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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Beowulf This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with

almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it give it away or re!use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg "icense included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Title# Beowulf $n $nglo!%a&on Epic Poem Translated 'rom The (eyne!%ocin Te&t by "esslie (all $uthor# )elease *ate# +uly ,- .//0 1EBook 2,34.56 "anguage# English 777 %T$)T 8' T(9% P)8+E:T G;TE<BE)G EB88= BE8>;"' 777

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BE8>;"'
$< $<G"8!%$A8< EP9: P8E? T)$<%"$TE* ')8? T(E (EY<E!%8:9< TEAT BY +<8# "E%%"9E ($"" Ph. *. B+.(.;.C Professor of English and (istory in The :ollege of >illiam and ?ary *.:. (E$T( D :8. P;B"9%(E)% B8%T8< <E> Y8)= :(9:$G8 Entered according to $ct of :ongress in the year ,5-. by +<8# "E%%"9E ($"" in the 8ffice of the "ibrarian of :ongress at >ashington.

T8 ?y >ife

:8<TE<T%. Page Preface vii Bibliography of Translations &i Glossary of Proper <ames &iii

"ist of >ords and Phrases not in General ;se &viii The "ife and *eath of %cyld B9.C, %cyldEs %uccessors B99.C4 (rothgarEs Great ?ead!(all Grendel the ?urderer B999.C0 Beowulf Goes to (rothgarEs $ssistance B9F.C5 The Geats )each (eorot BF.C,/ Beowulf 9ntroduces (imself at the Palace BF9.C,. (rothgar and Beowulf BF99.C,G (rothgar and Beowulf BcontinuedC BF999.C,H ;nferth Taunts Beowulf B9A.C,Beowulf %ilences ;nferth BA.C., Glee is (igh $ll %leep save 8ne BA9.C.G Grendel and Beowulf BA99.C.3 Grendel is FanIuished BA999.C.5 )ejoicing of the *anes BA9F.C4/ (rothgarEs Gratitude BAF.C44 (rothgar "avishes Gifts upon his *eliverer BAF9.C40 BanIuet BcontinuedC BAF99.C4H The %copEs %ong of 'inn and (nJf The 'inn Episode BcontinuedC BAF999.C4The BanIuet :ontinues Beowulf )eceives 'urther (onor BA9A.CG, The ?other of Grendel BAA.CGG (rothgarEs $ccount of the ?onsters BAA9.CG3 Beowulf %eeks GrendelEs ?other BAA99.CG5 BeowulfEs 'ight with GrendelEs ?other BAA999.C0, Beowulf is *ouble!:onIueror BAA9F.C04 Beowulf Brings his Trophies BAAF.C0H (rothgarEs Gratitude (rothgar ?oraliKes BAAF9.C3/ )est after "abor %orrow at Parting BAAF99.C3. The (omeward +ourney BAAF999.C3G The Two Lueens Beowulf and (igelac BAA9A.C3H Beowulf <arrates his $dventures to (igelac BAAA.C3Gift!Giving is ?utual BAAA9.CH4 The (oard and the *ragon BAAA99.CH0 Brave Though $ged BAAA999.CH5 )eminiscences Beowulf %eeks the *ragon BAAA9F.C5, BeowulfEs )eminiscences )eminiscences BcontinuedC BAAAF.C54 BeowulfEs "ast Battle >iglaf the Trusty BAAAF9.C55 Beowulf is *eserted by 'riends and by %word The 'atal %truggle BAAAF99.C-, BeowulfEs "ast ?oments >iglaf Plunders the *ragonEs *en BAAAF999.C-4 BeowulfEs *eath The *ead 'oes BAAA9A.C-0 >iglafEs Bitter Taunts The ?essenger of *eath BA".C-H The ?essengerEs )etrospect BA"9.C->iglafEs %ad %tory BA"99.C,/4 The (oard :arried 8ff

The Burning of Beowulf BA"999.C,/3

$ddenda ,/-

PREFACE.

The present work is a modest effort to reproduce appro&imately in modern measures the venerable epic Beowulf. Approximately 9 repeatM for a very close reproduction of $nglo!%a&on verse would to a large e&tent be prose to a modern ear. The (eyne!%ocin te&t and glossary have been closely followed. 8ccasionally a deviation has been made but always for what seemed good and sufficient reason. The translator does not aim to be an editor. 8nce in a while however he has added a conjecture of his own to the emendations Iuoted from the criticisms of other students of the poem. This work is addressed to two classes of readers. 'rom both of these alike the translator begs sympathy and co!operation. The $nglo! %a&on scholar he hopes to please by adhering faithfully to the original. The student of English literature he aims to interest by giving him in modern garb the most ancient epic of our race. This is a bold and venturesome undertakingM and yet there must be some students of the Teutonic past willing to follow even a daring guide if they may read in modern phrases of the sorrows of (rothgar of the prowess of Beowulf and of the feelings that stirred the hearts of our forefathers in their primeval homes. 9n order to please the larger class of readers a regular cadence has been used a measure which while retaining the essential characteristics of the original permits the reader to see ahead of him in reading. Perhaps every $nglo!%a&on scholar has his own theory as to how Beowulf should be translated. %ome have given us prose versions of what we believe to be a great poem. 9s it any reflection on our honored =emble and $rnold to say that their translations fail to show a layman that Beowulf is justly called our first epicN 8f those translators who have used verse several have written from what would seem a mistaken point of view. 9s it proper for instance that the grave and solemn speeches of Beowulf and (rothgar be put in ballad measures tripping lightly and airily alongN 8r again is it fitting that the rough martial music of $nglo!%a&on verse be interpreted to us in the smooth measures of modern blank verseN *o we hear what has been beautifully called Othe clanging tread of a warrior in mailPN 8f all English translations of Beowulf that of Professor Garnett alone gives any adeIuate idea of the chief characteristics of this great Teutonic epic. The measure used in the present translation is believed to be as near a reproduction of the original as modern English affords. The cadences closely resemble those used by Browning in some of his most striking poems. The four stresses of the $nglo!%a&on verse are retained and as much thesis and anacrusis is allowed as is consistent with a regular cadence. $lliteration has been used to a large e&tentM

but it was thought that modern ears would hardly tolerate it on every line. End!rhyme has been used occasionallyM internal rhyme sporadically. Both have some warrant in $nglo!%a&on poetry. B'or end!rhyme see , 04 , 0GM for internal rhyme . ., 3 G/.C >hat Gummere1 calls the Orime!giverP has been studiously keptM viz. the first accented syllable in the second half!verse always carries the alliterationM and the last accented syllable alliterates only sporadically. $lternate alliteration is occasionally used as in the original. B%ee H 3, 5 0.C <o two accented syllables have been brought together e&cept occasionally after a cJsural pause. B%ee . ,- and ,. ,.C 8r scientifically speaking %ieversEs : type has been avoided as not consonant with the plan of translation. %everal of his types however constantly occurM e.g. $ and a variant B@ & Q @ &C B@ & & Q @ &CM B and a variant B& @ Q & @ C B& & @ Q & @ CM a variant of * B@ & Q @ & &CM E B@ & & Q @ C. $nacrusis gives further variety to the types used in the translation. The parallelisms of the original have been faithfully preserved. B E.g. , ,3 and , ,H# O"ordP and O>ielder of GloryPM , 4/ , 4, , 4.M . ,. and . ,4M . .H and . .5M 4 0 and 4 3.C 8ccasionally some loss has been sustainedM but on the other hand a gain has here and there been made. The effort has been made to give a decided flavor of archaism to the translation. $ll words not in keeping with the spirit of the poem have been avoided. $gain though many archaic words have been used there are none it is believed which are not found in standard modern poetry. >ith these preliminary remarks it will not be amiss to give an outline of the story of the poem.

THE STORY.

Hrothgar, king of the Danes, or Scyldings, builds a great mead hall, or palace, in !hich he hopes to feast his liegemen and to give them presents. "he #oy of king and retainers is, ho!ever, of short duration. $rendel, the monster, is seized !ith hateful #ealousy. He cannot brook the sounds of #oyance that reach him do!n in his fen d!elling near the hall. %ft and anon he goes to the #oyous building, bent on direful mischief. "hane after thane is ruthlessly carried off and devoured, !hile no one is found strong enough and bold enough to cope !ith the monster. &or t!elve years he persecutes Hrothgar and his vassals. %ver sea, a day's voyage off, (eo!ulf, of the $eats, nephe! of Higelac, king of the $eats, hears of $rendel's doings and of Hrothgar's misery. He resolves to crush the fell monster and relieve the aged king. )ith fourteen chosen companions, he sets sail for Dane land. *eaching that country, he soon persuades Hrothgar of his ability to help him. "he hours that elapse before night are spent in beer drinking and conversation. )hen Hrothgar's bedtime comes he leaves the hall in charge of (eo!ulf, telling him that never before has

he given to another the absolute !ardship of his palace. All retire to rest, (eo!ulf, as it !ere, sleeping upon his arms. $rendel comes, the great march stepper, bearing $od's anger. He seizes and kills one of the sleeping !arriors. "hen he advances to!ards (eo!ulf. A fierce and desperate hand to hand struggle ensues. +o arms are used, both combatants trusting to strength and hand grip. (eo!ulf tears $rendel's shoulder from its socket, and the monster retreats to his den, ho!ling and yelling !ith agony and fury. "he !ound is fatal. "he next morning, at early da!n, !arriors in numbers flock to the hall Heorot, to hear the ne!s. ,oy is boundless. $lee runs high. Hrothgar and his retainers are lavish of gratitude and of gifts. $rendel's mother, ho!ever, comes the next night to avenge his death. She is furious and raging. )hile (eo!ulf is sleeping in a room some!hat apart from the -uarters of the other !arriors, she seizes one of Hrothgar's favorite counsellors, and carries him off and devours him. (eo!ulf is called. Determined to leave Heorot entirely purified, he arms himself, and goes do!n to look for the female monster. After traveling through the !aters many hours, he meets her near the sea bottom. She drags him to her den. "here he sees $rendel lying dead. After a desperate and almost fatal struggle !ith the !oman, he slays her, and s!ims up!ard in triumph, taking !ith him $rendel's head. ,oy is rene!ed at Heorot. .ongratulations cro!d upon the victor. Hrothgar literally pours treasures into the lap of (eo!ulf/ and it is agreed among the vassals of the king that (eo!ulf !ill be their next liegelord. (eo!ulf leaves Dane land. Hrothgar !eeps and laments at his departure. )hen the hero arrives in his o!n land, Higelac treats him as a distinguished guest. He is the hero of the hour. (eo!ulf subse-uently becomes king of his o!n people, the $eats. After he has been ruling for fifty years, his o!n neighborhood is !ofully harried by a fire spe!ing dragon. (eo!ulf determines to kill him. 0n the ensuing struggle both (eo!ulf and the dragon are slain. "he grief of the $eats is inexpressible. "hey determine, ho!ever, to leave nothing undone to honor the memory of their lord. A great funeral pyre is built, and his body is burnt. "hen a memorial barro! is made, visible from a great distance, that sailors afar may be constantly reminded of the pro!ess of the national hero of $eatland. "he poem closes !ith a glo!ing tribute to his bravery, his gentleness, his goodness of heart, and his generosity. 9t is the devout desire of this translator to hasten the day when the story of Beowulf shall be as familiar to English!speaking peoples as that of the 9liad. Beowulf is our first great epic. 9t is an epitomiKed history of the life of the Teutonic races. 9t brings vividly before us our

forefathers of pre!$lfredian eras in their love of war of sea and of adventure. ?y special thanks are due to Professors 'rancis $. ?arch and +ames $. (arrison for advice sympathy and assistance. +.". ($"".
1,6 (andbook of Poetics page ,H0 ,st edition.

ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THE NOTES.


B. R Bugge. :. R :osijn. Gr. R Grein. Grdvtg. R Grundtvig. (. R (eyne. (. and %. R (arrison and %harp. (.!%o. R (eyne!%ocin. =.R =emble. =l. R =luge. ?.R ?Sllenhoff. ). R )ieger. %. R %ievers. %w. R %weet. t.B. R ten Brink. Th. R Thorpe. >. R >Slcker.

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF TRANSLATIONS.
Arnold, Thoma .TBeowulf. $ heroic poem of the eighth century. "ondon ,5H3. >ith English translation. Prose. Bo!"#n$, L.TBeowulf. EpopUe $nglo!%a&onne. (avre ,5HH. 'irst 'rench translation. Passages occasionally omitted. Con%&$ar$, '.'.T9llustrations of $nglo!%a&on Poetry. "ondon ,5.3. 'ull "atin translation and some passages translated into English blank!verse. E!!m(ll$r, L.TBeowulf stabreimend SbersetKt. VSrich ,5G/. Garn$!!, '.).TBeowulf# an $nglo!%a&on Poem and the 'ight at 'innsburg. Boston ,55.. $n accurate line!for!line translation using alliteration occasionally and sometimes assuming a metrical cadence. Gr$#n, C.*.).T*ichtungen der $ngelsachsen stabreimend SbersetKt. . Bde. GWttingen ,50H!0-. Gr#on, G#( !o.TBeovulf poema epico anglo!sassone del F99. secolo tradotto e illustrato. "ucca ,554. 'irst 9talian translation. Gr(nd!+#,, N.F.S.TBjowulfs *rape. :openhagen ,5./. H$%n$, ).T$ translation in iambic measures. Paderborn ,534. -$m&l$, '.).TThe $nglo!%a&on Poems of Beowulf the TravellerEs %ong and the Battle of 'innsburg. "ondon ,544. The second edition contains a prose translation of Beowulf. L$o, H.T;eber Beowulf. (alle ,54-. Translations of e&tracts. L(m d$n, H.*.TBeowulf translated into modern rhymes. "ondon ,55,. Ballad measures. Passages occasionally omitted. Sandra , G.S.T*e carminibus :Jdmoni adjudicatis. Paris ,50-. $n e&tract from Beowulf with "atin translation. S.haldmo $, F.TBeowulf og %copes >idsith to $ngelsa&iske *igte. :openhagen ,5GH. S#mro.", -.TBeowulf. ;ebersetKt und erlXutert. %tuttgart und $ugsburg ,50-. $lliterative measures. Thor"$l#n, G.'.T*e *anorum rebus gestis secul. 999. et 9F. poema *anicum dialecto $nglosa&onica. (avniJ ,5,0. "atin translation.

Thor/$, B.TThe $nglo!%a&on Poems of Beowulf the %cYp or GleemanEs Tale and the 'ight at 'innsburg. 8&ford ,500. English translation in short lines generally containing two stresses. *a."$r&ar!h, A.D.TBeowulf translated into English verse. "ondon ,5G-. *#."&$r,, R.TBeowulf en fornengelsk hjeltedikt Wfersatt. >estervik. 'irst %wedish translation. +on *ol0o,$n, H.TBeowulf in alliterative measures. "eipKig. 1#n $r, G.T*er =ampf Beowulfs mit Grendel. +ahresbericht of the )ealschule at 'orbach ,55,.

GLOSSARY OF PROPER NA)ES.

1The figures refer to the divisions of the poem in which the respective names occur. The large figures refer to fitts the small to lines in the fitts.6 2l3h$r$.T$ kinsman of >iglaf.T43 4. 2 .h$r$.T:onfidential friend of =ing (rothgar. Elder brother of Yrmenlaf. =illed by Grendel.T., 4M 4/ 5-. B$an !an.T'ather of Breca.T- .3. B$o4(l3.T%on of %cyld the founder of the dynasty of %cyldings. 'ather of (ealfdene and grandfather of (rothgar.T, ,5M . ,. B$o4(l3.TThe hero of the poem. %prung from the stock of Geats son of Ecgtheow. Brought up by his maternal grandfather (rethel and figuring in manhood as a devoted liegeman of his uncle (igelac. $ hero from his youth. (as the strength of thirty men. Engages in a swimming!match with Breca. Goes to the help of (rothgar against the monster Grendel. FanIuishes Grendel and his mother. $fterwards becomes king of the Geats. "ate in life attempts to kill a fire!spewing dragon and is slain. 9s buried with great honors. (is memorial mound.T3 .3M H .M H -M - 4M - 5M ,. .5M ,. G4M .4 , etc. Br$.a.TBeowulfEs opponent in the famous swimming!match.T- 5M - ,-M - .,M - ... Brond#n, .T$ people ruled by Breca.T- .4. Bro #n,a m$n$.T$ famous collar once owned by the Brosings.T ,- H. Ca#n.TProgenitor of Grendel and other monsters.T. 03M ./ ,,. D5,hr$3n.T$ warrior of the (ugs killed by Beowulf.T40 G/. Dan$ .T%ubjects of %cyld and his descendants and hence often called %cyldings. 8ther names for them are Fictory!%cyldings (onor! %cyldings $rmor!*anes Bright!*anes East!*anes >est!*anes <orth!*anes %outh!*anes 9ngwins (rethmen.T, ,M . ,M 4 .M 0 ,GM H , etc. E.,la3.T'ather of ;nferth who taunts Beowulf.T- ,. E.,!h$o4.T'ather of Beowulf the hero of the poem. $ widely! known >Jgmunding warrior. ?arries (rethelEs daughter. $fter slaying (eatholaf a >ylfing he flees his country.TH 4M 0 3M 5 G.

