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Microorganisms, Medicine, and Pharmacists Diagnostic Microbiology Industrial Microbiology Pharmaceutical Microbiology Microorganisms have the potential influence

luence in efficacy and safety Identifying microorganisms on drug products A pharmacist is responsible for the safe, hygienic manufacture of medicines must know where microorganisms arise in the environment The factors that predispose to or prevent product spoilage. Microbiology in Pharmacy Manufacturing safety, potency, and efficacy Type of drug !oute Antimicrobial agents antibiotics Microbial Mutation resistance to some important drugs Mode of action Drug and microorganism tandem "ow to prevent the knowledge of mechanism whereby microorganisms are able to resist antibiotics, coloni#e medical devices and cause or predispose humans to other disease states is essential in the development not only of new antibiotics, but of other medicines and healthcare practices that minimi#es the risk of these adverse situations developing. Basics of Microbiology Divisions $omenclature Microbial Metabolism %ultivation &numerating Microorganisms Microbial 'enetics Pharmaceutical Important

Microorganisms Preservation of Microorganisms

Divisions of Microbiology Eukaryotes vs Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Prokaryotes $ormally )gt* +,um /ithin nuclear membrane Mitosis and meiosis Present Ase0ual or se0ual )gt*+ May be present (terols present + - um

Characteris tics (i#e .ocation of %hromosome s $uclear Division $ucleolus !eproduction %hromosome number Mitochondria and chloroplasts %ell membrane composition %ell wall composition

%ytoplasm

Mitosis and meiosis are absent Absent Ase0ual + Absent

(terols absent

%ellulose or /alls usually chitin but not contain peptidoglyca peptidoglycan n 1,s %omple0 Absent %ilia 2,s 3smaller4 (imle Present Present

!ibosomes 5lagella Pili 5imbrae (torage %ompounds

Poly676 Poly676 hydro0ybutyr hydro0ybutyrat

ate absent

e often present

Bacteria Prokaryotes Peptidoglycan cell walls 7inary fission 5or energy, use organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals, or photosynthesis Archaea Prokaryotic .ack peptidoglycan .ive in e0treme environments Include8 Methanogens &0treme halophiles &0treme thermophiles Fungi &ukaryotes %hitin cell walls 9se organic chemicals for energy Molds and mushrooms are multicellular consisting of masses of mycelia, which are composed of filaments called hyphae :easts are unicellular Protozoa &ukaryotes Absorb or ingest organic chemicals May be motile via pseudopods, cilia, or flagella Most free some parasites Algae &ukaryotes %ellulose cell walls 9se photosynthesis for energy 3primary producers4 Produce molecular o0ygen and organic compounds Metabolically diverse iruses Acellular

%onsist of D$A or !$A core %ore is surrounded by a protein coat %oat may be enclosed in a lipid envelope ;iruses are replicated only when they are in a living host cell Multicellular Animal Parasites &ukaryote Multicellular animals Parasitic flatworms and round worms are called helminths. Microscopic stages in life cycles.

Microbial nomenclature Aristotle Attempted to classify all living things as either Plant or Animals 7y location Carl !innaeus +2,,s Developed the naming system using .atin and 'reek $ames (ystema $aturae 3+<2=4

Four Different "ources of #ames Descri$tive (taphylococcus aureus 3grape6 like cluster of spheres, golden in color4, (treptococcus viridans 3chains of spheres, green in colony color4, Proteus vulgaris 3first and common4, "elicobacter pylori 3spiral shaped rod at the entrance to the duodenum4 "cientist%s #ame &scherichia coli 3Theodor &sherich4, &rlichia 3Paul &rlich4, $essieria 3Albert $eisser4, .isteria 3>oseph .ister4, Pasturella 3.ouis Pasteur4, :ersinia 3Ale0andre:ersin4, 7artonella 3Alberto 7arton4, Morganella 3". de !. Morgan4,

&dwardsiella 3P. !. &dwards4 &eogra$hic Places .egionella longbeachiae 3.ong 7each, %alifornia4, Pasturella tularensis 3Tulare %ounty, %alifornia4, Pseudomonas fairmontensis 35airmount Park, Pennsylvania4, Mycobacterium genavense 3'eneva, (wit#erland4, 7lastomyces brasiliensis 37ra#il4, Providencia spp. 37rown 9niversity, Providence, !I4 'rganization .egionella 3American .egion4, Afipia felis 3Air 5orce Institute of Pathology4, %edecea spp. 3%enters for Disease %ontrol4 7ilophila wadsworthia 3;A /adsworth Medical %enter in .os Angeles4 (istorical Milestones Develo$ment of Microbiology Antony van !eeu)enhoek%s *+,-./+0.-1 Discovery of the Microscope ?pened the world to the fascinating world of microbes critically and e0plicitly described the finer details of a plethora of microorganisms vi#., proto#oa, algae, yeast, and bacteria 2oger Bacon *+..34+.5.1 first ever postulated that a disease is caused by invisible living creatures. &irolamo Fracastoro *+67-4+88-1 and Anton von Plenciz *+0,.1 these two reseachers also made similar observations, assertions, and suggestions but without any e0perimental concrete evidences@ proofs. Athanasius 9ircher *+,3+4+,731 made reference of these AwormsB

that are practically invisible to the naked eyes and found in decaying meat, milk, bodies, and diarrheal secretions. Circher was, in fact, the pioneer in pronouncing the cogni#ance and significance of bacteria and other microbes in disease3s4. Antony van !eeu)enhoek *+,-.4 +0.-1 initiated the herculian task of Amicroscope makingBthrough his inherent hobby of Alens makingB. During his lifespan stretching over to 1< years he meticulously designed more than D-, microscopes * of which the most powerful one could magnify about D,, 6 =,, times only. light microscopeB that has the ability to even magnify from +,,,,6=,,,, times. "$ontaneous &eneration Biogenesis s

