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Digitization of Sanskrit Buddhist Texts in Nepal

By: Min Bahadur shakya

epal has the largest repository of Buddhist Sanskrit literature dealing with different aspects of Mahayana creeds and practices. The monk scholars as well as Va racharya !andits ha"e contri#uted in producing and preser"ing Buddhist manuscripts $t was not until the ad"ent of Sir Brian B. %odgson &'()*+'(*) ,D.- a British diplomat in Nepal. disco"ered a great num#er of Sanskrit Buddhist manuscripts in Nepal. The existence of these #efore his time was unknown. and his disco"ery entirely re"olutionized the history of Buddhism. as /uropeans knew it in the early part of this century. 0opies of these works. totaling 1(' #undles of manuscripts ha"e #een distri#uted so as to render them accessi#le to /uropean scholars. 2f these (3 eighty+six manuscripts comprising '45 separate works. many were presented to Asiatic Society of Bengal: (6 to the Royal Asiatic Society of London; 17 to the Indian Office Library; 4 to the Bodleian Library, O ford; '4* to the Soci!t! Asiati"ue, and to 8rench scholar #ugene Bernouf$ The last two collections ha"e since Biblioth%"ue &ationale of 'rance$()* #een deposited in the

!rof. 9aya De"a Singh writes in his Introduction to Madhyamika Philosophy: "Books on Mahayana Buddhism were completely lost in India. Their translation existed in Chinese, Japanese and Tibetan. Mahayana literature was written mostly in Sanskrit and mixed Sanskrit. Scholars who ha e made a study o! Buddhism hardly suspected that there were also books on Buddhism in Sanskrit."

Digitization of Sanskrit Buddhist Texts in Nepal

$n a similar manner Suniti ;umar 0hatter i writes: ""ne #reat ser ice the people o! $epal, particularly the hi#hly ci ili%ed $ewars o! the $epal &alley, was to preser e the manuscript o! Mahayana Buddhist literature in Sanskrit. It was the contribution o! Sri 'anka to ha e preser ed !or human kind the entire mass o! the (ali literature o! Thera ada Buddhism. This went also to Burma, Cambodia, and Siam. It was similarly the #reat achie ement o! the people o! $epal to ha e preser ed the e)ually aluable ori#inal Sanskrit texts o! Mahayana Buddhism." $t is in Nepal that most of the Sanskrit Buddhist documents ha"e #een found. Most of the manuscripts originally preser"ed in Nepal ha"e #een carried out of the country #y the pioneers of the modern $ndology. Concerning Sanskrit Buddhist Sutras of Nepal $t is "ery difficult to ascertain when the Mahayana sutras were introduced into the ;athmandu "alley. <hen the Mahayana sutras were introduced into 0hina #y the missionaries of $ndia and 0entral ,sia it was already regarded as the authentic word of =ord Buddha. ,s the sutras were translated into 0hinese. the first of which appeared in 3( ,.D.. they profoundly awakened the 0hinese and then the 9apanese mind. stirring their religious consciousness to its "ery depth. Same is the case of the Newar Buddhists who preser"ed these sutras from generation to generation and preser"ed their Mahayanic ideal as the #asis of their culture. %istorically. although the record of scriptures during the ;aniska>s period is the earliest e"idence of non+Stha"ira"ada tradition. the custom of copying scriptures had existed #efore that time in Northwest $ndia. ?.=. Mitra states: @the disco"ery of the 0hinese translation of original Buddhist records from Sanskrit dating as early as first century ,.D. clearly pro"es the existence of some original Sanskrit texts long #efore the date of the !ali translation of Sri =anka@ ,mong the manuscripts disco"ered #y Mr. Brian %odgson in '()* ,.D. in the ;athmandu "alley there were dozens of sets of >Nine Dharmas> or Na"akhanda or collection of Nine sutras .


Digitization of Sanskrit Buddhist Texts in Nepal

These Nine sutras are recited "ery often #y the pious de"otees of Nepal and are maintained as holy texts in the altars of their mind. The Characteristics of Mahayana sutras There are generally two types of Mahayana sutras + Vaipulya and Samanya sutras. Vaipulya sutras were meant to #e memorised. so the method of treatment in each sutras is exhausti"e and contain lengthy repetitions. stereotyped phrases and piling of synonyms. $n general. the Vaipulya sutras #egin with the introduction of =ord Buddha as seated in 9eta"ana garden or sometimes in Aridhkuta a hill surrounded #y a host of #hikshus. Bodhisatt"as. de"as. kings. laymen and women. The Buddha sits on deep meditation and a ray of light springs forth from his forehead illuminating all the worlds and inspires gods to sing praises of the Buddha. The gods then come to salute him and pray him to re"eal the excellent sutra. The Buddha then accepts their prayer #y maintaining silence. ,lthough the introduction of Mahayana sutras into ;athmandu "alley cannot #e definitely ascertained presuma#ly from the a"aila#le sources some of these Mahayana sutras. which had attained great popularity in Nepalese Buddhism. had appeared as early as *th century ,.D. The most important Mahayana texts that mo"ed the religious feelings of the Nepalese Buddhists for centuries and still continuing to do so are gi"en #elow. )$ Lalita+istara Sutra =alita"istara sutra is a #iographical account of =ord Buddha which enumerates the twel"e principal deeds. The sutra was translated into 0hinese four times in ,.D. ))'+31. 17(. *)7+45 and in 3(1. $ts oldest parts may #e assigned to the third century B.0. and its final redaction was assigned to the six century ,.D. whereas. according to M. <internitz. it was assigned to the second century. <e also find a Ti#etan translation in Vol 56. mDo+sDe of ;an ur. folio '+ )'3. it is called ,rya =alita"istara nama Mahayana sutram@ The translators were 9inamitra. Danashila. Muni Varma and Be+ses+sDe. This ti#etan translation was edited and translated into 8rench #y 8oucaux. !aris '(*4+*(.