E.,4$la.T$ king of the *anes before %cyld.T.0 3/. Elan.T%ister of (rothgar and probably wife of 8ngentheow king of the %wedes.T. ,/. Ea,l$ Ca/$.T$ promontory in Geat!land under which took place BeowulfEs last encounter.TG, 5H. Ead,#l .T%on of 8hthere and brother of Eanmund.T4G .. Eanm(nd.T%on of 8hthere and brother of Eadgils. The reference to these brothers is vague and variously understood. (eyne supposes as follows# )aising a revolt against their father they are obliged to leave %weden. They go to the land of the GeatsM with what intention is not known but probably to conIuer and plunder. The Geatish king (eardred is slain by one of the brothers probably Eanmund.T43 ,/M 4, 0G to 4, 3/M 44 33 to 4G 3. Eo3or.T$ Geatish hero who slays 8ngentheow in war and is rewarded by (ygelac with the hand of his only daughter.TG, ,5M G, G5. Eorm$nr#..T$ Gothic king from whom (ama took away the famous Brosinga mene.T,- -. Eom5r.T%on of 8ffa and Thrytho king and Iueen of the $ngles.T .5 3-. F#nn.T=ing of the <orth!'risians and the +utes. ?arries (ildeburg. $t his court takes place the horrible slaughter in which the *anish general (nJf fell. "ater on 'inn himself is slain by *anish warriors. T,H ,5M ,H 4/M ,H GGM ,5 GM ,5 .4. F#n6land.TThe country to which Beowulf was driven by the currents in his swimming!match.T,/ ... F#!$la.T%on and nephew of =ing %igemund whose praises are sung in A9F.T,G G.M ,G 04. Fol.4alda.T'ather of 'inn.T,H 45. Fran" .T9ntroduced occasionally in referring to the death of (igelac. T,- ,-M G/ .,M G/ .G. Fr# #an .T$ part of them are ruled by 'inn. %ome of them were engaged in the struggle in which (igelac was slain.T,H ./M ,H G.M ,H 0.M G/ .,. Fr$a4ar$.T*aughter of =ing (rothgar. ?arried to 9ngeld a (eathobard prince.T.- 3/M 4/ 4.. Froda.T=ing of the (eathobards and father of 9ngeld.T.- 3.. Garm(nd.T'ather of 8ffa.T.5 H,. G$a! , G$a!m$n.TThe race to which the hero of the poem belongs. $lso called >eder!Geats or >eders >ar!Geats %ea!Geats. They are ruled by (rethel (Jthcyn (igelac and Beowulf.TG HM H GM ,/ G0M ,, 5M .H ,GM .5 5. G$/#d .T<amed in connection with the *anes and %wedes.T40 4G. Gr$nd$l.T$ monster of the race of :ain. *wells in the fens and moors. 9s furiously envious when he hears sounds of joy in (rothgarEs palace. :auses the king untold agony for years. 9s finally conIuered by Beowulf and dies of his wound. (is hand and arm are hung up in (rothgarEs hall (eorot. (is head is cut off by Beowulf when he goes

down to fight with GrendelEs mother.T. 0/M 4 ,M 4 ,4M 5 ,-M ,, ,HM ,. .M ,4 .HM ,0 4. G(!hla3.T$ *ane of (nJfEs party.T,5 .G. Hal36Dan$ .TBranch of the *anes to which (nJf belonged.T,H ,-. Hal,a.T%urnamed the Good. Younger brother of (rothgar.T. -. Hama.TTakes the Brosinga mene from Eormenric.T,- H. H5r$!h.T'ather of (igelacEs Iueen (ygd.T.5 4-M .- ,5. H5!h.%n.T%on of (rethel and brother of (igelac. =ills his brother (erebeald accidentally. 9s slain at )avenswood fighting against 8ngentheow.T4G G4M 40 .4M G/ 4.. H$lm#n, .TThe race to which Lueen >ealhtheow belonged.T,/ 34. H$m#n,.T$ kinsman of Garmund perhaps nephew.T.5 0GM .5 H/. H$n,$ !.T$ *anish leader. Takes command on the fall of (nJf.T ,H 44M ,H G,. H$r$&$ald.TEldest son of (rethel the Geatish king and brother of (igelac. =illed by his younger brother (Jthcyn.T4G G4M 4G GH. H$r$mod.T$ *anish king of a dynasty before the %cylding line. >as a source of great sorrow to his people.T,G 3GM .0 0-. H$r$r#..T)eferred to as uncle of (eardred but otherwise unknown. T4, 3/. H$!4ar .T$nother name for the 'ranks.T44 0,. H$al3d$n$.TGrandson of %cyld and father of (rothgar. )uled the *anes long and well.T. 0M G ,M 5 ,G. H$ardr$d.T%on of (igelac and (ygd king and Iueen of the Geats. %ucceeds his father with Beowulf as regent. 9s slain by the sons of 8hthere.T4, 03M 44 34M 44 H0. H$a!ho&ard .T)ace of "ombards of which 'roda is king. $fter 'roda falls in battle with the *anes 9ngeld his son marries (rothgarEs daughter 'reaware in order to heal the feud.T4/ ,M 4/ 3. H$a!hola3.T$ >ylfing warrior slain by BeowulfEs father.T5 0. H$a!hor$m$ .TThe people on whose shores Breca is cast by the waves during his contest with Beowulf.T- .,. H$oro,ar.TElder brother of (rothgar and surnamed Z>eoroda )Jswa E Prince of the Troopers.T. -M 5 ,.. H$r$4ard.T%on of the above.T4, ,H. H$or! H$oro!.TThe great mead!hall which =ing (rothgar builds. 9t is invaded by Grendel for twelve years. 'inally cleansed by Beowulf the Geat. 9t is called (eort on account of the hart!antlers which decorate it.T. .0M 4 4.M 4 0.. H#ld$&(r,.T>ife of 'inn daughter of (oce and related to (nJf T probably his sister.T,H .,M ,5 4G. Hn53.T"eader of a branch of the *anes called (alf!*anes. =illed in the struggle at 'innEs castle.T,H ,-M ,H 3,. Hond .#o.T8ne of BeowulfEs companions. =illed by Grendel just before Beowulf grappled with that monster.T4/ G4. Ho.$.T'ather of (ildeburg and probably of (nJf.T,H .3. Hr$!h$l.T=ing of the Geats father of (igelac and grandfather of Beowulf.TH GM 4G 4-.

Hr$!hla.T8nce used for (rethel.TH 5.. Hr$!hm$n.T$nother name for the *anes.TH H4. Hr$!hr#..T%on of (rothgar.T,5 30M .H ,-. Hr$o na6&$orh.T$ promontory in Geat!land near which 8hthereEs sons made plundering raids.T40 ,5. Hro!h,ar.TThe *anish king who built the hall (eort but was long unable to enjoy it on account of GrendelEs persecutions. ?arries >ealhtheow a (elming lady. (as two sons and a daughter. 9s a typical Teutonic king lavish of gifts. $ devoted liegelord as his lamentations over slain liegemen prove. $lso very appreciative of kindness as is shown by his loving gratitude to Beowulf.T. -M . ,.M G ,M 5 ,/M ,0 ,M etc. etc. Hro!hm(nd.T%on of (rothgar.T,5 30. Hro!h(l3.TProbably a son of (alga younger brother of (rothgar. :ertainly on terms of close intimacy in (rothgarEs palace.T,3 .3M ,5 0H. Hr(n!#n,.T;nferthEs sword lent to Beowulf.T.. H,M .0 -. H(, .T$ race in alliance with the 'ranks and 'risians at the time of (igelacEs fall.T40 G,. H(n.T$ 'risian warrior probably general of the (etwars. Gives (engest a beautiful sword.T,5 ,-. H(n3$r!h.T%ometimes used for ;nferth. H%,$la. H#,$la..T=ing of the Geats uncle and liegelord of Beowulf the hero of the poem.T(is second wife is the lovely (ygd daughter of (Jreth. The son of their union is (eardred. 9s slain in a war with the (ugs 'ranks and 'risians combined. Beowulf is regent and afterwards king of the Geats.TG 3M 0 GM .5 4GM .- -M .- .,M 4, 03. H%,d.T>ife of (igelac and daughter of (Jreth. There are some indications that she married Beowulf after she became a widow.T .5 4H. In,$ld.T%on of the (eathobard king 'roda. ?arries (rothgarEs daughter 'reaware in order to reconcile the two peoples.T.- 3.M 4/ 4.. In,4#n .T$nother name for the *anes.T,3 0.M ./ 3-. '(!$ .T<ame sometimes applied to 'innEs people.T,H ..M ,H 45M ,5 ,H. La3#n,.T<ame of a famous sword presented to (engest by (un.T ,5 ,-. )$r$4#n,.T$ 'rankish king probably engaged in the war in which (igelac was slain.TG/ .-. N5,l#n,.TBeowulfEs sword.T43 H3. O33a.T=ing of the $ngles and son of Garmund. ?arries the terrible Thrytho who is so strongly contrasted with (ygd.T.5 0-M .5 33. Oh!h$r$.T%on of 8ngentheow king of the %wedes. (e is father of Eanmund and Eadgils.TG/ 40M G/ 4-. On$la.TBrother of 8hthere.T43 ,0M G/ 4-. On,$n!h$o4.T=ing of %weden of the %cylfing dynasty. ?arried perhaps Elan daughter of (ealfdene.T40 .3M G, ,3.

O la3.T$ *ane of (nJfEs party.T,5 .G. Ra+$n 4ood.TThe forest near which (Jthcyn was slain.TG/ 4,M G/ G,. S.$3#n,.T$pplied B, GC to %cyld and meaning Zson of %cef.E S.%ld.T'ounder of the dynasty to which (rothgar his father and grandfather belonged. (e dies and his body is put on a vessel and set adrift. (e goes from *aneland just as he had come to itTin a bark.T, GM , ,-M , .H. S.%ld#n, .TThe descendants of %cyld. They are also called (onor! %cyldings Fictory!%cyldings >ar!%cyldings etc. B%ee Z*anes E above.CT. ,M H ,M 5 ,. S.%l3#n, .T$ %wedish royal line to which >iglaf belonged.T43 .. S#,$m(nd.T%on of >Jls and uncle and father of 'itela. (is struggle with a dragon is related in connection with BeowulfEs deeds of prowess.T,G 45M ,G GH. S4$r!#n,.TGrandfather of (igelac and father of (rethel.T,- ,,. S4$d$ .TPeople of %weden ruled by the %cylfings.T40 ,4. Thr%!ho.T>ife of 8ffa king of the $ngles. =nown for her fierce and unwomanly disposition. %he is introduced as a contrast to the gentle (ygd Iueen of (igelac.T.5 G.M .5 03. Un3$r!h.T%on of Ecglaf and seemingly a confidential courtier of (rothgar. Taunts Beowulf for having taken part in the swimming! match. "ends Beowulf his sword when he goes to look for GrendelEs mother. 9n the ?%. sometimes written Hunferth. - ,M ,5 G,. *5l .T'ather of %igemund.T,G 3/. *5,m(nd#n,.T$ name occasionally applied to >iglaf and Beowulf and perhaps derived from a common ancestor >Jgmund.T43 3M 45 3,. *$d$r .T$nother name for Geats or >edergeats. *a%land.T$ fabulous smith mentioned in this poem and in other old Teutonic literature.TH 54. *$nd$l .TThe people of >ulfgar (rothgarEs messenger and retainer. BPerhaps R Fandals.CT3 4/. *$alh!h$o4.T>ife of (rothgar. (er Iueenly courtesy is well shown in the poem.T,/ 00. *$oh !an or *#h !an.T$ >Jgmunding and father of >iglaf.T 43 ,. *hal$7 N$ .T$ prominent promontory on which BeowulfEs mound was built.T45 0.M G. H3. *#,la3.T%on of >ihstan and related to Beowulf. (e remains faithful to Beowulf in the fatal struggle with the fire!drake. >ould rather die than leave his lord in his dire emergency.T43 ,M 43 4M 43 .5. *onr$d.T'ather of >ulf and Eofor.TG, ./M G, .3. *(l3.T%on of >onred. Engaged in the battle between (igelacEs and 8ngentheowEs forces and had a hand!to!hand fight with 8ngentheow himself. 8ngentheow disables him and is thereupon slain by Eofor.T G, ,-M G, .-. *(l3,ar.T"ord of the >endels and retainer of (rothgar.T3 ,5M 3 4/.

*%l3#n, .T$ people to whom belonged (eatholaf who was slain by Ecgtheow.T5 3M 5 ,3. Yrm$nla3.TYounger brother of [schere the hero whose death grieved (rothgar so deeply.T., G.

LIST OF *ORDS AND PHRASES NOT IN GENERAL USE.


$T(E"9<G.TPrince nobleman. B$9)<.T%on child. B$))8>.T?ound rounded hill funeral!mound. B$TT"E!%$)=.T$rmor. BE$=E).T:up drinking!vessel. BEGE$).TPrepare. B9G(T.TBay sea. B9"".T%word. B8%%.T8rnamental projection. B)$:TE$TE.T$ round ornament on a necklace. B)$<*.T%word. B;)<.T%tream. B;)<9E.T$rmor. :$)"E.T?an hero. E$)".T<obleman any brave man. E=E.T$lso. E?P)9%E.TEnterprise undertaking. E)%T.T'ormerly. E)%T!>8)T(Y.T>orthy for a long time past. '$9<.TGlad. 'E))Y.TBear carry. 'EY.T'ated doomed. '"8$T.TFessel ship. '89<.TTo lunge B%haks.C. G"8)Y 8' =9<G%.TGod. G)E>%8?E.T:ruel fierce. (E'T.T(andle hiltM used by synecdoche for Zsword.E (E"?.T(elmet protector. (E<:(?$<.T)etainer vassal. (9G(T.T$m BwasC named. (8"?.T8cean curved surface of the sea. (9?%EE?E*.TB9tC seemed to him. "9E'.T*ear valued. ?E)E.T%eaM in compounds Zmere!ways E Zmere!currents E etc. ?9:="E.T?uch. <$T("E%%.T<evertheless. <$VE.TEdge BnoseC. <E%%.TEdge. <9:=E).T%ea!beast. L;9T L;9TE.T)eIuite. )$T(E.TLuickly. )E$FE.TBereave deprive. %$9"!)8$*.T%ea. %ETT"E.T%eat bench.

%=9<=E).T8ne who pours. %88T("Y.TTruly. %>9<GE.T%troke blow. T$)GE T$)GET.T%hield. T()8;G("Y.TThoroughly. T8"*.T:ounted. ;<:$<<Y.T9ll!featured griKKly. ;<<ET(E.T*ifficult. >$)!%PEE*.T%uccess in war. >EB.TTapestry Bthat which is ZwovenEC. >EE*E*.T:lad Bcf. widowEs weedsC. >EE<.T%uppose imagine. >E9)*.T'ate Providence. >(9"8?.T$t times formerly often. >9E"*E).T)uler. 8ften used of GodM also in compounds as Z>ielder of Glory E Z>ielder of >orship.E >9G(T.T:reature. >8"*.TPlane e&tended surface. >8T.T=nows. Y8;<=E).TYouth.

BEO*ULF.
I. THE LIFE AND DEATH OF SCYLD.
"o\ the %pear!*anesE glory through splendid achievements The folk!kingsE former fame we have heard of (ow princes displayed then their prowess!in!battle.
%cyld their mighty king in honor of whom they are often called %cyldings. (e is the great!grandfather of (rothgar so prominent in the poem. The famous race of %pear!*anes.

8ft %cyld the %cefing from scathers in numbers


0

'rom many a people their mead!benches tore. %ince first he found him friendless and wretched The earl had had terror# comfort he got for it >a&ed Eneath the welkin world!honor gained Till all his neighbors oEer sea were compelled to Bow to his bidding and bring him their tribute# $n e&cellent atheling\ $fter was borne him
$ son is born to him who receives the name of BeowulfTa name afterwards made so famous by the hero of the poem. ,/

$ son and heir young in his dwelling >hom God!'ather sent to solace the people. (e had marked the misery malice had caused them
,0
1

That reaved of their rulers they wretched had erstwhile8 "ong been afflicted. The "ord in reIuital >ielder of Glory with world!honor blessed him. 'amed was Beowulf far spread the glory 8f %cyldEs great son in the lands of the *anemen. %o the carle that is young by kindnesses rendered The friends of his father with fees in abundance ?ust be able to earn that when age approacheth Eager companions aid him reIuitingly >hen war assaults him serve him as liegemen#
.0 The ideal Teutonic king lavishes gifts on his vassals. ./

By praise!worthy actions must honor be got E?ong all of the races. $t the hour that was fated %cyld then departed to the $ll!'atherEs keeping >arlike to wend himM away then they bare him To the flood of the current his fond!loving comrades
4/ %cyld dies at the hour appointed by 'ate.

$s himself he had bidden while the friend of the %cyldings

>ord!sway wielded and the well!lov]d land!prince "ong did rule them.9 The ring!stemm]d vessel Bark of the atheling lay there at anchor 9cy in glimmer and eager for sailingM The belov]d leader laid they down there Giver of rings on the breast of the vessel The famed by the mainmast. $ many of jewels 8f fretted embossings from far!lands brought over >as placed near at hand thenM and heard 9 not ever
G/ By his own reIuest his body is laid on a vessel and wafted seaward. 40

That a folk ever furnished a float more superbly >ith weapons of warfare weeds for the battle Bills and burniesM on his bosom sparkled ?any a jewel that with him must travel 8n the flush of the flood afar on the current. $nd favors no fewer they furnished him soothly E&cellent folk!gems than others had given him
(e leaves *aneland on the breast of a bark. G0

>ho when first he was born outward did send him "one on the main the merest of infants# $nd a gold!fashioned standard they stretched under heaven (igh oEer his head let the holm!currents bear him %eaward consigned him# sad was their spirit Their mood very mournful. ?en are not able
<o one knows whither the boat drifted. 0/

%oothly to tell us they in halls who reside : (eroes under heaven to what haven he hied.
1,6 'or the Z^JtE of verse ,0 %ievers suggests Z^_E BR whichC. 9f this be accepted the sentence Z(e had ` afflictedE will read# He Bi.e. GodC had perceived the malice caused sorro! !hich they, lordless, had formerly long endured. 1.6 'or Zaldor!lUaseE B,0C Gr. suggested Zaldor!ceareE# He perceived their distress, that they formerly had suffered life sorro! a long !hile. 146 $ very difficult passage. ZahteE B4,C has no object. (. supplies ZgewealdE from the conte&tM and our translation is based upon this assumption though it is far from satisfactory. =l. suggests ZlJndagasE for ZlangeE# And the beloved land prince en#oyed 1had2 his transitory days 1i.e. lived2 . B. suggests a dislocationM but this is a dangerous doctrine pushed rather far by that eminent scholar. 1G6 The reading of the (.!%o. te&t has been Iuite closely followedM but some eminent scholars read ZsUle!rJdenneE for Zsele!rJdende.E 9f that be adopted the passage will read# 3en cannot tell us, indeed, the order of &ate, etc. Z%ele! rJdendeE has two things to support it# B,C v. ,4GHM B.C it affords a parallel to ZmenE in v. 0/.

