inter.a% .a%ue hi'her than ,0 minutes. $or e5am %eD i+ :ou set the chec) inter.a% +or 120 minutes and the smart test to e.er: hourD the test wi%% on%: =e run e.er: 2 hours since the daemon on%: wa)es u e.er: 2 hours. <a=%e 6.10a summari8es the o tions in the ".M.A.R.< con+i'uration screen. *a( e ).10a: S.4.A.2.* 'onfiguration 9"tions Setting ?a ue 6escri"tion in minutesD how o+ten to wa)e u s3artd to chec) to see i+ an: tests ha.e =een con+i'ured to run Page 200 of 274

Chec) inter.a% inte'er FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide

Setting >ower mode (i++erence

?a ue dro ;down menu inte'er in de'rees Ce%sius inte'er in de'rees Ce%sius inte'er in de'rees Ce%sius

In+ormationa%

Critica%

4mai% to re ort strin'

6escri"tion the con+i'ured test is not er+ormed i+ the s:stem enters the s eci+ied ower modeO choices areK Ne#erD Slee-D Stand$yD or 7dle de+au%t o+ 0 disa=%es this chec)D otherwise re orts i+ the tem erature o+ a dri.e has chan'ed =: N de'rees Ce%sius since %ast re ort de+au%t o+ 0 disa=%es this chec)D otherwise wi%% messa'e with a %o' %e.e% o+ 9-2GIN$- i+ the tem erature is hi'her than s eci+ied de'rees in Ce%sius de+au%t o+ 0 disa=%es this chec)D otherwise wi%% messa'e with a %o' %e.e% o+ 9-2GCRI< and send an emai% i+ the tem erature is hi'her than s eci+ied de'rees in Ce%sius emai% address o+ erson to recei.e ".M.A.R.<. a%ertO se arate mu%ti %e emai% reci ients with a comma and no s ace

).11 SN4P
"NM> A"im %e Networ) Mana'ement >rotoco%B is used to monitor networ);attached de.ices +or conditions that warrant administrati.e attention. $reeNA"1 can =e con+i'ured as a =snm dA6B ser.er usin' $ree#"('s sim %e and e5tensi=%e "NM> daemon. When :ou start the "NM> ser.iceD the +o%%owin' ort wi%% =e ena=%ed on the $reeNA"1 s:stemK !(> 1,1 A(sn3"d %istens here +or "NM> reEuestsB

A.ai%a=%e MI#" are %ocated in .!sr.share.SN;1.mi$s and .!sr.lo'al.share.SN;1.mi$s. $i'ure 6.11a shows the "NM> con+i'uration screen. <a=%e 6.11a summari8es the con+i'uration o tions.

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Figure ).11a: 'onfiguring SN4P

*a( e ).11a: SN4P 'onfiguration 9"tions Setting 9ocation Contact Communit: ?a ue strin' strin' strin' 6escri"tion o tiona% descri tion o+ $reeNA"1 s:stem's %ocation o tiona% emai% address o+ $reeNA"1 administrator assword used on the "NM> networ)D de+au%t is -!$li' and $ho!ld be cha%#ed *or $ec!rit) rea$o%$ additiona% =snm dA6B o tions not co.ered in this screenD one er %ine

Au5i%iar: >arameters strin'

).12 SS&
"ecure "he%% A""HB a%%ows +or +i%es to =e trans+erred secure%: o.er an encr: ted networ). I+ :ou con+i'ure :our $reeNA"1 s:stem as an ""H ser.erD the users in :our networ) wi%% need to use ""H c%ient so+tware in order to trans+er +i%es usin' ""H. <his section shows the $reeNA"1 ""H con+i'uration o tionsD demonstrates an e5am %e con+i'uration that restricts users to their home director:D and ro.ides some trou=%eshootin' ti s. ).12.1 SS& 'onfiguration Screen

$i'ure 6.12a shows the "er.ices L ""H con+i'uration screen. -nce :ou ha.e con+i'ured ""HD don't +or'et to start it in "er.ices L Contro% "er.ices.

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Figure ).12a: SS& 'onfiguration

<a=%e 6.12a summari8es the con+i'uration o tions. "ome settin's are on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced Mode. <o see these settin'sD either c%ic) the Ad.anced Mode =utton or con+i'ure the s:stem to a%wa:s dis %a: these settin's =: chec)in' the =o5 Q"how ad.anced +ie%ds =: de+au%tR in ":stem L "ettin's L Ad.anced. *a( e ).12a: SS& 'onfiguration 9"tions Setting <C> >ort 9o'in as Root with assword A%%ow >assword Authentication A%%ow <C> >ort $orwardin' Com ress Connections Host >ri.ate Ke: "$<> 9o' 9e.e% "$<> 9o' $aci%it: ?a ue inte'er chec)=o5 chec)=o5 chec)=o5 chec)=o5 strin' 6escri"tion ort to o en +or ""H connection reEuestsO 22 =: de+au%t *or $ec!rit) rea$o%$/ root lo#i%$ are di$co!ra#ed a%d di$abled b) de*a!ltI i+ ena=%edD assword must =e set +or root user in Account L !sers L 3iew !sers i+ unchec)edD )e: =ased authentication +or a%% users is reEuiredO reEuires additiona% setu on =oth the ""H c%ient and ser.er a%%ows users to =: ass +irewa%% restrictions usin' ""H's ort +orwardin' +eature ma: reduce %atenc: o.er s%ow networ)s

45tra - tions

on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO a%%ows :ou to aste a s eci+ic host )e: as the de+au%t )e: is chan'ed with e.er: insta%%ation dro ;down on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO se%ect the s:s%o'A3B %e.e% o+ the menu "$<> ser.er dro ;down on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO se%ect the s:s%o'A3B +aci%it: o+ menu the "$<> ser.er on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced ModeO additiona% sshdGcon+i'A*B o tions not co.ered in this screenD one er %ineO these o tions are strin' case;sensiti.e and mis;s e%%in's ma: re.ent the ""H ser.ice +rom startin' Page 20# of 274

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A +ew sshdGcon+i'A*B o tions that are use+u% to in ut in the ,(tra @-tions +ie%d inc%udeK ' ientA i,eInter,a K increase this num=er i+ ssh connections tend to dro ' ient4a-Startu"K de+au%ts to 10O increase i+ :ou ha.e more users

).12.2

'!rooting 'o33and <ine SF*P Users

#: de+au%t when :ou con+i'ure ""HD users can use the ss! command to %o'in to the $reeNA"1 s:stem. A user's home director: wi%% =e the .o%ume@dataset s eci+ied in the =ome ire'tory +ie%d o+ their user account on the $reeNA"1 s:stem. !sers can a%so use the sc" and sft" commands to trans+er +i%es =etween their %oca% com uter and their home director: on the $reeNA"1 s:stem. Whi%e these commands wi%% de+au%t to the user's home director:D users are a=%e to na.i'ate outside o+ their home director: which can ose a securit: ris). ""H su orts usin' a chroot to con+ine users to on%: the sft" command and to =e %imited to the contents o+ their own home director:. <o con+i'ure this scenario on $reeNA"1D er+orm the +o%%owin' ste s. N9*:: some uti%ities such as Win"C> can =: ass the chroot. <his section assumes that users are accessin' the chroot usin' the command %ine sft". 1. 'reate a ;FS dataset for eac! user reBuiring sft" access in "tora'e L 3o%umes. 2. If +ou are not using Acti,e 6irector+ or <6APJ create a user account +or each user in Account L !sers L Add !ser. In the =ome ire'tory +ie%dD =rowse to the %ocation o+ the dataset :ou created +or that user. Re eat this rocess to create a user account +or e.er: user that wi%% need access to the ""H ser.ice. 3. 'reate a grou" named sft- in Account L 2rou s L Add 2rou . <henD c%ic) on the sft- 'rou in 3iew 2rou s and add the users who are to =e restricted to their home directories when usin' sft". &. Set "er3issions for eac! dataset in "tora'e L 3o%ume L 3iew 3o%umes. ""H chroot is 'er) $"eci*ic with re'ards to the reEuired ermissions Asee the Chroot(irector: )e:word in sshdGcon+i'A*B +or detai%sB. 6o!r co%*i#!ratio% -ill %ot -or0 i* the "er(i$$io%$ o% the data$et$ !$ed b) SS7 chroot !$er$ di**er *ro( tho$e $ho-% i% Fi#!re A.:<b. *. Create a home director: within each dataset usin' "he%%. (ue to the ermissions reEuired =: ""H chrootD the user wi%% not ha.e ermissions to write to the root o+ their own dataset unti% :ou do this. "ince :our intention is to %imit them to the contents o+ their home director:D manua%%: create a home director: +or each user -ithi% their o-% data$et and chan'e the ownershi o+ the director: to the user. 45am %e 6.12a demonstrates the commands used to create a home director: ca%%ed !ser1 +or the user account !ser1 on dataset .mnt.#ol!me1.!ser1K

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Figure ).12(: Per3issions 2eBuired (+ SS& '!root

:-a3" e ).12a: 'reating a User/s &o3e 6irector+


mkdir /mnt/volume1/user1/user1 chown user1:user1 /mnt/volume1/user1/user1

,. 'onfigure SS& in "er.ices L ""H. Add these %ines to the 45tra - tions sectionK
Match Group sftp ChrootDirectory %h ForceCommand internal-sftp AllowTcpForwarding no

/. Start t!e SS& ser,ice in Contro% "er.ices. C%ic) the red -$$ =utton ne5t to ""H. A+ter a second or soD it wi%% chan'e to a =%ue -ND indicatin' that the ser.ice has =een ena=%ed. 6. *est t!e connection +rom a c%ient =: runnin' sft"D ss!D and sc" as the user. <he sft" command shou%d wor) =ut =e %imited to the user's home director: and the ss! and sc" commands shou%d +ai%. ).12.# *rou( es!ooting SS& 'onnections

I+ :ou add an: ,(tra @-tions in the ""H con+i'uration screenD =e aware that the )e:words %isted in sshdGcon+i'A*B are case sensiti.e. <his means that :our con+i'uration wi%% +ai% to do what :ou intended i+ :ou do not match the u er and %owercase %etters o+ the )e:word. I+ :our c%ients are recei.in' Qre.erse (N"R or timeout errorsD add an entr: +or the I> address o+ the $reeNA"1 s:stem in the =ost name data$ase +ie%d o+ Networ) L 2%o=a% Con+i'uration.

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When con+i'urin' ""HD a%wa:s test :our con+i'uration as an ""H user account to ensure that the user is %imited to what :ou ha.e con+i'ured and that the: ha.e ermission to trans+er +i%es within the intended directories. I+ the user account is e5 eriencin' ro=%emsD the ""H error messa'es are usua%%: rett: s eci+ic to what the ro=%em is. <: e the +o%%owin' command within "he%% to read these messa'es as the: occurK
tail -f /var/log/messages

Additiona% messa'es re'ardin' authentication errors ma: =e +ound in .#ar.log.a!th.log.

).1# *F*P
<ri.ia% $i%e <rans+er >rotoco% A<$<>B is a %i'ht;wei'ht .ersion o+ $<> usua%%: used to trans+er con+i'uration or =oot +i%es =etween machinesD such as routersD in a %oca% en.ironment. <$<> ro.ides an e5treme%: %imited set o+ commands and ro.ides no authentication. I+ the $reeNA"1 s:stem wi%% =e used to store ima'es and con+i'uration +i%es +or the networ)'s de.icesD con+i'ure and start the <$<> ser.ice. "tartin' the <$<> ser.ice wi%% o en !(> ort ,9. N9*:: in .ersions o+ $reeNA"1 rior to 6.3.0D <$<> is %imited to a ma5imum +i%e si8e o+ 32M#. $i'ure 6.13a shows the <$<> con+i'uration screen and <a=%e 6.13a summari8es the a.ai%a=%e o tionsK Figure ).1#a: *F*P 'onfiguration

*a( e ).1#a: *F*P 'onfiguration 9"tions Setting (irector: A%%ow New $i%es ?a ue 6escri"tion =rowse to the director: to =e used +or stora'eO some de.ices reEuire a =rowse =utton s eci+ic director: nameD re+er to the de.ice's documentation +or detai%s ena=%e i+ networ) de.ices need to send +i%es to the $reeNA"1 s:stem chec)=o5 Ae.'. =ac)u their con+i'B

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Setting >ort !sername !mas) 45tra o tions

?a ue inte'er dro ;down menu inte'er strin'

6escri"tion !(> ort to %isten +or <$<> reEuestsD 43 =: de+au%t account used +or t+t reEuestsO must ha.e ermission to the ire'tory umas) +or new%: created +i%esD de+au%t is 022 Ae.er:one can readD no=od: can writeBO some de.ices reEuire a %ess strict umas) additiona% t+t dA6B o tions not shown in this screenD one er %ine

).14 UPS
$reeNA"1 uses N!< ANetwor) !>" <oo%sB to ro.ide !>" su ort. I+ the $reeNA"1 s:stem is connected to a !>" de.iceD con+i'ure the !>" ser.ice then start it in "er.ices L Contro% "er.ices. $i'ure 6.1&a shows the !>" con+i'uration screenK Figure ).14a: UPS 'onfiguration Screen

<a=%e 6.1&a summari8es the o tions in the !>" Con+i'uration screen. *a( e ).14a: UPS 'onfiguration 9"tions Setting !>" Mode Identi+ier ?a ue dro ;down menu strin' 6escri"tion se%ect +rom ;aster or Sla#e can contain a% hanumericD eriodD commaD h: henD and underscore characters Page 207 of 274

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Setting (ri.er >ort Au5i%iar: >arameters (escri tion "hutdown mode "hutdown timer Monitor !ser Monitor >assword 45tra users Remote monitor "end 4mai% "tatus ! dates <o emai% 4mai% su=Iect

?a ue dro ;down menu dro ;down menu strin' strin' dro ;down menu

6escri"tion su orted !>" de.ices are %isted at htt K@@www.networ)u stoo%s.or'@sta=%e;hc%.htm% se%ect the seria% or !"# ort the !>" is %u''ed into Asee N-<4 =e%owB additiona% o tions +rom u s.con+A*B o tiona% choices are 81S goes on $attery and 81S rea'hes lo9 $attery in secondsO wi%% initiate shutdown a+ter this man: seconds inte'er a+ter !>" enters 81S goes on $atteryD un%ess ower is restored strin' de+au%t is !-smon de+au%t is )nown .a%ue fi(me-ass and shou%d =e chan'edO strin' can not contain a s ace or J de+ines the accounts that ha.e administrati.e accessO see strin' u sd.usersA*B +or e5am %es i+ ena=%edD =e aware that the de+au%t is to %isten on a%% chec)=o5 inter+aces and to use the )nown .a%ues user !-smon and assword fi(me-ass chec)=o5 i+ chec)edD acti.ates the ?o email +ie%d i+ Send ,mail =o5 chec)edD emai% address o+ erson to emai% address recei.e status u dates strin' i+ Send ,mail =o5 chec)edD su=Iect o+ emai% u dates

N9*:: +or !"# de.icesD the easiest wa: to determine the correct de.ice name is to chec) the =o5 Q"how conso%e messa'esR in ":stem L "ettin's L Ad.anced. >%u' in the !"# de.ice and the conso%e messa'es wi%% 'i.e the name o+ the .de#.!genX.X de.iceO where the 7's are the num=ers that show on the conso%e. u scA6B can =e used to 'et status .aria=%es +rom the !>" daemon such as the current char'e and in ut .o%ta'e. It can =e run +rom "he%% usin' the +o%%owin' s:nta5. <he man a'e 'i.es some other usa'e e5am %es.
upsc ups@localhost

u scmdA6B can =e used to send commands direct%: to the !>"D assumin' that the hardware su orts the command =ein' sent. -n%: users with administrati.e ri'hts can use this command. <hese users are created in the ,(tra !sers +ie%d.

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P ugins

$reeNA"1 6.2.0 introduced the a=i%it: to e5tend the =ui%t;in NA" ser.ices =: ro.idin' a mechanism +or insta%%in' additiona% so+tware. <his mechanism was )nown as the >%u'ins architecture and is =ased on $ree#"( Iai%s and >C;#"( >#Is. <his a%%owed users to insta%% and con+i'ure additiona% a %ications once the: had created and con+i'ured a %u'ins Iai%. $reeNA"1 9.5 sim %i+ies this rocedure =: ro.idin' two methods +or so+tware insta%%ation. <he >%u'ins methodD descri=ed in this sectionD is meant +or users who re+er to =rowse +orD insta%%D and con+i'ure a.ai%a=%e so+tware usin' the 2!I. <his method is .er: eas: to useD =ut is %imited in the amount o+ so+tware that is a.ai%a=%e. 4ach a %ication wi%% automatica%%: =e insta%%ed into its own Iai%D meanin' that this method ma: not =e suita=%e +or users who wish to run mu%ti %e a %ications within the same Iai%. <he Cai%s method ro.ides much more contro% o.er so+tware insta%%ation =ut assumes that the user is com+orta=%e wor)in' +rom the command %ine can and has a 'ood understandin' o+ networ)in' =asics and so+tware insta%%ation on $ree#"(;=ased s:stems. It is recommended that users s)im throu'h =oth the >%u'ins and Cai%s sections in order to =ecome +ami%iar with the +eatures and %imitations o+ each and to choose the method that =est meets their so+tware needs. (ue to A#I Aa s:stem. %ication =inar: inter+aceB chan'esD $reeNA"1 6.5 >#Is can not =e insta%%ed on a 9.5

9.1

Insta ing a FreeNAS P5I Using P ugins

A $reeNA"1 >#I is a se%+;contained a %ication insta%%er which has =een desi'ned to inte'rate into the $reeNA"1 2!I. A $reeNA"1 >#I o++ers se.era% ad.anta'esK the $reeNA"1 2!I ro.ides a =rowser +or .iewin' the %ist o+ a.ai%a=%e $reeNA"1 >#Is. <his %ist is a%so a.ai%a=%e at A.ai%a=%e $reeNA"1 >#Is. the $reeNA"1 2!I ro.ides =uttons +or insta%%in'D startin'D u 'radin'D and de%etin' $reeNA"1 >#Is. i+ the $reeNA"1 >#Is has con+i'uration o tionsD a screen wi%% =e added to the $reeNA"1 2!I so that these o tions can =e con+i'ured +rom the 2!I. $reeNA"1 >#Is can =e insta%%ed usin' either the >%u'ins or the Cai%s method. <o insta%% a $reeNA"1 >#I usin' the %u'ins methodD c%ic) >%u'ins. As seen in $i'ure 9.1aD the %ist o+ a.ai%a=%e $reeNA"1 >#Is wi%% =e dis %a:ed.