Digitization of Sanskrit Buddhist Texts in Nepal

=alita"istara gi"es us a picture of =ord Buddha as #eing more superhuman than human and yet it is far from the conception of the Trikaya Doctrine of Nirmankaya. Sam#hogakaya and Dharmakaya. $t says that =ord Buddha appeared in the samsaric existence for the #enefit of sentient #eings and he #eha"ed as such and followed the ways of the world. This was his lokanu"artanacarya. ,t one instance =ord Buddha explained to ,nanda that unlike ordinary human #eings he did not stay in the filth of the mother>s womd #ut in a ewel casket &ratna"yuha-. $n one of the chapters !rince Siddhartha exhi#ited excellence in all the arts and skills pre"alent in those days to show his cultured nature. $n the last chapter there are some epithets ascri#ed to =ord Buddha showing his knowledge of Dharmakaya nana. 2f course it was a treatise of the Sar"asti"ada who "iewd Buddha as a human #eing with superhuman attri#utes. ,$ Saddharmapundarika sutra This sutra was translated into 0hinese in )66 ,.D. ,ccording to %ar Dayal. the earliest part of the text &chapters $+CC- may #elong to the first century B.0.. while the supplementary chapters &xxi+xx"i- date from the third century. ,.D. The answer to such Duestions as why =ord Buddha preached two or three religious systems + %inayana. Mahayana or in other words con"entional truths or ultimate truths + is gi"en in this text #y a para#le of a #urning house. $t is clearly stated that =ord Buddha preached one system. not three i.e. Buddhayana. and the presentation of the three yanas was an example of his skill in the employment of the means. The concept of Triyana. Epayakausalya &skill in means- and Mahakaruna is thus explained. $n regard to the concept of =ord Buddha as a human #eing who is #oth transient and mortal as oursel"es according to Sra"akayana literature. =ord Buddha is shown as an eternal principal who has long #efore attained enlightenment and his great compassion is su#stantiated #y repeated re#irths and preaching acti"ities. ,gain the place has #een shifted from Bodhgaya to Aridhkuta hill where most of the Mahayana Sutras were preached.

-$ Su+arnaprabhasa Sutra The sutra in its original form was translated into 0hinese in ,.D. 154+ *15. and again in an expanded "ersion in the se"enth century. $t (4)

Digitization of Sanskrit Buddhist Texts in Nepal

contains the discourses of =ord Buddha deli"ered for the #enefit of goddesses like =axmi. Saraswati and others. $t also contains an interesting discussion on the life span of =ord Buddha. , story relating to the Namo #uddha hill near the ;athmandu "alley is mentioned therein. .$ Samadhira/a sutra This sutra. also known as 0handrapradeepa Samadhi sutra. was translated into 0hinese in *67 ,.D. 0handrakirti uses the name Samadhira a while the Ti#etan translators ha"e preser"ed the full title in Sanskrit "iz: @Sar"adharmas"a#ha"a Samata"ipancita Samadhira a.@ $t seems that 0handrapradeepa sutra. in its original form. was "ery "oluminous and only a portion of it was preser"ed in what is now called Samadhira a. ,ccording to Dr. !. =. Vaidya. the earliest 0hinese translation. no longer extant. is said to #e dated '*( ,.D. $n this sutra the principal interlocutors are =ord Buddha and 0handrapra#ha and the scene is laid on the Aridhkuta hill. The su# ect matter of this sutra is different types of Samadhi #ased on /Duanimity. sunyata and Bodhicitta to #e acDuired #y a Bodhisatt"a in course of his career. 0$ Lanka+atara Sutra =anka"atara was translated into 0hinese in ,.D. **1. 6'1. 477 and 47*. $n this an attempt has #een made to explain such terms as Tathagatagar#ha. ,laya"i nana. 0ittamatra. Tathata. Tris"a#ha"a. Two truths. Transformation etc. 1$ 2anda+yuha Sutra$ Aanda"yuha sutra is a part of an encyclopedic sutra called the ,"atamsaka sutra. $t contains the story of the Duest of Sudhana. the merchant>s son to learn the ways of the Bodhisat"a for the attainment of Buddhahood. Sudhana searched for se"eral #ene"olent friends. there#y gradually learning from them the Dualities of Buddhahood. ,nother profound effect produced #y this sutra is the conception of the Bodhisatt"a Samanta#hadra>s ten "ows and the practice of se"enfold worship in Nepalese Buddhist society. The last section of the work called Samanta#hadracarya pranidhan> has #een a fa"ourite theme for


Digitization of Sanskrit Buddhist Texts in Nepal

all seekers of the Bodhisatt"a path. The Bodhisatt"a>s energetic compassionate attitude is echoed in this "erse : ,s long as the earth exists. ,s long as all #eings exist. ,s long as acts and afflictions exist So long will remain.