II. SCYLD7S SUCCESSORS.;HROTHGAR7S GREAT )EAD6HALL.

9n the boroughs then Beowulf bairn of the %cyldings Belov]d land!prince for long!lasting season >as famed mid the folk Bhis father departed The prince from his dwellingC till afterward sprang
0

Beowulf succeeds his father %cyld

Great!minded (ealfdeneM the *anes in his lifetime (e graciously governed grim!mooded ag]d. 'our bairns of his body born in succession >oke in the world war!troopersE leader (eorogar (rothgar and (alga the goodM
,/ (ealfdeneEs birth.

(eard 9 that Elan was 8ngentheowEs consort


(e has three sonsTone of them (rothgarTand a daughter named Elan. (rothgar becomes a mighty king.

The well!beloved bedmate of the >ar!%cylfing leader. Then glory in battle to (rothgar was given >a&ing of war!fame that willingly kinsmen 8beyed his bidding till the boys grew to manhood $ numerous band. 9t burned in his spirit To urge his folk to found a great building $ mead!hall grander than men of the era
(e is eager to build a great hall in which he may feast his retainers ,0

Ever had heard of and in it to share >ith young and old all of the blessings The "ord had allowed him save life and retainers. Then the work 9 find afar was assigned To many races in middle!earthEs regions To adorn the great folk!hall. 9n due time it happened Early Emong men that Etwas finished entirely
.0 ./

The greatest of hall!buildingsM (eorot he named it >ho wide!reaching word!sway wielded Emong earlmen. (is promise he brake not rings he lavished Treasure at banIuet. Towered the hall up (igh and horn!crested huge between antlers#
4/ The hall is completed and is called (eort or (eorot.

9t battle!waves bided the blasting fire!demonM Ere long then from hottest hatred must sword!wrath $rise for a womanEs husband and father. Then the mighty war!spirit1 endured for a season Bore it bitterly he who bided in darkness
40 The ?onster Grendel is madly envious of the *anemenEs joy.

That light!hearted laughter loud in the building Greeted him dailyM there was dulcet harp!music

:lear song of the singer. (e said that was able


1The course of the story is interrupted by a short reference to some old account of the creation.6

To tell from of old earthmenEs beginnings That 'ather $lmighty earth had created The winsome wold that the water encircleth %et e&ultingly the sunEs and the moonEs beams To lavish their lustre on land!folk and races $nd earth (e embellished in all her regions >ith limbs and leavesM life (e bestowed too
G0 G/

8n all the kindreds that live under heaven. %o blessed with abundance brimming with joyance The warriors abided till a certain one gan to *og them with deeds of direfullest malice $ foe in the hall!building# this horrible stranger8
0/ The glee of the warriors is overcast by a horrible dread.

>as Grendel entitled the march!stepper famous >ho9 dwelt in the moor!fens the marsh and the fastnessM The wan!mooded being abode for a season 9n the land of the giants when the "ord and :reator (ad banned him and branded. 'or that bitter murder The killing of $bel all!ruling 'ather
:ain is referred to as a progenitor of Grendel and of monsters in general. 00

The kindred of :ain crushed with (is vengeanceM 9n the feud (e rejoiced not but far away drove him 'rom kindred and kind that crime to atone for ?eter of +ustice. Thence ill!favored creatures Elves and giants monsters of ocean :ame into being and the giants that longtime Grappled with GodM (e gave them reIuital.
1,6 ). and t. B. prefer Zellor!gJstE to Zellen!gJstE B53C# "hen the stranger from afar endured, etc. 1.6 %ome authorities would translate ZdemonE instead of Zstranger.E 146 %ome authorities arrange differently and render# )ho d!elt in the moor fens, the marsh and the fastness, the land of the giant race. 3/

III. GRENDEL THE )URDERER.


>hen the sun was sunken he set out to visit The lofty hall!building how the )ing!*anes had used it 'or beds and benches when the banIuet was over. Then he found there reposing many a noble
0 Grendel attacks the sleeping heroes

$sleep after supperM sorrow the heroes

?isery knew not. The monster of evil Greedy and cruel tarried but little 'ell and frantic and forced from their slumbers Thirty of thanemenM thence he departed
,/ (e drags off thirty of them and devours them

"eaping and laughing his lair to return to >ith surfeit of slaughter sallying homeward. 9n the dusk of the dawning as the day was just breaking >as GrendelEs prowess revealed to the warriors# Then his meal!taking finished a moan was uplifted
,0 $ cry of agony goes up when GrendelEs horrible deed is fully realiKed.

?orning!cry mighty. The man!ruler famous The long!worthy atheling sat very woful %uffered great sorrow sighed for his liegemen >hen they had seen the track of the hateful pursuer The spirit accurs]d# too crushing that sorrow Too loathsome and lasting. <ot longer he tarried But one night after continued his slaughter %hameless and shocking shrinking but little 'rom malice and murderM they mastered him fully. (e was easy to find then who otherwhere looked for
.0 The monster returns the ne&t night. ./

$ pleasanter place of repose in the lodges $ bed in the bowers. Then was brought to his notice Told him truly by token apparent The hall!thaneEs hatred# he held himself after 'urther and faster who the foeman did baffle. %o ruled he and strongly strove against justice "one against all men till empty uptowered
8

4/

=ing (rothgarEs agony and suspense last twelve years.

The choicest of houses. "ong was the season# Twelve!wintersE time torture suffered The friend of the %cyldings every affliction Endless agonyM hence it after9 became :ertainly known to the children of men %adly in measures that long against (rothgar Grendel struggled#This grudges he cherished ?urderous malice many a winter
G/ 40

%trife unremitting and peacefully wished he : "ife!woe to lift from no liegeman at all of The men of the *ane!folk for money to settle <o counsellor needed count for a moment 8n handsome amends at the hands of the murdererM
Grendel is unremitting in his persecutions. G0

The monster of evil fiercely did harass The ill!planning death!shade both elder and younger Trapping and tricking them. (e trod every night then The mist!covered moor!fensM men do not know where >itches and wiKards wander and ramble. %o the foe of mankind many of evils Grievous injuries often accomplished (orrible hermitM (eort he freIuented Gem!bedecked palace when night!shades had fallen
God is against the monster. 0/

B%ince God did oppose him not the throne could he touch The light!flashing jewel love of (im knew notC. ETwas a fearful affliction to the friend of the %cyldings
The king and his council deliberate in vain. 00

<

%oul!crushing sorrow. <ot seldom in private %at the king in his councilM conference held they >hat the braves should determine Egainst terrors unlooked for. $t the shrines of their idols often they promised Gifts and offerings earnestly prayed they The devil from hell would help them to lighten Their peopleEs oppression. %uch practice they used then (ope of the heathenM hell they remembered
30 They invoke the aid of their gods. 3/

9n innermost spirit God they knew not +udge of their actions $ll!wielding )uler <o praise could they give the Guardian of (eaven The >ielder of Glory. >oe will be his who Through furious hatred his spirit shall drive to
H/ The true God they do not know.

The clutch of the fire no comfort shall look for >a& no wiserM well for the man who "iving his life!days his "ord may face $nd find defence in his 'atherEs embrace\
1,6 The translation is based on Zweras E adopted by (.!%o.T=. and Th. read ZweraE and arranging differently render ,,-B.C!,./# "hey kne! not sorro!, the !retchedness of man, aught of misfortune .T'or ZunhJloE B,./C ). suggests ZunfJloE# "he uncanny creature, greedy and cruel, etc. 1.6 %. rearranges and translates# So he ruled and struggled un#ustly, one against all, till the noblest of buildings stood useless 1it !as a long !hile2 t!elve years' time4 the friend of the Scyldings suffered distress, every !oe, great sorro!s, etc. 146 'or Zsybban E B. suggests Zs_rcwidumE# Hence in mournful !ords it became !ell kno!n, etc. Farious other words beginning with ZsE have been conjectured. 1G6 The (.!%o. glossary is very inconsistent in referring to this passage.TZ%ibbeE B,0GC which (.!%o. regards as an instr. B. takes as accus. obj. of Zwolde.E Putting a comma after *eniga he renders# He did not desire peace !ith any of the Danes, nor did he !ish to remove their life !oe, nor to settle for money .

106 8f this difficult passage the following interpretations among others are given# B,C Though Grendel has freIuented (eorot as a demon he could not become ruler of the *anes on account of his hostility to God. B.C (rothgar was much grieved that Grendel had not appeared before his throne to receive presents. B4C (e was not permitted to devastate the hall on account of the :reatorM i.e. God wished to make his visit fatal to him.T<e ` wisse B,3-C >. renders# +or had he any desire to do soM ZhisE being obj. gen. R danach.

IV. BEO*ULF GOES TO HROTHGAR7S ASSISTANCE.


%o (ealfdeneEs kinsman constantly mused on (is long!lasting sorrowM the battle!thane clever >as not anywise able evils to Escape from# Too crushing the sorrow that came to the people
0 (rothgar sees no way of escape from the persecutions of Grendel.

"oathsome and lasting the life!grinding torture


Beowulf the Geat hero of the poem hears of (rothgarEs sorrow and resolves to go to his assistance.

Greatest of night!woes. %o (igelacEs liegeman Good amid Geatmen of GrendelEs achievements (eard in his home#1 of heroes then living (e was stoutest and strongest sturdy and noble. (e bade them prepare him a bark that was trustyM (e said he the war!king would seek oEer the ocean The folk!leader noble since he needed retainers. 'or the perilous project prudent companions :hided him little though loving him dearlyM
,0 ,/

They egged the brave atheling augured him glory. The e&cellent knight from the folk of the Geatmen (ad liegemen selected likest to prove them Trustworthy warriorsM with fourteen companions The vessel he looked forM a liegeman then showed them
./ >ith fourteen carefully chosen companions he sets out for *ane!land.

$ sea!crafty man the bounds of the country. 'ast the days fleetedM the float was a!water The craft by the cliff. :lomb to the prow then >ell!eIuipped warriors# the wave!currents twisted The sea on the sandM soldiers then carried 8n the breast of the vessel bright!shining jewels (andsome war!armorM heroes outshoved then >armen the wood!ship on its wished!for adventure.
The vessel sails like a bird .0

The foamy!necked floater fanned by the breeKe "ikest a bird glided the waters

Till twenty and four hours thereafter The twist!stemmed vessel had traveled such distance That the sailing!men saw the sloping embankments The sea cliffs gleaming precipitous mountains <esses enormous# they were nearing the limits
40

9n twenty four hours they reach the shores of (rothgarEs dominions 4/

$t the end of the ocean.8 ;p thence Iuickly The men of the >eders clomb to the mainland 'astened their vessel Bbattle weeds rattled >ar burnies clatteredC the >ielder they thanked That the ways oEer the waters had wa&en so gentle. Then well from the cliff edge the guard of the %cyldings >ho the sea!cliffs should see to saw oEer the gangway Brave ones bearing beauteous targets $rmor all ready an&iously thought he ?using and wondering what men were approaching.
G0 They are hailed by the *anish coast guard G/

(igh on his horse then (rothgarEs retainer Turned him to coastward mightily brandished (is lance in his hands Iuestioned with boldness. O>ho are ye men here mail!covered warriors :lad in your corslets come thus a!driving
0/ (is challenge

$ high riding ship oEer the shoals of the waters 9 $nd hither Eneath helmets have hied oEer the oceanN 9 have been strand!guard standing as warden "est enemies ever anywise ravage *anish dominions with army of war!ships. ?ore boldly never have warriors ventured (ither to comeM of kinsmenEs approval >ord!leave of warriors 9 ween that ye surely
(e is struck by BeowulfEs appearance. 00

<othing have known. <ever a greater one 8f earls oEer the earth have 0 had a sight of Than is one of your number a hero in armorM <o low!ranking fellow: adorned with his weapons But launching them little unless looks are deceiving $nd striking appearance. Ere ye pass on your journey $s treacherous spies to the land of the %cyldings
30 3/

$nd farther fare 9 fully must know now >hat race ye belong to. Ye far!away dwellers %ea!faring sailors my simple opinion (ear ye and hearken# haste is most fitting Plainly to tell me what place ye are come from.P

1,6 Z'rom h_mE B,-GC is much disputed. 8ne rendering is# (eo!ulf, being a!ay from home, heard of Hrothgar's troubles, etc. $nother that adopted by %. and endorsed in the (.!%o. notes is# (. heard from his neighborhood 1neighbors2, i.e. in his home, etc. $ third is# (., being at home, heard this as occurring a!ay from home. The (.!%o. glossary and notes conflict. 1.6 ZEoletesE B..GC is marked with a BNC by (.!%o.M our rendering simply follows his conjecture.T8ther conjectures as to ZeoletE are# B,C voyage B.C toil labor B4C hasty #ourney. 146 The lacuna of the ?% at this point has been supplied by various conjectures. The reading adopted by (.!%o. has been rendered in the above translation. >. like (.!%o. makes ZicE the beginning of a new sentence but for Zhelmas bJron E he reads Zhringed stefnan.E This has the advantage of giving a parallel to Zbrontne ceolE instead of a kenning for Zgo.ETB puts the BNC after ZholmasE and begins a new sentence at the middle of the line. Translate# )hat !arriors are ye, clad in armor, !ho have thus come bringing the foaming vessel over the !ater !ay, hither over the seas5 &or some time on the !all 0 have been coast guard, etc. %. endorses most of what B. says but leaves out Zon the wallE in the last sentence. 9f >.Es Zhringed stefnanE be accepted change line 0, above to A ring stemmed vessel hither o'ersea. 1G6 Z%eld!gumaE B.G-C is variously rendered# B,C housecarleM B.C home stayerM B4C common man. *r. (. >ood suggests a man at arms in another's house.

V. THE GEATS REACH HEOROT.


Beowulf courteously replies.

The chief of the strangers rendered him answer >ar!troopersE leader and word!treasure opened# O>e are sprung from the lineage of the people of Geatland $nd (igelacEs hearth!friends. To heroes unnumbered
?y father Ecgtheow was well!known in his day. 0 >e are Geats.

?y father was known a noble head!warrior Ecgtheow titledM many a winter (e lived with the people ere he passed on his journey 8ld from his dwellingM each of the counsellors >idely mid world!folk well remembers him. >e kindly of spirit the lord of thy people The son of =ing (ealfdene have come here to visit 'olk!troopEs defender# be free in thy counsels\ To the noble one bear we a weighty commission The helm of the *anemenM we shall hide 9 ween
9s it true that a monster is slaying *anish heroesN ,0 8ur intentions towards =ing (rothgar are of the kindest. ,/

<aught of our message. Thou knowEst if it happen $s we soothly heard say that some savage despoiler %ome hidden pursuer on nights that are murky By deeds very direful Emid the *anemen e&hibits (atred unheard of horrid destruction $nd the falling of dead. 'rom feelings least selfish
9 can help your king to free himself from this horrible creature. ./

9 am able to render counsel to (rothgar

(ow he wise and worthy may worst the destroyer 9f the anguish of sorrow should ever be lessened 1 :omfort come to him and care!waves grow cooler 8r ever hereafter he agony suffer $nd troublous distress while towereth upward The handsomest of houses high on the summit.P
The coast!guard reminds Beowulf that it is easier to say than to do. .0

Bestriding his stallion the strand!watchman answered The doughty retainer# OThe difference surely ETwi&t words and works the warlike shield!bearer >ho judgeth wisely well shall determine. This band 9 hear beareth no malice
9 am satisfied of your good intentions and shall lead you to the palace. 4/

To the prince of the %cyldings. Pass ye then onward >ith weapons and armor. 9 shall lead you in personM To my war!trusty vassals command 9 shall issue To keep from all injury your e&cellent vessel
Your boat shall be well cared for during your stay here. 40

Your fresh!tarred craft Egainst every opposer :lose by the sea!shore till the curved!neck]d bark shall >aft back again the well!beloved hero 8Eer the way of the water to >eder dominions.
(e again compliments Beowulf. G/

To warrior so great Etwill be granted sure 9n the storm of strife to stand secure.P 8nward they fared then Bthe vessel lay Iuiet The broad!bosomed bark was bound by its cable 'irmly at anchorCM the boar!signs glistened8 Bright on the visors vivid with gilding BlaKe!hardened brilliantM the boar acted warden. The heroes hastened hurried the liegemen
The land is perhaps rolling. G0

*escended together till they saw the great palace The well!fashioned wassail!hall wondrous and gleaming#
(eorot flashes on their view. 0/

E?id world!folk and kindreds that was widest reputed 8f halls under heaven which the hero abode inM 9ts lustre enlightened lands without number. Then the battle!brave hero showed them the glittering :ourt of the bold ones that they easily thither ?ight fare on their journeyM the aforementioned warrior Turning his courser Iuoth as he left them#
The coast!guard having discharged his duty bids them God!speed. 00

OETis time 9 were faringM 'ather $lmighty Grant you (is grace and give you to journey %afe on your mission\ To the sea 9 will get me EGainst hostile warriors as warden to stand.P
1,6 ZEdwendanE B.5/C B. takes to be the subs. ZedwendenE Bcf. ,HH0CM and ZbisiguE he takes as gen. sing. limiting ZedwendenE# 0f reparation for sorro!s is ever to come. This is supported by t.B. 1.6 :ombining the emendations of B. and t.B. we may read# "he boar images glistened 6 brilliant, protected the life of the !ar mooded man . They read Zferh!weardeE B4/0C and Zgcbmddgum menE B4/3C. 3/

VI. BEO*ULF INTRODUCES HI)SELF AT THE PALACE.


The highway glistened with many!hued pebble $ by!path led the liegemen together. 1 'irm and hand!locked the war!burnie glistened The ring!sword radiant rang Emid the armor $s the party was approaching the palace together
They set their arms and armor against the wall. 0

9n warlike eIuipments. EGainst the wall of the building Their wide!fashioned war!shields they weary did set then Battle!shields sturdyM benchward they turned thenM Their battle!sarks rattled the gear of the heroesM The lances stood up then all in a cluster The arms of the seamen ashen!shafts mounted >ith edges of iron# the armor!clad troopers
$ *anish hero asks them whence and why they are come. ,/

>ere decked with weapons. Then a proud!mooded hero $sked of the champions Iuestions of lineage# O'rom what borders bear ye your battle!shields plated Gilded and gleaming your gray!colored burnies (elmets with visors and heap of war!lancesNT To (rothgar the king 9 am servant and liegeman. E?ong folk from far!lands found 9 have never
(e e&presses no little admiration for the strangers. ./ ,0

?en so many of mien more courageous. 9 ween that from valor nowise as outlaws But from greatness of soul ye sought for =ing (rothgar.P Then the strength!famous earlman answer rendered The proud!mooded >ederchief replied to his Iuestion
>e are (igelacEs table!companions and bear an important commission to your prince. .0 Beowulf replies.

