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Suez Canal University
Faculty of engineering – PortSaid
Production Engineering
and mechanical Design Department
Keys and Key Keys and Key Keys and Key Keys and Keyways ways ways ways
Prepared By
Dr. Eng.
Mohammed A. Soliman
Associate Prof. Of Machine Design And Tribology
Fundamental Problem in
Fundamental Problem in
Shaft Design
Shaft Design
How do I connect stuff to the shaft?
How do I connect stuff to the shaft?
Interference Fits Interference Fits
Keys & Keys & Keyseats Keyseats
Splines Splines/Polygons /Polygons Integral Shaft Integral Shaft
Pins Pins
Hubs/Collars Hubs/Collars
Interference Fits
Interference Fits
Interference Fits Interference Fits Hole is undersized and part is heated to
allow it to slide over shaIt. Compressive interIace pressure
develops when part cools. Reference Lecture 15 Notes Reference Lecture 15 Notes.
M ott, Figure 111
Keys are used to transmit torque
Irom a component to the shaIt.
Keys and
Keys and
Keyseats
Keyseats
Keyseat
Types of
Types of
Keyseats
Keyseats
O livo, Fig. 403
Keyseats Keyseatsare classified according to are classified according to
the process by which they are m ade. the process by which they are m ade.
Keyway Fabrication M ethods
Keyway Fabrication M ethods
End M ill on Vertical End M ill on Vertical
M illing M achine M illing M achine
Key Cutter on Horizontal Key Cutter on Horizontal
M illing M achine M illing M achine
Chang, Fig. 5.8, M ott, Fig. 126
Fillet Radii and Key Cham fers
Fillet Radii and Key Cham fers
General Practice: Zero General Practice: Zero
root fillet and cham fer root fillet and cham fer
Not to Scale
Standard contains recom m ended fillet
radii and key cham fer com binations to
provide lower stress concentration
factors.
“Keys and “Keys and Keyseats Keyseats,” ANSI ,” ANSI
Standard B17.1 Standard B17.1 1967 1967.
Better Practice Better Practice
45
o
cham fer
Fillet Radii Fabrication
Fillet Radii Fabrication
R0.3125
A Bull` end mill can be used to
machine Iillet radii in keyways.
Bull End Mill
M SC Catalog, Fanfara, Figure 36
M ott, Figure 111
The hub is slightly larger than the shaIt and key to allow it to
slide over the shaIt during assembly. The set screw is used to
take up the slack. The resulting Iriction is used to provide
resistance to axial motion. Thread adhesive may be required to
ensure that vibration doesn`t cause the set screw to loosen.
Square and Rectangular
Square and Rectangular
Parallel Keys
Parallel Keys
Square and Rectangular
Square and Rectangular
Key Geom etry
Key Geom etry
“Keys and “Keys and Keyseats Keyseats,” ANSI ,” ANSI
Standard B17.1 Standard B17.1 1967 1967.
Width is approximately /
the diameter oI the shaIt.
Standard contains tables oI
recommended key sizes versus
shaIt diameter.
Set Screws
Set Screws
Flat Point Flat Point
Cup Point Cup Point
Oval Point Oval Point
Cone Point Cone Point
Half Half dog Point dog Point
Shigley, Fig. 826
Holding Power Holding Power
Resistance to axial or
rotary motion oI the hub or
collar relative to the shaIt.
Holding power is a
Iunction oI Iriction
between contacting
portions oI hub or collar
and shaIt and any
penetration oI the setscrew
into the keyway or shaIt.
Representative Holding
Representative Holding
Power Values
Power Values
Shigley, Table 813
Based on alloy steel screw
against steel shaIt, class
3A coarse or Iine threads
in class 2B holes, and cup
point socket setscrews.
Tapered Keys
Tapered Keys
M ott, Figure 113
Designed to be inserted Irom the end oI the shaIt aIter the hub
is in position. The taper will impart a compressive contact
pressure between the hub and the shaIt. Friction will help
transmit torque and provide resistance to axial motion oI the
hub relative to the shaIt. Tapered keys do not require set
screws. Access to both ends oI tapered keys are required so
that the key can be inserted and driven out when the key is
being removed.
Gib
Gib
Head Keys
Head Keys
Installation is similar to standard tapered keys.