:ohn #eedham *+0+-/+07+1 +2E<, while e0perimenting with raw meat being e0posed to hot ashes, he observed meticulously the appearance of organisms that were not present at the initial stages* and, therefore, inferred that the bacteria virtually originated from the raw meat itself. !azaro "$allanzani *+0.5/+0551 actually boiled Abeef brothB for a duration of F, minutes, and subseGuently sealed the flasks tightly. After usual incubation for a certain length of time, practically no microbes appeared. "owever, $eedham never got convinced with (pallan#aniBs findings, and vehemently insisted that AairB happened to be an essential component to the process of spontaneous generation of the microbes, and that it had been adeGuately

e0cluded from the flasks by sealing them precisely by the later. Franz "chulze *+7+8/+70-1 and ;heodor "ch)ann *+7+34+77.1 these two scientists independently fully endorsed and Hustified the earlier findings of (pallan#ani by allowing air to pass through strong acid solutions into the boiled infusions, and by passing air into the flasks via red6hot tubes respectively In neither instance did microorganisms appear. (< "chr=der and ;< von Dusch *> +7831 carried out a more logical and convincing e0perimental design by passing air via cotton fibers so as to prevent the bacterial growth * and thus, it ultimately initiated and gave rise to a basic techniGue of ApluggingB bacterial culture tubes with Acotton plugsB 3stoppers4, which techniGue being used still as to date Feli? Archimede Pouchet *+7334 +70.1 revived once again the concept and ideology of spontaneous generation via a published comprehensive and e0tensive research article thereby proving its occurrence. Pasteur *+7..4+7581 carried out a number of e0periments that virtually helped in concluding the on6going argument once for all time. Pasteur designed a flask having a long and narrow gooseneck outlet. Thus, the nutrient broths were duly heated in the above specially designed flask, whereby the air I untreated and unfiltered I may pass in or out but the germs settled in the Avery

gooseneckB * and, therefore, practically no microbes ultimately appeared in the nutrient broth 3solution4. &erm ;heory theory that certain diseases are caused by the invasion of the body by microorganisms, organisms too small to be seen e0cept through a microscope. The 5rench chemist and microbiologist .ouis Pasteur, the &nglish surgeon >oseph .ister, and the 'erman physician !obert Coch are given much of the credit for development and acceptance of the theory. &irolamo Fracastro *+67-4+88-1 advocated that certain diseases might be caused by virtue of invisible organisms transmitted from one subHect to another. Plenciz *+0,.1 stated that the living microbes 3or agents4 are the ultimate cause of disease but at the same time aired his views that different germs were responsible for different ailments. 'liver @endell (olmes *+7354 +7561 suggested that puerperal fever was highly contagious in nature * besides, it was perhaps caused by a germ carried eventually from one mother to another either by midwives or physicians. Agnaz Phili$$ "emmel)eis *+7+74+7,81 pioneered the usage of antiseptics specifically in the obstetrical practices. :ose$h !ister *+7531 made known in &ngland the importance of antisepsis, which was subseGuently fully appreciated by the medical profession all and sundry.

2obert 9och *+76-4+5+31 discovered the typical bacilli having sGuarish ends in the blood sample of cattle that had died due to anthra0. 9och%s Modus '$erandi Coch adopted the following steps to isolate microbes causing anthra08 3+4 5irst of all these bacteria were duly grown in cultures in the laboratory. 3D4 7acteria e0amined microscopically so as to ascertain only one specific type was present. 3=4 InHected bacteria into other animals to observe whether they got also infected, and subseGuently developed clinical symptoms of anthra0. 3E4 Isolated microbes from e0perimentally infected animals sGuarely matched with those obtained originally from sheep that died due to infection of anthra0. CochBs Postulates 3a4 A particular microbe 3organism4 may invariably be found in association with a given disease.

3b4 The organism may be isolated and cultivated in pure culture in the laboratory. 3c4 The pure culture shall be able to cause the disease after being duly inoculated into a susceptible animal. 3d4 It should be Guite possible to recover conveniently the causative organism in its pure culture right from the infected e0perimental animal. Future The futuristic goals of Apure culturesB are e0clusively based upon the following two cardinal aspects, namely 8 3a4 better understanding of the physiology of individual microorganisms present in the pure culture, and 3b4 ecological relationships of the entire microbial populations in a given environment. Thus, the following new hori#ons in the domain of microbiology may be e0plored with great #eal and gusto 8 Advancements in marine microbiology, !umen microbiology, Microbiology of the gastro6 intestinal tract 3'IT4, and (everal other systems.