3$ 4asabhumika sutra Dasa#humika sutra was translated into 0hinese in ,.D. )36+1'3. $t is also regarded as a part of ,"atamsaka sutra. $t contains the ten spiritual spheres or stages called >Bhumi> of Bodhisatt"a "iz : '!ramudita )- Vimala 1- !ra#hakari *- ,rcismati 6- sudur aya 3,#himukhi 4- Durangama (- ,cala 5- Sadhumati and '7Dharmamegha. $t opens with the introduction of =ord Buddha amidst the gods and Bodhisatt"as in the hea"en of $ndra. %ere the Bodhisatt"a Va ragar#ha prays to =ord Buddha to explain the ways to attain Buddhahood. =ord Buddha then addressed the assem#ly and explained the ten stages of the Bodhisatt"a path. , similar description is gi"en for each le"el. <hen he reaches the tenth le"el he mounts upon the summit. This stage is called the path of 8ulfillment. %e remo"es two "eils of conflicting emotions &klesha"arana- and o#struction to 2mniscience &9neya"aranacompletely. Thus. after attaining the tenth le"el and completing the path of fulfillment he is ready to attain Buddhahood. 5$ Astasahasrika 6ra/naparamita There is a large #ody of literature in the name of !ra naparamita. !rof. ?huso %ikata gi"es as many )4 works under this title. ,ll of them are not a"aila#le in the original Sanskrit. Some of them are also known from Ti#etan and 0hinese translations. They are as follows: '.Satasahasrika. ).!amca"imsati Sahasrika. 1.,stasahasrika. *.Sardhad"i Sahasrika. 6.Saptasatika. 3.Trisatika. 4.,dhyardha Satika. (.!ra naparmita %ridaya Sutra. 5.;ausikapra naparamita. '7.S"alpakshara. ''.?atnagunasamcayagatha. ').,stadasa sahasrika. '1.!ancaparamita Nirdesh. '*.!ancasatika. '6.De"ara apra"ara !ra naparamita. '3.Dasasahasrika. '4.Nagasri. '(.!ra naparamita Nama ,stasataka. '5./kaksarimata. )7.Suryagar#ha. (6)

Digitization of Sanskrit Buddhist Texts in Nepal

)'.0handragar#ha. )).Samanta#hadra. )1.Va rapani. )*.Va raketu and four other texts from 0hinese sources $n "iewing the a#o"e literature it is Duite difficult for us to decide which of these texts is original and whether the texts got enlarged or a#ridged in course of time to suit the "arying degrees or capacity of de"otees. The traditional "iew seems to take Satasahasrika as the original whereas in the modern "iew it is ,stasahasrika #ecause most of the authors from Nagar una down to %ari#hadra ha"e taken >,sta> as the #asis for their commentaries. The ,stasahasrika was translated into 0hinese in 365 ,.D. and was assigned to the first century. The recitation of ,stasahasrika !ra naparamita is a common practice among Nepalese Buddhists in the monasteries of !atan and ;athmandu. %iranya"arna Maha"ihara of !atan has a copy of ,stasahasrika !ra naparamita written in gold which commands special worship and ceremony #efore recitation #y the Va racharya e"en today. 7$ 8athagataguhyaka sutra Tathagata Auhya sutra also known as Auhyasama a Tantra is one of the earliest #uddhist Tantras containing an exposition of the leading topic on Va rayana. "iz Mandala. Nyasa. 9apa. ,#hiseka. Auhya. Sama a. Bodhicitta. Mudra. 9nanacakra. !anchamrita. etc. $t gi"es an interesting account of the origin of the mandala of fi"e Dhyani Buddhas. "iz. Vairocana. ,kshyo#hya. ?atna Sam#ha"a. ,mita#ha and ,moghsiddhi. $t is stated in Auhyasama a that Buddhahood may #e attained within the shortest possi#le time and e"en in one lifetime if one practices under a perfect Va rayana Auru. The life of the (* siddhas and #iographical accounts of a num#er of Buddhist masters from four Ti#etan sects testify this claim. Auhyasama a Tantra is composed in Sangiti form and the description of the assem#ly is fairly ela#orate as in the early Sangiti as Aanda"yuha and man usrimulakalpa. $n later Sangiti literature the description of assem#ly is somewhat short and concise. Thus these tantras also find a place in ;angyur collection as the words of the Buddha. Auhyasama a was translated into 0hinese in 517+'777 ,.D.


Digitization of Sanskrit Buddhist Texts in Nepal

,ccording to Dr. Benoytosh Bhattacharya. this text is pro#a#ly the product of the third century or a little latter as ,sanga is presumed to #elong to the 1rd or *th century ,.D. ,ll these sutras deal with many aspects of Mahayana the Areat Vehicle tradition such as the doctrine of emptiness in !ra naparamita literatureF Theory of Tathagatagar#ha and 0ittamatra doctrine in =anka"ataraF innumera#le kinds of samadhi such as exchange of Self with others. a kind of Bodhicitta practice and "irtues of ;alyanamitra in Aanda"yuha. and Samadhira a sutras. twel"e principal deeds of =ord Buddha in =alita"istara. etc. etc. ,nother profound effect produced #y Aanda"yuha sutra is the conception of Bodhisatt"a Samanta#hadra with his Ten /xhausti"e "ows. $t has a deep effect on Nepalese Buddhist minds. ,part from these Nine Vaipulya sutras there are many other Mahayana sutras.