The extended head provides a holding method Ior
removing the key by pulling instead oI driving it
out.
M ott, Figure 113, Shigley, Fig. 828
W oodruff Keys
W oodruff Keys
M ott, Figure 113
ANSI Standard B17.2 ANSI Standard B17.2 1967 lists recom m ended dim ensions 1967 lists recom m ended dim ensions
for W oodruff Keys. for W oodruff Keys.
Circular groove in shaIt holds the key in place while the hub
is slid over the shaIt. The WoodruII key will have less shear
strength than a rectangular or square key.
Circular (Pin) Keys
Circular (Pin) Keys
SigniIicantly lower stress concentration Iactors result Irom
this type oI key as compared to parallel or tapered keys. A
ball end mill can be used to make the circular key seat.
Fanfara, Figure 36, M ott, Figure 113
Tapered Bushings
Tapered Bushings
M ott, Fig. 1110, www.em ersonept.com
Tapered hub causes split bushing to be drawn down on
shaIt. Higher strength alternative to set screws.
Key is used to transmit torque,
Iriction keeps system Irom
sliding axially along shaIt.
Stress Analysis of
Stress Analysis of
Parallel Keys
Parallel Keys
A key has two Iailure mechanisms: 1) it can be
sheared oII, and 2) it can be crushed due to the
compressive bearing Iorces.
T
F
F
Shear Plane Shear Plane
Bearing Surface Bearing Surface
( )( )
DWL
2T
Ĳ
WL
2
D
T
A
F
Ĳ
WL A
2
D
T
F
ave
s
ave
s
=
= =
=
=
Shear Stress Analysis of Square
Shear Stress Analysis of Square
and Rectangular Parallel Keys
and Rectangular Parallel Keys
M ott, Fig. 114(b)
Required Key Length
Required Key Length
(Shear) (Shear)
sI
yt
all
yt ys
N
0.5S
Ĳ
0.5S S
=
=
DW S
4TN
L
N
0.5S
DWL
2T
Ĳ
yt
Is
s
Is
yt
ave
=
= =
From Maximum Shear
Stress Failure Theory,
the shear yield strength
is given by:
The minimum length oI the
key can be Iound by setting
the average shear stress equal
to the allowable shear stress.
Bearing Stress: Square and
Bearing Stress: Square and
Rectangular Parallel Keys
Rectangular Parallel Keys
M ott, Fig. 114(a) 2
HL
A
2
D
T
F
A
F
ı
b
b
b
=
=
=
1.5 K 1.0
N
KS
ı
Is
yc
all b,
≤ ≤
=
Triaxial Triaxial Stress Factor Stress Factor
DH KS
4TN
L
yc
Is
b
=
Com parison of Shear and
Com parison of Shear and
Bearing Length Equations
Bearing Length Equations
DW S
4TN
L
yt
Is
s
=
DH KS
4TN
L
yc
Is
b
=
M inim um Required M inim um Required
Length to Prevent Length to Prevent
Shear Failure Shear Failure
M inim um Required M inim um Required
Length to Prevent Length to Prevent
Bearing Failure Bearing Failure
II K÷1, these equations give the same result Ior a square key. In
general K will be greater than 1.0 and more shear Iailures will be
observed in the Iield. Keys are generally designed to Iail beIore
overloads can cause damage to the shaIt or attached component.
In this respect they act like a mechanical Iuse.
Stress Analysis of
Stress Analysis of
W oodruff Keys
W oodruff Keys
Shear Area
2
B
s
d
s
d
2
B
−
2
2
s
2
A d
2
B
2
B
+
÷
ø
ö
ç
è
æ
− =
÷
ø
ö
ç
è
æ
A
Shear Analysis of
Shear Analysis of
W oodruff Keys
W oodruff Keys
2
B
s
d
s
d
2
B
−
( )
( )
s
ave
s s s
s s
2
2
s
2
DA
2T
Ĳ
d B d 2W Area Shear A
d B d A
A d
2
B
2
B
=
− = ≡
− =
+
÷
ø
ö
ç
è
æ
− =
÷
ø
ö
ç
è
æ
A
Is
yt
all s,
N
0.5S
Ĳ =
Shear Pins
Shear Pins
The strength analysis oI shear pins is similar to that
used to Iind the strength oI a Iastener. We`ll deIer the
strength analysis until we cover Iasteners.