(ardy Eneath helmet# O(igelacEs mates are weM Beowulf hight 9. To the bairn of (ealfdene

The famous folk!leader 9 freely will tell To thy prince my commission if pleasantly hearing (eEll grant we may greet him so gracious to all men.P >ulfgar replied then Bhe was prince of the >endels (is boldness of spirit was known unto many (is prowess and prudenceC# OThe prince of the %cyldings
>ulfgar the thane says that he will go and ask (rothgar whether he will see the strangers. 4/

The friend!lord of *anemen 9 will ask of thy journey The giver of rings as thou urgest me do it
40

The folk!chief famous and inform thee early >hat answer the good one mindeth to render me.P (e turned then hurriedly where (rothgar was sitting 8 8ld and hoary his earlmen attending himM The strength!famous went till he stood at the shoulder 8f the lord of the *anemen of courteous thanemen The custom he minded. >ulfgar addressed then (is friendly liegelord# O'olk of the Geatmen
(e thereupon urges his liegelord to receive the visitors courteously. G/

8Eer the way of the waters are wafted hither 'aring from far!lands# the foremost in rank The battle!champions Beowulf title. They make this petition# with thee 8 my chieftain To be granted a conferenceM 8 gracious =ing (rothgar 'riendly answer refuse not to give them\
(rothgar too is struck with BeowulfEs appearance. G0

9n war!trappings weeded worthy they seem 8f earls to be honoredM sure the atheling is doughty >ho headed the heroes hitherward coming.P
1,6 9nstead of the punctuation given by (.!%o %. proposed to insert a comma after ZscerE B4..C and to take Zhring!erenE as meaning Zring!mailE and as parallel with Zgcb!byrne.E The passage would then read# "he firm and hand locked !ar burnie shone, bright ring mail, rang 'mid the armor, etc. 1.6 Gr. and others translate Zunh_rE by ZbaldEM old and bald. 0/

VII. HROTHGAR AND BEO*ULF.


(rothgar answered helm of the %cyldings# O9 remember this man as the merest of striplings. (is father long dead now was Ecgtheow titled (im (rethel the Geatman granted at home his
0 (rothgar remembers Beowulf as a youth and also remembers his father.

8ne only daughterM his battle!brave son 9s come but now sought a trustworthy friend. %eafaring sailors asserted it then >ho valuable gift!gems of the Geatmen1 carried $s peace!offering thither that he thirty menEs grapple
,/ Beowulf is reported to have the strength of thirty men.

(as in his hand the hero!in!battle. The holy :reator usward sent him To >est!*ane warriors 9 ween for to render EGainst GrendelEs grimness gracious assistance# 9 shall give to the good one gift!gems for courage.
,0 God hath sent him to our rescue.

(asten to bid them hither to speed them 8 To see assembled this circle of kinsmenM Tell them e&pressly theyEre welcome in sooth to The men of the *anes.P To the door of the building >ulfgar went then this word!message shouted#
./ >ulfgar invites the strangers in.

O?y victorious liegelord bade me to tell you The East!*anesE atheling that your origin knows he $nd oEer wave!billows wafted ye welcome are hither Faliant of spirit. Ye straightway may enter :lad in corslets cased in your helmets To see =ing (rothgar. (ere let your battle!boards >ood!spears and war!shafts await your conferring.P The mighty one rose then with many a liegeman $n e&cellent thane!groupM some there did await them $nd as bid of the brave one the battle!gear guarded.
4/ .0

Together they hied them while the hero did guide them E<eath (eorotEs roofM the high!minded went then %turdy Eneath helmet till he stood in the building. Beowulf spake Bhis burnie did glisten (is armor seamed over by the art of the craftsmanC#

Beowulf salutes (rothgar and then proceeds to boast of his youthful achievements. 40

O(ail thou (rothgar\ 9 am (igelacEs kinsman $nd vassal forsoothM many a wonder 9 dared as a stripling. The doings of Grendel 9n far!off fatherland 9 fully did know of# %ea!farers tell us this hall!building standeth E&cellent edifice empty and useless To all the earlmen after evenlightEs glimmer E<eath heavenEs bright hues hath hidden its glory. This my earls then urged me the most e&cellent of them :arles very clever to come and assist thee
G0 G/

'olk!leader (rothgarM fully they knew of The strength of my body. Themselves they beheld me >hen 9 came from the contest when covered with gore 'oes 9 escaped from where five9 9 had bound The giant!race wasted in the waters destroying
0/ (is fight with the nickers.

The nickers by night bore numberless sorrows The >eders avenged Bwoes had they sufferedC Enemies ravagedM alone now with Grendel 9 shall manage the matter with the monster of evil The giant decide it. Thee 9 would therefore
00 (e intends to fight Grendel unaided.

Beg of thy bounty Bright!*anish chieftain "ord of the %cyldings this single petition# <ot to refuse me defender of warriors 'riend!lord of folks so far have 9 sought thee That 0 may unaided my earlmen assisting me This brave!mooded war!band purify (eorot. 9 have heard on inIuiry the horrible creature
%ince the monster uses no weapons 3/

'rom veriest rashness recks not for weaponsM 9 this do scorn then so be (igelac gracious ?y liegelord belov]d lenient of spirit To bear a blade or a broad!fashioned target $ shield to the onsetM only with hand!grip
9 too shall disdain to use any. 30

The foe 9 must grapple fight for my life then 'oeman with foemanM he fain must rely on The doom of the "ord whom death layeth hold of. 9 ween he will wish if he win in the struggle To eat in the war!hall earls of the Geat!folk
%hould he crush me he will eat my companions as he has eaten thy thanes. H/

Boldly to swallow: them as of yore he did often The best of the (rethmen\ Thou needest not trouble $ head!watch to give meM< he will have me dripping $nd dreary with gore if death overtake me = >ill bear me off bleeding biting and mouthing me The hermit will eat me heedless of pity ?arking the moor!fensM no more wilt thou need then
%hould 9 fall send my armor to my lord =ing (igelac. 9n case of my defeat thou wilt not have the trouble of burying me. H0

'ind me my food.> 9f 9 fall in the battle %end to (igelac the armor that serveth To shield my bosom the best of eIuipments )ichest of ring!mailsM Etis the relic of (rethla
>eird is supreme 5/

The work of >ayland. Goes >eird as she must go\P


1,6 %ome render Zgif!sceattasE by Ztribute.ETZGUataE B. and Th. emended to ZGUatum.E 9f this be accepted change Zof the GeatmenE to Zto the Geatmen.E 1.6 9f t.B.Es emendation of vv. 453 45H be accepted the two lines Z(asten ` kinsmenE will read# Hasten thou, bid the throng of kinsmen go into the hall together. 146 'or G./ BbC and G., BaC B. suggests# ^Jr ic BonC fefelgeban fbde eotena cyn R !here 0 in the ocean destroyed the eoten race.Tt.B. accepts B.Es ObrilliantP Zfefelgeban E omits Zon E emends ZcynE to Zh_m E arranging# ^Jr ic fefelgeban fbde eotena h_m R !here 0 desolated the ocean, the home of the eotens .T This would be better but for changing ZcynE to Zh_m.ET9 suggest# ^Jr ic fefelgeband Bcf. nhd. BandeC fbde eotena cyn R !here 0 con-uered the monster band, the race of the eotens . This makes no change e&cept to read Zf7felE for Zf7fe.E 1G6 Z;nforhteE BGGGC is much disputed.T(.!%o. wavers between adj. and adv. Gr. and B. take it as an adv. modifying etan4 )ill eat the $eats fearlessly.T=l. considers this reading absurd and proposes ZanforhteE R timid.T;nderstanding ZunforhteE as an adj. has this advantage viK. that it gives a parallel to ZGe_tena leddeE# but to take it as an adv. is more natural. 'urthermore to call the Geats ZbraveE might at this point seem like an implied thrust at the *anes so long helplessM while to call his own men ZtimidE would be befouling his own nest. 106 'or Zhead!watch E cf. (.!%o. notes and cf. v. .-,/.TTh. translates# "hou !ilt not need my head to hide Bi.e. thou wilt have no occasion to bury me as Grendel will devour me wholeC.T%imrock imagines a kind of dead!watch.T*r. (. >ood suggests# "hou !ilt not have to bury so much as my head Bfor Grendel will be a thorough undertakerC Tgrim humor. 136 %. proposes a colon after ZnimebE Bl. GGHC. This would make no essential change in the translation. 1H6 8wing to the vagueness of ZfeormeE BG0,C this passage is variously translated. 9n our translation (.!%o.Es glossary has been Iuite closely followed. This agrees substantially with B.Es translation BP. and B. A99. 5HC. ). translates# "hou needst not take care longer as to the consumption of my dead body. Z"ecE is also a cru& here as it may mean living body or dead body.

VIII. HROTHGAR AND BEO*ULF.;Continued.


(rothgar discoursed helm of the %cyldings#
(rothgar responds.

OTo defend our folk and to furnish assistance 1 Thou soughtest us hither good friend Beowulf. The fiercest of feuds thy father engaged in
0 )eminiscences of BeowulfEs father Ecgtheow.

(eatholaf killed he in hand!to!hand conflict E?id >ilfingish warriorsM then the >ederish people 'or fear of a feud were forced to disown him. Thence flying he fled to the folk of the %outh!*anes The race of the %cyldings oEer the roll of the watersM 9 had lately begun then to govern the *anemen The hoard!seat of heroes held in my youth )ich in its jewels# dead was (eregar ?y kinsman and elder had earth!joys forsaken (ealfdene his bairn. (e was better than 9 am\
,0 ,/

That feud thereafter for a fee 9 compoundedM 8Eer the weltering waters to the >ilfings 9 sent 8rnaments oldM oaths did he swear me. 9t pains me in spirit to any to tell it >hat grief in (eorot Grendel hath caused me
./ (rothgar recounts to Beowulf the horrors of GrendelEs persecutions.

>hat horror unlooked!for by hatred unceasing. >aned is my war!band wasted my hall!troopM >eird hath offcast them to the clutches of Grendel. God can easily hinder the scather 'rom deeds so direful. 8ft drunken with beer 8Eer the ale!vessel promised warriors in armor They would willingly wait on the wassailing!benches $ grapple with Grendel with grimmest of edges. Then this mead!hall at morning with murder was reeking The building was bloody at breaking of daylight
4/ ?y thanes have made many boasts but have not e&ecuted them. .0

The bench!deals all flooded dripping and bloodied The folk!hall was gory# 9 had fewer retainers *ear!beloved warriors whom death had laid hold of. %it at the feast now thy intents unto heroes 8 Thy victor!fame show as thy spirit doth urge thee\P
$ bench is made ready for Beowulf and his party. 40 %it down to the feast and give us comfort.

'or the men of the Geats then together assembled 9n the beer!hall blithesome a bench was made readyM There warlike in spirit they went to be seated Proud and e&ultant. $ liegeman did service >ho a beaker embellished bore with decorum $nd gleaming!drink poured. The gleeman sang whilom
The gleeman sings G/

(earty in (eorotM there was heroesE rejoicing $ numerous war!band of >eders and *anemen.
1,6 B. and %. reject the reading given in (.!%o. and suggested by Grtvg. B. suggests for G0H!G05# w_ere!ryhtum ^c wine men BUowulf and for _r!stafum csic sdhtest. This means# &rom the obligations of clientage, my friend (eo!ulf, and for assistance thou hast sought us.TThis gives coherence to (rothgarEs opening remarks in F999. and also introduces a new motive for BeowulfEs coming to (rothgarEs aid. 1.6 Sit no! at the feast, and disclose thy purposes to the victorious heroes, as thy spirit urges.T=l. reaches the above translation by erasing the comma after ZmeotoE and reading Zsige!hr]bsecgum.ETThere are other and bolder emendations and suggestions. 8f these the boldest is to regard ZmeotoE as a verb BimperativeC and read Zon sJlE# "hink upon gayety, etc.T$ll the renderings are unsatisfactory the one given in our translation involving a Keugma.

The heroes all rejoice together.

I?. UNFERTH TAUNTS BEO*ULF.


;nferth spoke up Ecglaf his son >ho sat at the feet of the lord of the %cyldings 8pened the jousting Bthe journey1 of Beowulf %ea!farer doughty gave sorrow to ;nferth
0 ;nferth a thane of (rothgar is jealous of Beowulf and undertakes to twit him.

$nd greatest chagrin too for granted he never That any man else on earth should attain to Gain under heaven more glory than heC# O$rt thou that Beowulf with Breca did struggle 8n the wide sea!currents at swimming contended
,/ *id you take part in a swimming!match with BrecaN

>here to humor your pride the ocean ye tried 'rom vainest vaunting adventured your bodies 9n care of the watersN $nd no one was able <or lief nor loth one in the least to dissuade you Your difficult voyageM then ye ventured a!swimming
,0 ETwas mere folly that actuated you both to risk your lives on the ocean.

>here your arms outstretching the streams ye did cover The mere!ways measured mi&ing and stirring them Glided the oceanM angry the waves were >ith the weltering of winter. 9n the waterEs possession Ye toiled for a seven!nightM he at swimming outdid thee 9n strength e&celled thee. Then early at morning 8n the (eathoremesE shore the holm!currents tossed him %ought he thenceward the home of his fathers Beloved of his liegemen the land of the Brondings
./

The peace!castle pleasant where a people he wielded (ad borough and jewels. The pledge that he made thee
Breca outdid you entirely. .0

The son of Beanstan hath soothly accomplished. Then 9 ween thou wilt find thee less fortunate issue Though ever triumphant in onset of battle $ grim grappling if Grendel thou darest
4/ Beowulf retaliates. ?uch more will Grendel outdo you if you vie with him in prowess.

'or the space of a night near!by to wait for\P Beowulf answered offspring of Ecgtheow# O?y good friend ;nferth sure freely and wildly
8 friend ;nferth you are fuddled with beer and cannot talk coherently.

Thou fuddled with beer of Breca hast spoken (ast told of his journey\ $ fact 9 allege it That greater strength in the waters 9 had then 9lls in the ocean than any man else had. >e made agreement as the merest of striplings Promised each other Bboth of us then were
>e simply kept an engagement made in early life. 40

Younkers in yearsC that we yet would adventure 8ut on the oceanM it all we accomplished. >hile swimming the sea!floods sword!blade unscabbarded Boldly we brandished our bodies e&pected To shield from the sharks. (e sure was unable
(e could not e&cel me and 9 !ould not e&cel him. G/

To swim on the waters further than 9 could ?ore swift on the waves nor !ould 9 from him go. Then we two companions stayed in the ocean
$fter five days the currents separated us. G0

'ive nights together till the currents did part us The weltering waters weathers the bleakest $nd nethermost night and the north!wind whistled 'ierce in our facesM fell were the billows. The mere fishesE mood was mightily ruffled# $nd there against foemen my firm!knotted corslet (and!jointed hardy help did afford meM ?y battle!sark braided brilliantly gilded
$ horrible sea!beast attacked me but 9 slew him. 00 0/

"ay on my bosom. To the bottom then dragged me $ hateful fiend!scather seiKed me and held me Grim in his grapple# Etwas granted me nathless To pierce the monster with the point of my weapon ?y obedient bladeM battle offcarried

The mighty mere!creature by means of my hand!blow.


1,6 9t has been plausibly suggested that ZsebE Bin 0/, and in 404C means Zarrival.E 9f so translate the bracket# 1the arrival of (eo!ulf, the brave seafarer, !as a source of great chagrin to 8nferth, etc.2.

3/

?. BEO*ULF SILENCES UNFERTH.;GLEE IS HIGH.


O%o ill!meaning enemies often did cause me %orrow the sorest. 9 served them in Iuittance
?y dear sword always served me faithfully.