Digitization of Sanskrit Buddhist Texts in Nepal

Nagar una $nstitute has initiated the input of other Mahayana Sutras to collect Mahayana Buddhist canon. the list of which is gi"en #elow. Sanskrit Buddhist Sutra Pitaka Input
S$&$ 8itle #ditio ns Input by N$/M N$/M N$/M N$/M N$/M N$/M N$/M N$/M N$/M N$/M N$/M 0omplet e 0omplet e 0omplet e 0omplet e 0omplet e 0omplet e 0omplet e 0omplet e 0omplet e Status 0omplet e Si9e 14k#

)$ ,nityata Sutra ). 1. *. 6. 3. 4. (. 5. ,stasahasrika !ra naparamita Sutra ,d"ayasatika !ra naparamita Sutra ,moghpasa hrdaya nama Sutra ,"alokitanama Mahayana sutra ,rtha"iniscaya sutra ,dhyardhasatika pra naparamita sutra Bha"asankranti Sutra



')'k# 6*k# 41k# '5'k#

Bhaisa yaguru"aiduryapra#ha sutra '7. Bodhisatt"a !ratimoksa sutra ''. Dharmasangraha '). Dasa#humika sutra '1. Aanda"yuha sutra '*. ;aranda"yuha sutra '6. ;ausika pra naparamita sutra '3. Mahapratyangira Dharani Sutra '4. =anka"atara sutra '(. =alita"istara Sutra '5. Madhyamaka salistam#ha sutra )7. Mahakarma"i#hanga sutra )'. Nairatmyapariprchha sutra

N$/M N$/M N$/M N$/M

0omplet e 0omplet e 0omplet e 0omplet e 0omplet e 0omplet e 0omplet e

34'k# 13.6k# 61.6k# '.'5 M# '75k# (4k# )1k#

N$/M N$/M N$/M


Digitization of Sanskrit Buddhist Texts in Nepal

)). !ratityasamutpada sutra )1. !ratimoksa sutra )*. !ra naparamita hrdaya sutra larger )6. !ra naparamita hrdaya sutra smaller )3. !ratityasamutpada"i#hanganir desh sutra )4. ?atnagunasancaya gatha )(. ?astrapalapariprchha sutra )5. Su"ikranta"ikramipariprchcha 17. Salistam#ha sutra 1'. Sukha"ati"yuha Sutra 1). S"alpaksara pra naparamita sutra 11. Saptasatika pra naparamita sutra 1*. Sukha"ati"yuha Sutra &"istara16. Su"ikranta"ikramipariprchcha 13. Su"arnapra#hasa sutra 14. Samadhira a Sutra 1(. Saddharmapundarika sutra 15. Triskandhanama Mahayana sutra *7. TathagatagataguhyaGAuhyasa ma a *'. Va rachhedika !ra naparamita Sutra *). *1. Vinaya sutra and its commentary

N$/M N$/M N$/M N$/M N$/M N$/M N$/M N$/M N$/M N$/M N$/M N$/M N$/M N$/M N$/M N$/M N$/M N$/M N$/M N$/M

0omplet e 0omplet e 0omplet e 0omplet e 0omplet e 0omplet e 0omplet e 0omplet e 0omplet e 0omplet e 0omplet e 0omplet e 0omplet e 0omplet e 0omplet e 0omplet e 0omplet e 0omplet e 0omplet e


11k# 17.6k# 1*k# 6(k#

51.6k# *6k#

'76k# '37k#

435k# '.5(M#





&I#:;&agar/una Institute of # act :ethods


Digitization of Sanskrit Buddhist Texts in Nepal

Dharanis: The Dharanis are the least explored #ranch of Buddhist Sanskrit literature although most of the monks of the northern Buddhist schools used them in their daily life. The Dharanis ha"e paramount importance not only for Nepal Buddhists #ut also for all #elie"ers of Mahayana Buddhism around the world. The recitation of these dharanis is #elie"ed to #ring into great merit and they are worn as amulet to a"ert e"ils including thie"es. fire. and noxious animals to ensure long life. The #hikkhus and people in those days were much prone to these fears and compassionate Bodhisatt"as wanted means of getting rid of them. The healing effects through recitation of dharanis are dramatically amazing not less than scientific treatment of western medicine.. $t is #elie"ed that Buddha had gi"en these teachings on these Dharanis according to the reDuest of Bodhisatt"as. 8or /xample: ,parimitayur Dharani is a good example for its efficacy in acDuiring the longe"ity of life. $t is said that great Madhyamika philosopher Nagar una had #enefited from this Dharani to sa"e himself from his early death. These Dharanis were used as an antidote to these fears. Dharanis consist of numerous in"ocations to female deities. to Buddhas. Bodhisatt"as and so forth. $t also often appears as parts of sutras. which relate the circumstances under which they were proclaimed. The collection of fi"e dharanis &'+6 #elow- entitled !ancaraksa is extremely popular in Nepal to ward off e"ils. poisons. e"il spirits. disease. hostile planets. and poisonous insects. Nagar una $nstitute alone has a collection of more than 377 titles of Dharanis.%ere are some of them as examples: '.Mahapratisara "idyara ni sutra ).Mahasahasrapramardani sutra 1.Mahasita"ati sutra *.Mahamayuri sutra 6.Mahamantranusarini 3.Mahasitatapatra 4.,rya ,moghpasa %rdaya Dharani (.,parimitaryur nana 5.Eshnish"i ayanama Dharani