M ott, Fig. 119
Stress Concentration Factors
Stress Concentration Factors
R.E. Peterson, Stress Concentration R.E. Peterson, Stress Concentration
Factors, W iley, New York, 1974. Factors, W iley, New York, 1974.
Key seats create stress concentrations in the shaIt. There are
diIIerent stress concentration Iactors Ior bending and torsional
loads. Peterson contains a compilation oI stress concentration
Iactors that includes key seat geometries. For Ilat end mills,
Peterson gives K
t
÷2.14 Ior bending and K
t
÷2.62 Ior torsion.
These may be reduced by using key seats made with bull end
mills. The stress concentration Iactor Ior a sled runner key seat
is signiIicantly lower than Ior a proIile key seat. A circular key
and keyseat will have lower stress concentration Iactors any
other key geometry.
Assignm ent
Assignm ent
1. Determine the length oI a parallel key Ior a gear to be
mounted on a shaIt with a 2.00 indiameter shaIt. The
key is made Irom AISI 1020 colddrawn steel. The gear
transmits 21,000 lbin oI torque and has a hub length oI
4.00 inch.
2. A Vbelt sheave transmits 1,112 lbin oI torque to a 1.75
indiameter shaIt. The sheave is made Iorm ASTM class
20 cast iron and has a hub length oI 1.75 in. Design a
parallel key and key seat. The key material is AISI 1020
colddrawn steel. Create an AutoCAD drawing that
would enable a machinist to make the key seat.
Splines
Splines
Fundamental Problem in
Fundamental Problem in
Shaft Design
Shaft Design
How do I connect stuff to the shaft?
How do I connect stuff to the shaft?
Interference Fits Interference Fits
Keys & Keys & Keyseats Keyseats
Splines Splines/Polygons /Polygons Integral Shaft Integral Shaft
Pins Pins
Hubs/Collars Hubs/Collars
Splines
Splines
Mott, Fig. 116
GSplines can be thought of as
a series of axial keyways
with mating keys machined
onto a shaft.
GThere are two major types of
splines used in industry: 1)
straightsided splines, and 2)
involute splines.
GSplines provide a more
uniform circumferential
transfer of torque to the
shaft than a key.
Splined
Splined
Shaft and Hub
Shaft and Hub
www.advanceadapters.com
External External Spline Spline
Internal Internal Spline Spline
Spline
Spline
Standards
Standards
GANSI B92.11970 (R1982), Involute Splines,
American National Standards Institute.
GANSI B92.21980, Metric Module Involute
Splines, American National Standards Institute.
GSAE Straight Tooth Splines
Straight
Straight


Tooth
Tooth
Spline
Spline
Geometry
Geometry
GSAE straighttooth
splines usually contain
4,6,10, or 16 splines.
GParameter dimensions
are controlled by the fit
needed for a particular
application.
Mott, Fig. 114
Straight
Straight


Tooth
Tooth
Spline
Spline
Strength
Strength
Splines have the same
failure mechanisms as keys:
1) shear or 2) bearing.
GThe torque capacity per unit
length of an SAE spline is
based on a 1,000 psi bearing
stress on the sides.
GDepending on the class of fit, a
spline is able to accommodate
axial movement along the
shaft and still transmit torque.
Straight
Straight


Tooth
Tooth
Spline
Spline
Strength
Strength
(Continued) (Continued)
( )
( )
÷
÷
ø
ö
ç
ç
è
æ
−
⋅ ⋅ =
− ⋅
+
⋅ ⋅ =
− =
+
=
÷
ø
ö
ç
è
æ
+ =
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ =
8
d D
N 1,000 T
d D
2
1
4
d D
N 1,000 T
d D
2
1
h
4
d D
2
d
2
D
2
1
R
h R N 1,000 T
2 2
T = Torque per unit length
N = Number of teeth
D = Major spline diameter
d = Minor spine diameter
d = f (D)
Torque Capacity Curves
Torque Capacity Curves
(SAE Straight (SAE Straight Tooth Tooth Splines Splines) )
Mott, Fig. 117
Note that an involute spline has a higher torque
capacity than does a straighttooth spline of the same
major diameter.
Involute
Involute
Splines
Splines
Involute splines generally
have a 30
o
pressure angle.