>ith my dear!lov]d sword as in sooth it was fittingM They missed the pleasure of feasting abundantly 9ll!doers evil of eating my body 8f surrounding the banIuet deep in the oceanM But wounded with edges early at morning They were stretched a!high on the strand of the ocean
9 put a stop to the outrages of the sea!monsters. 0

Put to sleep with the sword that sea!going travelers <o longer thereafter were hindered from sailing The foam!dashing currents. :ame a light from the east GodEs beautiful beaconM the billows subsided That well 9 could see the nesses projecting
'ortune helps the brave earl. ,/

The blustering crags. >eird often saveth The undoomed hero if doughty his valor\ But me did it fortune1 to fell with my weapon <ine of the nickers. 8f night!struggle harder E<eath dome of the heaven heard 9 but rarely <or of wight more woful in the waves of the oceanM
./ ,0

Yet 9 Escaped with my life the grip of the monsters >eary from travel. Then the waters bare me To the land of the 'inns the flood with the current
9 have never heard of your doing any such bold deeds. $fter that escape 9 drifted to 'inland.

The weltering waves. <ot a word hath been told me 8f deeds so daring done by thee ;nferth $nd of sword!terror noneM never hath Breca $t the play of the battle nor either of you two 'eat so fearless perform]d with weapons Glinting and gleaming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 utter no boastingM
You are a slayer of brothers and will suffer damnation wise as you may be. 4/ .0

Though with cold!blooded cruelty thou killedst thy brothers

Thy nearest of kinM thou needs must in hell get *ireful damnation though doughty thy wisdom. 9 tell thee in earnest offspring of Ecglaf <ever had Grendel such numberless horrors The direful demon done to thy liegelord (arrying in (eorot if thy heart were as sturdy
(ad your acts been as brave as your words Grendel had not ravaged your land so long. 40

Thy mood as ferocious as thou dost describe them. (e hath found out fully that the fierce!burning hatred The edge!battle eager of all of your kindred
G/

8f the Fictory!%cyldings need little dismay him# 8aths he e&acteth not any he spares 8f the folk of the *anemen but fighteth with pleasure =illeth and feasteth no contest e&pecteth
but he will soon learn to dread the Geats. The monster is not afraid of the *anes

'rom %pear!*anish people. But the prowess and valor 8f the earls of the Geatmen early shall venture To give him a grapple. (e shall go who is able Bravely to banIuet when the bright!light of morning
8n the second day any warrior may go unmolested to the mead!banIuet. G0

>hich the second day bringeth the sun in its ether!robes 8Eer children of men shines from the southward\P Then the gray!haired war!famed giver of treasure
(rothgarEs spirits are revived. 0/

>as blithesome and joyous the Bright!*anish ruler E&pected assistanceM the peopleEs protector (eard from Beowulf his bold resolution. There was laughter of heroesM loud was the clatter
00 The old king trusts Beowulf. The heroes are joyful.

The words were winsome. >ealhtheow advanced then :onsort of (rothgar of courtesy mindful Gold!decked saluted the men in the building $nd the freeborn woman the beaker presented
%he offers the cup to her husband first. Lueen >ealhtheow plays the hostess.

To the lord of the kingdom first of the East!*anes Bade him be blithesome when beer was a!flowing "ief to his liegemenM he lustily tasted 8f banIuet and beaker battle!famed ruler. The (elmingish lady then graciously circled E?id all the liegemen lesser and greater#
%he gives presents to the heroes. 30 3/

Treasure!cups tendered till time was afforded That the decorous!mooded diademed folk!Iueen ?ight bear to Beowulf the bumper oEerrunningM %he greeted the Geat!prince God she did thank ?ost wise in her words that her wish was accomplished
H/ Then she offers the cup to Beowulf thanking God that aid has come.

That in any of earlmen she ever should look for %olace in sorrow. (e accepted the beaker Battle!bold warrior at >ealhtheowEs giving Then eIuipped for combat Iuoth he in measures Beowulf spake offspring of Ecgtheow#
H0 Beowulf states to the Iueen the object of his visit.

O9 purposed in spirit when 9 mounted the ocean >hen 9 boarded my boat with a band of my liegemen 9 would work to the fullest the will of your people 8r in foeEs!clutches fastened fall in the battle. *eeds 9 shall do of daring and prowess
5/ 9 determined to do or die.

8r the last of my life!days live in this mead!hall.P These words to the lady were welcome and pleasing The boast of the GeatmanM with gold trappings broidered >ent the freeborn folk!Iueen her fond!lord to sit by. Then again as of yore was heard in the building
50 Glee is high.

:ourtly discussion conIuerorsE shouting (eroes were happy till (ealfdeneEs son would Go to his slumber to seek for refreshingM 'or the horrid hell!monster in the hall!building knew he $ fight was determined 8 since the light of the sun they <o longer could see and lowering darkness 8Eer all had descended and dark under heaven %hadowy shapes came shying around them.
(rothgar retires leaving Beowulf in charge of the hall. -/

The liegemen all rose then. 8ne saluted the other (rothgar Beowulf in rhythmical measures >ishing him well and the wassail!hall giving To his care and keeping Iuoth he departing# O<ot to any one else have 9 ever entrusted But thee and thee only the hall of the *anemen %ince high 9 could heave my hand and my buckler.
,// -0

Take thou in charge now the noblest of housesM Be mindful of honor e&hibiting prowess >atch Egainst the foeman\ Thou shalt want no enjoyments

%urvive thou safely adventure so glorious\P


1,6 The repetition of ZhwJbereE B0HG and 0H5C is regarded by some scholars as a defect. B. suggests Zsw_ ^JrE for the first# So there it befell me, etc. $nother suggestion is to change the second ZhwJbereE into Zsw_ ^JrE# So there 0 escaped !ith my life, etc. 1.6 =l. suggests a period after Zdetermined.E This would give the passage as follows# Since they no longer could see the light of the sun, and lo!ering darkness !as do!n over all, dire under the heavens shado!y beings came going around them.

?I. ALL SLEEP SAVE ONE.


Then (rothgar departed his earl!throng attending him 'olk!lord of %cyldings forth from the buildingM The war!chieftain wished then >ealhtheow to look for The Iueen for a bedmate. To keep away Grendel
God has provided a watch for the hall. 0 (rothgar retires.

The Glory of =ings had given a hall!watch $s men heard recounted# for the king of the *anemen (e did special service gave the giant a watcher# $nd the prince of the Geatmen implicitly trusted (is warlike strength and the >ielderEs protection.
(e prepares for rest. ,/ Beowulf is self!confident

(is armor of iron off him he did then (is helmet from his head to his henchman committed (is chased!handled chain!sword choicest of weapons $nd bade him bide with his battle!eIuipments. The good one then uttered words of defiance Beowulf Geatman ere his bed he upmounted#
Beowulf boasts of his ability to cope with Grendel. ,0

O9 hold me no meaner in matters of prowess 9n warlike achievements than Grendel does himselfM (ence 9 seek not with sword!edge to sooth him to slumber 8f life to bereave him though well 9 am able. <o battle!skill1 has he that blows he should strike me To shatter my shield though sure he is mighty 9n strife and destructionM but struggling by night we %hall do without edges dare he to look for >eaponless warfare and wise!mooded 'ather
.0 >e will fight with natureEs weapons only. ./

The glory apportion God ever!holy 8n which hand soever to him seemeth proper.P Then the brave!mooded hero bent to his slumber The pillow received the cheek of the nobleM
The Geatish warriors lie down. God may decide who shall conIuer

$nd many a martial mere!thane attending

%ank to his slumber. %eemed it unlikely


They thought it very unlikely that they should ever see their homes again.

4/

That ever thereafter any should hope to Be happy at home hero!friends visit 8r the lordly troop!castle where he lived from his childhoodM They had heard how slaughter had snatched from the wine!hall (ad recently ravished of the race of the %cyldings
But God raised up a deliverer. 40

Too many by far. But the "ord to them granted The weaving of war!speed to >ederish heroes $id and comfort that every opponent By one manEs war!might they worsted and vanIuished By the might of himselfM the truth is established That God $lmighty hath governed for ages =indreds and nations. $ night very lurid
Grendel comes to (eorot. God rules the world. G/

The travEler!at!twilight came tramping and striding. The warriors were sleeping who should watch the horned!building 8ne only e&cepted. E?id earthmen Etwas Established ThE implacable foeman was powerless to hurl them To the land of shadows if the "ord were unwillingM But serving as warder in terror to foemen (e angrily bided the issue of battle.8
1,6 Gr. understood ZgddraE as meaning Zadvantages in battle.E This rendering (.! %o. rejects. The latter takes the passage as meaning that Grendel though mighty and formidable has no skill in the art of war. 1.6 B. in his masterly articles on Beowulf BP. and B. A99.C rejects the division usually made at this point Z^_.E BH,,C usually rendered Zthen E he translates Zwhen E and connects its clause with the foregoing sentence. These changes he makes to reduce the number of ZcdmEsE as principal verbs. B:f. H/4 H,, H.,.C >ith all deference to this acute scholar 9 must say that it seems to me that the poet is e&hausting his resources to bring out clearly the supreme event on which the whole subseIuent action turns. 'irst he BGrendelC came in the !an nightM second he came from the moorM third he came to the hall. Time place from which place to which are all given. 8nly one warrior is awake. G0

?II. GRENDEL AND BEO*ULF.


Grendel comes from the fens.

E<eath the cloudy cliffs came from the moor then Grendel going GodEs anger bare he. The monster intended some one of earthmen 9n the hall!building grand to entrap and make way with# (e went under welkin where well he knew of The wine!joyous building brilliant with plating Gold!hall of earthmen. <ot the earliest occasion
(e goes towards the joyous building. 0

(e the home and manor of (rothgar had sought# <eEer found he in life!days later nor earlier
,/

This was not his first visit there.

(ardier hero hall!thanes1 more sturdy\ Then came to the building the warrior marching Bereft of his joyance. The door Iuickly opened 8n fire!hinges fastened when his fingers had touched itM The fell one had flung thenThis fury so bitterT
,0 (is horrid fingers tear the door open.

8pen the entrance. Early thereafter The foeman trod the shining hall!pavement %trode he angrilyM from the eyes of him glimmered $ lustre unlovely likest to fire. (e beheld in the hall the heroes in numbers
./ (e strides furiously into the hall.

$ circle of kinsmen sleeping together $ throng of thanemen# then his thoughts were e&ultant (e minded to sunder from each of the thanemen The life from his body horrible demon Ere morning came since fate had allowed him
'ate has decreed that he shall devour no more heroes. Beowulf suffers from suspense. .0 (e e&ults over his supposed prey.

The prospect of plenty. Providence willed not To permit him any more of men under heaven To eat in the night!time. (igelacEs kinsman Great sorrow endured how the dire!mooded creature 9n unlooked!for assaults were likely to bear him.
4/

<o thought had the monster of deferring the matter But on earliest occasion he Iuickly laid hold of $ soldier asleep suddenly tore him Bit his bone!prison the blood drank in currents %wallowed in mouthfuls# he soon had the dead manEs
40 Grendel immediately seiKes a sleeping warrior and devours him.

'eet and hands too eaten entirely. <earer he strode then the stout!hearted warrior %natched as he slumbered seiKing with hand!grip 'orward the foeman foined with his handM :aught he Iuickly the cunning deviser
G/ Beowulf and Grendel grapple.

8n his elbow he rested. This early discovered The master of malice that in middle!earthEs regions E<eath the whole of the heavens no hand!grapple greater
The monster is amaKed at BeowulfEs strength.

9n any man else had he ever encountered# 'earful in spirit faint!mooded wa&ed he <ot off could betake himM death he was pondering
(e is an&ious to flee. G0

>ould fly to his covert seek the devilsE assembly# (is calling no more was the same he had followed "ong in his lifetime. The liege!kinsman worthy 8f (igelac minded his speech of the evening
0/ Beowulf recalls his boast of the evening and determines to fulfil it.

%tood he up straight and stoutly did seiKe him. (is fingers crackledM the giant was outward The earl stepped farther. The famous one minded To flee away farther if he found an occasion $nd off and away avoiding delay To fly to the fen!moorsM he fully was ware of The strength of his grapple in the grip of the foeman.
ETwas a luckless day for Grendel. 00

ETwas an ill!taken journey that the injury!bringing (arrying harmer to (eorot wandered# The palace re!echoedM to all of the *anemen
3/ The hall groans.

*wellers in castles to each of the bold ones Earlmen was terror. $ngry they both were $rchwarders raging.8 )attled the buildingM ETwas a marvellous wonder that the wine!hall withstood then The bold!in!battle bent not to earthward E&cellent earth!hallM but within and without it >as fastened so firmly in fetters of iron By the art of the armorer. 8ff from the sill there Bent mead!benches many as men have informed me $dorned with gold!work where the grim ones did struggle.
H/ 30

The %cylding wise men weened neEer before That by might and main!strength a man under heaven ?ight break it in pieces bone!decked resplendent :rush it by cunning unless clutch of the fire 9n smoke should consume it. The sound mounted upward <ovel enoughM on the <orth *anes fastened $ terror of anguish on all of the men there >ho heard from the wall the weeping and plaining The song of defeat from the foeman of heaven (eard him hymns of horror howl and his sorrow
5/ GrendelEs cries terrify the *anes. H0

(ell!bound bewailing. (e held him too firmly

>ho was strongest of main!strength of men of that era.


1,6 B. and t.B. emend so as to make lines - and ,/ read# +ever in his life, earlier or later, had he, the hell thane, found a braver hero .TThey argue that BeowulfEs companions had done nothing to merit such encomiums as the usual readings allow them. 1.6 'or ZrUbe rUn!weardasE BHH,C t.B. suggests ZrUbe rUnhearde.E Translate# "hey !ere both angry, raging and mighty.

?III. GRENDEL IS VAN@UISHED.


'or no cause whatever would the earlmenEs defender "eave in life!joys the loathsome newcomer (e deemed his e&istence utterly useless To men under heaven. ?any a noble
0 Beowulf has no idea of letting Grendel live.

8f Beowulf brandished his battle!sword old >ould guard the life of his lord and protector The far!famous chieftain if able to do soM >hile waging the warfare this wist they but little Brave battle!thanes while his body intending To slit into slivers and seeking his spirit# That the relentless foeman nor finest of weapons 8f all on the earth nor any of war!bills >as willing to injureM but weapons of victory %words and suchlike he had sworn to dispense with.
,0 <o weapon would harm GrendelM he bore a charmed life. ,/

(is death at that time must prove to be wretched $nd the far!away spirit widely should journey 9nto enemiesE power. This plainly he saw then >ho with mirth1 of mood malice no little (ad wrought in the past on the race of the earthmen BTo God he was hostileC that his body would fail him But (igelacEs hardy henchman and kinsman (eld him by the handM hateful to other
Grendel is sorely wounded. ./

>as each one if living. $ body!wound suffered The direful demon damage incurable >as seen on his shoulder his sinews were shivered (is body did burst. To Beowulf was given Glory in battleM Grendel from thenceward ?ust flee and hide him in the fen!cliffs and marshes %ick unto death his dwelling must look for
4/ (is body bursts. .0

;nwinsome and wofulM he wist the more fully The end of his earthly e&istence was nearing (is life!daysE limits. $t last for the *anemen >hen the slaughter was over their wish was accomplished. The comer!from!far!land had cleansed then of evil
40 The monster flees away to hide in the moors.

>ise and valiant the war!hall of (rothgar

%aved it from violence. (e joyed in the night!work 9n repute for prowessM the prince of the Geatmen 'or the East!*anish people his boast had accomplished Bettered their burdensome bale!sorrows fully The craft!begot evil they erstwhile had suffered $nd were forced to endure from crushing oppression Their manifold misery. ETwas a manifest token
Beowulf suspends GrendelEs hand and arm in (eorot. G/

>hen the hero!in!battle the hand suspended The arm and the shoulder Bthere was all of the claw 8f Grendel togetherC Eneath great!stretching hall!roof.
1,6 9t has been proposed to translate ZmyrbeE by !ith sorro!M but there seems no authority for such a rendering. To the present translator the phrase Zmddes myrbeE seems a mere padding for gladlyM i.e. he !ho gladly harassed mankind. G0

?IV. RE'OICING OF THE DANES.


$t early dawn warriors from far and near come together to hear of the nightEs adventures.

9n the mist of the morning many a warrior %tood round the gift!hall as the story is told me# 'olk!princes fared then from far and from near Through long!stretching journeys to look at the wonder The footprints of the foeman. 'ew of the warriors
'ew warriors lamented GrendelEs destruction. 0

>ho gaKed on the foot!tracks of the inglorious creature (is parting from life pained very deeply (ow weary in spirit off from those regions 9n combats conIuered he carried his traces 'ated and flying to the flood of the nickers.
GrendelEs blood dyes the waters. ,/

There in bloody billows bubbled the currents The angry eddy was everywhere mingled $nd seething with gore welling with sword!bloodM1 (e death!doomed had hid him when reaved of his joyance (e laid down his life in the lair he had fled to (is heathenish spirit where hell did receive him. Thence the friends from of old backward turned them $nd many a younker from merry adventure %triding their stallions stout from the seaward
./ ,0

(eroes on horses. There were heard very often BeowulfEs praisesM many often asserted That neither south nor north in the circuit of waters
Beowulf is the hero of the hour.

8Eer outstretching earth!plain none other was better E?id bearers of war!shields more worthy to govern
.0

(e is regarded as a probable successor to (rothgar.

E<eath the arch of the ether. <ot any however EGainst the friend!lord muttered mocking!words uttered 8f (rothgar the gracious Ba good king heC. 8ft the famed ones permitted their fallow!skinned horses To run in rivalry racing and chasing
4/ But no word is uttered to derogate from the old king

>here the fieldways appeared to them fair and inviting =nown for their e&cellenceM oft a thane of the folk!lord 8 $ man of celebrity mindful of rhythms >ho ancient traditions treasured in memory <ew word!groups found properly bound#
9

The gleeman sings the deeds of heroes.