Digitization of Sanskrit Buddhist Texts in Nepal

Buddhist Stotras: $n prosperity or distress. the Nepalese people worship and pray to the Buddhas and Bodhisatt"as for protection. good health. prosperity. and family welfare and also for li#eration from cyclic existence. The stotras or hymns throw light on "arious aspects of Buddhist doctrines. The stotras are sung #y sadhakas during their meditation or act of de"otion. The contents of these strotras are of "aried nature ranging from simple act of confession. Dualities of Buddhas and Bodhisatt"as. praises of deities of #oth mundane and supra+mundane . iconographic data of "arious tantric deities and also explanation of Buddha>s teachings themsel"es in the form of "erses. These stotras can #e sung with melodious music and can imprint the de"otees significantly e"en in this modern world through the multimedia de"ice. $n these '75 stotras of input we ha"e included serial num#er. title. authorGsource and num#er of "erses. Buddhist Strotra Input Inputs completed at August 1. 2001
S$&$ )$ ). 1. *. 6. 3. 4. (. 5. 8itle ,cintyasta"a ,d"ayaparamartha Namasangiti ,dhyardha satakam ,"adhana stotra ,"alokitesh"ara stotra ,"alokitesh"arasta"a ,"alokitesh"arasta"a ,"alokitesh"arastakam Bhikshuni candrakanta 0arapatipada Basukinagara a Author<source Nagar una Man ushri Matriceta ') 5 )6 3 5 '3 '3 Man ushri '1 =erses 65 '34

,"alokitesh"arasttotara satanama stotra '7. ,kashgar#hanama astottarasata stotra ''. ,di#uddha d"adasaka stotra


Digitization of Sanskrit Buddhist Texts in Nepal

'). ;amalakar sar"atathagata stotra '1. ;arunasta"ah '*. ;alyanatrimsatika stotra '6. ;alyanapanca"imsati stotra '3. Aanesh stotra '4. Aandista"ah '(. Aururatnatraya stotra '5. Auhyes"ari stotram )7. 0akrasam"arastuti )'. 0andikadandaka stotra )). 0atusastisam"ara stotra )1. 0aitya"andana stotra )*. Taranamaskaraika"imsati )6. Tarastottarasatanama )3. Tarastuti )4. Tarashradhara stotra )(. Dasa#humish"aronama Mahayana sutraratnara a stotra )5. Dharmadhatunamasta"a 17. Dharmadhatu"agish"aramand ala stotra 1'. Narakoddhara stotra 1). Niraupamya sta"ah 11. Nairatmastaka stotra 1*. !ancatathagata stutigatha 16. !ancatathagatastotra

11 Bandhudatta )6 17 SV! )6 '* ,ryade"a 1* 4 SV! 4 '( 5 46 6 Buddha Vairocana Buddha Shakyamuni ,ryacandradasa ,caryasar"a namitra )4 66 '7 14 6* 4 *6 '6 Nagar una )6 ( HH 6 6


Digitization of Sanskrit Buddhist Texts in Nepal

13. !ancaraksa stotrani 14. !ancaksara stotram 1(. !armarthasta"ah 15. !ithasta"ah *7. !otalakastakam *'. !ra naparamita stuti *). !ra naparamita stotram *1. !ratisara stotra **. Buddhagandista"ah *6. Buddha#hattaraka strotra *3. Buddha stotra *4. BhadracaryapranidhanH *(. Mangal sodasastuti *5. Mangalastakam 67. Man u"a ra stotra 6'. Man ushrinamasttotarasataka stotra 6). Man ushristotra 61. Madhyamakasastra stuti 6*. Mahakala stotra 66. Mahacakra"artinamastotarasa tastotra 63. Mahapratisara stotra 64. Maha#odhi#hattaraka stotra 6(. Maha#odhi"andaastakam 65. Maha ugra tara astakam ,caryacandrakirti SV!+Man ugar#ha Satasahasrika !ra naparamita B;,"adana ,sh"aghosa Brahma Bodhisatt"a samuccaya kulade"ata Samanta#hadra B;, Nagar una

)6 3 '' 34 ( 6 )' '6 1) '5 '' 3) '3 ( 5 '5 5 '* '1 )7 15 ( ( ''


Digitization of Sanskrit Buddhist Texts in Nepal

stotra 37. Maha ugratarastuti 3'. Mara"i aya stotra 3). ?aksakalasta"ah 31. ?atnamala stotra 3*. ?upasta"ah 36. =okanath stotra 33. =okatita sta"ah 34. =okesh"ara sataka 3(. =okesh"ara stotra 35. Va rade"i stotra 47. Va rapani namastottarasatakstotra 4'. Va ramahakala stotra 4). Va rayogini pranameka"imsika 41. Va rayoginya pindartha stuti 4*. Va rayoginya stuti pranidhan 46. Va ra"ilasini sadhanasta"ah 43. Va ra"ilasini stotra 44. Va rasatt"a stuti 4(. Va rasatt"a stotra 45. Vasantatilaka stuti (7. Vasudharanama dharani stotram ('. Vasudhara stotra (). Vagish"ara"arnana stotra (1. Vag"ani stotra Vrhaspati Buddha Shakyamuni Vasudharakalpa text Vi#huticandrapada Nagar una Nagar una Va radatta acarya Vanaratna Narendrade"a