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Figure 9.1a: Using P ugins to Insta a P5I

N9*:: i+ the %ist o+ a.ai%a=%e >#Is is not dis %a:edD o en "he%% and .eri+: that the $reeNA"1 s:stem can "ing an address on the Internet. I+ it cannotD :ou ma: ha.e to add a de+au%t 'atewa: address and@or (N" ser.er address in Networ) L 2%o=a% Con+i'uration. Hi'h%i'ht the entr: o+ the >#I :ou wou%d %i)e to insta%%D then c%ic) its Insta%% =utton. In the e5am %e shown in $i'ure 9.1=D the transmission >#I is se%ected +or insta%%ation. Figure 9.1(: Se ecting a P5I to Insta

C%ic) Q-KR to start the insta%%ation. It wi%% ta)e a +ew minutes as the s:stem wi%% +irst down%oad and con+i'ure a Iai% to contain the insta%%ed so+tware. It wi%% then insta%% the >#I and add it to the QInsta%%edR FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 210 of 274

ta= as shown in $i'ure 9.1c. #e atient as it ma: ta)e a +ew minutes +or the insta%%ation to +inish. Figure 9.1c: ?ie0ing Insta ed P5Is

9.1.1

4anaging an Insta ed FreeNAS P5I

As seen in the e5am %e shown in $i'ure 9.1cD entries +or the insta%%ed >#I wi%% a ear in the +o%%owin' %ocationsK the Insta%%ed ta= o+ >%u'ins the >%u'ins section o+ the tree the Cai%s section o+ the tree <he entr: in the Insta%%ed ta= o+ >%u'ins wi%% dis %a: the %u'in name and .ersionD the name o+ the >#I that was insta%%edD the name o+ the Iai% that was createdD whether the a %ication status is -N or -$$D and a =utton to de%ete the a %ication and its associated Iai%. I+ a newer .ersion o+ the a %ication is a.ai%a=%eD a =utton to u date the a %ication wi%% a%so a ear. <he M"er.ice statusM o+ a >#I must =e turned to M-NM =e+ore the insta%%ed a %ication is a.ai%a=%e. #e+ore startin' the ser.iceD chec) to see i+ it has an: con+i'uration o tions =: c%ic)in' its entr: in the >%u'ins section o+ the tree. I+ the a %ication is con+i'ura=%eD this wi%% o en a 'ra hica% screen that contains its a.ai%a=%e con+i'uration o tions. <he o tions that are a.ai%a=%e wi%% .ar: =: >#I. >#Is which are not con+i'ura=%e wi%% instead dis %a: a messa'e with a h: er%in) +or accessin' the so+tware. <hat h: er%in) wi%% not wor) unti% the >#I is started. Fou shou%d a%wa:s re.iew a >#I's con+i'uration o tions =e+ore attem tin' to start it as some >#Is ha.e FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 211 of 274

o tions that need to =e set =e+ore their ser.ice wi%% success+u%%: start. I+ :ou ha.e ne.er con+i'ured this a %ication =e+oreD chec) the a %ication's we=site to see what documentation is a.ai%a=%e. A %in) to the we=site +or each a.ai%a=%e >#I can =e +ound in A.ai%a=%e $reeNA"1 >#Is. I+ the a %ication reEuires access to the data stored on the $reeNA"1 s:stemD c%ic) the entr: +or the associated Iai% in the Cai%s section o+ the tree and add a stora'e as descri=ed here. I+ :ou need to access the she%% o+ the Iai% containin' the a %ication to com %ete or test :our con+i'urationD c%ic) the entr: +or the associated Iai% in the Cai%s section o+ the tree. Fou can then c%ic) its she%% icon as descri=ed in Mana'in' Cai%s. -nce the con+i'uration is com %eteD c%ic) the red -$$ =utton in the entr: +or the >#I. I+ the ser.ice success+u%%: startsD it wi%% chan'e to a =%ue -N. I+ it +ai%s to startD c%ic) the Iai%'s she%% icon and t: e tai E,arE ogE3essages to see i+ an: errors were %o''ed. 9.1.2 U"dating an Insta ed FreeNAS P5I

I+ a newer .ersion o+ a $reeNA"1 >#I =ecomes a.ai%a=%e in the o++icia% re ositor:D an M! dateM =utton wi%% =e added to the entr: o+ the >#I in the MInsta%%edM ta=. In the e5am %e shown in $i'ure 9.1dD a newer .ersion o+ Minid%na is a.ai%a=%e. Figure 9.1d: U"dating an Insta ed P5I

C%ic) the M-KM =utton and the %atest .ersion o+ the >#I wi%% automatica%%: =e down%oaded and insta%%ed. -nce the u date is com %eteD the entr: +or the >#I wi%% =e re+reshed to show the new .ersion num=er and the M! dateM =utton wi%% disa ear. 9.1.# Insta ing Additiona P5Is

<he MA.ai%a=%eM ta= o+ >%u'ins contains an M! %oadM =utton. <his =utton a%%ows :ou to insta%% >#Is that are not :et a.ai%a=%e in the o++icia% re ositor:. <hese >#Is inc%ude $reeNA"1 >#Is which are sti%% =ein' tested as we%% as >C;#"( >#Is. <hese >#Is must =e manua%%: down%oaded +irst and shou%d end FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 212 of 274

in a .-$i e5tension. When down%oadin' a >#ID ma)e sure that it matches the architecture A32; or ,&;=itB o+ the $reeNA"1 s:stem and that it was de.e%o ed +or 9.5 as 6.5 and 10.5 >#Is wi%% not wor) on a 9.5 $reeNA"1 s:stem. -nce :ou ha.e down%oaded the >#ID c%ic) the M! %oadM =utton. As seen in the e5am %e in $i'ure 9.1eD this wi%% rom t :ou to =rowse to the %ocation o+ the down%oaded >#I. -nce the >#I is se%ectedD c%ic) the M! %oadM =utton to insta%% the >#I. In this e5am %eD the user is insta%%in' the >C;#"( >#I +or we=min. Figure 9.1e: Insta ing a Pre,ious + 6o0n oaded P5I

When the insta%%ation is com %eteD an entr: +or the >#I wi%% =e added to the MInsta%%edM ta= and its associated Iai% wi%% =e %isted under MCai%sM. Howe.erD i+ it is not a $reeNA"1 >#ID it wi%% not =e added to M>%u'insM. In other wordsD i+ the a %ication reEuires an: con+i'urationD :ou wi%% ha.e to er+orm it +rom the command %ine o+ the Iai%'s she%% instead o+ the 2!I. 9.1.4 6e eting a P5I

When :ou insta%% a >#I usin' the >%u'ins methodD an associated Iai% is created. I+ :ou decide to de%ete a >#ID the associated Iai% is a%so de%eted as it is no %on'er reEuired. ,e*ore deleti%# a P,1/ ma)e sure that :ou don't ha.e an: data or con+i'uration in the Iai% that :ou do not want to %ose. I+ :ou doD =ac) it u +irstD =e+ore de%etin' the >#I. In the e5am %e shown in $i'ure 9.1+D the Couch>otato >#I has =een insta%%ed and the user has c%ic)ed its M(e%eteM =utton. As descri=ed in the re.ious sectionsD this >#I a ears in the >%u'ins ortion o+ the treeD its associated Iai%D 'o!'h-otato*1D a ears in the Cai%s ortion o+ the treeD and the >#I shows as insta%%ed in the Insta%%ed ta= o+ >%u'ins. A o ;u messa'e as)s the user i+ the: are sure that the: want to de%ete. Thi$ i$ the o%e a%d o%l) -ar%i%#. I+ the user c%ic)s MFesMD this >#I wi%% =e remo.ed +rom the FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 21# of 274

>%u'ins ortion o+ the treeD its associated Iai%D 'o!'h-otato*1D wi%% =e de%etedD and the >#I wi%% no %on'er show as insta%%ed in the Insta%%ed ta= o+ >%u'ins. Figure 9.1f: 6e eting an Insta ed P5I

9.2

A,ai a( e FreeNAS P5Is


#acu%a Astora'e daemonB =ts:nc Couch>otato Crash>%an $ire+%: 2ame8 H<>C Mana'er Maraschino Mini(9NA m:%ar ownC%oud

Current%:D the +o%%owin' $reeNA"1 >#Is are a.ai%a=%eK

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>%e5 Media "er.er "A#n8=d "ic) #eard <ransmission N9*:: on%: a sma%% su=;set o+ these >#Is are a.ai%a=%e +or 32;=it s:stems as most a =it. %ications are ,&;

Whi%e the $reeNA"1 >%u'ins s:stem ma)es it eas: to insta%% a >#ID it is sti%% u to :ou to )now how to con+i'ure and use the insta%%ed a %ication. When in dou=tD re+er to the documentation +or that a %ication. 9.2.1 P5I 2eBuests

I+ :ou wou%d %i)e to reEuest a 9.5 >C;#"( or $reeNA"1 >#I +or an a %ication %ease add an entr: to the >#I ReEuests ta=%e. When addin' an entr:D insert the a %ication name in a% ha=etica% order. I+ :ou are wor)in' on a >C;#"( or $reeNA"1 >#I modu%eD indicate this in the Q9.5 >#I +or <estin'R co%umn +or that entr:. #e+ore reEuestin' a >#ID chec) that a $ree#"( ort a%read: e5ists +or the a %ication at $resh>orts. I+ the so+tware has =een ortedD $resh>orts wi%% indicate the name and cate'or: o+ the ort. $or e5am %eD the 2!I +or the #acu%a ser.er is %ocated in s:suti%s@=acu%a;=at. I+ the so+tware has not =een orted to $ree#"( :etD issue a ort reEuest at the >C;#"( >ort ReEuests +orum usin' these instructions. A%ternate%:D i+ :ou ha.e orted so+tware =e+oreD the >orters Hand=oo) contains detai%ed instructions +or ortin' so+tware to $ree#"(.

10 Iai s
<he re.ious section descri=ed how to +indD insta%%D and con+i'ure so+tware usin' the >%u'ins method. <his section descri=es how to use the Cai%s methodD which a%%ows users who are com+orta=%e usin' the command %ine to ha.e more contro% o.er so+tware insta%%ation and mana'ement. Whi%e the >%u'ins method automatica%%: created a $ree#"( Iai% +or each insta%%ed >#ID the Cai%s method a%%ows the user to create as man: Iai%s as needed and to s eci+: the t: e o+ Iai%. !n%i)e the >%u'ins methodD one is not %imited to insta%%in' on%: one a %ication er Iai%. 4ssentia%%:D a $ree#"( Iai% ro.ides a .er: %i'ht;wei'htD o eratin' s:stem;%e.e% .irtua%i8ation. Consider it as an inde endent $ree#"( o eratin' s:stem runnin' on the same hardwareD without a%% o+ the o.erhead usua%%: associated with .irtua%i8ation. <his means that an: so+tware and con+i'urations within a Iai% are iso%ated +rom =oth the $reeNA"1 o eratin' s:stem and an: other Iai%s runnin' on that s:stem. (urin' creationD some Iai% t: es ro.ide a B7;AH, o tion which ro.ides that Iai% with its ownD inde endent networ)in' stac). <his a%%ows the Iai% to do its own I> =roadcastin'D which is reEuired =: some a %ications. <he +o%%owin' t: es o+ Iai%s can =e createdK 1. P ugin @ai : this t: e o+ Iai% ro.ides the most +%e5i=i%it: +or so+tware insta%%ation. "imi%ar to the >%u'ins methodD this t: e o+ Iai% su orts the insta%%ation o+ $reeNA"1 >#IsD which inte'rate FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 21$ of 274

into the $reeNA"1 2!I. In addition to $reeNA"1 >#IsD :ou can a%so insta%% the +o%%owin' t: es o+ so+tware within a %u'in Iai%K $ree#"( orts and $ree#"( )'n' ac)a'es. Howe.erD on%: $reeNA"1 >#Is can =e mana'ed +rom the 2!I as the other t: es o+ so+tware are mana'ed +rom the command %ine o+ the Iai%. $urtherD the other t: es o+ Iai%s do not su ort the a=i%it: to insta%% $reeNA"1 >#Is. I+ :ou %an to insta%% $reeNA"1 >#IsD insta%% a %u'in Iai%. 2. Port @ai : this t: e o+ Iai% su orts the insta%%ation o+ $ree#"( orts and $ree#"( )'n' ac)a'es. It does %ot su ort the insta%%ation o+ $reeNA"1 >#IsD meanin' that an: so+tware insta%%ed in this t: e o+ Iai% must =e mana'ed +rom the command %ine o+ the Iai%. 3. Standard @ai : this t: e o+ Iai% is +unctiona%%: the same as a ort Iai%. A distinction is made +or those users who re+er to se arate networ) ser.ersD such as (HC> or (N" ser.icesD +rom other insta%%ed so+tware. &. <inu- @ai : due to the $ree#"( %inu5 =inar: com ati=i%it: %a:erD 9inu5 can =e insta%%ed into a Iai% and so+tware can =e insta%%ed usin' the ac)a'e mana'ement s:stem ro.ided =: the insta%%ed 9inu5 distro. At this timeD the 9inu5 distro must =e a 32;=it .ersion and an: a %ications insta%%ed into the Iai% must =e a.ai%a=%e as a 32;=it =inar:. <a=%e 10a summari8es the t: e o+ so+tware which can =e insta%%ed into each t: e o+ Iai%. C%ic) the name o+ the t: e o+ so+tware +or instructions on how to insta%% that t: e o+ so+tware. N9*:: the so+tware which can =e insta%%ed into a 9inu5 Iai% is %imited to the command %ine ac)a'e mana'ement too% ro.ided =: that 9inu5 distri=ution. I+ :ou insta%% so+tware into a 9inu5 Iai%D insta%% the 32;=it .ersion o+ the so+tware. *a( e 10a: .!at *+"e of Soft0are can (e Insta ed Into a Iai S *+"e of Iai >%u'in >ort "tandard 9inu5 FreeNAS P5I :es no no no Free5S6 "7gng "ac7age :es noD un%ess #anilla is unchec)ed durin' Iai% creation noD un%ess #anilla is unchec)ed durin' Iai% creation no Free5S6 "ort :es :es :es no

<he a=i%it: to create mu%ti %e Iai%s and mu%ti %e t: es o+ Iai%s o++ers 'reat +%e5i=i%it: and a %ication se aration to the administrator. $or e5am %eD one cou%d create a se arate %u'in Iai% +or each $reeNA"1 %u'inD a se arate ort Iai% +or each a %ication that is not a.ai%a=%e as a $reeNA"1 %u'inD and a se arate standard Iai% +or each insta%%ed networ) ser.er. A%ternate%:D one has the a=i%it: to create one Iai% and to mi5 and match how the so+tware is insta%%ed into that Iai%. <he rest o+ this section descri=es the +o%%owin'K Cai%s Con+i'uration Addin' Cai%s Cai% <em %ates Insta%%in' $reeNA"1 >#Is Insta%%in' non;>#I "o+tware FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 21% of 274

10.1 Iai s 'onfiguration


#e+ore :ou can create an: Iai%sD :ou must +irst con+i'ure which .o%ume or dataset wi%% =e used to ho%d the Iai%s. <o do soD c%ic) Cai%s L Con+i'uration to access the screen shown in $i'ure 10.1a. Figure 10.1a: G o(a Iai 'onfiguration

N9*:: i+ :ou ha.e a%read: used the >%u'ins methodD a%% o+ the +ie%ds in this screen wi%% automatica%%: =e +i%%ed in. Fou shou%d sti%% dou=%e;chec) that the re;con+i'ured .a%ues are a ro riate +or :our Iai%s. Whi%e a Iai% can =e insta%%ed on a !$" .o%umeD it is recommended to use 0$" and to create a dataset to use +or the %ail &oot. As Iai%s are created on a 0$" s:stemD the: wi%% automatica%%: =e insta%%ed into their own dataset under the s eci+ied ath. $or e5am %eD i+ :ou con+i'ure a %ail &oot o+ .mnt.#ol!me1.dataset1 and create a Iai% named Pail1D it wi%% =e insta%%ed into its own dataset named .mnt.#ol!me1.dataset1.Pail1. <a=%e 10.1a summari8es the +ie%ds in this con+i'uration screen. "ome settin's are on%: a.ai%a=%e in Ad.anced Mode. <o see these settin'sD either c%ic) the Ad.anced Mode =utton or con+i'ure the s:stem to a%wa:s dis %a: these settin's =: chec)in' the =o5 Q"how ad.anced +ie%ds =: de+au%tR in ":stem L "ettin's L Ad.anced.

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*a( e 10.1a: Iai 'onfiguration 9"tions Setting Cai% Root I>.& Networ) I>.& Networ) "tart Address I>.& Networ) 4nd Address I>., Networ) I>., Networ) "tart Address I>., Networ) 4nd Address Co%%ection !R9 ?a ue =rowse =utton strin' strin' strin' strin' strin' strin' strin' 6escri"tion mandator: as :ou cannot add a Iai% unti% this is set see e5 %anation =e%ow ta=%eO +ormat is I> address o+ networ) @ CI(R mas) see e5 %anation =e%ow ta=%eO +ormat is I> address o+ host @ CI(R mas) see e5 %anation =e%ow ta=%eO +ormat is I> address o+ host @ CI(R mas) o tiona% o tiona% o tiona% %ists the !R9 to the o++icia% re ositor: o+ $reeNA"1 >#Is

When se%ectin' the QCai% RootRD ensure that the si8e o+ the se%ected .o%ume or dataset is su++icient to ho%d the num=er o+ Iai%s to =e insta%%ed as we%% as an: so+twareD %o' +i%esD and data to =e stored within each Iai%. At a =are minimumD =ud'et at %east 22# er Iai% and do not se%ect a dataset that is %ess than 22# in si8e. N9*:: i+ :ou %an to add stora'e to a Iai%D =e aware that ath si8e is %imited to 66 characters. Ma)e sure that the %en'th o+ :our .o%ume name %us the dataset name %us the Iai% name does not e5ceed this %imit. $reeNA"1 wi%% automatica%%: detect and dis %a: the QI>.& Networ)R that the administrati.e inter+ace is connected to. <his settin' is im ortant as the I>.& networ) must =e "inga=%e +rom the $reeNA"1 s:stem in order +or :our Iai%s and an: insta%%ed so+tware to =e accessi=%e . I+ :our networ) to o%o': reEuires :ou to chan'e the de+au%t .a%ueD :ou wi%% a%so need to con+i'ure a de+au%t 'atewa:D and ossi=%: a static routeD to the s eci+ied networ). I+ :ou chan'e this .a%ueD ensure that the su=net mas) .a%ue is correct as an incorrect mas) can ma)e the I> networ) unreacha=%e. When in dou=tD )ee the de+au%t settin' +or QI>.& Networ)R. I+ :ou are usin' 3MwareD ma)e sure that the .switch is set to romiscuous mode. Re.iew the de+au%t .a%ues o+ the QI>.& Networ) "tart AddressR and QI>.& Networ) 4nd AddressR to determine i+ that ran'e is a ro riate +or the num=er o+ Iai%s that :ou wi%% create. I+ there is a (HC> ser.er on the networ)D ma)e sure that this ran'e o+ addresses is e5c%uded +rom the sco e o+ the (HC> ser.er. As Iai%s are createdD the: wi%% automatica%%: =e assi'ned the ne5t +ree I> address within the ran'e s eci+ied =: these two .a%ues. N9*:: these & Q#asic ModeR +ie%ds are necessar: +or the ro er o eration o+ Cai%s. I+ :ou are una=%e to addD startD or access the so+tware insta%%ed into Iai%sD dou=%e;chec) the .a%ues in these +ie%ds. In articu%arD ma)e sure that the s eci+ied I>.& settin's are reacha=%e =: c%ients and that the s eci+ied addresses are not in use =: an: other c%ients in the networ). FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 21) of 274

<he QAd.anced ModeR +ie%ds on%: need to =e com %eted i+ Iai%s are to =e accessi=%e =: I>., c%ients. Fou shou%d not need to chan'e the QCo%%ection !R9R.