40

The bard after Egan then BeowulfEs venture >isely to tell of and words that were clever To utter skilfully earnestly speaking Everything told he that he heard as to %igmundEs
$lso of %igemund who has slain a great fire!dragon. (e sings in alliterative measures of BeowulfEs prowess.

?ighty achievements many things hidden The strife of the >Jlsing the wide!going ventures The children of men knew of but little The feud and the fury but 'itela with him >hen suchlike matters he minded to speak of ;ncle to nephew as in every contention
G0 G/

Each to other was ever devoted# $ numerous host of the race of the scathers They had slain with the sword!edge. To %igmund accrued then <o little of glory when his life!days were over %ince he sturdy in struggle had destroyed the great dragon The hoard!treasureEs keeperM Eneath the hoar!grayish stone he The son of the atheling unaided adventured The perilous projectM not present was 'itela Yet the fortune befell him of forcing his weapon Through the marvellous dragon that it stood in the wall
00 0/

>ell!honored weaponM the worm was slaughtered. The great one had gained then by his glorious achievement To reap from the ring!hoard richest enjoyment $s best it did please him# his vessel he loaded %hining ornaments on the shipEs bosom carried
3/

=insman of >Jls# the drake in heat melted. (e was farthest famed of fugitive pilgrims ?id wide!scattered world!folk for works of great prowess >ar!troopersE shelter# hence wa&ed he in honor.:
(eremod an unfortunate *anish king is introduced by way of contrast. %igemund was widely famed.

$fterward (eremodEs hero!strength failed him (is vigor and valor. E?id venomous haters To the hands of foemen he was foully delivered 8ffdriven early. $gony!billows
;nlike %igemund and Beowulf (eremod was a burden to his people. 30

8ppressed him too long to his people he became then To all the athelings an ever!great burdenM $nd the daring oneEs journey in days of yore ?any wise men were wont to deplore %uch as hoped he would bring them help in their sorrow That the son of their ruler should rise into power (olding the headship held by his fathers
H0 H/

%hould govern the people the gold!hoard and borough The kingdom of heroes the realm of the %cyldings. (e to all men became then far more beloved (igelacEs kinsman to kindreds and races To his friends much dearerM him malice assaulted.T
The story is resumed. 5/ Beowulf is an honor to his race.

8ft running and racing on roadsters they measured The dun!colored highways. Then the light of the morning >as hurried and hastened. >ent henchmen in numbers To the beautiful building bold ones in spirit To look at the wonderM the liegelord himself then 'rom his wife!bower wending warden of treasures Glorious trod with troopers unnumbered 'amed for his virtues and with him the Iueen!wife ?easured the mead!ways with maidens attending.
1,6 %. emends suggesting ZdUopE for ZdUog E and removing semicolon after ZwUol.E The two half!lines Zwelling ` hid himE would then read# "he bloody deep !elled !ith s!ord gore. B. accepts ZdUopE for ZdUog E but reads ZdUab!fJgesE# "he deep boiled !ith the s!ord gore of the death doomed one . 1.6 $nother and Iuite different rendering of this passage is as follows# %ft a liegeman of the king, a fame covered man mindful of songs, !ho very many ancient traditions remembered 1he found other !ord groups accurately bound together2 began after!ard to tell of (eo!ulf's adventure, skilfully to narrate it, etc. 146 ?ight Zguma gilp!hladenE mean Za man laden with boasts of the deeds of othersEN 50

1G6 t.B. accepts B.Es ZhU gJs _ron g_hE as given by (.!%o. but puts a comma after Zg_h E and takes ZsibbanE as introducing a dependent clause# He throve in honor since Heremod's strength 6 had decreased.

?V. HROTHGAR7S GRATITUDE.


(rothgar discoursed Bto the hall!building went he (e stood by the pillar 1 saw the steep!rising hall!roof Gleaming with gold!gems and Grendel his hand thereC#
(rothgar gives thanks for the overthrow of the monster.

O'or the sight we behold now thanks to the >ielder Early be offered\ ?uch evil 9 bided %naring from Grendel#8 God can eEer Ecomplish >onder on wonder >ielder of Glory\
9 had given up all hope when this brave liegeman came to our aid. 0

But lately 9 reckoned neEer under heaven :omfort to gain me for any of sorrows >hile the handsomest of houses horrid with bloodstain Gory uptoweredM grief had offfrightened9 Each of the wise ones who weened not that ever The folk!troopEs defences Egainst foes they should strengthen EGainst sprites and monsters. Through the might of the >ielder
,0 ,/

$ doughty retainer hath a deed now accomplished >hich erstwhile we all with our e&cellent wisdom 'ailed to perform. ?ay affirm very truly >hat woman soever in all of the nations Gave birth to the child if yet she surviveth
./ 9f his mother yet liveth well may she thank God for this son.

That the long!ruling "ord was lavish to herward 9n the birth of the bairn. <ow Beowulf dear ?ost e&cellent hero 9Ell love thee in spirit $s bairn of my bodyM bear well henceforward The relationship new. <o lack shall befall thee
.0 (ereafter Beowulf thou shalt be my son.

8f earth!joys any 9 ever can give thee. 'ull often for lesser service 9Eve given (ero less hardy hoard!treasure precious To a weaker in war!strife. By works of distinction Thou hast gained for thyself now that thy glory shall flourish
4/ Thou hast won immortal distinction.

'orever and ever. The $ll!)uler Iuite thee >ith good from (is hand as (e hitherto did thee\P Beowulf answered EcgtheowEs offspring#
Beowulf replies# 9 was most happy to render thee this service.

OThat labor of glory most gladly achieved we The combat accomplished unIuailing we ventured The enemyEs grappleM 9 would grant it much rather Thou wert able to look at the creature in person 'aint unto falling the foe in his trappings\ 8n murder!bed Iuickly 9 minded to bind him >ith firm!holding fetters that forced by my grapple
G/ 40

"ow he should lie in life!and!death struggle E"ess his body escapeM 9 was wholly unable %ince God did not will it to keep him from going <ot held him that firmly hated opposerM Too swift was the foeman. Yet safety regarding
G0 9 could not keep the monster from escaping as God did not will that 9 should.

(e suffered his hand behind him to linger (is arm and shoulder to act as watcherM <o shadow of solace the woe!begone creature 'ound him there nathless# the hated destroyer "iveth no longer lashed for his evils
0/ (e left his hand and arm behind.

But sorrow hath seiKed him in snare!meshes hath him :lose in its clutches keepeth him writhing 9n baleful bonds# there banished for evil The man shall wait for the mighty tribunal (ow the God of glory shall give him his earnings.P
00 God will give him his deserts.

Then the soldier kept silent son of old Ecglaf


;nferth has nothing more to say for BeowulfEs actions speak louder than words.

'rom boasting and bragging of battle!achievements %ince the princes beheld there the hand that depended E<eath the lofty hall!timbers by the might of the nobleman Each one before him the enemyEs fingersM Each finger!nail strong steel most resembled The heathen oneEs hand!spur the hero!in!battleEs :law most uncannyM Iuoth they agreeing
<o sword will harm the monster. 3/

That not any e&cellent edges of brave ones >as willing to touch him the terrible creatureEs Battle!hand bloody to bear away from him.
1,6 B. and t.B. read Zstagole E and translate stood on the floor. 1.6 'or Zsnaring from Grendel E Zsorrows at GrendelEs handsE has been suggested. This gives a parallel to Zl_bes.E ZGrynnaE may well be gen. pl. of Zgyrn E by a scribal slip. 30

146 The (.!%o punctuation has been followedM but B. has been followed in understanding ZgehwylcneE as object of Zwed!scofen BhJfdeC.E Gr. construes ZwUaE as nom abs.

?VI. HROTHGAR LAVISHES GIFTS UPON HIS DELIVERER.


Then straight was ordered that (eorot inside1 >ith hands be embellished# a host of them gathered 8f men and women who the wassailing!building The guest!hall begeared. Gold!flashing sparkled
0 (eorot is adorned with hands.

>ebs on the walls then of wonders a many To each of the heroes that look on such objects. The beautiful building was broken to pieces >hich all within with irons was fastened 9ts hinges torn off# only the roof was
,/ The hall is defaced however.

>hole and uninjured when the horrible creature 8utlawed for evil off had betaken him (opeless of living. ETis hard to avoid it B>hoever will do it\CM but he doubtless must come to8 The place awaiting as >yrd hath appointed
,0 1$ vague passage of five verses.6

%oul!bearers earth!dwellers earls under heaven >here bound on its bed his body shall slumber >hen feasting is finished. 'ull was the time then That the son of (ealfdene went to the buildingM The e&cellent atheling would eat of the banIuet.
./ (rothgar goes to the banIuet.

<eEer heard 9 that people with hero!band larger Bare them better towErds their bracelet!bestower. The laden!with!glory stooped to the bench then BTheir kinsmen!companions in plenty were joyful ?any a cupful Iuaffing complaisantlyC *oughty of spirit in the high!towEring palace
(rothgarEs nephew (rothulf is present. .0

(rothgar and (rothulf. (eorot then inside >as filled with friendly onesM falsehood and treachery The 'olk!%cyldings now nowise did practise. Then the offspring of (ealfdene offered to Beowulf
4/ (rothgar lavishes gifts upon Beowulf.

$ golden standard as reward for the victory $ banner embossed burnie and helmetM

?any men saw then a song!famous weapon Borne Efore the hero. Beowulf drank of The cup in the buildingM that treasure!bestowing (e needed not blush for in battle!menEs presence.
'our handsomer gifts were never presented. 40

<eEer heard 9 that many men on the ale!bench 9n friendlier fashion to their fellows presented 'our bright jewels with gold!work embellished. E)ound the roof of the helmet a head!guarder outside Braided with wires with bosses was furnished That swords!for!the!battle fight!hardened might fail Boldly to harm him when the hero proceeded
(rothgar commands that eight finely caparisoned steeds be brought to Beowulf. G/

'orth against foemen. The defender of earls then :ommanded that eight steeds with bridles
G0

Gold!plated gleaming be guided to hallward 9nside the buildingM on one of them stood then $n art!broidered saddle embellished with jewelsM ETwas the sovereignEs seat when the son of =ing (ealfdene >as pleased to take part in the play of the edgesM The famous oneEs valor neEer failed at the front when %lain ones were bowing. $nd to Beowulf granted The prince of the 9ngwins power over both 8Eer war!steeds and weaponsM bade him well to enjoy them. 9n so manly a manner the mighty!famed chieftain
00 0/

(oard!ward of heroes with horses and jewels >ar!storms reIuited that none eEer condemneth >ho willeth to tell truth with full justice.
1,6 =l. suggests ZhrodenE for Zh_ten E and renders# "hen -uickly !as Heorot adorned !ithin, !ith hands bedecked .TB. suggests ZgefrJtwonE instead of ZgefrJtwod E and renders# "hen !as it commanded to adorn Heorot !ithin -uickly !ith hands.TThe former has the advantage of affording a parallel to ZgefrJtwodE# both have the disadvantage of altering the te&t. 1.6 The passage ,//0!,//- seems to be hopeless. 8ne difficult point is to find a subject for Zgesacan.E %ome say ZheEM others supply Zeach E i.e., every soul bearer 6 must gain the inevitable place . The genitives in this case are partitive.T9f ZheE be subj. the genitives are dependent on ZgearweE BR preparedC.TThe ZheE itself is disputed some referring it to GrendelM but B. takes it as involved in the parenthesis.

?VII. BAN@UET AcontinuedB.;THE SCOP7S SONG OF FINN AND HN2F.


Each of BeowulfEs companions receives a costly gift.

$nd the atheling of earlmen to each of the heroes >ho the ways of the waters went with Beowulf $ costly gift!token gave on the mead!bench 8ffered an heirloom and ordered that that man >ith gold should be paid for whom Grendel had erstwhile >ickedly slaughtered as he more of them had done (ad far!seeing God and the mood of the hero The fate not averted# the 'ather then governed $ll of the earth!dwellers as (e ever is doingM
,/ The warrior killed by Grendel is to be paid for in gold. 0

(ence insight for all men is everywhere fittest 'orethought of spirit\ much he shall suffer 8f lief and of loathsome who long in this present ;seth the world in this woful e&istence. There was music and merriment mingling together Touching (ealfdeneEs leaderM the joy!wood was fingered ?easures recited when the singer of (rothgar 8n mead!bench should mention the merry hall!joyance 8f the kinsmen of 'inn when onset surprised them# OThe (alf!*anish hero (nJf of the %cyldings
./ (rothgarEs scop recalls events in the reign of his lordEs father. ,0

(nJf the *anish general is treacherously attacked while staying at 'innEs castle.

8n the field of the 'risians was fated to perish. %ure (ildeburg needed not mention approving The faith of the +utemen# though blameless entirely
Lueen (ildeburg is not only wife of 'inn but a kinswoman of the murdered (nJf.

>hen shields were shivered she was shorn of her darlings 8f bairns and brothers# they bent to their fate >ith war!spear woundedM woe was that woman. <ot causeless lamented the daughter of (oce The decree of the >ielder when morning!light came and %he was able Eneath heaven to behold the destruction 8f brothers and bairns where the brightest of earth!joys
'innEs force is almost e&terminated. 4/ .0

%he had hitherto had# all the henchmen of 'inn >ar had offtaken save a handful remaining That he nowise was able to offer resistance1 To the onset of (engest in the parley of battle <or the wretched remnant to rescue in war from
40 (engest succeeds (nJf as *anish general.

The earl of the athelingM but they offered conditions $nother great building to fully make ready $ hall and a high!seat that half they might rule with
:ompact between the 'risians and the *anes.

The sons of the +utemen and that 'olcwaldaEs son would *ay after day the *anemen honor >hen gifts were giving and grant of his ring!store To (engestEs earl!troop ever so freely 8f his gold!plated jewels as he encouraged the 'risians
EIuality of gifts agreed on. G/

8n the bench of the beer!hall. 8n both sides they swore then $ fast!binding compactM 'inn unto (engest >ith no thought of revoking vowed then most solemnly The woe!begone remnant well to take charge of (is >itan advisingM the agreement should no one By words or works weaken and shatter By artifice ever injure its value
0/ G0

Though reaved of their ruler their ring!giverEs slayer They followed as vassals 'ate so reIuiring# Then if one of the 'risians the Iuarrel should speak of 9n tones that were taunting terrible edges %hould cut in reIuital. $ccomplished the oath was
00 <o one shall refer to old grudges.

$nd treasure of gold from the hoard was uplifted. The best of the %cylding braves was then fully Prepared for the pileM at the pyre was seen clearly The blood!gory burnie the boar with his gilding The iron!hard swine athelings many
3/ *anish warriors are burned on a funeral!pyre.

'atally woundedM no few had been slaughtered. (ildeburg bade then at the burning of (nJf The bairn of her bosom to bear to the fire That his body be burned and borne to the pyre. The woe!stricken woman wept on his shoulder 8
30 Lueen (ildeburg has her son burnt along with (nJf.

9n measures lamentedM upmounted the hero.9 The greatest of dead!fires curled to the welkin 8n the hillEs!front crackledM heads were a!melting >ound!doors bursting while the blood was a!coursing 'rom body!bite fierce. The fire devoured them Greediest of spirits whom war had offcarried 'rom both of the peoplesM their bravest were fallen.
1,6 'or ,/5G ). suggests Zwiht (engeste wib gefeohtan.ET=. suggests Zwib (engeste wiht gefeohtan.E <either emendation would make any essential change in the translation. 1.6 The separation of adjective and noun by a phrase Bcf. v. ,,,5C being very unusual some scholars have put Zearme on ea&leE with the foregoing lines inserting a semicolon after Zea&le.E 9n this case Zon ea&eE B i.e. on the ashes H/

cindersC is sometimes read and this affords a parallel to Zon bJl.E "et us hope that a satisfactory rendering shall yet be reached without resorting to any tampering with the te&t such as "ichtenheld proposed# Zearme ides on ea&le gnornode.E 146 'or Zgcb!rinc E Zgcb!rUc E battle smoke has been suggested.

?VIII. THE FINN EPISODE AcontinuedB.;THE BAN@UET CONTINUES.


OThen the warriors departed to go to their dwellings )eaved of their friends 'riesland to visit Their homes and high!city. (engest continued
(engest remains there all winter unable to get away. The survivors go to 'riesland the home of 'inn.

Biding with 'inn the blood!tainted winter >holly unsunderedM1 of fatherland thought he Though unable to drive the ring!stemm]d vessel 8Eer the ways of the watersM the wave!deeps were tossing 'ought with the windM winter in ice!bonds :losed up the currents till there came to the dwelling
,/ 0

$ year in its course as yet it revolveth 9f season propitious one alway regardeth >orld!cheering weathers. Then winter was gone EarthEs bosom was lovelyM the e&ile would get him The guest from the palaceM on grewsomest vengeance
,0 (e devises schemes of vengeance.