'6 ') '6 )6 )* 4 )( '7' '' )7 )' 5 )' Virupa Virupa '3 )) 4 )) 6 ( * )* * 3


Digitization of Sanskrit Buddhist Texts in Nepal

(*. Vidyaksara stotra (6. Sakyasimha stotra (3. Sakyasimha stotra (4. Sakyasimha stotra ((. Sakyasimha stotra (5. Sakyasimha stotra 57. Sakyasimha stotra 5'. Sakyasimha stotra 5). Sakyasimha stotra 51. Sharadastaka stotra 5*. Sattrimsat sam"ara stuti 56. Satparamita stuti 53. Sad#hi na stotram 54. Sadgati stotram 5(. Satt"a aradhana gatha 55. Sapta ina sta"ah '77.Sapta#uddha stotra '7'.Sapta"idhanuttara stotra '7).Saptaksara stotra '71.Supra#hat stotra '7*.Sragdharapancaka stotra '76.S"ayam#hu sta"ah '73.S"ayam#hu stotram '74.%arati stotra '7(.Bhaktisatakam '75.,stamatrika stotra Nagar una Brahma Vishnu Shi"a $ndra Na"agraha Durgatiparisodhana text 0handomrta text Basodhara

4 5 '' 4 5 '7 '* 5 '( ( 14 3 4 3 '' 5 5 ') ( )* 6 4 3 5 '74 ''

%arsade"a 8our %ea"enly kings SV!+" ?amcandra#harati

Caryagita 0aryagita is the song or hymn used to sing in Tantric Buddhist ceremonies. Most of the authors of those songs or dohas were the Mahasiddhas of $ndia and Nepal. Mahasiddha Sarahpada>s Dohakosha


Digitization of Sanskrit Buddhist Texts in Nepal

was the most popular one. 0aryagita is said to #e the song of enlightenment where profuse words of wisdom are met. $n Newar Buddhist tradition these tantric songs are still sung #y Buddhist Va racharyas in special ceremonies like ordination ceremony or ,charya a#hiseka.The importance of these hymns cannot #e o"eremphasized for the students of !rakrit. ,pa"ramsa.Sanskrit or %y#rid Sanskrit. $f we could not preser"e it now. the fast disappearance of this ,sian wisdom is easily discerni#le. , loss for the whole world indeed. Avadana Literature ,"adana is considered as Buddha"acana &words of Buddha- and constitutes the sixth of the twel"e+fold teachings of =ord Buddha. ,s is stated: Sutram geyam "yakaranam gathodana"adanakamG $ti#rittakam nidanan "aipulyam ca sa atakamG Epadeshad#hutau dharmau d"adashangamidam "acahGG IDiscourses &sutra-. Mingled prose and poetry & geya-. prophesies & "yakarana-. Verses & gatha-. oyous impersonal utterances & udana-.. instructional discourse & nidana-. para#les & a"adana- legends & iti"rttaka- the #odhisatt"a li"es of the Buddha & ataka-. grand scripture & "aipulya-. the mar"ellous & ad#huta dharma-. and the explanatory & upadesh-J Since ,"adana is "ery popular among Nepalese Buddhists. they ha"e long standing tradition of telling a"adanas on "arious auspicious occasions maintained still today with de"otion and respect in ;athmandu "alley. The following is the list of a"adanas "ery popular in ;athmandu "alley. '.,"adanakalpalata &'7().,"adanasataka &'771.,sta anma"adana &(*.,shoka"adana 6.,sh"aghosa"adana 3.Bhadrakalpa"adana 4.Bichitrakarnika"adana (.0hitra"imsati ,"adana 5.Di"ya"adana '7.D"a"imsati a"adana &))''./katrimsati #odhisatt"a anma a"adana &1'').%astaka"adana '1.9atakamala of ,ryasura & 1* '*.;alpadruma"adana (17)

Digitization of Sanskrit Buddhist Texts in Nepal

'6.;apisa"adana '3.;athina"adana '4.Maha"astu a"adana '(.!retakalpa a"adana '5.?atnamala"adana )7.Sugata"adana )'.Vasistha"adana )).Vrhat 9atakamala )1.Vasudhara"rata a"adana These a"adanas are scattered o"er "arious Buddhist texts such as "inaya "astu.. dirghagama. madhyagama. samyuktagama and sometimes in "arious mahayana sutras to. $n Nepal. it is #elie"ed that the total num#er of a"adanas. which deals with the pre"ious li"es of the Buddha Sakyamuni and other disciples. runs to one thousand ,mong the "ast literature of a"adanas. only a fraction has appeared in print. <ith reference to the origin and the sources of these a"adanas they can #e classified in three ways. The first category is in the sutras or in the "inaya texts.8or example: the story of %ungry tigress is found in Su"arna pra#hasa sutra.the Di"ya"adana #elongs to this category The second category is represented #y ,padana and 9ataka stories of !ali canon. The third category is represented #y all later collections of a"adanas or single a"adana such as ashoka"adana and so forth.


Digitization of Sanskrit Buddhist Texts in Nepal

Tantric Buddhist Texts Introduction: $t is well known among Buddhist Scholars that Nepalese collection in National ,rchi"es. ;eshar =i#rary and other personal collection in Nepal possess "ast Buddhist tantric literature., catalogue of Tantric Buddhist manuscript collections in the National archi"e and ;eshar li#rary was pu#lished #y Mr. Mitutoshi Moriguchi. Tokyo. Sanki#ou Bussorin.'5(5. &3'3 titles- together with illustrations. Besides. there are other catalogues pu#lished #y Mr. %idono#u Takaoka from the pri"ate collections too. 0oncerning these Tantric Buddhist literature. the pu#lication from 0entral $nstitute of %igher Ti#etan Studies. Sarnath $ndia is commenda#le one. 0$%TS has already pu#lished the following rare Tantric Buddhist Texts '.%e"a ra Tantra ).,#hisamayaman ari #y Shu#hakar Aupta 1.=aghukalacakratantra *.Vimalapra#ha 6.Auhyadi astasiddhi sangraha 3. Vasantatilaka rahasyadipika"yakhya sahitam 4. ;rishnayamari tantram with ?atna"ali pan ika (.Mahamaya tantram with Auna"atitika 5.Dakini alarahasyam #y ,nangayogi '7. 9nanodaya tantram ''.0aryamelapakapradipam #y ,ryade"a '). Tatt"a nanasansiddhi and so forth ,s a sample of these tantric texts we ha"e input the texts of &ispannayoga+ali and sadhanamala for the time #eing.