10.2 Adding Iai s


<o create a Iai%D c%ic) Cai%s L Add Cai%s to access the screen shown in $i'ure 10.2a. <a=%e 10.2a summari8es the a.ai%a=%e o tions. N9*:: the QAdd Cai%sR menu item wi%% not a ear unti% a+ter :ou con+i'ure Cai%s L Con+i'uration. Figure 10.2a: 'reating a Iai

*a( e 10.2a: Iai 'onfiguration 9"tions Setting Cai% Name t: e ?a ue strin' dro ;down menu 6escri"tion mandator:O can on%: contain %etters and num=ers de+au%t choices are -l!ginPailD -ortPailD standardD de$ianD gentooD !$!nt!D s!seD and 'entosO on a ,&;=it s:stemD o tions are a%so a.ai%a=%e +or creatin' the 32;=it .ersions o+ a %u'inD ortD or standard Iai% wi%% =e automatica%%: assi'ned the ne5t +ree address +rom the ran'e s eci+ied in Cai%s Con+i'urationO i+ :ou chan'e the de+au%t addressD ma)e sure it is reacha=%e within the $reeNA"1 s:stem's networ) and is not in use =: an: other host on the networ) Page 219 of 274

I>.& address inte'er

FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide

Setting

?a ue dro ;down I>.& netmas) menu I>.& =rid'e inte'er address I>.& =rid'e dro ;down netmas) menu I>.& de+au%t strin' 'atewa: I>., address inte'er I>., re+i5 %en'th I>., =rid'e address I>., =rid'e re+i5 %en'th I>., de+au%t 'atewa: MAC Autostart 3IMA24 NA< .ani%%a dro ;down menu inte'er dro ;down menu strin' strin' chec)=o5 chec)=o5 chec)=o5 chec)=o5

6escri"tion se%ect the su=net mas) associated with 71#< address see N-<4 =e%owO wi%% =e 're:ed out +or 9inu5 Iai%s or i+ B7;AH, is unchec)ed se%ect the su=net mas) associated with 71#< $ridge addressO wi%% =e 're:ed out +or 9inu5 Iai%s or i+ B7;AH, is unchec)ed used to set the Iai%'s de+au%t 'atewa: I>.& addressO wi%% =e 're:ed out +or 9inu5 Iai%s or i+ B7;AH, is unchec)ed i+ I>., has =een con+i'uredD wi%% =e automatica%%: assi'ned the ne5t +ree address +rom the ran'e s eci+ied in Cai%s Con+i'uration se%ect the re+i5 %en'th associated with 71#4 address see N-<4 =e%owO wi%% =e 're:ed out +or 9inu5 Iai%s or i+ B7;AH, is unchec)ed se%ect the re+i5 %en'th associated with 71#4 addressO wi%% =e 're:ed out +or 9inu5 Iai%s or i+ B7;AH, is unchec)ed used to set the Iai%'s de+au%t 'atewa: I>., addressO wi%% =e 're:ed out +or 9inu5 Iai%s or i+ B7;AH, is unchec)ed i+ a static MAC address is neededD in ut it hereO reEuires B7;AH, to =e chec)ed unchec) i+ :ou want to start the Iai% manua%%: 'i.es a Iai% its own .irtua%i8ed networ) stac)O reEuires romiscuous mode to =e ena=%ed on the inter+aceO does not a %: to 9inu5 Iai%s ena=%es Networ) Address <rans%ation +or the Iai%O wi%% =e 're:ed out +or 9inu5 Iai%s or i+ B7;AH, is unchec)ed unchec) this =o5 i+ :ou %an to insta%% $ree#"( ac)a'es into a -ortPail or standard Iai%

N9*:: <he I>.& and I>., =rid'e inter+ace is used to =rid'e the e airA&B de.iceD which is automatica%%: created +or each started Iai%D to a h:sica% networ) de.ice. <he de+au%t networ) de.ice is the one that is con+i'ured with a de+au%t 'atewa:. "oD i+ em0 is the $ree#"( name o+ the h:sica% inter+ace and three Iai%s are runnin'D the +o%%owin' .irtua% inter+aces wi%% =e automatica%%: createdK $ridge0D e-air0aD e-air1aD and e-air2a. <he h:sica% inter+ace em0 wi%% =e added to the =rid'eD as we%% as each e air de.ice. <he other ha%+ o+ the e air wi%% =e %aced inside the Iai% and wi%% =e assi'ned the I> address s eci+ied +or that Iai%. <he =rid'e inter+ace wi%% =e assi'ned an a%ias o+ the de+au%t 'atewa: +or that Iai%D i+ con+i'uredD or the =rid'e I>D i+ con+i'uredO either is correct. A Qtraditiona%R $ree#"( Iai% does not use 3IMA24 or NA<. I+ :ou unchec) =oth o+ these =o5esD :ou need to con+i'ure the Iai% with an I> address within the same networ) as the inter+ace it is =ound toD and that address wi%% =e assi'ned as an a%ias on that inter+ace. <o use a 3IMA24 Iai% on the same su=netD disa=%e NA<D and con+i'ure an I> address within the same networ). In =oth o+ these casesD :ou on%: FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 220 of 274

con+i'ure an I> address and do not con+i'ure a =rid'e or a 'atewa: address. A+ter ma)in' :our se%ectionsD c%ic) the -K =utton. <he Iai% wi%% =e created and wi%% =e added to the tree under Cai%s. #: de+au%tD a %u'in Iai% wi%% =e created and automatica%%: startedD un%ess :ou s eci+: otherwise. <he +irst time :ou add a t: e o+ Iai%D the 2!I wi%% automatica%%: down%oad the necessar: com onents +rom the Internet. I+ it is una=%e to connect to the InternetD the Iai% creation wi%% +ai%. -therwiseD a ro'ress =ar wi%% indicate the status o+ the down%oad and ro.ide an estimated time +or the rocess to com %ete. -nce the +irst Iai% is createdD su=seEuent Iai%s o+ that t: e wi%% =e added instantaneous%: as the down%oaded =ase +or creatin' that t: e o+ Iai% is sa.ed to the %ail &oot. 10.2.1 4anaging Iai s

<o .iew and con+i'ure the added Iai%sD c%ic) Cai%s L 3iew a%% Cai%s. In the e5am %e shown in $i'ure 10.2=D +our Iai%s ha.e =een created and the %ist entr: +or the Iai% named -l!ginPail has =een c%ic)ed. Figure 10.2(: 'reated Iai s Added to t!e GUI

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C%ic) a Iai%'s entr: to access its con+i'uration icons. In orderD +rom %e+t to ri'htD these icons are used toK :dit Iai : edit the Iai%'s settin's as descri=ed in the ne5t section. Add Storage: con+i'ure the Iai% to access an area o+ stora'e as descri=ed in Addin' "tora'e. U" oad P ugin: on%: a.ai%a=%e in a %u'in Iai%. !sed to insta%% %u'ins as descri=ed in Insta%%in' $reeNA"1 >#Is. StartESto": this icon wi%% .ar:D de endin' u on the current runnin' status o+ the Iai%. I+ the Iai% is current%: sto edD the icon wi%% =e 'reen and can =e used to start the Iai%. I+ the Iai% is current%: runnin'D the icon wi%% =e red and can =e used to sto the Iai%. A sto ed Iai% and its a %ications are inaccessi=%e unti% it is restarted. S!e : used to access a root command rom t in order to con+i'ure the se%ected Iai% +rom the command %ine. 6e ete: de%etin' the s eci+ied Iai% a%so de%etes an: so+tware that was insta%%ed in that Iai%. <he 2!I wi%% dis %a: a warnin' which reEuires :ou to c%ic) the Fes =uttonD indicatin' that :ou are sure that :ou want to de%ete the Iai%D =e+ore this o eration is er+ormed. 10.2.2 Accessing a Iai Using SS& Instead of its S!e Icon

I+ :ou re+er to use ss! to access a Iai% :ou wi%% need to +irst start the ss! ser.ice and create a user account +or ss! access. "ince this con+i'uration occurs on a Iai%;=:;Iai% =asisD c%ic) the Q"he%%R icon +or the Iai% :ou wish to con+i'ure ss! access to. <o start the ""H ser.ice on a non;9inu5 Iai%D %oo) +or the +o%%owin' %ine in that Iai%'s .et'.r'.'onfK
sshd_enable="NO"

Chan'e the N@ to +,S and sa.e the +i%e. <henD start the ""H daemonK
service sshd start

<he host R"A )e: air shou%d =e 'enerated and the )e:'s +in'er rint and random art ima'e dis %a:ed. $or a 9inu5 Iai%D re+er to the documentation +or that 9inu5 distri=ution +or instructions on how to start the ""H ser.ice. (e endin' u on the distri=utionD :ou ma: ha.e to +irst insta%% a ""H ser.er. Ne5tD add a user account. I+ :ou want the user to ha.e su eruser ri.i%e'es to a non;9inu5 Iai%D ma)e sure the user is %aced in the 9heel 'rou when it is created. <: e adduser and +o%%ow the rom ts. When :ou 'et to this rom tD do not ress enter =ut instead t: e 9heelK
Login group is user1. Invite user1 into other groups? []: wheel

-nce the user is createdD set the root assword so that the new user wi%% =e a=%e to use the su command to 'ain su eruser ri.i%e'e. <o set the asswordD t: e "ass0d then in ut and con+irm the desired assword. $or a 9inu5 Iai%D :ou wi%% need to create a user account usin' the so+tware that comes with the 9inu5 distri=ution. "ince 9inu5 does not use the 9heel 'rou D i+ :ou wish to 'i.e this user su eruser ri.i%e'esD instead insta%% and con+i'ure the sudo a %ication. $ina%%:D test +rom another s:stem that the user can success+u%%: ss! in and =ecome the su eruser. In this FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 222 of 274

e5am %eD a user named !ser1 uses ss! to access the non;9inu5 Iai% at 192.1,6.2.3. <he +irst time the user %o's inD the: wi%% =e as)ed to .eri+: the +in'er rint o+ the hostK
ssh user1@192.168.2.3 The authenticity of host '192.168.2.3 (192.168.2.3)' can't be established. RSA key fingerprint is 6f:93:e5:36:4f:54:ed:4b:9c:c8:c2:71:89:c1:58:f0. Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes Warning: Permanently added '192.168.2.3' (RSA) to the list of known hosts. Password: type_password_here

N9*:: each Iai% has its own user accounts and ser.ice con+i'uration. <his means that :ou wi%% need to re eat these ste s +or each Iai% that reEuires ""H access.
18.2.2.1 *dit a 9ail:s Settings

$i'ure 10.2c shows the con+i'uration screen that a ears when :ou c%ic) the Q4dit Cai%R =utton +or a hi'h%i'hted Iai%'s entr:. <his screen can a%so =e accessed =: e5 andin' the Iai%'s name in the tree .iew and c%ic)in' 4dit. Figure 10.2c: Iai /s :dit Settings

Most o+ these settin's were re.ious%: descri=ed in <a=%e 10.2a and can =e chan'ed usin' this screen a+ter Iai% creation. <he +o%%owin' settin's di++er =etween the QAdd Cai%R and Q4dit Cai%R screensK FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 22# of 274

Iai Na3e: this settin' is read;on%: once the Iai% has =een created. IP,4 a iases: once a Iai% has =een createdD this +ie%d can =e used to add additiona% I>.& addressesD which are )nown as a%iases. When addin' mu%ti %e a%iasesD use a comma de%imited %ist. IP,% a iases: once a Iai% has =een createdD this +ie%d can =e used to add additiona% I>., addresses. When addin' mu%ti %e a%iasesD use a comma de%imited %ist.

N9*:: i+ :ou need to modi+: the I> address in+ormation +or a Iai%D use it's M4dit Cai%M =utton instead o+ the associated networ)in' commands +rom the command %ine o+ the Iai%.

18.2.2.2 Adding Storage

It is ossi=%e to 'i.e a Iai% access to an area o+ stora'e on the $reeNA"1 s:stem. <his is use+u% i+ :ou insta%% an a %ication that stores a %ar'e amount o+ data or i+ an insta%%ed a %ication needs access to the data stored on the $reeNA"1 s:stem. An e5am %e wou%d =e transmissionD which stores torrents. <he stora'e is added usin' the mountGnu%%+sA6B mechanism which %in)s data that resides outside o+ the Iai% as a stora'e area within the Iai%. <o add stora'eD c%ic) the QAdd "tora'eR =utton +or a hi'h%i'hted Iai%'s entr:. <his screen can a%so =e accessed =: e5 andin' the Iai%'s name in the tree .iew and c%ic)in' "tora'e L Add "tora'eD shown in $i'ure 10.2d. #rowse to the Q"ourceR and Q(estinationRD whereK Source: is the director: or dataset on the $reeNA"1 s:stem :ou wou%d %i)e to 'ain access to +rom the Iai%. <his director: (!$t reside outside o+ the .o%ume or dataset =ein' used =: the Iai%. <his is wh: it is recommended to create a se arate dataset to store Iai%sD as the dataset ho%din' the Iai%s wi%% a%wa:s =e se arate +rom an: datasets used +or stora'e on the $reeNA"1 s:stem. 6estination: se%ect the director: within the Iai% which wi%% =e %in)ed to the Q"ourceR stora'e area.

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Figure 10.2d: Adding Storage to a Iai

When :ou are addin' stora'eD it is t: ica%%: =ecause the user and 'rou account associated with an a %ication insta%%ed inside o+ a Iai% needs to access data stored on the $reeNA"1 s:stem. #e+ore se%ectin' the M"ourceMD it is im ortant to +irst ensure that the ermissions o+ the se%ected director: or dataset 'rant ermission to the user@'rou account inside o+ the Iai%. <his is t: ica%%: not the de+au%tD as the users and 'rou s created inside o+ a Iai% are tota%%: se arate +rom the users and 'rou s o+ the $reeNA"1 s:stem. <his means that the wor)+%ow +or addin' stora'e is usua%%: as +o%%owsK 1. (etermine the name o+ the user and 'rou account used =: the a %ication. $or e5am %eD the insta%%ation o+ the transmission a %ication automatica%%: creates a user account named transmission and a 'rou account named transmission. When in dou=tD chec) the +i%es .et'.-ass9d Ato +ind the user accountB and .et'.gro!- Ato +ind the 'rou accountB inside o+ the Iai%. <: ica%%:D the user and 'rou names are simi%ar to the a %ication name. A%soD the !I( and 2I( are usua%%: the same as the ort num=er used =: the ser.ice. 2. -n the $reeNA"1 s:stemD create a user account and 'rou account to match the name o+ the user and 'rou used =: the a %ication in the Iai%.

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3. -n the $reeNA"1 s:stemD determine i+ :ou want the Iai% to ha.e access to e5istin' data or i+ :ou want to set aside an area o+ stora'e +or the Iai% to use. &. I+ the Iai% shou%d access e5istin' dataD edit the ermissions o+ the .o%ume or dataset so that the user and 'rou account has the desired read and write access. I+ mu%ti %e a %ications or Iai%s are to ha.e access to the same dataD :ou wi%% need to create a se arate 'rou and add each needed user account to that 'rou . *. I+ :ou are instead settin' aside an area o+ stora'e +or that Iai% Aor indi.idua% a %icationBD create a dataset. <henD edit the ermissions o+ that dataset so that the user and 'rou account has the desired read and write access. ,. !se the MAdd "tora'eM =utton o+ the Iai% and se%ect the con+i'ured .o%ume@dataset as the M"ourceM. I+ :ou wish to re.ent writes to the stora'eD chec) the =o5 QRead;-n%:R. #: de+au%tD the QCreate director:R =o5 is chec)ed. <his means that the director: wi%% automatica%%: =e created +or :ou under the s eci+ied Q(estinationR ath i+ the director: does not a%read: e5ist. -nce a stora'e has =een addedD it wi%% =e added to the tree under the s eci+ied Iai%. In the e5am %e shown in $i'ure 10.2eD a dataset named #ol!me1.data has =een chosen as the Q"ourceR as it contains the +i%es stored on the $reeNA"1 s:stem. When the stora'e was createdD the user =rowsed to #ol!me1.Pails.-l!ginPail.!sr.lo'al in the Q(estinationR +ie%dD then t: ed in test as the director:. "ince this director: did not a%read: e5istD it was created as the QCreate director:R =o5 was %e+t as chec)ed. <he resu%tin' stora'e was added to the -l!ginPail entr: in the tree as .!sr.lo'al.test. <he user has c%ic)ed this .!sr.lo'al.test entr: in order to access its edit screen. #: de+au%tD the stora'e is mounted as it is created. <o unmount the stora'eD unchec) its QMountedUR =o5. N9*:: a mounted dataset wi%% not automatica%%: mount an: o+ its chi%d datasets. Whi%e the chi%d datasets ma: a ear =rowsa=%e inside the Iai%D an: chan'es wi%% not =e .isi=%e. "ince each dataset is considered to =e its own +i%es:stemD each chi%d dataset must ha.e its own mount ointD meanin' that :ou need to create a se arate stora'e +or an: chi%d datasets which need to =e mounted. <o de%ete the stora'eD c%ic) its Q(e%eteR =utton. 6ANG:2C it is im ortant to rea%i8e that an added stora'e is rea%%: Iust a ointer to the se%ected stora'e director: on the $reeNA"1 s:stem. It does %ot create a co : o+ that data within the Iai%. Thi$ (ea%$ that i* )o! delete a%) *ile$ *ro( the DDe$ti%atio%E director) located i% the Jail/ )o! are reall) deleti%# tho$e *ile$ *ro( the DSo!rceE director) located o% the FreeNAS $)$te( . Howe.erD i+ :ou de%ete the stora'eD :ou are on%: de%etin' the ointerD not the data itse%+.

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Figure 10.2e: :-a3" e Storage

10.# Iai *e3" ates


#e'innin' with 9.2.0D $reeNA"1 uses the warden tem %atin' s:stem to ro.ision Iai%s. When :ou se%ect the t: e o+ Iai% when creatin' a Iai%D as seen in $i'ure 10.2aD :ou are rea%%: choosin' which e5istin' tem %ate to use. <o .iew the de+au%t tem %atesD c%ic) Cai%s L 3iew Cai% <em %ates. A artia% %istin' o+ the de+au%t tem %ates used =: a 9.2.0 s:stem are seen in $i'ure 10.3a.

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Figure 10.#a: <isting of 6efau t Iai *e3" ates

10.#.1

'reating Tour 90n *e3" ates

Creatin' :our own custom tem %ates a%%ows :ou to de %o: di++erent .ersions and architectures o+ $ree#"( or di++erent 32;=it 9inu5 distri=utions into a $reeNA"1 Iai%. Additiona%%:D the tem %ate can =e re;con+i'ured to inc%ude the a %icationsD con+i'urationsD and user accounts that :ou need in order to Euic)%: de %o: :our Iai%s. <o create a tem %ateD +irst insta%% the desired $ree#"( or 9inu5 o eratin' s:stem and con+i'ure it the wa: :ou want. <he insta%%ation can =e either to an e5istin' Iai% or on another s:stem. N9*:: i+ :ou are insta%%in' 9inu5D ma)e sure to insta%% the 32;=it .ersion o+ the o eratin' s:stem as ,&;=it 9inu5 .ersions are not su orted at this time. -nce :our con+i'uration is com %eteD :ou need to create a tar=a%% o+ the entire o eratin' s:stem that :ou wish to use as a tem %ate. <his tar=a%% needs to =e com ressed with g=i" and end in a .tg/ e5tension. #e care+u% when creatin' the tar=a%% as :ou don't want to end u in a recursi.e %oo . In other wordsD the resu%tin' tar=a%% needs to =e sa.ed outside o+ the o eratin' s:stem =ein' tar=a%%edD such as to an e5terna% !"# dri.e or networ) share. A%ternate%:D :ou can create a tem orar: director: within the o eratin' s:stem and use the --e('l!de switch to tar to e5c%ude this director: +rom the tar=a%%. <he e5act tar command to use wi%% .ar:D de endin' u on the o eratin' s:stem =ein' used to create the tar=a%%. -nce :ou ha.e the .tg/ +i%e +or the o eratin' s:stemD sa.e it to either an $<> share or an H<<> ser.er. Fou wi%% need the associated $<> or H<<> !R9 in order to add the tem %ate to the %ist o+ a.ai%a=%e tem %ates. FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 22) of 274

<o add the tem %ateD c%ic) Cai%s L Add Cai% <em %ates which wi%% o en the screen seen in $i'ure 10.3=. Figure 10.#(: Adding A 'usto3 Iai *e3" ate

<a=%e 10.3a summari8es the +ie%ds in this screen. *a( e 10.#a: Iai *e3" ate 9"tions Setting Name -" Architecture !R9 ?a ue strin' dro ;down menu dro ;down menu strin' 6escri"tion .a%ue wi%% a ear in the Name co%umn o+ 3iew Cai% <em %ates choices are FreeBS or :in!( choices are (54 or (4<O (54 is reEuired i+ :in!( is se%ected in ut the +u%% !R9 to the .tg/ +i%eD inc%udin' the rotoco% Aft-).. or htt-)..B

10.4 Insta ing FreeNAS P5Is


<: ica%%:D $reeNA"1 >#Is are insta%%ed usin' >%u'ins as this section o+ the 2!I ro.ides a method +or =rowsin' +or a.ai%a=%e >#Is. Howe.erD i+ a user has created their own %u'ins Iai%D $reeNA"1 >#Is can =e insta%%ed into it. Insta%%in' a >#I this wa: reEuires the user to +irst down%oad the >#I +or their architecture and .ersion. N9*:: $reeNA"1 >#Is can not =e insta%%ed inside a standard or orts Iai%.