Mott, Fig. 118
Standard
Standard
Diametral
Diametral
Pitches
Pitches
and Lengths
and Lengths
There are seventeen diametral pitches in common use:
2.5 3 4 5 6 8 10
12 16 20 24 32 40 48
64 80 128
Standard Lengths Standard Lengths
Diametral Diametral Pitches Pitches
Common designs use spline lengths of 0.75 D to 1.25 D,
where D is the pitch diameter of the spline. When these
standard lengths are used, the shear strength of the splines
will exceed that of the shaft from which they are made.
Spline
Spline
Manufacturing Methods
Manufacturing Methods
www.drivetraindirect.com
Forged blank is rolled under tons
of pressure prior to heat treating.
The finished spline is more accurate
and stronger (35%) than cut spines.
Splines are either “cut” (machined) or rolled. Rolled
splines are stronger than cut splines due to the cold
working of the metal. Nitriding is common to achieve
very hard surfaces which reduce wear.
Rolled Rolled Spline Spline Process Process
Spline
Spline
Failure Example
Failure Example
www.4wdonline.com
Note the yielding of the shaft outside of the engagement area
due to a torsional load. The mating internal spline forced the
external slines to remain parallel. In this case the spline is
stronger than the shaft.
Splined
Splined
Linear Bearing
Linear Bearing
www.tsubaki.com
Circular shaped splines
have been combined with
ball bearings to create linear
bearings that can resist a
torsional load.
Polygons
Polygons
www.generalpolygon.com
An alternative to splines that has significantly
lower stress concentration is the polygon. Four
and three lobed polygons are shown.
Design information on polygons is
available from General Polygon.
Retaining Rings
Retaining Rings
GRetaining rings are used on shafts to
maintain the axial position of
components.
GThere are many types of retaining rings.
In general, they may be classified as: 1)
internal and 2) external.
External External
Internal Internal
www.rotorclip.com
Different Types of Retaining
Different Types of Retaining
Rings
Rings
www.mdmetric.com
Spring Loaded Retaining Rings
Spring Loaded Retaining Rings
G“Bowed” retaining rings provide restoring
forces to the components being held.
GFlat retaining rings allow small amounts of
axial motion of the held component.
Bowed Internal Bowed Internal
Retaining Ring Retaining Ring
Bowed External Bowed External
Retaining Ring Retaining Ring
www.rotorclip.com
Smalley Compression Spring
Smalley Compression Spring
Retaining System
Retaining System
www.smalley.com
Higher restoring forces can be obtained
using compression rings manufactured by
Smalley.
Retaining Ring Stress
Retaining Ring Stress
Concentrations
Concentrations
G External retaining rings used
on shafts require that grooves
be cut into the shaft.
G The grooves generally have
sharp corners or very small
fillet radii which result in
significant stress concentration
factors.
Mott, Fig. 115
Retaining Ring Stress
Retaining Ring Stress
Concentration Factors
Concentration Factors
G The high stresses at the root of
the retaining ring groove will be
highly localized and will not
significantly effect the static
strength of a shaft made from a
ductile material.
G The stress concentration factors
will be important in determining
the life of the shaft and must be
included in life calculations.
Shigley, Fig. A1514 & 15
Retaining Ring Design
Retaining Ring Design
Dimensions and design guidelines for retaining rings
are contained in catalogs and literature published by
retaining ring manufacturers.
Rotoclip Rotoclip, Inc. , Inc. Waldes Truarc Waldes Truarc, Inc. , Inc. Smalley Smalley
Designs that use retaining rings must take into account
how the rings will be installed and make sure that
sufficient assembly clearance is provided.
Integral Shafts
Integral Shafts
G An alternative to attaching
components to shafts is to
machine the components
directly onto the shaft.
G This higher priced approach is
often the only approach
available when tight space
constraints exist.
G Complex combinations of
components can be obtained
using modern CNC turning
centers.
www.astas.co.za/shafts.html
Assignment
Assignment
1) Make a drawing of an SAE straighttooth 4spline
connection having a major diameter of 1.5000 in
and a class A fit. Show all critical dimensions.
What is the torque capacity of the spline?
2) Identify two applications of retaining rings used
in mechanical equipment. Describe the
applications and discuss why you think retaining
rings of the type used were chosen by the
designer.