(e brooded more eager than on oversea journeys >heEr onset!of!anger he were able to Ecomplish The bairns of the +utemen therein to remember. <owise refused he the duties of liegeman >hen (un of the 'risians the battle!sword "_fing 'airest of falchions friendly did give him# 9ts edges were famous in folk!talk of +utland. $nd savage sword!fury seiKed in its clutches Bold!mooded 'inn where he bode in his palace
Guthlaf and 8slaf revenge (nJfEs slaughter. ./

>hen the grewsome grapple Guthlaf and 8slaf (ad mournfully mentioned the mere!journey over 'or sorrows half!blamed himM the flickering spirit :ould not bide in his bosom. Then the building was covered8
'inn is slain. .0

>ith corpses of foemen and 'inn too was slaughtered The king with his comrades and the Iueen made a prisoner. The troops of the %cyldings bore to their vessels
The jewels of 'inn and his Iueen are carried away by the *anes. 4/

$ll that the land!king had in his palace %uch trinkets and treasures they took as on searching $t 'innEs they could find. They ferried to *aneland The e&cellent woman on oversea journey "ed her to their land!folk.P The lay was concluded The gleemanEs recital. %houts again rose then Bench!glee resounded bearers then offered
%kinkers carry round the beaker. The lay is concluded and the main story is resumed. 40

>ine from wonder!vats. >ealhtheo advanced then Going Eneath gold!crown where the good ones were seated ;ncle and nephewM their peace was yet mutual True each to the other. $nd ;nferth the spokesman %at at the feet of the lord of the %cyldings# Each trusted his spirit that his mood was courageous Though at fight he had failed in faith to his kinsmen.
G0 Lueen >ealhtheow greets (rothgar as he sits beside (rothulf his nephew. G/

%aid the Iueen of the %cyldings# O?y lord and protector Treasure!bestower take thou this beakerM +oyance attend thee gold!friend of heroes $nd greet thou the Geatmen with gracious responses\ %o ought one to do. Be kind to the Geatmen
0/ Be generous to the Geats.

9n gifts not niggardlyM anear and afar now Peace thou enjoyest. )eport hath informed me ThouElt have for a bairn the battle!brave hero. <ow is (eorot cleans]d ring!palace gleamingM Give while thou mayest many rewards
00 (ave as much joy as possible in thy hall once more purified.

$nd beIueath to thy kinsmen kingdom and people 8n wending thy way to the >ielderEs splendor. 9 know good (rothulf that the noble young troopers (eEll care for and honor lord of the %cyldings 9f earth!joys thou endest earlier than he dothM
3/ 9 know that (rothulf will prove faithful if he survive thee.

9 reckon that recompense heEll render with kindness 8ur offspring and issue if that all he remember >hat favors of yore when he yet was an infant >e awarded to him for his worship and pleasure.P Then she turned by the bench where her sons were carousing (rethric and (rothmund and the heroesE offspring
Beowulf is sitting by the two royal sons. 30

The war!youth togetherM there the good one was sitting ETwi&t the brothers twain Beowulf Geatman.

1,6 'or ,,4/ B,C ). and Gr. suggest Zelne unflitmeE as ,/-5 B,C reads. The latter verse is undisputedM and for the former ZelneE would be as possible as Zealles E and ZunflitmeE is well supported. $ccepting Zelne unflitmeE for both 9 would suggest Zvery peaceablyE for both places# B,C &inn to Hengest very peaceably vo!ed !ith oaths etc. B.C Hengest then still the slaughter stained !inter remained there !ith &inn very peaceably . The two passages become thus correlatives the second a seIuel of the first. ZElne E in the sense of very BswebeC needs no argumentM and ZunflitmeE Bfrom ZfletanEC can it seems to me be more plausibly rendered Zpeaceful E Zpeaceable E than Zcontestable E or ZconIuerable.E 1.6 %ome scholars have proposed ZrodenEM the line would then read# "hen the building !as reddened, etc. instead of Zcovered.E The ZhE may have been carried over from the three alliterating ZhEs.E

?I?. BEO*ULF RECEIVES FURTHER HONOR.


$ beaker was borne him and bidding to Iuaff it Graciously given and gold that was twisted Pleasantly proffered a pair of arm!jewels )ings and corslet of collars the greatest
0 ?ore gifts are offered Beowulf.

9Eve heard of Eneath heaven. 8f heroes not any ?ore splendid from jewels have 9 heard Eneath the welkin
$ famous necklace is referred to in comparison with the gems presented to Beowulf.

%ince (ama off bore the BrosingmenEs necklace The bracteates and jewels from the bright!shining city EormenricEs cunning craftiness fled from :hose gain everlasting. Geatish (igelac Grandson of %werting last had this jewel >hen tramping Eneath banner the treasure he guarded The field!spoil defendedM 'ate offcarried him >hen for deeds of daring he endured tribulation
,0 ,/

(ate from the 'risiansM the ornaments bare he 8Eer the cup of the currents costly gem!treasures ?ighty folk!leader he fell Eneath his targetM The8 corpse of the king then came into charge of The race of the 'rankmen the mail!shirt and collar# >armen less noble plundered the fallen >hen the fight was finishedM the folk of the Geatmen The field of the dead held in possession. The choicest of mead!halls with cheering resounded. >ealhtheo discoursed the war!troop addressed she#
Lueen >ealhtheow magnifies BeowulfEs achievements. .0 ./

OThis collar enjoy thou Beowulf worthy Young man in safety and use thou this armor Gems of the people and prosper thou fully %how thyself sturdy and be to these liegemen ?ild with instruction\ 9Ell mind thy reIuital. Thou hast brought it to pass that far and near 'orever and ever earthmen shall honor thee Even so widely as ocean surroundeth The blustering bluffs. Be while thou livest $ wealth!bless]d atheling. 9 wish thee most truly
?ay gifts never fail thee. 40 4/

+ewels and treasure. Be kind to my son thou

"iving in joyance\ (ere each of the nobles 9s true unto other gentle in spirit "oyal to leader. The liegemen are peaceful The war!troops ready# well!drunken heroes
G/

*o as 9 bid ye.P Then she went to the settle. There was choicest of banIuets wine drank the heroes#
They little know of the sorrow in store for them.

>eird they knew not destiny cruel $s to many an earlman early it happened >hen evening had come and (rothgar had parted 8ff to his manor the mighty to slumber. >arriors unnumbered warded the building $s erst they did often# the ale!settle bared they ETwas covered all over with beds and pillows.
$ doomed thane is there with them. G0

*oomed unto death down to his slumber Bowed then a beer!thane. Their battle!shields placed they Bright!shining targets up by their heads thenM 8Eer the atheling on ale!bench Etwas easy to see there Battle!high helmet burnie of ring!mail
They were always ready for battle. 0/

$nd mighty war!spear. ETwas the wont of that people To constantly keep them eIuipped for the battle $t home or marchingTin either conditionT $t seasons just such as necessity ordered $s best for their rulerM that people was worthy.
00
:

1,6 :. suggests a semicolon after Zcity E with ZheE as supplied subject of ZfledE and Zchose.E 1.6 'or ZfeorhE %. suggests ZfeohE# ZcorpseE in the translation would then be changed to Zpossessions E Zbelongings.E This is a better reading than one joining in such intimate syntactical relations things so unlike as ZcorpseE and Zjewels.E 146 %. suggests Z!ine #oyous heroes E Z!arriors elated !ith !ine.E 1G6 9 believe this translation brings out the meaning of the poet without departing seriously from the (.!%o. te&t. Z8ftE freIuently means Zconstantly E Zcontinually E not always Zoften.ET>hy Zan BonC weg gearweE should be written Z_nweg!gearweE BR ready for single combatC 9 cannot see. ZGearweE occurs Iuite freIuently with ZonEM cf. B. ,,,/ B ready for the pyreC El. ... Bready for the glad #ourneyC. ?oreover what has the idea of single combat to do with B. ,.GH ff.N The poet is giving an inventory of the arms and armor which they lay aside on retiring and he closes his narration by saying that they were al!ays prepared for battle both at home and on the march.

??. THE )OTHER OF GRENDEL.


They sank then to slumber. >ith sorrow one paid for (is evening repose as often betid them

>hile Grendel was holding1 the gold!bedecked palace 9ll!deeds performing till his end overtook him *eath for his sins. ETwas seen very clearly
GrendelEs mother is known to be thirsting for revenge. 0

=nown unto earth!folk that still an avenger 8utlived the loathed one long since the sorrow :aused by the struggleM the mother of Grendel *evil!shaped woman her woe ever minded >ho was held to inhabit the horrible waters
1GrendelEs progenitor :ain is again referred to.6 ,/

The cold!flowing currents after :ain had become a %layer!with!edges to his one only brother The son of his sireM he set out then banished ?arked as a murderer man!joys avoiding "ived in the desert. Thence demons unnumbered
The poet again magnifies BeowulfEs valor. ,0

'ate!sent awokeM one of them Grendel %word!curs]d hateful who at (eorot met with $ man that was watching waiting the struggle >here a horrid one held him with hand!grapple sturdyM <athless he minded the might of his body The glorious gift God had allowed him $nd folk!ruling 'atherEs favor relied on (is help and (is comfort# so he conIuered the foeman The hell!spirit humbled# he unhappy departed then
.0 ./

)eaved of his joyance journeying to death!haunts 'oeman of man. (is mother moreover Eager and gloomy was an&ious to go on (er mournful mission mindful of vengeance 'or the death of her son. %he came then to (eorot
4/ GrendelEs mother comes to avenge her son.

>here the $rmor!*ane earlmen all through the building >ere lying in slumber. %oon there became then )eturn8 to the nobles when the mother of Grendel Entered the folk!hallM the fear was less grievous By even so much as the vigor of maidens >ar!strength of women by warrior is reckoned >hen well!carved weapon worked with the hammer Blade very bloody brave with its edges %trikes down the boar!sign that stands on the helmet. Then the hard!edg]d weapon was heaved in the building
G/ 40

The brand oEer the benches broad!lindens many

(and!fast were liftedM for helmet he recked not 'or armor!net broad whom terror laid hold of. %he went then hastily outward would get her (er life for to save when some one did spy herM %oon she had grappled one of the athelings 'ast and firmly when fenward she hied herM That one to (rothgar was liefest of heroes 9n rank of retainer where waters encircle $ mighty shield!warrior whom she murdered at slumber
0/ %he seiKes a favorite liegemen of (rothgarEs. G0

$ broadly!famed battle!knight. Beowulf was absent But another apartment was erstwhile devoted To the glory!decked Geatman when gold was distributed. There was hubbub in (eorot. The hand that was famous %he grasped in its goreM: grief was renewed then
00 Beowulf was asleep in another part of the palace.

9n homes and houses# Etwas no happy arrangement 9n both of the Iuarters to barter and purchase >ith lives of their friends. Then the well!ag]d ruler The gray!headed war!thane was woful in spirit >hen his long!trusted liegeman lifeless he knew of (is dearest one gone. Luick from a room was Beowulf brought brave and triumphant. $s day was dawning in the dusk of the morning
(e comes at (rothgarEs summons. Beowulf is sent for. 3/

>ent then that earlman champion noble :ame with comrades where the clever one bided >hether God all gracious would grant him a respite $fter the woe he had suffered. The war!worthy hero >ith a troop of retainers trod then the pavement BThe hall!building groanedC till he greeted the wise one
Beowulf inIuires how (rothgar had enjoyed his nightEs rest. 30

The earl of the 9ngwinsM< asked if the night had 'ully refreshed him as fain he would have it.
1,6 %everal eminent authorities either read or emend the ?%. so as to make this verse read )hile $rendel !as !asting the gold bedecked palace . %o ./ ,0 below# ravaged the desert. 1.6 'or ZsdnaE B,.5,C t.B. suggests Zs_ra E limiting Zedhwyrft.E )ead then# *eturn of sorro!s to the nobles, etc. This emendation supplies the syntactical gap after Zedhwyrft.E 146 %ome authorities follow GreinEs le&icon in treating Zheard ecgE as an adj. limiting ZsweordE# (.!%o. renders it as a subst. B%o v. ,G-,.C The sense of the translation would be the same. 1G6 B. suggests Zunder hrdf genamE Bv. ,4/4C. This emendation as well as an emendation with BNC to v. H4- he offers because ZunderE baffles him in both passages. $ll we need is to take ZunderE in its secondary meaning of Zin E which H/

though not given by Grein occurs in the literature. :f. :hron. 5H3 B?archEs $.! %. Gram. h 400C and 8ro. $maK. 9. ,/ where ZunderE R in the midst of. :f. modern Eng. Zin such circumstances E which interchanges in good usage with Zunder such circumstances.E 106 'or ZnUod!labuE B,4.,C :. suggests ZnUad!l_bum E and translates# asked !hether the night had been pleasant to him after crushing hostility .

??I. HROTHGAR7S ACCOUNT OF THE )ONSTERS.


(rothgar laments the death of [schere his shoulder!companion.

(rothgar rejoined helm of the %cyldings# O$sk not of joyance\ Grief is renewed to The folk of the *anemen. *ead is [schere YrmenlafEs brother older than he ?y true!hearted counsellor trusty adviser %houlder!companion when fighting in battle 8ur heads we protected when troopers were clashing
(e was my ideal hero. 0

$nd heroes were dashingM such an earl should be ever $n erst!worthy atheling as [schere proved him. The flickering death!spirit became in (eorot (is hand!to!hand murdererM 9 can not tell whither The cruel one turned in the carcass e&ulting
This horrible creature came to avenge GrendelEs death. ,/

By cramming discovered.1 The Iuarrel she wreaked then That last night igone Grendel thou killedst 9n grewsomest manner with grim!holding clutches %ince too long he had lessened my liege!troop and wasted ?y folk!men so foully. (e fell in the battle >ith forfeit of life and another has followed $ mighty crime!worker her kinsman avenging
./ ,0

$nd henceforth hath Zstablished her hatred unyielding $s it well may appear to many a liegeman >ho mourneth in spirit the treasure!bestower (er heavy heart!sorrowM the hand is now lifeless >hich9 availed you in every wish that you cherished. "and!people heard 9 liegemen this saying *wellers in halls they had seen very often $ pair of such mighty march!striding creatures 'ar!dwelling spirits holding the moorlands# 8ne of them wore as well they might notice The image of woman the other one wretched
4/

9 have heard my vassals speak of these two uncanny monsters who lived in the moors. .0

9n guise of a man wandered in e&ile E&cept he was huger than any of earthmenM Earth!dwelling people entitled him Grendel 9n days of yore# they know not their father >heEr ill!going spirits any were borne him
The inhabit the most desolate and horrible places. 40

Ever before. They guard the wolf!coverts "ands inaccessible wind!beaten nesses 'earfullest fen!deeps where a flood from the mountains E<eath mists of the nesses netherward rattles The stream under earth# not far is it henceward ?easured by mile!lengths that the mere!water standeth >hich forests hang over with frost!whiting covered : $ firm!rooted forest the floods overshadow. There ever at night one an ill!meaning portent
G0 G/

$ fire!flood may seeM Emong children of men <one liveth so wise that wot of the bottomM Though harassed by hounds the heath!stepper seek for 'ly to the forest firm!antlered he!deer %purred from afar his spirit he yieldeth
0/ Even the hounded deer will not seek refuge in these uncanny regions.

(is life on the shore ere in he will venture To cover his head. ;ncanny the place is# Thence upward ascendeth the surging of waters >an to the welkin when the wind is stirring The weathers unpleasing till the air groweth gloomy $nd the heavens lower. <ow is help to be gotten 'rom thee and thee only\ The abode thou knowEst not The dangerous place where thouErt able to meet with The sin!laden hero# seek if thou darest\ 'or the feud 9 will fully fee thee with money
3/ To thee only can 9 look for assistance. 00

>ith old!time treasure as erstwhile 9 did thee >ith well!twisted jewels if away thou shalt get thee.P
1,6 'or ZgefrJgnodE B,44GC =. and t.B. suggest ZgefJgnod E rendering Z re#oicing in her fill.E This gives a parallel to ZJse wlancE B,444C. 1.6 The line Z$nd ` yielding E B. renders# And she has performed a deed of blood vengeance !hose effect is far reaching. 146 Z%U ^eE B,4G0C is an instance of masc. rel. with fem. antecedent. %o v. ,555 where ZsU ^eE refers to Zyldo.E 1G6 'or ZhremgeE in the (.!%o. edition Gr. and others read ZhrendeE BRhrenendeC and translate# !hich rustling forests overhang.

??II. BEO*ULF SEE-S GRENDEL7S )OTHER.

Beowulf answered EcgtheowEs son# OGrieve not 8 wise one\ for each it is better (is friend to avenge than with vehemence wail himM Each of us must the end!day abide of
0 Beowulf e&horts the old king to arouse himself for action.

(is earthly e&istenceM who is able accomplish Glory ere death\ To battle!thane noble "ifeless lying Etis at last most fitting. $rise 8 king Iuick let us hasten To look at the footprint of the kinsman of Grendel\ 9 promise thee this now# to his place heEll escape not To embrace of the earth nor to mountainous forest <or to depths of the ocean wherever he wanders. Practice thou now patient endurance 8f each of thy sorrows as 9 hope for thee soothly\P
(rothgar rouses himself. (is horse is brought. ,0 ,/

Then up sprang the old one the $ll!>ielder thanked he )uler $lmighty that the man had outspoken. Then for (rothgar a war!horse was decked with a bridle :urly!maned courser. The clever folk!leader %tately proceeded# stepped then an earl!troop
./ They start on the track of the female monster.

8f linden!wood bearers. (er footprints were seen then >idely in wood!paths her way oEer the bottoms >here she faraway fared oEer fen!country murky Bore away breathless the best of retainers >ho pondered with (rothgar the welfare of country. The son of the athelings then went oEer the stony *eclivitous cliffs the close!covered passes <arrow passages paths unfreIuented <esses abrupt nicker!haunts manyM 8ne of a few of wise!mooded heroes
4/ .0

(e onward advanced to view the surroundings Till he found unawares woods of the mountain 8Eer hoar!stones hanging holt!wood unjoyfulM The water stood under welling and gory. ETwas irksome in spirit to all of the *anemen 'riends of the %cyldings to many a liegeman
The sight of [schereEs head causes them great sorrow. 40

%ad to be suffered a sorrow unlittle To each of the earlmen when to [schereEs head they :ame on the cliff. The current was seething >ith blood and with gore Bthe troopers gaKed on itC.
G/

The horn anon sang the battle!song ready. The troop were all seatedM they saw Elong the water then ?any a serpent mere!dragons wondrous Trying the waters nickers a!lying 8n the cliffs of the nesses which at noonday full often
G0 The water is filled with serpents and sea!dragons.