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<o insta%% a $reeNA"1 >#ID 'o to Cai%s L 3iew Cai%s and c%ic) the %u'in Iai% :ou wish to insta%% into. An e5am %e is seen in $i'ure 10.&a. Figure 10.4a: Se ect P ugin Iai to Insta Into

C%ic) the Q! %oad >%u'inR =utton. When rom tedD Q#rowseR to the %ocation o+ the down%oaded >#I then c%ic) the Q! %oadR =utton to insta%% the >#I. A status =ar wi%% indicate the ro'ress o+ the insta%%ation. -nce insta%%edD the a %ication wi%% a ear under the >%u'ins entr: o+ the tree. In the e5am %e shown in $i'ure 10.&=D the Mini(9NA %u'in has =een insta%%ed. Fou can now con+i'ure and mana'e the insta%%ed so+tware as descri=ed in >%u'ins. 6ANG:2C =e .er: cautious a=out de%etin' a $reeNA"1 >#I :ou ha.e insta%%ed into a Iai%. U$i%# the KDeleteK b!tto% o* a% i%$talled "l!#i% -ithi% the GU1 -ill delete the a$$ociated Jail9 Thi$ (ea%$ that i* )o! ha'e i%$talled a%) other $o*t-are b) a%) other (ethod/ it -ill be blo-% a-a) -ith the Jail. I+ :ou do not want to %ose the Iai% and a%% o+ its contentsD :ou can sti%% uninsta%% a $reeNA"1 >#I usin' the "(i8de ete command +rom the she%% icon o+ the Iai%.

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Figure 10.4(: FreeNAS P5I Successfu + Insta ed

10.$ Insta ing non>P5I Soft0are


I+ a >#I is not a.ai%a=%e +or the so+tware that :ou wish to insta%%D :ou can sti%% insta%% and con+i'ure the a %ication +rom the command %ine o+ a %u'inD ortD or standard Iai% usin' $ree#"( orts or )'n' ac)a'es. <his section descri=es these methods o+ so+tware insta%%ation. Fou shou%d s)im throu'h the entire section +irst to determine which method o+ so+tware insta%%ation =est meets :our needs. N9*:: the commands demonstrated in this section need to =e e5ecuted +rom the she%% icon o+ the Iai% the so+tware is to =e insta%%ed into.

10.$.1

Insta ing Free5S6 Pac7ages 0it! "7gng

<he Euic)est and easiest wa: to insta%% so+tware inside the Iai% is to insta%% a $ree#"( ac)a'e. A $ree#"( ac)a'e is re;com i%edD meanin' that it contains a%% the =inaries and de endencies reEuired +or the so+tware to run on a $ree#"( s:stem. A %ot o+ so+tware has =een orted to $ree#"( Acurrent%: o.er 2&D000 a %icationsB and most o+ that so+tware is a.ai%a=%e as a ac)a'e. -ne wa: to +ind $ree#"( so+tware is to use the search=ar at $resh>orts.or'.

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-nce :ou ha.e %ocated the name o+ the ac)a'e :ou wou%d %i)e to insta%%D use the "7g insta command to insta%% it. $or e5am %eD to insta%% the audiota' ac)a'eD use this commandK
pkg install audiotag

When rom tedD t: e + to com %ete the insta%%ation. <he insta%%ation messa'es wi%% indicate i+ the ac)a'e and its de endencies success+u%%: down%oad and insta%%. 6ANG:2C do %ot use the "7g8add command in a $reeNA"1 Iai% as it wi%% cause inconsistencies in :our ac)a'e mana'ement data=ase. Fou can con+irm that the insta%%ation was success+u% =: Euer:in' the ac)a'e data=aseK
pkg info -f audiotag audiotag-0.19_1 Name : audiotag Version : 0.19_1 Origin : audio/audiotag Architecture : freebsd:9:x86:64 Prefix : /usr/local Categories : multimedia audio Licenses : GPLv2 Maintainer : ports@FreeBSD.org WWW : http://github.com/Daenyth/audiotag Comment : Command-line tool for mass tagging/renaming of audio files Options : DOCS : on FLAC : on ID3 : on MP4 : on VORBIS : on Flat size : 62.8KiB Description : Audiotag is a command-line tool for mass tagging/renaming of audio files it supports the vorbis comment, id3 tags, and MP4 tags. WWW: http://github.com/Daenyth/audiotag

<o see what was insta%%ed with the ac)a'eK


pkg info -l audiotag audiotag-0.19_1: /usr/local/bin/audiotag /usr/local/share/doc/audiotag/COPYING /usr/local/share/doc/audiotag/ChangeLog /usr/local/share/doc/audiotag/README /usr/local/share/licenses/audiotag-0.19_1/GPLv2 /usr/local/share/licenses/audiotag-0.19_1/LICENSE /usr/local/share/licenses/audiotag-0.19_1/catalog.mk

In $ree#"(D third; art: so+tware is a%wa:s stored in .!sr.lo'al to di++erentiate it +rom the so+tware that came with the o eratin' s:stem. #inaries are a%most a%wa:s %ocated in a su=director: ca%%ed $in or s$in and con+i'uration +i%es in a su=director: ca%%ed et'.

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10.$.2

'o3"i ing Free5S6 Ports 0it! 3a7e

<: ica%%:D so+tware is insta%%ed usin' ac)a'es. -ccasiona%%: :ou ma: re+er to com i%e the ort :ourse%+. Com i%in' the ort o++ers the +o%%owin' ad.anta'esK not e.er: ort has an a.ai%a=%e ac)a'e. <his is usua%%: due to %icensin' restrictions or )nownD unaddressed securit: .u%nera=i%ities. sometimes the ac)a'e is out;o+;date and :ou need a +eature that =ecame a.ai%a=%e in the newer .ersion. some orts ro.ide com i%e o tions that are not a.ai%a=%e in the re;com i%ed ac)a'e. <hese o tions are used to add additiona% +eatures or to stri out the +eatures :ou do not need. Com i%in' the ort :ourse%+ has the +o%%owin' dis;ad.anta'esK it ta)es time. (e endin' u on the si8e o+ the a %icationD the amount o+ de endenciesD the amount o+ C>! and RAM on the s:stemD and the current %oad on the $reeNA"1 s:stemD the amount o+ time can ran'e +rom a +ew minutes to a +ew hours or e.en to a +ew da:s. N9*:: i+ the ort doesn't ro.ide an: com i%e o tionsD :ou are =etter o++ sa.in' :our time and the $reeNA"1 s:stem's resources =: usin' the "7g insta command instead. Fou can determine i+ the ort has an: con+i'ura=%e com i%e o tions =: c%ic)in' its $resh>orts %istin'. $i'ure 10.*a shows the QCon+i'uration - tionsR +or audiota'. Figure 10.$a: 'onfiguration 9"tions for Audiotag

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In $ree#"(D a ;akefile is used to ro.ide the com i%in' instructions to the 3a7e command. <he ;akefile is in ascii te5tD +air%: eas: to understandD and documented in =sd. ort.m). I+ the ort has an: con+i'ura=%e com i%e o tionsD the: wi%% =e %isted at $resh>orts in the ort's QCon+i'uration - tionsR. <his ort contains +i.e con+i'ura=%e o tions A(-C"D $9ACD I(3D M>&D and 3-R#I"B and each o tion is ena=%ed AonB =: de+au%t. $ree#"( ac)a'es are a%wa:s =ui%t usin' the de+au%t o tions. When :ou com i%e the ort :ourse%+D those o tions wi%% =e resented to :ou in a menuD a%%owin' :ou to chan'e their de+au%t settin's. #e+ore :ou can com i%e a ortD the orts co%%ection must =e insta%%ed within the Iai%. $rom within the Iai%D use the "ortsna" uti%it:K
portsnap fetch extract

<his command wi%% down%oad the orts co%%ection and e5tract it to the Iai%'s .!sr.-orts. director:. N9*:: i+ :ou insta%% additiona% so+tware at a %ater dateD :ou shou%d ma)e sure that the orts co%%ection is u ;to;date usin' this commandK
portsnap fetch update

<o com i%e a ortD :ou wi%% cd into a su=director: o+ .!sr.-orts.. $resh>orts ro.ides the %ocation to cd into and the 3a7e command to run. <his e5am %e wi%% com i%e the audiota' ortK
cd /usr/ports/audio/audiotag make install clean

"ince this ort has con+i'ura=%e o tionsD the +irst time this command is run the con+i'ure screen shown in $i'ure 10.*= wi%% =e dis %a:edK Figure 10.$(: 'onfiguration 9"tions for Audiotag Port

<o chan'e an o tion's settin'D use the arrow )e:s to hi'h%i'ht the o tionD then ress the $"acebar to to''%e the se%ection. -nce :ou are +inishedD ta= o.er to -K and ress enter. <he ort wi%% =e'in to com i%e and insta%%.

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N9*:: i+ :ou chan'e :our mindD the con+i'uration screen wi%% not =e dis %a:ed a'ain shou%d :ou sto and restart the =ui%d. <: e 3a7e config UU 3a7e insta c ean i+ :ou need to chan'e :our se%ected o tions. I+ the ort has an: de endencies with o tionsD their con+i'uration screens wi%% =e dis %a:ed and the com i%e wi%% ause unti% it recei.es :our in ut. It is a 'ood idea to )ee an e:e on the com i%e unti% it +inishes and :ou are returned to the command rom t. -nce the ort is insta%%edD it is re'istered in the same ac)a'e data=ase that mana'es ac)a'es. <his means that :ou can use "7g info to determine what was insta%%edD as descri=ed in the re.ious section. 10.$.# 'onfiguring and Starting Insta ed Free5S6 Soft0are

-nce the ac)a'e or ort is insta%%edD :ou wi%% need to con+i'ure and start it. I+ :ou are +ami%iar with how to con+i'ure the so+twareD %oo) +or its con+i'uration +i%e in .!sr.lo'al.et' or a su=director: thereo+. Man: $ree#"( ac)a'es contain a sam %e con+i'uration +i%e to 'et :ou started. I+ :ou are un+ami%iar with the so+twareD :ou wi%% need to s end some time at the so+tware's we=site to %earn which con+i'uration o tions are a.ai%a=%e and which con+i'uration +i%eAsB need to =e edited. Most $ree#"( ac)a'es that contain a starta=%e ser.ice inc%ude a startu scri t which is automatica%%: insta%%ed to .!sr.lo'al.et'.r'.d.. -nce :our con+i'uration is com %eteD :ou can test that the ser.ice starts =: runnin' the scri t with the onestart o tion. As an e5am %eD i+ o en. n is insta%%ed into the Iai%D these commands wi%% run its startu scri t and .eri+: that the ser.ice startedK
/usr/local/etc/rc.d/openvpn onestart Starting openvpn. /usr/local/etc/rc.d/openvpn onestatus openvpn is running as pid 45560. sockstat -4 USER COMMAND PID FD PROTO LOCAL ADDRESS root openvpn 48386 4 udp4 *:54789

FOREIGN ADDRESS *:*

I+ :ou instead recei.e an errorK


/usr/local/etc/rc.d/openvpn onestart Starting openvpn. /usr/local/etc/rc.d/openvpn: WARNING: failed to start openvpn

Run tai E,arE ogE3essages to see i+ an: error messa'es hint at the ro=%em. Most startu +ai%ures are re%ated to a mis;con+i'urationK either a t: o or a missin' o tion in a con+i'uration +i%e. -nce :ou ha.e .eri+ied that the ser.ice starts and is wor)in' as intendedD add a %ine to .et'.r'.'onf to ensure that the ser.ice automatica%%: starts whene.er the Iai% is started. <he %ine to start a ser.ice a%wa:s ends in *ena$le>I+,SI and t: ica%%: starts with the name o+ the so+tware. $or e5am %eD this is the entr: +or the o en. n ser.iceK
openvpn_enable="YES"

When in dou=tD the startu scri t wi%% te%% :ou which %ine to ut in .et'.r'.'onf. <his is the descri tion in .!sr.lo'al.et'.r'.d.o-en#-n)
# This script supports running multiple instances of openvpn. # To run additional instances link this script to something like # % ln -s openvpn openvpn_foo

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# # # # # # # # # # # #

and define additional openvpn_foo_* variables in one of /etc/rc.conf, /etc/rc.conf.local or /etc/rc.conf.d /openvpn_foo Below NAME should be substituted with the name of this script. By default it is openvpn, so read as openvpn_enable. If you linked the script to openvpn_foo, then read as openvpn_foo_enable etc. The following variables are supported (defaults are shown). You can place them in any of /etc/rc.conf, /etc/rc.conf.local or /etc/rc.conf.d/NAME NAME_enable="NO" # set to YES to enable openvpn

<he startu scri t wi%% a%so indicate i+ an: additiona% arameters are a.ai%a=%eK
# # # # # # # NAME_if= # driver(s) to load, set to "tun", "tap" or "tun tap" # it is OK to specify the if_ prefix.

# optional: NAME_flags= # additional command line arguments NAME_configfile="/usr/local/etc/openvpn/NAME.conf" # --config file NAME_dir="/usr/local/etc/openvpn" # --cd directory

11 2e"orting
Re ortin' dis %a:s se.era% 'ra hsD as seen in the e5am %e in $i'ure 11a. $reeNA"1 uses co%%ectd to ro.ide re ortin' statistics. <he +o%%owin' co%%ectd %u'ins are ena=%ed in .'onf.$ase.et'.lo'al.'olle'td.'onfD and thus ro.ide re ortin' 'ra hsK s:stem %oadK ro.ides a rou'h o.er.iew o+ s:stem uti%i8ation o.er a oneD +i.eD and +i+teen minute a.era'e. rocessesK dis %a:s the num=er o+ rocessesD 'rou ed =: state. dis) s aceK dis %a:s +ree and used s ace +or each .o%ume and dataset. Howe.erD the dis) s ace used =: an indi.idua% 8.o% is not dis %a:ed as it is a =%oc) de.ice. u timeK )ee s trac) o+ the s:stem u timeD the a.era'e runnin' timeD and the ma5imum reached u time. C>! usa'eK co%%ects the amount o+ time s ent =: the C>! in .arious states such as e5ecutin' user codeD e5ecutin' s:stem codeD and =ein' id%e. swa uti%i8ationK dis %a:s the amount o+ +ree and used swa s ace. h:sica% memor:K dis %a:s h:sica% memor: usa'e. er second +or each con+i'ured inter+aceK shows recei.ed and transmitted tra++ic in =its inter+ace.

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Figure 11a: 2e"orting Gra"!s

Re ortin' data is sa.edD a%%owin' :ou to .iew and monitor usa'e trends o.er time. Re ortin' data is sa.ed to .data.rrd*dir.tar.$/2 and shou%d =e reser.ed across s:stem u 'rades and at shutdown. !se the ma'ni+ier =uttons ne5t to each 'ra h to increase or decrease the dis %a:ed time increment +rom 10 minutesD hour%:D dai%:D wee)%:D or month%:. Fou can a%so use the aa and VV =uttons to scro%% throu'h the out ut.

12 Additiona 9"tions
<his section co.ers the remainin' misce%%aneous o tions a.ai%a=%e +rom the $reeNA"1 'ra hica% administrati.e inter+ace.

12.1 6is" a+ S+ste3 Processes


I+ :ou c%ic) (is %a: ":stem >rocessesD a screen wi%% o en showin' the out ut o+ to A1B. An e5am %e is shown in $i'ure 12.1a.

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Figure 12.1a: S+ste3 Processes 2unning on FreeNAS

<he dis %a: wi%% automatica%%: re+resh itse%+. "im %: c%ic) the 7 in the u er ri'ht corner to c%ose the dis %a: when :ou are +inished. Note that the dis %a: is read;on%:D meanin' that :ou won't =e a=%e to issue a 7i command within it.

12.2 S!e
#e'innin' with .ersion 6.2.0D the $reeNA"1 2!I ro.ides a we= she%%D ma)in' it con.enient to run command %ine too%s +rom the we= =rowser as the root user. <he %in) to "he%% is the third entr: +rom the =ottom o+ the menu tree. In $i'ure 12.2aD the %in) has =een c%ic)ed and "he%% is o en. <he rom t indicates that the current user is rootD the hostname is freenasD and the current wor)in' director: is C Aroot's home director:B. <o chan'e the si8e o+ the she%%D c%ic) the 50(2D dro ;down menu and se%ect a di++erent si8e. <o co : te5t +rom she%%D hi'h%i'ht the te5tD ri'ht;c%ic)D and se%ect Co : +rom the ri'ht;c%ic) menu. <o aste into the she%%D c%ic) the >aste =uttonD aste the te5t into the =o5 that o ensD and c%ic) the -K =utton to com %ete the aste o eration.

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Figure 12.2a: .e( S!e

Whi%e :ou are in "he%%D :ou wi%% not ha.e access to an: o+ the other 2!I menus. I+ :ou are usin' "he%% +or trou=%eshootin' ur oses and need to %ea.e the "he%% in order to modi+: a con+i'urationD c%ic) the 5 in the window's u er ri'ht corner. <he ne5t time :ou enter "he%%D :ou wi%% return to :our %ast session. When :ou are +inished usin' "he%%D t: e e-it to %ea.e the session com %ete%:. "he%% ro.ides histor: Ause :our u arrow to see re.ious%: entered commands and ress enter to re eat the current%: dis %a:ed commandB and ta= com %etion At: e a +ew %etters and ress ta= to com %ete a command name or +i%ename in the current director:B. N9*:: not a%% o+ "he%%'s +eatures render correct%: in Chrome. $ire+o5 is the recommended =rowser +or usin' "he%%. (ue to the em=edded nature o+ $reeNA"1D some $ree#"( com onents are missin' and noticea=%e in "he%%. $or e5am %eD man a'es are not inc%udedO howe.erD a %in) to the on%ine $ree#"( man a'es is a.ai%a=%e +rom He% . Most $ree#"( command %ine uti%ities shou%d =e a.ai%a=%e in "he%%. Additiona% trou=%eshootin' uti%ities that are ro.ided =: $reeNA"1 are descri=ed in !se+u% Command 9ine !ti%ities. FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 2#9 of 274

12.# 2e(oot
I+ :ou c%ic) Re=ootD :ou wi%% recei.e the warnin' messa'e shown in $i'ure 12.3a and :our =rowser co%or wi%% chan'e to red to indicate that :ou ha.e se%ected an o tion that wi%% ne'ati.e%: im act users o+ the $reeNA"1 s:stem. Figure 12.#a: 2e(oot .arning 4essage

N9*:: i+ an: .o%umes are encr: tedD ma)e sure that :ou ha.e set the ass hrase and ha.e co ies o+ the encr: tion )e: and the %atest reco.er: )e: =e+ore er+ormin' a re=oot. 8itho!t the$e/ )o! -ill %ot be able to !%loc0 the e%cr)"ted 'ol!(e a*ter the reboot. C%ic) the Cance% =utton i+ :ou wish to cance% the re=oot reEuest. -therwiseD c%ic) the Re=oot =utton to re=oot the s:stem. Re=ootin' the s:stem wi%% disconnect a%% c%ientsD inc%udin' the we= administration 2!I. <he !R9 in :our we= =rowser wi%% chan'e to add .system.re$oot. to the end o+ the I> address. Wait a +ew minutes +or the s:stem to =ootD then use :our =rowser's =ac) =utton to return to the $reeNA"1 s:stem's I> address. I+ a%% went we%%D :ou shou%d recei.e the 2!I %o'in screen. I+ the %o'in screen does not a earD :ou wi%% need h:sica% access to the $reeNA"1 s:stem's monitor and )e:=oard so that :ou can determine what ro=%em is re.entin' the s:stem +rom resumin' norma% o eration.

12.4 S!utdo0n
I+ :ou c%ic) "hutdownD :ou wi%% recei.e the warnin' messa'e shown in $i'ure 12.&a and :our =rowser co%or wi%% chan'e to red to indicate that :ou ha.e se%ected an o tion that wi%% ne'ati.e%: im act users o+ the $reeNA"1 s:stem.