Digitization of Sanskrit Buddhist Texts in Nepal

Nepalese Sanskrit Buddhist Texts Introduction: There are se"eral indigenous Sanskrit Buddhist texts in Nepal.,fter the in"asion of Samsuddin $lyas in '1 th century. newar Buddhists seemed to ha"e created new indigenous texts such as S"ayam#hu !urana. Bhadrakalpa"adana. ekadasi anma katha and so forth. >e ha+e gi+en here the small account of S+ayambhu purana The S ayambh* (ur+na is one of the oldest texts of Newar Buddhism. ,s the title suggests. its main purpose is to glorify the sacred Buddhist shrines of the ;athmandu Valley. and the S"ayam#hK MahLcaitya in particular. $t seems that the S ayambh* (ur+na &hereafter S (- was created #y Newar Buddhists in order to integrate the teachings of the MahLyLna with the older a adana stories. The text has #een handed down to us mostly in Sanskrit and partly in Newari "ersions. Most of the Newari manuscripts contain the ten chapter "ersion of the story. , study of the sources of the S ( and the way in which they are adapted shows the sophistication of Newar Buddhist Sanskrit writings during the '*th and '6th centuries. $n the aftermath of the collapse of $ndian Buddhism. Newar Buddhists had to adapt and localize the great tradition. which was now #ereft of its pilgrimage sites. its great uni"ersities. its oceanic trade routes. and its political patronage.I<hen Buddhism lost most of its material foundation in $ndia. the "alley of Nepal #ecame a safe ha"en for the continued practice of Sanskrit+ #ased Buddhism. $t is now accepted that a num#er of Newar Buddhist texts. such as the S (. ,un-+karanda yuha. &rihat Jatakamala and so on.I)J were written to consolidate the "anishing tradition. The S ( gi"es the origin myth of the ;athmandu Valley and its self+existing di"ine light &s ayambh* .yotir*pa-. The ;athmandu Valley is said to ha"e #een a sacred place for practicing Buddhism from the "ery #eginning. long #efore the appearance of the historical Buddha MLkyamuni. ,fter the light of S"ayam#hK appeared. it #ecame the center of Newar Buddhist de"otions. The earliest "ersion of the S"ayam#hK myth focuses only on the importance of this di"ine light. #ut later "ersions gi"e prominence to DharmadhLtu VLgNO"ara &MaP uOrN-. (20)

Digitization of Sanskrit Buddhist Texts in Nepal

The shortest "ersion of the S (. containing )(7 "erses. #egins like a typical buddha acana SKtra &/ am maya srutamQ-. The tradition of this S ayambh* (ur+na was handed down from Buddha MLkyamuni to Maitreya. and continued as follows: MaitreyaR Bhikshu EpaguptaR ;ing ,OokaR Bhikshu 9ayaOrNR 9inaOrN ?a Bodhisatt"a. ii$ =ersions , sur"ey of the S ayambh* (ur+na literature carried out #y %orst Brinkhaus re"eals that there are as many as four different recensions of this text. The shortest recension with eight paricchedas has two "ersions. one in prose and one in "erse. Their contents are. howe"er. similar in nature. $n his article STextual history of the S"ayam#hK !urLnaT. %orst Brinkhaus classiUes them as follows: 0ecension I &eight paricchedasVersion $., Sanskrit Version in proseV*'7 OlokasV,osrn#a par ata s ayambh*caitya bhattarakoddesa Version $.B Sanskrit "ersion in "erseV)(7 "ersesVS ayambh* caityabhattarakoddesa 0escension II &eight adhyayasVersion $$., Sanskrit "ersion in "erseV*'77 "ersesV ,osrn#a par ata s ayambh*caitya bhattarakoddesa Version $$ B Sanskrit "ersion in "erseV*377 "ersesV ,osrn#a par ata s ayambh*caityabhattaroddesa or &rhat s ayambh* pur+na 0ecension III &ten adhyayasVersion $$$.,Sanskrit "ersion in "erseV'467 "ersesVS ayambh*caitya samutpattikath+ Version $$$ BNewari "ersion in proseVS ayambh* utpattikath+ 0escension I& &twel"e adhyayasSanskrit recension partly in "erse. partly in proseV1377 slokasV S ayambh* a Mah+pur+na <e also Und another Sanskrit "ersion in 61(7 "erses.Iapparently o"erlooked in %orst BrinkhausT sur"ey. which would #e the largest recension. $t has '' chapters in two separate sections. The content of this "ersion is gi"en in the appendix.