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Figure 12.4a: S!utdo0n .arning 4essage

N9*:: i+ an: .o%umes are encr: tedD ma)e sure that :ou ha.e set the ass hrase and ha.e co ies o+ the encr: tion )e: and the %atest reco.er: )e: =e+ore er+ormin' a shutdown. 8itho!t the$e/ )o! -ill %ot be able to !%loc0 the e%cr)"ted 'ol!(e -he% the $)$te( i$ re$tarted. C%ic) the Cance% =utton i+ :ou wish to cance% the shutdown reEuest. -therwiseD c%ic) the "hutdown =utton to ha%t the s:stem. "huttin' down the s:stem wi%% disconnect a%% c%ientsD inc%udin' the we= administration 2!ID and wi%% ower o++ the $reeNA"1 s:stem. Fou wi%% need h:sica% access to the $reeNA"1 s:stem in order to turn it =ac) on.

12.$ &e "


<he He% =utton in the u er ri'ht corner ro.ides a o ;u menu containin' h: er%in)s to the .arious $reeNA"1 on%ine resourcesD inc%udin'K the Communit: $orum each mai%in' %ist the we= inter+ace to the IRC channe% the #u' <rac)er a'e which %in)s to the =u' data=aseD .ideo wa%)throu'hsD +orumsD and the documentation wi)i the on%ine $ree#"( manua% a'es

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a %in) to ro+essiona% su

ort

<hese resources are discussed in more detai% in the ne5t section.

12.% <og 9ut


<o %o' out o+ the $reeNA"1 2!ID sim %: c%ic) the 9o' -ut =utton in the u er ri'ht corner. Fou wi%% immediate%: =e %o''ed out. An in+ormationa% messa'e wi%% indicate that :ou are %o''ed out and wi%% ro.ide a h: er%in) which :ou can c%ic) on to %o' =ac) in. When %o''in' =ac) inD :ou wi%% =e rom ted +or the root assword.

12.7 A ert
$reeNA"1 ro.ides an a%ert s:stem to ro.ide a .isua% warnin' o+ an: conditions that reEuire administrati.e attention. <he A%ert =utton in the +ar ri'ht corner wi%% +%ash red when there is an outstandin' a%ert. In the e5am %e a%ert shown in $i'ure 12./a. one o+ the dis)s in a 0$" oo% is o++%ine which has de'raded the state o+ the oo%. Figure 12.7a: :-a3" e A ert 4essage

In+ormationa% messa'es wi%% ha.e a 'reen -K whi%e messa'es reEuirin' attention wi%% =e %isted as a red CRI<ICA9. CRI<ICA9 messa'es wi%% a%so =e emai%ed to the root user account. I+ :ou are aware o+ a critica% condition =ut wish to remo.e the +%ashin' a%ert unti% :ou dea% with itD unchec) the =o5 ne5t to that messa'e. #ehind the scenesD an a%ert scri t chec)s +or .arious a%ert conditionsD such as .o%ume and dis) statusD and writes the current conditions to .#ar.tm-.alert. A Ia.ascri t retrie.es the current a%ert status e.er: * minutes and wi%% chan'e the so%id 'reen a%ert icon to +%ashin' red i+ a new a%ert is detected. "ome o+ the conditions that tri''er an a%ert inc%udeK non;o tima% mu%ti ath states !>" -N#A<<@9-W#A<< e.ent 0$" oo% status chan'es +rom H4A9<HF the s:stem is una=%e to =ind to the We=2!I Address set in ":stem L "ettin's L 2enera% the s:stem can not +ind an I> address con+i'ured on an i"C"I orta% the status o+ a 9"I Me'aRAI( "A" contro%%er has chan'edO m+iuti%A6B is inc%uded +or mana'in' these de.ices FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 242 of 274

Section 3: Getting Help


1# FreeNAS Su""ort 2esources
$reeNA"1 has a %ar'e insta%%ation =ase and an acti.e user communit:. <his means that man: usa'e Euestions ha.e a%read: =een answered and the detai%s are a.ai%a=%e on the Internet. I+ :ou 'et stuc) usin' $reeNA"1D s end a +ew moments searchin' the Internet +or the word FreeNAS with some )e: words that descri=e :our error messa'e or the +unction that :ou are tr:in' to im %ement. <he rest o+ this section discusses the +o%%owin' resources which are a.ai%a=%e to $reeNA"1 usersK We=site and "ocia% Media $orums "u IRC Mai%in' 9ists >ro+essiona% "u ort ort (ata=ase

1#.1 .e(site and Socia 4edia


<he $reeNA"1 we=site contains %in)s to a%% o+ the a.ai%a=%e documentationD su resources. MaIor announcements are a%so osted to the main a'e. !sers are we%come to networ) on the $reeNA"1 socia% media sitesK 9in)edIn 2oo'%eX $ace=oo) <witter ortD and socia% media

1#.2 Foru3s
Another in+ormation source +or $reeNA"1 is the $orums. $orums contain user;contri=uted ti s and 'uides which ha.e =een cate'ori8edD ma)in' it an idea% resource i+ :ou wish to %earn more a=out a certain as ect o+ $reeNA"1. A search=ar is inc%uded shou%d :ou wish to search =: )e:wordO a%ternate%:D :ou can c%ic) a cate'or: to =rowse throu'h the threads that e5ist +or that to ic. <he +o%%owin' cate'ories are a.ai%a=%e under Foru3 Infor3ation: $orum 2uide%inesK read this +irst =e+ore creatin' a +orum ost. AnnouncementsK su=scri=e to this +orum i+ :ou wish to recei.e announcements a=out new $reeNA"1 .ersions and +eatures.

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<he +o%%owin' cate'ories are a.ai%a=%e under &e " and Su""ort: $reeNA" & N00=sK ost here i+ :ou are new to $reeNA"1 and are unsure which cate'or: =est matches :our Euestion. $eature ReEuestsK +or the discussion o+ u comin' +eatures. #u' Re ortin'K use this +orum i+ :ou thin) :ou ha.e +ound a =u' in $reeNA"1 and want to discuss it =e+ore creatin' a su ort tic)et. HardwareK +or the discussion o+ hardware and ti s +or 'ettin' the most out o+ :our hardware. !ser AuthenticationK 9(A> and Acti.e (irector:. "harin'K A$>D CI$"D N$"D and i"C"I. "tora'eK re %icationD sna shotsD .o%umesD and 0$". Networ)in'K networ)in' hardwareD "NM>D ""HD and <$<>. er+ormanceD %in) a''re'ationD 39ANsD ((N"D $<>D

Insta%%ationK insta%%in' he% or ad.ice =e+ore er+ormin' the insta%%ation. >%u'insK ro.ides a discussion area +or creatin' and trou=%eshootin' >#Is. <he +o%%owin' cate'ories are a.ai%a=%e under 6e,e o"3ent: $reeNA"K 'enera% de.e%o ment discussion. nano=sdK the em=edded o eratin' s:stem $reeNA"1 is =ased u on. (Ian'oK the we= +ramewor) used =: the $reeNA"1 'ra hica% administrati.e inter+ace. (oIo <oo%)itK the Ia.ascri t too%)it used to create wid'ets and hand%e c%ient side rocessin'. <he +o%%owin' cate'ories are a.ai%a=%e under &o0>*o Guides: Hac)in'K undocumented tric)s +or 'ettin' the most out o+ :our $reeNA"1 s:stem. Insta%%ationK s eci+ic insta%%ation scenarios Ahardware and@or so+twareB. Con+i'urationK s eci+ic con+i'uration scenarios Ae.'. so+tware or c%ient con+i'urationB. HardwareK instructions +or settin' u s eci+ic hardware. I+ :ou are %oo)in' +or ti s on how to test and increase the er+ormance o+ :our s:stemD chec) out the >er+ormance +orum. <he +o%%owin' cate'ories are a.ai%a=%e under 'o33unit+ Foru3: -++;to icK want to discuss somethin' o+ interest to $reeNA"1 users =ut which is not necessari%: re%ated to $reeNA"1U <his is :our %ace. ResourcesK =%o'sD re.iewsD and other sources o+ $reeNA"1 in+ormation not %isted at +reenas.or'. IntroductionsK $reeNA"1 Communit: meet 'n 'reet ; introduce :ourse%+ and %et us )now who we are chattin' with.

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<he +o%%owin' %an'ua'e;s eci+ic cate'ories are a.ai%a=%e under Internationa D a%%owin' $reeNA"1 users to interact with each other in their nati.e %an'ua'eK (utch ; Neder%ands $rench ; $rancais 2erman ; (eutsch Ita%ian ; Ita%iano >ortu'uese ; >ortu'ubs Russian ; cdeefgh " anish W 4s ano% <ur)ish ; <ir)je I+ :ou wish to as) a Euestion on the +orumD :ou wi%% need to c%ic) the Q"i'n ! NowSR %in) to create an account and %o'in usin' that account. When as)in' a Euestion on the +orumD it is im ortant that :ouK $irst chec) to see i+ the Euestion has a%read: =een as)ed. I+ :ou +ind a simi%ar EuestionD do not create a new thread. Instead use the QRe %:R %in) at the =ottom o+ the ost to add :our comments to the e5istin' thread. Re.iew the a.ai%a=%e cate'ories to see which one is most c%ose%: re%ated to :our Euestion. C%ic) on that cate'or: and use the Q>ost New <hreadR =utton to o en the editor. A+ter t: in' :our ost and =e+ore :ou c%ic) the QCreate <hreadR =uttonD ma)e sure the QWatch this thread...R =o5 is chec)ed. I+ :ou want to =e noti+ied =: emai%D a%so chec) the Qand recei.e emai% noti+icationsR =o5. <hat wa: :ou wi%% =e noti+ied whene.er an:one answers :our Euestion.

1#.# Su""ort 6ata(ase


I+ :ou encounter a trace=ac) error when usin' $reeNA"1 or sus ect that :ou ha.e +ound a so+tware or documentation =u'D 'o to htt sK@@=u's.+reenas.or'@ roIects@+reenas to see i+ :our issue has a%read: =een re orted. Fou do not need to re'ister in order to search +or e5istin' issues. Howe.erD :ou wi%% need to re'ister i+ :ou wish to comment on an e5istin' issue or create a new su ort issue. #e+ore creatin' a new issueD ta)e the time to research :our =u' or +eature reEuest +irst. <his is to re.ent du %icatin' an e5istin' issue and to ensure that :our re ort contains the in+ormation that the de.e%o ers need in order to im %ement the +i5 or the +eature. As art o+ :our researchD er+orm the +o%%owin' ste sK (etermine i+ :ou are runnin' the %atest re%ease o+ $reeNA"1. $reeNA"1 de.e%o ers tend to +i5 =u's ra id%: and new +eatures are =ein' im %emented as $reeNA"1 matures. I+ :ou are not runnin' the %atest .ersionD it is Euite %i)e%: that the =u' has a%read: =een +i5ed or the missin' +eature has =een im %emented. I+ this is the caseD :our =est course o+ action is to =ac)u :our data and con+i'uration and er+orm an u 'rade to the %atest .ersion. I+ :ou are runnin' the %atest .ersionD use the search +eature to see i+ a simi%ar issue a%read: e5ists. I+ one doesD do not create a new issue. InsteadD add a comment to the e5istin' issue i+ :ou FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 24$ of 274

ha.e additiona% in+ormation to add. I+ a simi%ar issue does not a%read: e5istD )ee the +o%%owin' oints in mind as :ou create a new issueK 1. Fou wi%% need to re'ister +or an accountD con+irm :ou re'istration emai% addressD and =e %o''ed in =e+ore :ou can create a new issue. 2. In the <rac)er dro ;down menuD se%ect B!g i+ :ou are re ortin' a =u' or Feat!re i+ :ou are ma)in' a +eature reEuest. 3. In the "u=Iect +ie%dD inc%ude descri ti.e )e:words that descri=e the issue. <his is use+u% +or other users who search +or a simi%ar ro=%em. &. In the (escri tion sectionD descri=e the ro=%emD how to recreate itD and inc%ude the te5t o+ an: error messa'es. I+ :ou are reEuestin' a +eatureD descri=e the =ene+it ro.ided =: the +eature andD i+ a %ica=%eD ro.ide e5am %es o+ other roducts that use that +eature or the !R9 o+ the home a'e +or the so+tware. *. I+ :ou wou%d %i)e to inc%ude a screenshot or %o' o+ :our con+i'uration or errorD use the #rowse =utton ne5t to the $i%es +ie%d to u %oad the +i%e. ,. 9ea.e a%% o+ the other +ie%ds at their de+au%t .a%ues as these are used =: de.e%o ers as the: ta)e action on the issue. /. >ress the >re.iew %in) to read throu'h :our tic)et =e+ore su=mittin' it. Ma)e sure it inc%udes a%% o+ the in+ormation that someone e%se wou%d need to understand :our ro=%em or reEuest. -nce :ou are satis+ied with :our tic)etD c%ic) the Create <ic)et =utton to su=mit it. An emai% wi%% automatica%%: =e sent to the address :ou used when re'isterin' whene.er a comment or action occurs on :our issue.

1#.4 I2'
I+ :ou wish to as) a Euestion in Qrea% timeRD :ou can tr: the Qfreenas channe% on IRC $reenode. (e endin' u on the time o+ da: and :our time 8oneD a $reeNA"1 de.e%o er or other $reeNA"1 users ma: =e a.ai%a=%e to assist :ou. I+ :ou do not 'et an answer ri'ht awa:D remain on the channe% as other users tend to read the channe% histor: in order to answer Euestions as the: are a=%e to. <: ica%%:D an IRC c%ient is used to access the Qfreenas IRC channe%. A%ternate%:D :ou can access the we=chat .ersion o+ the channe% +rom a we= =rowser. <o 'et the most out o+ the IRC channe%D )ee the +o%%owin' oints in mindK (o not as) Qcan an:one he% meURO insteadD Iust as) :our Euestion. I+ someone )nows the answerD the: wi%% tr: to assist :ou. (o not as) a Euestion and then %ea.e. !sers who )now the answer can not he% :ou i+ :ou disa ear. (o not ta)e it ersona%%: i+ no one answers or demand that someone answers :our Euestion. Ma:=e no one who )nows the answer is a.ai%a=%eD ma:=e :our Euestion is rea%%: hardD or ma:=e it is a Euestion that has a%read: =een answered man: times in the other su ort resources. <r: as)in' a'ain in a +ew hours or research the other resources to see i+ :ou ha.e missed an:thin'. (o not ost error messa'es in the channe% as the IRC so+tware wi%% ro=a=%: )ic) :ou out. Page 24% of 274

FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide

InsteadD use a astin' ser.ice such as discussion.

aste=in and aste the resu%tin' !R9 into the IRC

1#.$ 4ai ing <ists


"e.era% $reeNA"1 mai%in' %ists are a.ai%a=%e which a%%ow users and de.e%o ers to as) and answer Euestions re%ated to the to ic o+ the mai%in' %ist. <o ost an emai% to a %istD :ou wi%% need to su=scri=e to it +irst. 4ach mai%in' %ist is archi.edD a%%owin' :ou to =rowse +or in+ormation =: dateD thread nameD or author. <he +o%%owin' mai%in' %ists are a.ai%a=%eK $reenas;announceK this is a %ow;.o%umeD read;on%: %ist where maIor mi%estonesD such as new re%easesD are announced. $reenas;commitK this is a read;on%: %ist. As code chan'es in the $reeNA"1 re ositor:D the commit messa'e is automatica%%: sent to this %ist. $reenas;de.e%K $reeNA"1 de.e%o ers are su=scri=ed to this %ist. <echnica% Euestions a=out the current $reeNA"1 re%ease can =e osted here. $reenas;docsK this %ist is +or discussion re'ardin' $reeNA"1 documentation. $reenas;testin'K $reeNA"1 de.e%o ers are su=scri=ed to this %ist. <echnica% Euestions a=out the u comin' $reeNA" re%ease and +eed=ac) on testin' sna shots can =e osted here. $reenas;trans%ationsK this %ist is +or discussion re'ardin' $reeNA"1 %oca%i8ation and trans%atin' $reeNA"1 documentation. N9*:: the mai%in' %ists were mi'rated +rom "ource$or'e to Mai%man in (ecem=erD 2013. Archi.es o+ the "ource$or'e mai%in' %ists are a.ai%a=%e at 2mane.

1#.% Professiona Su""ort


In addition to the +ree%: a.ai%a=%e communit: resourcesD i7s:stems o++ers ro+essiona% su ort ac)a'es. i7s:stems' de.e%o ment team wor)s hard to im ro.e new and current .ersions o+ $reeNA"1D ro.idin' them with the insi'ht to ro.ide e5 ert $reeNA"1 su ort and consu%tation ser.ices. <heir >ro+essiona% "er.ices team can a%so con+i'ure :our $reeNA"1 hardware and so+tware to de%i.er the hi'hest %e.e%s o+ er+ormanceD sta=i%it:D and securit:. "ee the i7s:stems su ort a'e to reEuest a Euote.

14 Usefu 'o33and <ine Uti ities


"e.era% command %ine uti%ities which are ro.ided with $reeNA"1 are demonstrated in this section. <he +o%%owin' uti%ities can =e used +or =enchmar)in' and er+ormance testin'K I"erf: used +or measurin' ma5imum <C> and !(> =andwidth er+ormance Net"erf: a too% +or measurin' networ) er+ormance I9=one: +i%es:stem =enchmar) uti%it: used to er+orm a =road +i%es:stem ana%:sis

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arcstat."+ and arc8su33ar+."+: used to 'ather 0$" ARC statistics A66: a too% +or measurin' and characteri8in' dis) su=s:stem I@<he +o%%owin' uti%ities are s eci+ic to RAI( contro%%ersK t08c i: used to monitor and maintain 3ware RAI( contro%%ers 4ega' i: used to con+i'ure and mana'e 9"I Me'aRAI( "A" +ami%: o+ RAI( contro%%ers IP4Itoo : used to mana'e and con+i'ure I>MI de.ices <his section a%so descri=es the +o%%owin' uti%itiesK freenas>de(ug: the =ac)end used to dum $reeNA"1 de=u''in' in+ormation t3u-: a termina% mu%ti %e5er simi%ar to 2N! screen 63idecode: re orts in+ormation a=out s:stem hardware as descri=ed in the s:stem's #I-"

14.1 I"erf
I er+ is a uti%it: +or measurin' ma5imum <C> and !(> =andwidth er+ormance. It can =e used to chart networ) throu'h ut o.er time. $or e5am %eD :ou can use it to test the s eed o+ di++erent t: es o+ shares to determine which t: e =est er+orms on :our networ). $reeNA"1 inc%udes the I er+ ser.er. <o er+orm networ) testin'D :ou wi%% need to insta%% an I er+ c%ient on a des)to s:stem that has networ) access to the $reeNA"1 s:stem. <his section wi%% demonstrate how to use the 5I er+ 2!I c%ient as it wor)s on WindowsD Mac -" 7D 9inu5D and #"( s:stems. "ince this c%ient is Ia.a =asedD :ou wi%% a%so need to insta%% the a ro riate CR4 +or the c%ient o eratin' s:stem. 9inu5 and #"( users wi%% need to insta%% the i er+ ac)a'e usin' their o eratin' s:stem's ac)a'e mana'ement s:stem. <o start 5I er+ on WindowsK un8i the down%oaded +i%eD start Command >rom t in Run as administrator modeD cd to the un8i ed +o%derD and run @"erf.(at. <o start 5I er+ on Mac -" 7D 9inu5D or #"(D un8i the down%oaded +i%eD cd to the un8i ed director:D t: e c!3od uV- @"erf.s!D and run .E@"erf.s!. -nce the c%ient is read:D :ou need to start the I er+ ser.er on $reeNA"1. <o see the a.ai%a=%e ser.er o tionsD o en "he%% and t: eK
iperf --help | more Usage: iperf [-s|-c host] [options] iperf [-h|--help] [-v|--version] Client/Server: -f, --format -i, --interval -l, --len -m, --print_mss -o, --output file -p, --port

[kmKM] # #[KM]

format to report: Kbits, Mbits, KBytes, MBytes seconds between periodic bandwidth reports length of buffer to read or write (default 8 KB) print TCP maximum segment size (MTU - TCP/IP header) <filename> output the report or error message to this specified # server port to listen on/connect to

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-u, -w, -B, -C, -M, -N, -V,

--udp --window #[KM] --bind <host> --compatibility --mss # --nodelay --IPv6Version

use UDP rather than TCP TCP window size (socket buffer size) bind to <host>, an interface or multicast address for use with older versions does not sent extra msgs set TCP maximum segment size (MTU - 40 bytes) set TCP no delay, disabling Nagle's Algorithm Set the domain to IPv6

Server specific: -s, --server -U, --single_udp -D, --daemon Client specific: -b, --bandwidth #[KM]

run in server mode run in single threaded UDP mode run the server as a daemon

for UDP, bandwidth to send at in bits/sec (default 1 Mbit/sec, implies -u) -c, --client <host> run in client mode, connecting to <host> -d, --dualtest Do a bidirectional test simultaneously -n, --num #[KM] number of bytes to transmit (instead of -t) -r, --tradeoff Do a bidirectional test individually -t, --time # time in seconds to transmit for (default 10 secs) -F, --fileinput <name> input the data to be transmitted from a file -I, --stdin input the data to be transmitted from stdin -L, --listenport # port to receive bidirectional tests back on -P, --parallel # number of parallel client threads to run -T, --ttl # time-to-live, for multicast (default 1) -Z, --linux-congestion <algo> set TCP congestion control algorithm (Linux only) Miscellaneous: -x, --reportexclude [CDMSV] exclude C(connection) D(data) M(multicast) S(settings) V(server) reports -y, --reportstyle C report as a Comma-Separated Values -h, --help print this message and quit -v, --version print version information and quit [KM] Indicates options that support a K or M suffix for kilo- or megaThe TCP window size option can be set by the environment variable TCP_WINDOW_SIZE. Most other options can be set by an environment variable IPERF_<long option name>, such as IPERF_BANDWIDTH.

$or e5am %eD to er+orm a <C> test and start the ser.er in daemon mode Aso that :ou 'et :our rom t =ac)BD t: eK
iperf -sD -----------------------------------------------------------Server listening on TCP port 5001 TCP window size: 64.0 KByte (default) -----------------------------------------------------------Running Iperf Server as a daemon The Iperf daemon process ID: 4842

N9*:: i+ :ou c%ose "he%%D the daemon rocess wi%% sto . Ha.e :our en.ironment setu Ae.'. shares con+i'ured and startedB be*ore startin' the i er+ rocess.

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$rom :our des)to D o en the c%ient. In ut the I> o+ address o+ the $reeNA"1 s:stemD s eci+: the runnin' time +or the test under A %ication %a:er o tions L <ransmit Athe de+au%t test time is 10 secondsBD and c%ic) the Run I er+S =utton. $i'ure 1&.1a shown an e5am %e o+ the c%ient runnin' on a Windows s:stem whi%e an "$<> trans+er is occurrin' on the networ). Figure 14.1a: ?ie0ing 5and0idt! Statistics Using -@"erf

(e endin' u on the tra++ic =ein' tested Ae.'. the t: e o+ share runnin' on :our networ)BD :ou ma: need to test !(> instead o+ <C>. <o start the i er+ ser.er in !(> modeD use i"erf >s6u as the u s eci+ies !(>O the startu messa'e shou%d indicate that the ser.er is %istenin' +or !(> data'rams. I+ :ou are not sure i+ the tra++ic that :ou wish to test is !(> or <C>D run this command to determine which ser.ices are runnin' on the $reeNA"1 s:stemK
sockstat USER root root www www www root root root -4 | more COMMAND iperf iperf nginx nginx nginx sshd python mountd PID 4870 4842 4827 4827 4827 3852 2503 2363 FD 6 6 3 5 7 5 5 7 PROTO udp4 tcp4 tcp4 tcp4 tcp4 tcp4 udp4 udp4 LOCAL ADDRESS *:5001 *:5001 127.0.0.1:15956 192.168.2.11:80 *:80 *:22 *:* *:812 FOREIGN ADDRESS *:* *:* 127.0.0.1:9042 192.168.2.26:56964 *:* *:* *:* *:*

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root root root root root root root root root root root root

mountd rpcbind rpcbind rpcbind nginx python python python ntpd ntpd ntpd syslogd

2363 2359 2359 2359 2044 2029 2029 2029 1548 1548 1548 1089

8 9 10 11 7 3 4 7 20 22 25 6

tcp4 udp4 udp4 tcp4 tcp4 udp4 tcp4 tcp4 udp4 udp4 udp4 udp4

*:812 *:111 *:886 *:111 *:80 *:* 127.0.0.1:9042 127.0.0.1:9042 *:123 192.168.2.11:123 127.0.0.1:123 127.0.0.1:514

*:* *:* *:* *:* *:* *:* *:* 127.0.0.1:15956 *:* *:* *:* *:*

When :ou are +inished testin'D either t: e 7i a i"erf or c%ose "he%% to terminate the i er+ ser.er rocess.

14.2 Net"erf
Net er+ is a =enchmar)in' uti%it: that can =e used to measure the er+ormance o+ unidirectiona% throu'h ut and end;to;end %atenc:. #e+ore :ou can use the net"erf commandD :ou must start its ser.er rocess usin' this commandK
netserver Starting netserver with host 'IN(6)ADDR_ANY' port '12865' and family AF_UNSPEC

<he +o%%owin' command wi%% dis %a: the a.ai%a=%e o tions +or er+ormin' tests with the net"erf command. <he Net er+ Manua% descri=es each o tion in more detai% and e5 %ains how to er+orm man: t: es o+ tests. It is the =est re+erence +or understandin' how each test wor)s and how to inter ret :our resu%ts. When :ou are +inished with :our testsD t: e 7i a netser,er to sto the ser.er rocess.
netperf -h |more Usage: netperf [global options] -- [test options] Global options: -a send,recv Set the local send,recv buffer alignment -A send,recv Set the remote send,recv buffer alignment -B brandstr Specify a string to be emitted with brief output -c [cpu_rate] Report local CPU usage -C [cpu_rate] Report remote CPU usage -d Increase debugging output -D [secs,units] * Display interim results at least every secs seconds using units as the initial guess for units per second -f G|M|K|g|m|k Set the output units -F fill_file Pre-fill buffers with data from fill_file -h Display this text -H name|ip,fam * Specify the target machine and/or local ip and family -i max,min Specify the max and min number of iterations (15,1) -I lvl[,intvl] Specify confidence level (95 or 99) (99) and confidence interval in percentage (10) -j Keep additional timing statistics -l testlen Specify test duration (>0 secs) (<0 bytes|trans) -L name|ip,fam * Specify the local ip|name and address family -o send,recv Set the local send,recv buffer offsets -O send,recv Set the remote send,recv buffer offset -n numcpu Set the number of processors for CPU util

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-N -p -P -r -s -S -t -T -v -W -v -V

port,lport* 0|1 seconds testname lcpu,rcpu verbosity send,recv level

Establish no control connection, do 'send' side only Specify netserver port number and/or local port Don't/Do display test headers Allow confidence to be hit on result only Wait seconds between test setup and test start Set SO_KEEPALIVE on the data connection Specify test to perform Request netperf/netserver be bound to local/remote cpu Specify the verbosity level Set the number of send,recv buffers Set the verbosity level (default 1, min 0) Display the netperf version and exit

For those options taking two parms, at least one must be specified; specifying one value without a comma will set both parms to that value, specifying a value with a leading comma will set just the second parm, a value with a trailing comma will set just the first. To set each parm to unique values, specify both and separate them with a comma. * For these options taking two parms, specifying one value with no comma will only set the first parms and will leave the second at the default value. To set the second value it must be preceded with a comma or be a comma-separated pair. This is to retain previous netperf behaviour.

14.# I9=one
I-8one is a dis) and +i%es:stem =enchmar)in' too%. It can =e used to test +i%e I@- er+ormance +or the +o%%owin' o erationsK readD writeD re;readD re;writeD read =ac)wardsD read stridedD +readD +writeD random readD readD mma D aioGreadD and aioGwrite. $reeNA"1 shi s with I-8oneD meanin' that it can =e run +rom "he%%. When usin' I-8one on $reeNA"1D cd to a director: in a .o%ume that :ou ha.e ermission to write toD otherwise :ou wi%% 'et an error a=out =ein' una=%e to write the tem orar: +i%e. #e+ore usin' I-8oneD read throu'h the I-8one documentation >($ as it descri=es the testsD the man: command %ine switchesD and how to inter ret :our resu%ts. I+ :ou ha.e ne.er used this too% =e+oreD these resources ro.ide 'ood startin' oints on which tests to runD when to run themD and how to inter ret the resu%tsK How <o Measure 9inu5 $i%es:stem I@- >er+ormance With io8one Ana%:8in' N$" C%ient >er+ormance with I-8one 10 io8one 45am %es +or (is) I@- >er+ormance Measurement on 9inu5 Fou can recei.e a summar: o+ the a.ai%a=%e switches =: t: in' the +o%%owin' command.
iozone -h | more iozone: help mode Usage: iozone[-s filesize_Kb] [-r record_size_Kb] [-f [path]filename] [-h] [-i test] [-E] [-p] [-a] [-A] [-z] [-Z] [-m] [-M] [-t children] [-l min_number_procs] [-u max_number_procs] [-v] [-R] [-x] [-o] [-d microseconds] [-F path1 path2...] [-V pattern] [-j stride] [-T] [-C] [-B] [-D] [-G] [-I] [-H depth] [-k depth] [-U mount_point] [-S cache_size] [-O] [-L cacheline_size] [-K] [-g maxfilesize_Kb] [-n minfilesize_Kb] [-N] [-Q] [-P start_cpu] [-e] [-c] [-b Excel.xls]

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[-J milliseconds] [-X write_telemetry_filename] [-w] [-W] [-Y read_telemetry_filename] [-y minrecsize_Kb] [-q maxrecsize_Kb] [-+u] [-+m cluster_filename] [-+d] [-+x multiplier] [-+p # ] [-+r] [-+t] [-+X] [-+Z] [-+w percent dedupable] [-+y percent_interior_dedup] [-+C percent_dedup_within] -a Auto mode -A Auto2 mode -b Filename Create Excel worksheet file -B Use mmap() files -c Include close in the timing calculations -C Show bytes transferred by each child in throughput testing -d # Microsecond delay out of barrier -D Use msync(MS_ASYNC) on mmap files -e Include flush (fsync,fflush) in the timing calculations -E Run extension tests -f filename to use -F filenames for each process/thread in throughput test -g # Set maximum file size (in Kbytes) for auto mode (or #m or #g) -G Use msync(MS_SYNC) on mmap files -h help -H # Use POSIX async I/O with # async operations -i # Test to run (0=write/rewrite, 1=read/re-read, 2=random-read/write 3=Read-backwards, 4=Re-write-record, 5=stride-read, 6=fwrite/re-fwrite 7=fread/Re-fread, 8=random_mix, 9=pwrite/Re-pwrite, 10=pread/Re-pread 11=pwritev/Re-pwritev, 12=preadv/Re-preadv) -I Use VxFS VX_DIRECT, O_DIRECT,or O_DIRECTIO for all file operations -j # Set stride of file accesses to (# * record size) -J # milliseconds of compute cycle before each I/O operation -k # Use POSIX async I/O (no bcopy) with # async operations -K Create jitter in the access pattern for readers -l # Lower limit on number of processes to run -L # Set processor cache line size to value (in bytes) -m Use multiple buffers -M Report uname -a output -n # Set minimum file size (in Kbytes) for auto mode (or #m or #g) -N Report results in microseconds per operation -o Writes are synch (O_SYNC) -O Give results in ops/sec. -p Purge on -P # Bind processes/threads to processors, starting with this cpu -q # Set maximum record size (in Kbytes) for auto mode (or #m or #g) -Q Create offset/latency files -r # record size in Kb or -r #k .. size in Kb or -r #m .. size in Mb or -r #g .. size in Gb -R Generate Excel report -s # file size in Kb or -s #k .. size in Kb or -s #m .. size in Mb or -s #g .. size in Gb -S # Set processor cache size to value (in Kbytes) -t # Number of threads or processes to use in throughput test -T Use POSIX pthreads for throughput tests -u # Upper limit on number of processes to run -U Mount point to remount between tests

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-v version information -V # Verify data pattern write/read -w Do not unlink temporary file -W Lock file when reading or writing -x Turn off stone-walling -X filename Write telemetry file. Contains lines with (offset reclen compute_time) in ascii -y # Set minimum record size (in Kbytes) for auto mode (or #m or #g) -Y filename Read telemetry file. Contains lines with (offset reclen compute_time) in ascii -z Used in conjunction with -a to test all possible record sizes -Z Enable mixing of mmap I/O and file I/O -+E Use existing non-Iozone file for read-only testing -+K Sony special. Manual control of test 8. -+m Cluster_filename Enable Cluster testing -+d File I/O diagnostic mode. (To troubleshoot a broken file I/O subsystem) -+u Enable CPU utilization output (Experimental) -+x # Multiplier to use for incrementing file and record sizes -+p # Percentage of mix to be reads -+r Enable O_RSYNC|O_SYNC for all testing. -+t Enable network performance test. Requires -+m -+n No retests selected. -+k Use constant aggregate data set size. -+q Delay in seconds between tests. -+l Enable record locking mode. -+L Enable record locking mode, with shared file. -+B Sequential mixed workload. -+A # Enable madvise. 0 = normal, 1=random, 2=sequential 3=dontneed, 4=willneed -+N Do not truncate existing files on sequential writes. -+S # Dedup-able data is limited to sharing within each numerically identified file set -+V Enable shared file. No locking. -+X Enable short circuit mode for filesystem testing ONLY ALL Results are NOT valid in this mode. -+Z Enable old data set compatibility mode. WARNING.. Published hacks may invalidate these results and generate bogus, high values for results. -+w ## Percent of dedup-able data in buffers. -+y ## Percent of dedup-able within & across files in buffers. -+C ## Percent of dedup-able within & not across files in buffers. -+H Hostname Hostname of the PIT server. -+P Service Service of the PIT server. -+z Enable latency histogram logging.

As :ou can see +rom the num=er o+ o tionsD I-8one is com rehensi.e and it ma: ta)e some time to %earn how to use the tests e++ecti.e%:. N9*:: i+ :ou re+er to .isua%i8e the co%%ected dataD scri ts are a.ai%a=%e to render I-8one's out ut in 2nu %ot.

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14.4 arcstat
Arcstat is a scri t that rints out 0$" ARC statistics. -ri'ina%%: it was a er% scri t created =: "un. <hat er% scri t was orted to $ree#"( and was then orted as a >:thon scri t +or use on $reeNA"1. Watchin' ARC hits@misses and ercenta'es wi%% ro.ide an indication o+ how we%% :our 0$" oo% is +etchin' +rom the ARC rather than usin' dis) I@-. Idea%%:D :ou want as man: thin's +etchin' +rom cache as ossi=%e. Kee :our %oad in mind as :ou re.iew the stats. $or random readsD e5 ect a miss and ha.in' to 'o to dis) to +etch the data. $or cached readsD e5 ect it to u%% out o+ the cache and ha.e a hit. 9i)e a%% cache s:stemsD the ARC ta)es time to +i%% with data. <his means that it wi%% ha.e a %ot o+ misses unti% the oo% has =een in use +or a whi%e. I+ there continues to =e %ots o+ misses and hi'h dis) I@- on cached readsD there is cause to in.esti'ate +urther and tune the s:stem. <he $ree#"( 0$" <unin' 2uide ro.ides some su''estions +or common%: tuned s+sct .a%ues. It shou%d =e noted that er+ormance tunin' is more o+ an art than a science and that an: chan'es :ou ma)e wi%% ro=a=%: reEuire se.era% iterations o+ tune and test. #e aware that what needs to =e tuned wi%% .ar: de endin' u on the t: e o+ wor)%oad and that what wor)s +or one erson's networ) ma: not =ene+it :ours. In articu%arD the .a%ue o+ re;+etchin' de ends u on the amount o+ memor: and the t: e o+ wor)%oadD as seen in these two e5am %esK !nderstandin' 0$"K >re+etch 0$" re+etch a%'orithm can cause er+ormance draw=ac)s 14.4.1 Using t!e Scri"ts

$reeNA"1 ro.ides two command %ine scri ts which an =e manua%%: run +rom "he%%K arc8su33ar+."+: used to watch the statistics in rea% time arcstat."+: ro.ides a summar: o+ the statistics <he ad.anta'e o+ these scri ts is that the: can =e used to ro.ide rea% time Ari'ht nowB in+ormationD whereas the current 2!I re ortin' mechanism is desi'ned to on%: ro.ide 'ra hs charted o.er time. <his +orum ost demonstrates some e5am %es o+ usin' these scri ts with hints on how to inter ret the resu%ts. <o .iew the he% +or arcstat. :K
arcstat.py -h Usage: arcstat [-hvx] [-f fields] [-o file] [-s string] [interval [count]] -h: Print this help message -v: List all possible field headers and definitions -x: Print extended stats -f: Specify specific fields to print (see -v) -o: Redirect output to the specified file -s: Override default field separator with custom character or string Examples: arcstat -o /tmp/a.log 2 10 arcstat -s "," -o /tmp/a.log 2 10 arcstat -v arcstat -f time,hit%,dh%,ph%,mh% 1

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<o .iew ARC statistics in rea% timeD s eci+: an inter.a% and a count. <his command wi%% dis %a: e.er: 1 second +or a count o+ +i.e.
arcstat.py 1 5 time read 06:19:03 0 06:19:04 0 06:19:05 0 06:19:06 0 06:19:07 0 miss 0 0 0 0 0 miss% 0 0 0 0 0 dmis 0 0 0 0 0 dm% 0 0 0 0 0 pmis 0 0 0 0 0 pm% 0 0 0 0 0 mmis 0 0 0 0 0 mm% 0 0 0 0 0 arcsz 425K 425K 425K 425K 425K c 6.6G 6.6G 6.6G 6.6G 6.6G

<his command ro.ides a =rie+ descri tion o+ the +ie%ds in the out utK
arcstat.py -v System Memory: 2.00% 156.36 MiB Active, 1.49% 116.70 MiB Inact 39.49% 3.02 GiB Wired, 0.03% 2.53 MiB Cache 56.97% 4.35 GiB Free, 0.02% 1.23 MiB Gap Real Installed: 8.00 GiB Real Available: 98.65% 7.89 GiB Real Managed: 96.83% 7.64 GiB Logical Total: 8.00 GiB Logical Used: 44.12% 3.53 GiB Logical Free: 55.88% 4.47 GiB Kernel Memory: 226.69 MiB Data: 90.16% 204.39 MiB Text: 9.84% 22.31 MiB Kernel Memory Map: 7.64 GiB Size: 22.56% 1.72 GiB Free: 77.44% 5.92 GiB ARC Summary: (HEALTHY) Storage pool Version: 5000 Filesystem Version: 5 Memory Throttle Count: 0 ARC Misc: Deleted: 0 Recycle Misses: 0 Mutex Misses: 0 Evict Skips: 0 ARC Size: 28.39% 1.89 GiB Target Size: (Adaptive) 100.00% 6.64 GiB Min Size (Hard Limit): 12.50% 850.23MiB Max Size (High Water): 8:1 6.64 GiB ARC Size Breakdown: Recently Used Cache Size: 50.30% 3.34 GiB Frequently Used Cache Size: 49.70% 3.30GiB ARC Hash Breakdown: Elements Max: 258.19k Elements Current: 100.00% 258.19k Collisions: 157.63k Chain Max: 8 Chains: 79.46k ARC Total accesses: 2.25m Cache Hit Ratio: 99.94% 2.25m Cache Miss Ratio: 0.06% 1.38k Actual Hit Ratio: 99.86% 2.25m Data Demand Efficiency: 100.00% 1.99m