Digitization of Sanskrit Buddhist Texts in Nepal

, catalogue of Sanskrit Buddhist Manuscripts collection pu#lished in Nepal A ?atalogue of Sanskrit Buddhist :anuscripts '. =amsal. De"i !rasad &ed.-. Bouddha Suchipatra. Vol. $V. ;athmandu: Nepal National =i#rary. )7)*. ). =amsal. De"i !rasad &ed.-. Suchipatram Vol.'. !t.'. ;athmandu: Nepal National =i#rary. )7)'. 1. Suchipatram Vol. '. !t. '. ;athmandu: Nepal National =i#rary. )7)5 *. Suchipatram1 Jyotish &ishaya. Vol$$. !t.'. ;athmandu: Nepal National =i#rary. )7)'. 6. Va racharya. !urna ?atna. &ed.-. Brihat Suchi (atra. ;athmandu: Bir =i#rary. )7)1. 3. Va racharya. !urna ?atna. Brihat Suchipatram. Vol. $$$. !t. $$. ;athmandu: Bir !ustakalaya. )7)'. 4. Va racharya. !urna &ed.-. Brihat Suchipatram Vol. V$$. !ts. $. $$. $$$. ;athmandu: Bir =i#rary. )7)'+)1 (. ;amsakar. !rem Bahadur. 2 Catalo#ue o! $ewari Manuscripts in (ersonal Collection. &unpu#lished type written-. ;athmandu. '54(. 5. No"ak. 0harles M.. Catalo#ue o! Selected Buddhist Manuscripts in 2sa Saphukuthi. ;athmandu: ,sa Saphu ;uthi. '5(3. '7. Shakya. ?a a. 2sa Saphu 3uthiya Saphudhala 42 short Cattalo#ue o! 2sa 2rchi es5. ;athmandu: ,sa Saphu ;uthi Authi. )777 ?atalogue countries '. ). 1. *. 6. of Sanskrit :anuscripts published in foreign

2 Tentati e 'ist o! MSS. in the (ossession o! 3eshar 'ibrary. ;athmandu: ;eshar =i#rary &Enpu#lsihed-. Bendall. 0ecil. Catalo#ue o! the Buddhist Sanskrit Manuscripts in the 6ni ersity 'ibrary1 Cambrid#e . 0am#ridge. The Eni"ersity !ress. '((1. Bendall. 0ecil. Catalo#ue o! Sanskrit MSS in the 6ni ersity 'ibrary. 0am#ridge: Eni"ersity !ress. '57). Bhattacharya. Benoytosh 2n 2lphabetical 'ist o! Manuscripts in the "riental Institute Baroda &ol II, ,aekwad "riental Series C7I&. Baroda Dutta. Nalinaksha. ,il#it Manuscripts. Vol. '. Delhi: '5(*.


Digitization of Sanskrit Buddhist Texts in Nepal


Aoshima. ;. and ;. Noguchi. &ed.-. 2 Succinct Catalo#ue o! the Sanskrit Manuscripts in the (ossession o! the 8aculty o! 'etters1 3yoto 6ni ersity, ;yoto: '5(1. 4. %idero#u Takaoka &ed.-. 2 Micro!ilm Catalo#ue o! the Buddhist Manuscripts in $epal. Nagoya: The Buddhist =i#rary. '5('. !.V. (. India o!!ice 'ibrary and 0ecords9 0eport !or the :ear ;<=>. =ondon: 8oreign and 0ommon <ealth 2ffice. '54(. 5. Matsunami Seiren &comp- Catalo#ue o! the Sanskrit MSS in the Tokyo 6ni ersity 'ibrary . Tokyp: Suzuku ?esearch 8oundatiion. '5(3. '7. Mitutoshi Moriguchi. 2 Catalo#ue o! the Buddhist Tantric MSS. in the $ational 20chi es o! $epal and 3eshar 'ibrary. Tokyo: Sanki#ou Busshorin. '5(5 ''. Shastri. %ara !rasad. 2 Catalo#ue o! (alm1'ea! and Selected paper MSS Belon#in# to the ?urbar 'ibrary o! $epal . Vol. '. 0alcutta: '576. '). Shastri. %ara !rasad. 2 Catalo#ue o! (alm1lea! and Selected (aper Mss Belon#in# to the ?urbar 'ibrary1 $epal. Vol. $$. 0alcutta: Baptist Mission !ress. '5'6 '1. Shastri. %ara !rasad 2 ?escripti e Catalo#ue o! Sanskrit Mss. in the ,o ernment Collection 6nder the Care o! 2siatic Society o! Ben#al. Vol. '. 0alcutta. '544. '*. Sigfried =ienhard and Thakur =al Manandhar. $epalese Manuscripts . !t. ' &Newari and Sanskrit-. Stuttgart. 8ranz Steiner Verlag <ies#aden AMB%. '5((. '6. Theodorr. ,ufrecht. &ed-. 2 Catalo#ue o! o! Sanskrit MSS in the 'ibrary o! Trinity Colle#e . 0am#ridge: Deighton. Bell and 0o.. '(35. '3. <ilson. %orace %ymen. (ro!essor @ilksonAs Sanskrit MSS $ow ?eposited in the Bodleian 'ibrary. 2xford. '5'). '4. <internitz. Moriz and ,rthur Berriedale ;eith &ed.-. Catalo#ue o! Sanskrit Manuscripts in the Bodleian 'ibrary . Vol. $$. 2xfore. The 0la"endon !ress. '576. 18. Butaka $mamoto. @0atalogue of the Buddhist Sanskrit Manuscripts in the =i#rary of Tokai Eni"ersity@. (receedin#s o! the 8aculty o! 'etters. Vol. ). Tokyo: Tokai Eni"ersity. '560.