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Data Prefetch Efficiency: 100.00% CACHE HITS BY CACHE LIST: Anonymously Used: 0.02% Most Recently Used: 2.70% Most Frequently Used: 97.22% Most Recently Used Ghost: 0.06% Most Frequently Used Ghost: 0.00% CACHE HITS BY DATA TYPE: Demand Data: 88.26% Prefetch Data: 0.27% Demand Metadata: 11.47% Prefetch Metadata: 0.00% CACHE MISSES BY DATA TYPE: Demand Data: 0.00% Prefetch Data: 0.00% Demand Metadata: 9.76% Prefetch Metadata: 90.24% File-Level Prefetch: (HEALTHY)DMU Efficiency: Hit Ratio: 80.03% Miss Ratio: 19.97% Colinear: Hit Ratio: 0.00% Miss Ratio: 100.00% Stride: Hit Ratio: 100.00% Miss Ratio: 0.00% DMU Misc: Reclaim: Successes: 0.08% Failures: 99.92% Streams: +Resets: 0.00% -Resets: 100.00% Bogus: ZFS Tunable (sysctl): kern.maxusers vm.kmem_size vm.kmem_size_scale vm.kmem_size_min vm.kmem_size_max vfs.zfs.l2c_only_size vfs.zfs.mfu_ghost_data_lsize vfs.zfs.mfu_ghost_metadata_lsize vfs.zfs.mfu_ghost_size vfs.zfs.mfu_data_lsize vfs.zfs.mfu_metadata_lsize vfs.zfs.mfu_size vfs.zfs.mru_ghost_data_lsize vfs.zfs.mru_ghost_metadata_lsize vfs.zfs.mru_ghost_size vfs.zfs.mru_data_lsize vfs.zfs.mru_metadata_lsize vfs.zfs.mru_size vfs.zfs.anon_data_lsize vfs.zfs.anon_metadata_lsize vfs.zfs.anon_size vfs.zfs.l2arc_norw

6.11k 353 60.83k 2.19m 1.34k 13 1.99m 6.11k 258.29k 0 0 0 135 1.25k 10.16m 8.13m 2.03m 2.03m 91 2.03m 8.06m 8.06m 0 2.03m 1.65k 2.03m 72.11k 0 72.11k 0 384 8205963264 1 0 329853485875 0 623119872 348672 623468544 302145536 8972288 326883328 769186304 8935424 778121728 1127638016 30442496 1274765312 0 0 279040 1

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vfs.zfs.l2arc_feed_again vfs.zfs.l2arc_noprefetch vfs.zfs.l2arc_feed_min_ms vfs.zfs.l2arc_feed_secs vfs.zfs.l2arc_headroom vfs.zfs.l2arc_write_boost vfs.zfs.l2arc_write_max vfs.zfs.arc_meta_limit vfs.zfs.arc_meta_used vfs.zfs.arc_min vfs.zfs.arc_max vfs.zfs.dedup.prefetch vfs.zfs.mdcomp_disable vfs.zfs.nopwrite_enabled vfs.zfs.zfetch.array_rd_sz vfs.zfs.zfetch.block_cap vfs.zfs.zfetch.min_sec_reap vfs.zfs.zfetch.max_streams vfs.zfs.prefetch_disable vfs.zfs.no_scrub_prefetch vfs.zfs.no_scrub_io vfs.zfs.resilver_min_time_ms vfs.zfs.free_min_time_ms vfs.zfs.scan_min_time_ms vfs.zfs.scan_idle vfs.zfs.scrub_delay vfs.zfs.resilver_delay vfs.zfs.top_maxinflight vfs.zfs.write_to_degraded vfs.zfs.mg_noalloc_threshold vfs.zfs.mg_alloc_failures vfs.zfs.condense_pct vfs.zfs.metaslab.weight_factor_enable vfs.zfs.metaslab.preload_enabled vfs.zfs.metaslab.preload_limit vfs.zfs.metaslab.unload_delay vfs.zfs.metaslab.load_pct vfs.zfs.metaslab.min_alloc_size vfs.zfs.metaslab.df_free_pct vfs.zfs.metaslab.df_alloc_threshold vfs.zfs.metaslab.debug_unload vfs.zfs.metaslab.debug_load vfs.zfs.metaslab.gang_bang vfs.zfs.ccw_retry_interval vfs.zfs.check_hostid vfs.zfs.deadman_enabled vfs.zfs.deadman_checktime_ms vfs.zfs.deadman_synctime_ms vfs.zfs.recover vfs.zfs.txg.timeout vfs.zfs.max_auto_ashift vfs.zfs.vdev.cache.bshift vfs.zfs.vdev.cache.size vfs.zfs.vdev.cache.max vfs.zfs.vdev.trim_on_init vfs.zfs.vdev.write_gap_limit vfs.zfs.vdev.read_gap_limit

1 1 200 1 2 8388608 8388608 1783055360 594834472 891527680 7132221440 1 0 1 1048576 256 2 8 0 0 0 3000 1000 1000 50 4 2 32 0 0 8 200 0 1 3 8 50 10485760 4 131072 0 0 131073 300 1 1 5000 1000000 0 5 13 16 0 16384 1 4096 32768

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vfs.zfs.vdev.aggregation_limit vfs.zfs.vdev.scrub_max_active vfs.zfs.vdev.scrub_min_active vfs.zfs.vdev.async_write_max_active vfs.zfs.vdev.async_write_min_active vfs.zfs.vdev.async_read_max_active vfs.zfs.vdev.async_read_min_active vfs.zfs.vdev.sync_write_max_active vfs.zfs.vdev.sync_write_min_active vfs.zfs.vdev.sync_read_max_active vfs.zfs.vdev.sync_read_min_active vfs.zfs.vdev.max_active vfs.zfs.vdev.larger_ashift_minimal vfs.zfs.vdev.bio_delete_disable vfs.zfs.vdev.bio_flush_disable vfs.zfs.vdev.trim_max_pending vfs.zfs.vdev.trim_max_bytes vfs.zfs.cache_flush_disable vfs.zfs.zil_replay_disable vfs.zfs.sync_pass_rewrite vfs.zfs.sync_pass_dont_compress vfs.zfs.sync_pass_deferred_free vfs.zfs.zio.use_uma vfs.zfs.snapshot_list_prefetch vfs.zfs.version.ioctl vfs.zfs.version.zpl vfs.zfs.version.spa vfs.zfs.version.acl vfs.zfs.debug vfs.zfs.super_owner vfs.zfs.trim.enabled vfs.zfs.trim.max_interval vfs.zfs.trim.timeout vfs.zfs.trim.txg_delay

131072 2 1 10 1 3 1 10 10 10 10 1000 1 0 0 64 2147483648 0 0 2 5 2 1 0 3 5 5000 1 0 0 1 1 30 32

When readin' the tuna=%e .a%uesD 0 means noD 1 t: ica%%: means :esD and an: other num=er re resents a .a%ue. <o recei.e a =rie+ descri tion o+ a s+sct .a%ueD use s+sct >d. $or e5am %eK
sysctl -d vfs.zfs.zio.use_uma vfs.zfs.zio.use_uma: Use uma(9) for ZIO allocations

<he 0$" tuna=%es reEuire a +air understandin' o+ how 0$" wor)sD meanin' that :ou wi%% =e readin' man a'es and searchin' +or the meanin' o+ acron:ms :ou are un+ami%iar with. Do %ot cha%#e a t!%able@$ 'al!e -itho!t re$earchi%# it *ir$t. I+ the tuna=%e ta)es a numeric .a%ue Arather than 0 +or no or 1 +or :esBD do not ma)e one u . InsteadD research e5am %es o+ =ene+icia% .a%ues that match :our wor)%oad. I+ :ou decide to chan'e an: o+ the 0$" tuna=%esD continue to monitor the s:stem to determine the e++ect o+ the chan'e. It is recommended that :ou test :our chan'es +irst at the command %ine usin' s+sct . $or e5am %eD to disa=%e re;+etch Ai.e. chan'e disa=%e to 1 or :esBK
sysctl vfs.zfs.prefetch_disable=1 vfs.zfs.prefetch_disable: 0 -> 1

<he out ut wi%% indicate the o%d .a%ue +o%%owed =: the new .a%ue. I+ the chan'e is not =ene+icia%D chan'e FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 2$9 of 274

it =ac) to the ori'ina% .a%ue. I+ the chan'e turns out to =e =ene+icia%D :ou can ma)e it ermanent =: creatin' a tuna=%e.

14.$ A66
7(( is a uti%it: which ro.ides accurate and detai%ed measurements o+ dis) I@- er+ormance. <his section ro.ides some usa'e e5am %es. <: e the name o+ the command without an: o tions to see its usa'eK
xdd Usage: xdd command-line-options -align [target <target#>] <#bytes> -blocksize [target <target#>] <#bytes/block> -combinedout <filename> -createnewfiles [target <target#>] -csvout <filename> -datapattern [target <target#>] <c> |random|sequenced|ascii <asciistring>|hex <hexdigits>|replicate -delay #seconds -deletefile [target <target#>] -deskew -devicefile -dio [target <target#>] -errout <filename> -fullhelp -heartbeat # -id "string" | commandline -kbytes [target <target#>] <#> -lockstep <mastertarget#> <slavetarget#> <time|op|percent|mbytes|kbytes> # <time| op|percent|mbytes|kbytes># <wait|run> <complete|stop> -lockstepoverlapped -maxall -maxerrors # -maxpri -mbytes [target <target#>] <#> -minall -nobarrier -nomemlock -noproclock -numreqs [target <target#>] <#> -operation [target <target#>] read|write -output <filename> -passes # -passoffset [target <target#>] <#blocks> -preallocate [target <target#>] <#blocks> -processlock -processor target# processor# -queuedepth #cmds -qthreadinfo -randomize [target <target#>] -readafterwrite [target #] trigger <stat|mp> |lag <#> | reader <hostname>|port <#> -reallyverbose -recreatefiles [target <target#>] -reopen [target <target#>] -reportthreshold [target #] <#.#>

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-reqsize [target <target#>] <#blocks> -roundrobin # or 'all' -runtime #seconds -rwratio [target <target#>] <ratio> -seek [target <target#>] save <filename> |load <filename> |disthist #buckets | seekhist #buckets|sequential|random|range #blocks|stagger|interleave #blocks|seed # | none -setup filename -sgio -sharedmemory [target <target#>] -singleproc # -startdelay [target <target#>]#.#seconds -startoffset [target <target#>] # -starttime #seconds -starttrigger <target#> <target#> <<time|op|percent|mbytes|kbytes> #> -stoptrigger <target#> <target#> <<time|op|percent|mbytes|kbytes> #> -syncio # -syncwrite [target <target#>] -target filename -targetdir [target <target#>] <directory_name> -targetoffset # -targets # filename filename filename... -or- -targets -# filename -targetstartdelay #.#seconds -throttle [target <target#>] <ops|bw|var> <#.#ops | #.#MB/sec | #.#var> -timelimit [target <target#>] <#seconds> -timerinfo -timeserver <host hostname | port # | bounce #> -ts [target <target#>] summary|detailed|wrap|oneshot|size #|append|output <filename>|dump <filename>|triggertime <seconds>|triggerop <op#> -verbose -verify [target <target#>] location|contents -version

Here is an e5am %e o+ a 0$" write testK


xdd op write targets 2 /mnt/tank/BIGFILE1 /mnt/tank/BIGFILE2 -blocksize 512 \ -reqsize 128 -mbytes 2048 verbose passes 3

<his test wi%% write seEuentia%%: +rom two e5istin' tar'et +i%esD .mnt.tank.B7HF7:,1 and .mnt.tank.B7HF7:,2. It starts at the =e'innin' o+ each +i%e usin' a +i5ed reEuest si8e o+ 126 =%oc)s with *12 =:tes er =%oc) unti% it has read 20&6 M#D at which time it wi%% end the current ass and roceed to the ne5t ass. It wi%% do this 3 times and dis %a: er+ormance in+ormation +or each ass. <he com=ined er+ormance o+ =oth de.ices is ca%cu%ated and dis %a:ed at the end o+ the run. -nce the test is +inishedD :ou can test the read er+ormance =: chan'in' the >o" to read. Fou can a%so test read or write o erations on a s eci+ied dis). Re %ace .de#.ada0 with the de.ice name +or the dis) :ou wish to test.
xdd op read targets 1 /dev/ada0 reqsize 128 -mbytes 64 passes 3 verbose

I+ :ou use the same switches o+tenD create a setu +i%e and re+er to it with the >setu" switch. $or e5am %eD in a writa=%e %ocation Ae.'. .o%ume or datasetB create a (dd.set!- +i%e containin' this %ineK
reqsize 128 -mbytes 64 passes 3 verbose

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Now :our command wou%d =eK


xdd op read targets 1 /dev/ada0 -setup xdd.setup

<o er+orm a random I@- test on the s eci+ied dis)K


xdd op read targets 1 /dev/ada0 reqsize 8 -mbytes 16 passes 3 verbose seek \ random seek range 4000000

<his random I@- test wi%% read +rom the tar'et de.ice at some random %ocation usin' a +i5ed reEuest si8e o+ 6 =%oc)s unti% it has read 1, M#. It wi%% do this 3 times and dis %a: er+ormance in+ormation +or each ass. "ince this is a random I@- atternD the read reEuests are distri=uted o.er a ran'e o+ &D000D000 =%oc)s. <his is use+u% in constrainin' the area o.er which the random %ocations are chosen +rom. <he same see) %ocations are used +or each ass in order to 'enerate re roduci=%e resu%ts. In +actD u on each in.ocation o+ -dd usin' the same arametersD the same random %ocations are 'enerated each time. <his a%%ows the user to chan'e the dis) or startin' o++set and o=ser.e the e++ects. <he random %ocations ma: =e chan'ed +rom ass to ass within an -dd run =: usin' the >rando3i=e o tion which 'enerates a new set o+ %ocations +or each ass. <he random %ocations ma: =e chan'ed +rom run to run usin' the L$ee0 seed o tion to s eci+: a di++erent random num=er 'eneration seed .a%ue +or each in.ocation o+ -dd.

14.% t08c i
$reeNA"1 inc%udes the t08c i command %ine uti%it: +or ro.idin' contro%%erD %o'ica% unitD and dri.e mana'ement +or AMCC@3ware A<A RAI( Contro%%ers. <he su orted mode%s are %isted in the man a'es +or the tweA&B and twaA&B dri.ers. #e+ore usin' this commandD read its man a'e as it descri=es the termino%o': and ro.ides some usa'e e5am %es. I+ :ou t: e t08c i in "he%%D the rom t wi%% chan'eD indicatin' that :ou ha.e entered interacti.e mode where :ou can run a%% sorts o+ maintenance commands on the contro%%er and its arra:s. A%ternate%:D :ou can s eci+: one command to run. $or e5am %eD to .iew the dis)s in the arra:K
tw_cli /c0 show Unit UnitType Status %RCmpl %V/I/M Stripe Size(GB) Cache AVrfy -----------------------------------------------------------------------------u0 RAID-6 OK 256K 5587.88 RiW ON u1 SPARE OK 931.505 OFF u2 RAID-10 OK 256K 1862.62 RiW ON VPort Status Unit Size Type Phy Encl-Slot Model -----------------------------------------------------------------------------p8 OK u0 931.51 GB SAS /c0/e0/slt0 SEAGATE ST31000640SS p9 OK u0 931.51 GB SAS /c0/e0/slt1 SEAGATE ST31000640SS p10 OK u0 931.51 GB SAS /c0/e0/slt2 SEAGATE ST31000640SS p11 OK u0 931.51 GB SAS /c0/e0/slt3 SEAGATE ST31000640SS p12 OK u0 931.51 GB SAS /c0/e0/slt4 SEAGATE ST31000640SS p13 OK u0 931.51 GB SAS /c0/e0/slt5 SEAGATE ST31000640SS p14 OK u0 931.51 GB SAS /c0/e0/slt6 SEAGATE ST31000640SS p15 OK u0 931.51 GB SAS /c0/e0/slt7 SEAGATE ST31000640SS p16 OK u1 931.51 GB SAS /c0/e0/slt8 SEAGATE ST31000640SS p17 OK u2 931.51 GB SATA /c0/e0/slt9 ST31000340NS p18 OK u2 931.51 GB SATA /c0/e0/slt10 ST31000340NS p19 OK u2 931.51 GB SATA /c0/e0/slt11 ST31000340NS

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p20 OK u2 931.51 GB SATA /c0/e0/slt15 ST31000340NS Name OnlineState BBUReady Status Volt Temp Hours LastCapTest --------------------------------------------------------------------------bbu On Yes OK OK OK 212 03-Jan-2012

-rD to re.iew the e.ent %o'K


tw_cli /c0 show events Ctl Date Severity AEN Message -----------------------------------------------------------------------------c0 [Thu Feb 23 2012 14:01:15] INFO Battery charging started c0 [Thu Feb 23 2012 14:03:02] INFO Battery charging completed c0 [Sat Feb 25 2012 00:02:18] INFO Verify started: unit=0 c0 [Sat Feb 25 2012 00:02:18] INFO Verify started: unit=2,subunit=0 c0 [Sat Feb 25 2012 00:02:18] INFO Verify started: unit=2,subunit=1 c0 [Sat Feb 25 2012 03:49:35] INFO Verify completed: unit=2,subunit=0 c0 [Sat Feb 25 2012 03:51:39] INFO Verify completed: unit=2,subunit=1 c0 [Sat Feb 25 2012 21:55:59] INFO Verify completed: unit=0 c0 [Thu Mar 01 2012 13:51:09] INFO Battery health check started c0 [Thu Mar 01 2012 13:51:09] INFO Battery health check completed c0 [Thu Mar 01 2012 13:51:09] INFO Battery charging started c0 [Thu Mar 01 2012 13:53:03] INFO Battery charging completed c0 [Sat Mar 03 2012 00:01:24] INFO Verify started: unit=0 c0 [Sat Mar 03 2012 00:01:24] INFO Verify started: unit=2,subunit=0 c0 [Sat Mar 03 2012 00:01:24] INFO Verify started: unit=2,subunit=1 c0 [Sat Mar 03 2012 04:04:27] INFO Verify completed: unit=2,subunit=0 c0 [Sat Mar 03 2012 04:06:25] INFO Verify completed: unit=2,subunit=1 c0 [Sat Mar 03 2012 16:22:05] INFO Verify completed: unit=0 c0 [Thu Mar 08 2012 13:41:39] INFO Battery charging started c0 [Thu Mar 08 2012 13:43:42] INFO Battery charging completed c0 [Sat Mar 10 2012 00:01:30] INFO Verify started: unit=0 c0 [Sat Mar 10 2012 00:01:30] INFO Verify started: unit=2,subunit=0 c0 [Sat Mar 10 2012 00:01:30] INFO Verify started: unit=2,subunit=1 c0 [Sat Mar 10 2012 05:06:38] INFO Verify completed: unit=2,subunit=0 c0 [Sat Mar 10 2012 05:08:57] INFO Verify completed: unit=2,subunit=1 c0 [Sat Mar 10 2012 15:58:15] INFO Verify completed: unit=0

I+ :ou add some dis)s to the arra: and the: are not showin' u in the 2!ID tr: runnin' the +o%%owin' commandK
tw_cli /c0 rescan

!se the dri.es to create units and e5 ort them to the o eratin' s:stem. When +inishedD run ca3contro rescan a and the: shou%d now =e a.ai%a=%e in the $reeNA"1 2!I.

14.7 4ega' i
4ega' i is the command %ine inter+ace +or the 9"I Me'aRAI( "A" +ami%: o+ RAI( contro%%ers. $reeNA"1 a%so inc%udes the m+iuti%A6B uti%it: which can =e used to con+i'ure and mana'e connected stora'e de.ices. <he 4ega' i command is Euite com %e5 with se.era% do8en o tions. Whi%e it is +u%%: documented in this &&2 a'e >($D the commands demonstrated in the 4mer'enc: Cheat "heet can 'et :ou started.

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14.) IP4Itoo
I>MItoo% ro.ides a command %ine inter+ace to the #ase=oard Mana'ement Contro%%er A#MCB +ound in I>MI de.ices. An I>MI de.ice ro.ides side;=and mana'ement shou%d the $reeNA"1 s:stem =ecome una.ai%a=%e throu'h the 'ra hica% administrati.e inter+ace. <his a%%ows +or a +ew .ita% +unctionsD such as chec)in' the %o'D accessin' the #I-" setu D and owerin' on the s:stem without reEuirin' h:sica% access to the s:stem. #e+ore usin' the i"3itoo commandD ensure that the I>MI mana'ement inter+ace is connected to the networ). <he i"3itoo wi%% +ai% i+ the s:stem does not reco'ni8e that a #MC is insta%%ed. Fou ma: need to +irst %oad the i"3i )erne% modu%e +rom "he%% =: t: in'K
kldload ipmi

Fou can add a tuna=%e to automatica%%: %oad the i-mi dri.er on s:stem startu . <o see a%% o+ the o tions and commandsD re+er to i mitoo%A1B. I#M has an e5ce%%ent document that ro.ides an o.er.iew o+ I>MI and how to 'et the most out o+ I>MItoo%s.

14.9 freenas>de(ug
<he $reeNA"1 2!I ro.ides an o tion to sa.e de=u''in' in+ormation to a te5t +i%e usin' ":stem L "ettin's L Ad.anced L "a.e (e=u'. <his de=u''in' in+ormation is created =: the freenas>de(ug command %ine uti%it: and a co : o+ the in+ormation is sa.ed to .#ar.tm-.fnde$!g. !sin' "he%%D :ou can run this command manua%%: to 'ather the s eci+ic de=u''in' in+ormation that :ou need. <o see the a.ai%a=%e o tionsD t: eK
freenas-debug usage: /usr/local/bin/freenas-debug <options> Where options is: -e A list of comma delimited list of email addresses to email the debug log to. -a Dump Active Directory Configuration -c Dump (AD|LDAP) Cache -g Dump GEOM configuration -h Dump Hardware Configuration -I Dump IPMI Configuration -i Dump iSCSI Configuration -l Dump LDAP Configuration -T Loader Configuration Information -n Dump Network Configuration -N Dump NFS Configuration -s Dump SSL Configuration -y Dump Sysctl Configuration -t Dump System Information -z Dump ZFS configuration Output will be saved to /var/tmp/fndebug

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$or e5am %eD i+ :ou are trou=%eshootin' :our Acti.e (irector: con+i'urationD tr: the +o%%owin' commands to 'enerate and .iew the de=u' +i%eK
freenas-debug -a more /var/tmp/fndebug

14.10 t3utmu5 is a termina% mu%ti %e5er which ena=%es a num=er o+ termina%s to =e createdD accessedD and contro%%ed +rom a sin'%e screen. tmu5 is an a%ternati.e to 2N! screen. "imi%ar to screenD tmu5 can =e detached +rom a screen and continue runnin' in the =ac)'roundD then %ater reattached. <o start a sessionD sim %: t: e t3u-. As seen in $i'ure 1&.10aD a new session with a sin'%e window wi%% o en with a status %ine at the =ottom o+ the screen. <his %ine shows in+ormation on the current session and is used to enter interacti.e commands. Figure 14.10a: t3u- Session

<o create a second windowD ress 'trl $ then I. <o c%ose a windowD t: e e-it within the window. tmu5A1B %ists a%% o+ the )e: =indin's and commands +or interactin' with t3u- windows and sessions. I+ :ou c%ose "he%% whi%e t3u- is runnin'D it wi%% detach its session. <he ne5t time :ou o en "he%%D it wi%% return to the t3u- session. <o %ea.e the t3u- session entire%:D t: e e-itO i+ :ou ha.e mu%ti %e windows FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 2%$ of 274

runnin'D :ou wi%% need to e-it out o+ each +irst.

14.11 63idecode
(midecode re orts hardware in+ormation as re orted =: the s:stem #I-". (midecode does not scan the hardwareD it on%: re orts what the #I-" to%d it to. A sam %e out ut can =e seen here. <o .iew the #I-" re ortD t: e the command with no ar'umentsK
dmidecode | more

dmidecodeA6B descri=es the su

orted strin's and t: es.

Section 4: Contributing to Free !S"


1$ &o0 to Get In,o ,ed
As an o en source communit:D $reeNA"1 re%ies on the in ut and e5 ertise o+ its users to he% im ro.e $reeNA"1. When :ou ta)e some time to assist the communit:D :our contri=utions =ene+it e.er:one who uses $reeNA"1. <his section descri=es some areas o+ artici ation to 'et :ou started. It is =: no means an e5hausti.e %ist. I+ :ou ha.e an idea that :ou thin) wou%d =ene+it the $reeNA"1 communit:D =rin' it u on one o+ the resources mentioned in $reeNA"1 "u ort Resources. <his section demonstrates how :ou canK Assist with 9oca%i8ation <est ! comin' 3ersions

1$.1 Assist 0it! <oca i=ation


$reeNA"1 uses >oot%eD an o en source a %icationD +or mana'in' the %oca%i8ation o+ the menu screens used =: the $reeNA"1 'ra hica% administrati.e inter+ace. >oot%e ma)es it eas: to +ind out the %oca%i8ation status o+ :our nati.e %an'ua'e and to trans%ate the te5t +or an: menus that ha.e not =een %oca%i8ed :et. #: ro.idin' a we= editor and commentin' s:stemD >oot%e a%%ows trans%ators to s end their time ma)in' and re.iewin' trans%ations rather than %earnin' how to use a trans%ation su=mission too%. <o see the status o+ a %oca%i8ationD o en oot%e.+reenas.or' in :our =rowserD as seen in $i'ure 1*.1aK

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Figure 1$.1a: FreeNAS <oca i=ation S+ste3

<he %oca%i8ations $reeNA"1 users ha.e reEuested are %isted a% ha=etica%%: on the %e+t. I+ :our %an'ua'e is missin' and :ou wou%d %i)e to he% in its trans%ationD send an emai% to the trans%ations mai%in' %ist so it can =e added. <he 'reen =ar in the -.era%% Com %etion co%umn indicates the ercenta'e o+ $reeNA"1 menus that ha.e =een %oca%i8ed. I+ a %an'ua'e is not at 100PD it means that the menus that current%: are not trans%ated wi%% a ear in 4n'%ish instead o+ in that %an'ua'e. I+ :ou wish to he% %oca%i8e :our %an'ua'eD :ou shou%d +irst Ioin the trans%ations mai%in' %ist and introduce :ourse%+ and which %an'ua'eAsB :ou can assist with. <his wi%% a%%ow :ou to meet other .o%unteers as we%% as )ee a=reast o+ an: notices or u dates that ma: e++ect the trans%ations. Fou wi%% a%so need to c%ic) on the Re'ister %in) in order to create a >oot%e %o'in account. <he +irst time :ou %o' into the $reeNA"1 >oot%e inter+aceD :ou wi%% =e rom ted to se%ect :our %an'ua'e so that :ou can access that %an'ua'e's trans%ation whene.er :ou %o'in. A%ternate%:D :ou can c%ic) the Home %in) to see the status o+ a%% o+ the %an'ua'es. <o wor) on a trans%ationD c%ic) the %in) +or the %an'ua'e L c%ic) the $reeNA"1 %in) +or the roIect L c%ic) the %in) +or 9CGM4""A24" L and c%ic) the %in) +or dIan'o. o. 4.er: te5t %ine a.ai%a=%e in the 2!I menu screens has =een assi'ned a strin' num=er. I+ :ou c%ic) the num=erD an editor wi%% o en where :ou can trans%ate the te5t. In the e5am %e shown in $i'ure 1*.1=D a user has se%ected strin' num=er &, in the 2erman trans%ationO the other strin's in the screenshot ha.e a%read: =een trans%atedK

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Figure 1$.1(: Using t!e Poot e Interface to :dit a *rans ation String

"im %: t: e in the trans%ated te5t and c%ic) the "u=mit =utton to sa.e :our chan'e.

1$.2 *est an U"co3ing ?ersion


>rior to an: re%easeD there is a =eta eriod where testin' sna shots wi%% =e announced on the $reeNA"1 we=site and socia% media sites. <his =eta eriod is meant to ro.ide users an o ortunit: to test the u comin' re%ease and to ro.ide +eed=ac) on =u's and errors so that the: can =e +i5ed rior to re%ease. $eed=ac) can =e sent to the $reenas;testin' mai%in' %ist or a =u' re ort can =e su=mitted. 1$.2.1 2o ing Tour 90n *esting Sna"s!ot

!sers who wish to create their own custom I"- +or testin' ur oses can down%oad and com i%e the %atest $reeNA"1 source +rom the 'ithu= re ositor:. In order to =ui%d :our own testin' sna shotD :ou wi%% need to insta%% $ree#"( 9.2 in a .irtua% en.ironment or on a test s:stem. I+ :ou are usin' a .irtua% en.ironmentD a ,&;=it s:stem with at %east & 2# o+ RAM is recommended. (own%oad and insta%% the $ree#"( .ersion Ai36, or amd,&B that matches the architecture that :ou wish to =ui%d. A+ter =ootin' into the new%: insta%%ed $ree#"( s:stemD =ecome the su eruser At: e su and enter the root user's asswordB and run the +o%%owin' commands. $irstD insta%% the so+tware :ou'%% need and re+resh :our ath so it is aware o+ the new =inariesK
pkg_add pkg_add pkg_add pkg_add rehash -r -r -r -r git-subversion cdrtools python27 pbi-manager

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Chan'e to the director: where :ou wou%d %i)e to store the $reeNA"1 sourceD down%oad the sourceD then chan'e to the director: containin' the down%oaded sourceK
cd /usr/local git clone --depth 1 git://github.com/freenas/freenas.git cd freenas

Fou are now read: to =ui%d the ima'e usin' the instructions in this R4A(M4.

1% Using t!e FreeNAS API


$reeNA"1 ro.ides a re"< A>I which can =e used as an a%ternate mechanism +or remote%: contro%%in' a $reeNA"1 s:stem. re"tructured<e5t is an eas:;to;readD %i'htwei'ht mar)u %an'ua'e that ro.ides an H<<> im %ementation o+ +unctionsD )nown as resourcesD which are a.ai%a=%e =eneath a s eci+ied =ase !R9. 4ach resource is mani u%ated usin' H<<> methods such as 24<D >!<D >-"<D or (494<4. <his section demonstrates how to insta%% the necessar: so+tware to =ui%d a %oca% co : o+ the re+erence documentation +or the $reeNA"1 A>Is. It then wa%)s throu'h some code e5am %es to 'et :ou started usin' the A>Is.

1%.1 5ui ding a <oca 'o"+ of t!e APIs


I+ :ou %an to use the A>IsD it is recommended that :ou =ui%d a %oca% H<M9 co : o+ the A>I documentation so that :ou can easi%: determine which resources are a.ai%a=%e and %earn more a=out how each resource wor)s. <his section demonstrates how to insta%% the so+tware and source needed to =ui%d the documentation usin' a $ree#"( 9.2 s:stem. !sers o+ other o eratin' s:stems wi%% need to +ind and insta%% the eEui.a%ent ac)a'es +or their o eratin' s:stem. -n a $ree#"( s:stemD %o'in as root and insta%% the necessar: so+twareK
pkg_add -r git pkg_add -r py-oauth2 pkg_add -r py-sphinxcontrib-httpdomain rehash

<hose commands insta%% the =inar: ac)a'es and add the new =inaries to the user's ath. I+ a ac)a'e is not a.ai%a=%eD com i%e the ort instead. Ne5tD down%oad a %oca% co : o+ the $reeNA"1 source code +rom 'ithu=. Run this command in the director: which wi%% store the %oca% co :K
cd /usr/local git clone --depth 1 git://github.com/freenas/freenas.git

<his wi%% create a su=director: ca%%ed freenas which contains the c%oned source. -nce the s:stem has a %oca% co :D it can =e u dated as needed =: runnin' this command within freenasK
git pull

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<o =ui%d a %oca% co : o+ the A>I re+erence documentationK


cd freenas/docs/api make html

>oint a we= =rowser to .!sr.lo'al.freenas.do's.a-i.*$!ild.html.inde(.html to .iew the documentation. As seen in the e5am %e in $i'ure 1,.1aD the resources are %aid out in an order that is simi%ar to the tree menu o+ the $reeNA"1 2!I. Figure 1%.1a: FreeNAS API 6ocu3entation

1%.2 A Si3" e API :-a3" e


<he freenas.e(am-les.a-i. director: contains some A>I usa'e e5am %es. <his section ro.ides a wa%); throu'h o+ the freenas.e(am-les.a-i.ne9!ser.-y scri tD shown =e%owD as it ro.ides a sim %e e5am %e that creates a user. In order to create a customi8ed scri t =ased on this e5am %eD :ou wi%% need a runnin' $reeNA"1 9.2.0 s:stem. I+ :ou wou%d %i)e to test the scri ts direct%: on the $reeNA"1 s:stemD create a user account. FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 270 of 274

When creatin' this user accountD se%ect an e5istin' .o%ume or dataset +or the user's MHome (irector:M. -nce the user is createdD start the ""H ser.ice usin' "er.ices L Contro% "er.ices. <hat user wi%% now =e a=%e to ss! to the I> address o+ the $reeNA"1 s:stem in order to create and run scri ts. A%ternate%:D :ou can test :our scri ts on an: s:stem that has the so+tware mentioned in the re.ious section insta%%ed. <o customi8e this scri tD co : the contents o+ this e5am %e into a +i%ename that ends in .-y. <he te5t that is hi'h%i'hted in red =e%ow shou%d =e modi+ied in :our co : in order to match the needs o+ the user =ein' created. <he te5t in =%ac) shou%d remain as;is. A+ter sa.in' :our chan'esD run the scri t =: t: in' "+t!on scri"tna3e."+. I+ a%% 'oes we%%D the new user account wi%% a ear in Account L !sers L 3iew !sers in the $reeNA"1 2!I. Here is the e5am %e scri t with %ine num=ers. (o %ot inc%ude the %ine num=ers in :our scri t. InsteadD re+er to the %ine num=ers in the e5 %anation =e%ow.
1: import json 2: import requests 3: r = requests.post( 4: 'https://freenas.mydomain/api/v1.0/account/users/', 5: auth=('root', 'freenas'), 6: headers={'Content-Type': 'application/json'}, 7: verify=False, 8: data=json.dumps({ 9: 'bsdusr_uid': '1100', 10: 'bsdusr_username': 'myuser', 11: 'bsdusr_mode': '755', 12: 'bsdusr_creategroup': 'True', 13: 'bsdusr_password': '12345', 14: 'bsdusr_shell': '/usr/local/bin/bash', 15: 'bsdusr_full_name': 'Full Name', 16: 'bsdusr_email': 'name@provider.com', 17: }) 18: ) 19: print r.text

WhereK <ines 1>2: im ort the >:thon modu%es used to ma)e H<<> reEuests and hand%e data in C"-N +ormat. <ine 4: re %ace freenas.mydomain with the MHostnameM .a%ue in ":stem L ":stem In+ormation. Note that :our scri t wi%% +ai% i+ the machine runnin' the scri t is not a=%e to reso%.e that hostname. I+ :ou are not usin' H<<>" to access the $reeNA"1 s:stemD chan'e htt-s to htt-. <ine $: re %ace freenas with the assword that :ou use to access the $reeNA"1 s:stem. <ine 7: i+ :ou are usin' H<<>" and want to +orce .a%idation o+ the ""9 certi+icateD chan'e False to ?r!e. <ines )>1%: sets the .a%ues +or the user =ein' created. <he M!sersM resourceD +ound in freenas.do's.a-i.*$!ild.html.reso!r'es.a''o!nt.htmlQ!sersD descri=es this resource in more detai%. <he a%%owed arameters are %isted in the MCson >arametersM section o+ that resource. "ince this resource creates a $ree#"( userD the .a%ues that :ou in ut must =e .a%id +or a $ree#"( user account. <a=%e 1,.2a summari8es the .a%id .a%ues. "ince this resource is usin' C"-ND the ossi=%e =oo%ean .a%ues are ?r!e or False. FreeNAS 9.2.0 Users Guide Page 271 of 274

*a( e 1%.2a: ?a id IS9N Para3eters for Users 'reate 2esource IS9N Para3eter *+"e 6escri"tion ma5imum 32 charactersD thou'h a ma5imum o+ 6 is recommended +or =sdusrGusername strin' intero era=i%it:O can inc%ude numera%s =ut can not inc%ude a s ace =sdusrG+u%%Gname strin' ma: contain s aces and u ercase characters can inc%ude a mi5 o+ u er and %owercase %ettersD charactersD and =sdusrG assword strin' num=ers =: con.entionD user accounts ha.e an I( 'reater than 1000 with a =sdusrGuid inte'er ma5imum a%%owa=%e .a%ue o+ ,*D*3* i+ $sd!sr*'reategro!- is set to FalseD s eci+: the numeric I( o+ the =sdusrG'rou inte'er 'rou to create i+ set to ?r!eD a rimar: 'rou with the same numeric I( as $sd!sr*!id =sdusrGcreate'rou =oo%ean wi%% =e automatica%%: created =sdusrGmode strin' sets de+au%t numeric !NI7 ermissions o+ user's home director: =sdusrGshe%% strin' s eci+: +u%% ath to a !NI7 she%% that is insta%%ed on the s:stem =sdusrG asswordGd =oo%ean i+ set to ?r!eD user is not a%%owed to %o'in isa=%ed =sdusrG%oc)ed =oo%ean i+ set to ?r!eD user is not a%%owed to %o'in =sdusrGsudo =oo%ean i+ set to ?r!eD sudo is ena=%ed +or the user N9*:: when usin' =oo%ean .a%uesD C"-N returns raw %owercase .a%ues whereas >:thon uses u ercase .a%ues. <his means that :ou shou%d use ?r!e or False in :our >:thon scri ts e.en thou'h the e5am %e C"-N res onses in the A>I documentation are dis %a:ed as tr!e or false.

1%.# A 4ore 'o3" e- :-a3" e


<his section ro.ides a wa%);throu'h o+ a more com %e5 e5am %e +ound in the freenas.e(am-les.a-i.start!-.-y scri t. !se the search=ar within the A>I documentation to Euic)%: %ocate the C"-N arameters used in this e5am %e. <his e5am %e de+ines a c%ass and se.era% methods which are used to create a 0$" .o%umeD create a 0$" datasetD share this dataset o.er CI$"D and ena=%e the CI$" ser.ice. <he res onses +rom some methods are used as arameters in other methods. In addition to the im ort %ines seen in the re.ious e5am %eD this e5am %e im orts two additiona% >:thon modu%es to ro.ide arsin' +unctions +or command %ine ar'umentsK
import argparse import sys

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It then creates a Start!- c%ass which is started with the hostnameD usernameD and assword ro.ided =: the user .ia the command %ineK
class Startup(object): def __init__(self, hostname, user, secret): self._hostname = hostname self._user = user self._secret = secret self._ep = 'http://%s/api/v1.0' % hostname def request(self, resource, method='GET', data=None): if data is None: data = r = requests.request( method, '%s/%s/' % (self._ep, resource), data=json.dumps(data), headers={'Content-Type': "application/json"}, auth=(self._user, self._secret), ) if r.ok: try: return r.json() except: return r.text raise ValueError(r)

A *get*disks method is de+ined to 'et a%% the dis)s in the s:stem as a disk*name res onse. <he 'reate*-ool method wi%% then use this in+ormation to create a 0$" oo% named tank which wi%% =e created as a stri e. <he #ol!me*name and layo!t C"-N arameters are descri=ed in the "tora'e 3o%ume resource o+ the A>I documentation.
def _get_disks(self): disks = self.request('storage/disk') return [disk['disk_name'] for disk in disks] def create_pool(self): disks = self._get_disks() self.request('storage/volume', method='POST', data={ 'volume_name': 'tank', 'layout': [ {'vdevtype': 'stripe', 'disks': disks}, ], })

<he 'reate*dataset method is de+ined which creates a dataset named ;yShareK


def create_dataset(self): self.request('storage/volume/tank/datasets', method='POST', data={ 'name': 'MyShare', })

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<he 'reate*'ifs*share method is used to share .mnt.tank.;yShare with 'uest;on%: access ena=%ed. <he 'ifs*nameD 'ifs*-athD 'ifs*g!estonly C"-N arametersD as we%% as the other a%%owa=%e arametersD are descri=ed in the "harin' CI$" resource o+ the A>I documentation.
def create_cifs_share(self): self.request('sharing/cifs', method='POST', data={ 'cifs_name': 'My Test Share', 'cifs_path': '/mnt/tank/MyShare', 'cifs_guestonly': True })

$ina%%:D the ser#i'e*start method issues a command to ena=%e the CI$" ser.ice. <he sr#*ena$le C"-N arameter is descri=ed in the "er.ices "er.ices resource.
def service_start(self, name): self.request('services/services/%s' % name, method='PUT', data={ 'srv_enable': True, })

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