Go on the sea!deeps their sorrowful journey >ild!beasts and wormkindM away then they hastened (ot!mooded hateful they heard the great clamor The war!trumpet winding. 8ne did the Geat!prince %under from earth!joys with arrow from bowstring
0/ 8ne of them is killed by Beowulf.

'rom his sea!struggle tore him that the trusty war!missile Pierced to his vitalsM he proved in the currents "ess doughty at swimming whom death had offcarried. %oon in the waters the wonderful swimmer >as straitened most sorely with sword!pointed boar!spears
00 The dead beast is a poor swimmer

Pressed in the battle and pulled to the cliff!edgeM The liegemen then looked on the loath!fashioned stranger. Beowulf donned then his battle!eIuipments :ared little for lifeM inlaid and most ample The hand!woven corslet which could cover his body
3/ Beowulf prepares for a struggle with the monster.

?ust the wave!deeps e&plore that war might be powerless To harm the great hero and the hating oneEs grasp might <ot peril his safetyM his head was protected By the light!flashing helmet that should mi& with the bottoms Trying the eddies treasure!emblaKoned Encircled with jewels as in seasons long past The weapon!smith worked it wondrously made it >ith swine!bodies fashioned it that thenceforward no longer Brand might bite it and battle!sword hurt it. $nd that was not least of helpers in prowess
(e has ;nferthEs sword in his hand. H/ 30

That (rothgarEs spokesman had lent him when straitenedM $nd the hilted hand!sword was (runting entitled 8ld and most e&cellent Emong all of the treasuresM 9ts blade was of iron blotted with poison (ardened with goreM it failed not in battle $ny hero under heaven in hand who it brandished >ho ventured to take the terrible journeys The battle!field soughtM not the earliest occasion That deeds of daring Etwas destined to Ecomplish.
H0

EcglafEs kinsman minded not soothly


5/

;nferth has little use for swords.

E&ulting in strength what erst he had spoken *runken with wine when the weapon he lent to $ sword!hero bolderM himself did not venture E<eath the strife of the currents his life to endanger To fame!deeds performM there he forfeited glory )epute for his strength. <ot so with the other >hen he clad in his corslet had eIuipped him for battle.
50

??III. BEO*ULF7S FIGHT *ITH GRENDEL7S )OTHER.


Beowulf spake EcgtheowEs son# O)ecall now oh famous kinsman of (ealfdene Prince very prudent now to part 9 am ready Gold!friend of earlmen what erst we agreed on
9f 9 fail act as a kind liegelord to my thanes 0 Beowulf makes a parting speech to (rothgar.

%hould 9 lay down my life in lending thee assistance >hen my earth!joys were over thou wouldst evermore serve me 9n stead of a fatherM my faithful thanemen ?y trusty retainers protect thou and care for 'all 9 in battle# and (rothgar belov]d %end unto (igelac the high!valued jewels Thou to me hast allotted. The lord of the Geatmen ?ay perceive from the gold the (rethling may see it
9 should like my king to know how generous a lord 9 found thee to be. and send (igelac the jewels thou hast given me ,/

>hen he looks on the jewels that a gem!giver found 9 Good over!measure enjoyed him while able. $nd the ancient heirloom ;nferth permit thou The famed one to have the heavy!sword splendid1 The hard!edg]d weaponM with (runting to aid me 9 shall gain me glory or grim!death shall take me.P
Beowulf is eager for the fray. ,0

The atheling of Geatmen uttered these words and (eroic did hasten not any rejoinder >as willing to wait forM the wave!current swallowed
(e is a whole day reaching the bottom of the sea. ./

The doughty!in!battle. Then a dayEs!length elapsed ere (e was able to see the sea at its bottom. Early she found then who fifty of winters The course of the currents kept in her fury
.0

Grisly and greedy that the grim oneEs dominion %ome one of men from above was e&ploring. 'orth did she grab them grappled the warrior >ith horrible clutchesM yet no sooner she injured
4/ GrendelEs mother knows that some one has reached her domains.

(is body unscath]d# the burnie out!guarded That she proved but powerless to pierce through the armor The limb!mail locked with loath!grabbing fingers. The sea!wolf bare then when bottomward came she The ring!prince homeward that he after was powerless
40 %he grabs him and bears him to her den.

B(e had daring to do itC to deal with his weapons But many a mere!beast tormented him swimming 'lood!beasts no few with fierce!biting tusks did Break through his burnie the brave one pursued they. The earl then discovered he was down in some cavern
G/ %ea!monsters bite and strike him.

>here no water whatever anywise harmed him $nd the clutch of the current could come not anear him %ince the roofed!hall preventedM brightness a!gleaming 'ire!light he saw flashing resplendent. The good one saw then the sea!bottomEs monster The mighty mere!womanM he made a great onset >ith weapon!of!battle his hand not desisted 'rom striking that war!blade struck on her head then $ battle!song greedy. The stranger perceived then
The sword will not bite. Beowulf attacks the mother of Grendel. G0

The sword would not bite her life would not injure But the falchion failed the folk!prince when straitened# Erst had it often onsets encountered 8ft cloven the helmet the fated oneEs armor# ETwas the first time that ever the e&cellent jewel (ad failed of its fame. 'irm!mooded after
00 0/

<ot heedless of valor but mindful of glory >as (igelacEs kinsmanM the hero!chief angry :ast then his carved!sword covered with jewels That it lay on the earth hard and steel!pointedM (e hoped in his strength his hand!grapple sturdy.
3/ The hero throws down all weapons and again trusts to his hand!grip.

%o any must act whenever he thinketh To gain him in battle glory unending $nd is reckless of living. The lord of the >ar!Geats B(e shrank not from battleC seiKed by the shoulder8

The mother of GrendelM then mighty in struggle %wung he his enemy since his anger was kindled That she fell to the floor. >ith furious grapple
Beowulf falls. 30

%he gave him reIuital9 early thereafter $nd stretched out to grab himM the strongest of warriors 'aint!mooded stumbled till he fell in his traces 'oot!going champion. Then she sat on the hall!guest $nd wielded her war!knife wide!bladed flashing 'or her son would take vengeance her one only bairn.
(is armor saves his life. The monster sits on him with drawn sword. H/

(is breast!armor woven bode on his shoulderM 9t guarded his life the entrance defended EGainst sword!point and edges. EcgtheowEs son there (ad fatally journeyed champion of Geatmen 9n the arms of the ocean had the armor not given :lose!woven corslet comfort and succor
God arranged for his escape. H0

$nd had God most holy not awarded the victory $ll!knowing "ordM easily did heavenEs )uler most righteous arrange it with justiceM: ;prose he erect ready for battle.
1,6 =l. emends ZwJl!sweord.E The half!line would then read Z the battle s!ord splendid.ET'or Zheard!ecgE in ne&t half!verse see note to ./ 4- above. 1.6 %w. ). and t.B. suggest Zfea&eE for Zea&leE B,045C and render# Seized by the hair. 146 9f Zhand!lUanE be accepted Bas the ?%. has itC the line will read# She hand re!ard gave him early thereafter. 1G6 %w. and %. change (.!%o.Es semicolon Bv. ,00HC to a comma and translate# "he *uler of Heaven arranged it in #ustice easily, after he arose again . 5/

??IV. BEO*ULF IS DOUBLE6CON@UEROR.


Beowulf grasps a giant!sword

Then he saw mid the war!gems a weapon of victory $n ancient giant!sword of edges a!doughty Glory of warriors# of weapons Etwas choicest 8nly Etwas larger than any man else was $ble to bear to the battle!encounter The good and splendid work of the giants. (e grasped then the sword!hilt knight of the %cyldings Bold and battle!grim brandished his ring!sword (opeless of living hotly he smote her
,/ 0

That the fiend!womanEs neck firmly it grappled


and fells the female monster.

Broke through her bone!joints the bill fully pierced her 'ate!curs]d body she fell to the ground then# The hand!sword was bloody the hero e&ulted. The brand was brilliant brightly it glimmered +ust as from heaven gemlike shineth The torch of the firmament. (e glanced Elong the building $nd turned by the wall then (igelacEs vassal )aging and wrathful raised his battle!sword %trong by the handle. The edge was not useless
./ ,0

To the hero!in!battle but he speedily wished to Give Grendel reIuital for the many assaults he (ad worked on the >est!*anes not once but often >hen he slew in slumber the subjects of (rothgar %wallowed down fifteen sleeping retainers 8f the folk of the *anemen and fully as many :arried away a horrible prey. (e gave him reIuital grim!raging champion
Beowulf sees the body of Grendel and cuts off his head. .0

>hen he saw on his rest!place weary of conflict Grendel lying of life!joys bereav]d $s the battle at (eorot erstwhile had scathed himM (is body far bounded a blow when he suffered *eath having seiKed him sword!smiting heavy $nd he cut off his head then. Early this noticed The clever carles who as comrades of (rothgar
The waters are gory. 40 4/

GaKed on the sea!deeps that the surging wave!currents >ere mightily mingled the mere!flood was gory# 8f the good one the gray!haired together held converse The hoary of head that they hoped not to see again The atheling ever that e&ulting in victory
G/ Beowulf is given up for dead.

(eEd return there to visit the distinguished folk!ruler# Then many concluded the mere!wolf had killed him.1 The ninth hour came then. 'rom the ness!edge departed The bold!mooded %cyldingsM the gold!friend of heroes (omeward betook him. The strangers sat down then %oul!sick sorrowful the sea!waves regarding# They wished and yet weened not their well!loved friend!lord
The giant!sword melts. G0

To see any more. The sword!blade began then The blood having touched it contracting and shriveling >ith battle!iciclesM Etwas a wonderful marvel
0/

That it melted entirely likest to ice when The 'ather unbindeth the bond of the frost and ;nwindeth the wave!bands (e who wieldeth dominion 8f times and of tides# a truth!firm :reator. <or took he of jewels more in the dwelling "ord of the >eders though they lay all around him Than the head and the handle handsome with jewelsM The brand early melted burnt was the weapon#8 %o hot was the blood the strange!spirit poisonous
The hero swims back to the realms of day. 00

That in it did perish. (e early swam off then >ho had bided in combat the carnage of haters >ent up through the oceanM the eddies were cleans]d The spacious e&panses when the spirit from farland (is life put aside and this short!lived e&istence. The seamenEs defender came swimming to land then
30 3/

*oughty of spirit rejoiced in his sea!gift The bulky burden which he bore in his keeping. The e&cellent vassals advanced then to meet him To God they were grateful were glad in their chieftain That to see him safe and sound was granted them. 'rom the high!minded hero then helmet and burnie >ere speedily loosened# the ocean was putrid The water Eneath welkin weltered with gore. 'orth did they fare then their footsteps retracing ?erry and mirthful measured the earth!way
H0 H/

The highway familiar# men very daring9 Bare then the head from the sea!cliff burdening Each of the earlmen e&cellent!valiant. 'our of them had to carry with labor The head of Grendel to the high towering gold!hall
5/ 9t takes four men to carry GrendelEs head on a spear.

;pstuck on the spear till fourteen most!valiant $nd battle!brave Geatmen came there going %traight to the palace# the prince of the people ?easured the mead!ways their mood!brave companion. The atheling of earlmen entered the building *eed!valiant man adorned with distinction *oughty shield!warrior to address =ing (rothgar# Then hung by the hair the head of Grendel >as borne to the building where beer!thanes were drinking "oth before earlmen and eke Efore the lady#
-/ 50

The warriors beheld then a wonderful sight.


1,6 Z^Js monige gewearbE B,0--C and Zhafab gJs gewordenE B./.HC.T9n a paper published some years ago in one of the +ohns (opkins ;niversity circulars 9 tried to throw upon these two long!doubtful passages some light derived from a study of like passages in $lfredEs prose.TThe impersonal verb Zgeweorban E with an accus. of the person and a gJt!clause is used several times with the meaning Zagree.E %ee 8rosius B%weetEs ed.C ,H5 HM ./G4GM ./5.5M .,/,0M .5/./. 9n the two Beowulf passages the gJt!clause is anticipated by ZgJs E which is clearly a gen. of the thing agreed on. The first passage Bv. ,0-- BbC!,3//C 9 translate literally# "hen many agreed upon this 1namely2, that the sea !olf had killed him. The second passage Bv. ./.0 BbC!./.HC# She is promised 6/ to this the friend of the Scyldings has agreed, etc . By emending ZisE instead of ZwJsE B./.0C the tenses will be brought into perfect harmony. 9n v. ,--H ff. this same idiom occurs and was noticed in B.Es great article on Beowulf which appeared about the time 9 published my reading of ,0-- and ./.H. Translate ,--H then# )ouldst let the South Danes themselves decide about their struggle !ith $rendel. (ere Z%cb!*eneE is accus. of person and ZgcbeE is gen. of thing agreed on. >ith such collateral support as that afforded by B. BP. and B. A99. -HC 9 have no hesitation in departing from (.!%o. my usual guide. The idiom above treated runs through $.!%. 8ld %a&on and other Teutonic languages and should be noticed in the le&icons. 1.6 ZBrdden!mJlE is regarded by most scholars as meaning a damaskeened sword. Translate# "he damaskeened s!ord burned up. :f. .0 ,3 and note. 146 Z:yning!baldeE B,340C is the much!disputed reading of =. and Th. To render this Onobly bold P Oexcellently bold P have been suggested. B. would read Zcyning!holdeE Bcf. .-/C and render# 3en !ell disposed to!ards the king carried the head, etc. Z:ynebealde E says t.B. endorsing Gr.

??V. BEO*ULF BRINGS HIS TROPHIES.; HROTHGAR7S GRATITUDE.


Beowulf relates his last e&ploit.

Beowulf spake offspring of Ecgtheow# O"o\ we blithely have brought thee bairn of (ealfdene Prince of the %cyldings these presents from ocean >hich thine eye looketh on for an emblem of glory. 9 came off alive from this narrowly Escaping# 9n war Eneath the water the work with great pains 9 Performed and the fight had been finished Iuite nearly (ad God not defended me. 9 failed in the battle $ught to accomplish aided by (runting
,/ 0

Though that weapon was worthy but the >ielder of earth!folk Gave me willingly to see on the wall a (eavy old hand!sword hanging in splendor B(e guided most often the lorn and the friendlessC That 9 swung as a weapon. The wards of the house then
,0 God was fighting with me.

9 killed in the conflict Bwhen occasion was given meC. Then the battle!sword burned the brand that was lifted $s the blood!current sprang hottest of war!sweatsM %eiKing the hilt from my foes 9 offbore itM 9 avenged as 9 ought to their acts of malignity The murder of *anemen. 9 then make thee this promise
(eorot is freed from monsters. ./

ThouElt be able in (eorot careless to slumber >ith thy throng of heroes and the thanes of thy people Every and each of greater and lesser $nd thou needest not fear for them from the selfsame direction $s thou formerly fearedst oh folk!lord of %cyldings End!day for earlmen.P To the age!hoary man then
The famous sword is presented to (rothgar. .0

The gray!haired chieftain the gold!fashioned sword!hilt 8ld!work of giants was thereupon givenM %ince the fall of the fiends it fell to the keeping 8f the wielder of *anemen the wonder!smithEs labor $nd the bad!mooded being abandoned this world then 8pponent of God victim of murder $nd also his motherM it went to the keeping 8f the best of the world!kings where waters encircle
4/

>ho the scot divided in %cylding dominion.


(rothgar looks closely at the old sword.

40

(rothgar discoursed the hilt he regarded The ancient heirloom where an old!time contentionEs Beginning was graven# the gurgling currents The flood slew thereafter the race of the giants They had proved themselves daring# that people was loth to
9t had belonged to a race hateful to God. G/

The "ord everlasting through lash of the billows The 'ather gave them final reIuital. %o in letters of rune on the clasp of the handle Gleaming and golden Etwas graven e&actly %et forth and said whom that sword had been made for 'inest of irons who first it was wrought for >reathed at its handle and gleaming with serpents. The wise one then said Bsilent they all wereC
(rothgar praises Beowulf. G0

%on of old (ealfdene# O(e may say unrefuted >ho performs Emid the folk!men fairness and truth BThe hoary old ruler remembers the pastC That better by birth is this bairn of the nobles\ Thy fame is e&tended through far!away countries Good friend Beowulf oEer all of the races
00 0/

Thou holdest all firmly hero!like strength with Prudence of spirit. 9Ell prove myself grateful $s before we agreed onM thou granted for long shalt Become a great comfort to kinsmen and comrades $ help unto heroes. (eremod became not
3/ (eremodEs career is again contrasted with BeowulfEs.

%uch to the %cyldings successors of EcgwelaM (e grew not to please them but grievous destruction $nd diresome death!woes to *anemen attractedM (e slew in anger his table!companions Trustworthy counsellors till he turned off lonely 'rom world!joys away wide!famous ruler# Though high!ruling heaven in hero!strength raised him 9n might e&alted him oEer men of all nations ?ade him supreme yet a murderous spirit Grew in his bosom# he gave then no ring!gems
$ wretched failure of a king to give no jewels to his retainers. H/ 30

To the *anes after customM endured he unjoyful %tanding the straits from strife that was raging "ongsome folk!sorrow. "earn then from this

"ay hold of virtue\ Though laden with winters 9 have sung thee these measures. ETis a marvel to tell it (ow all!ruling God from greatness of spirit Giveth wisdom to children of men ?anor and earlship# all things (e ruleth. (e often permitteth the mood!thought of man of The illustrious lineage to lean to possessions
5/ (rothgar moraliKes. H0

$llows him earthly delights at his manor $ high!burg of heroes to hold in his keeping ?aketh portions of earth!folk hear him $nd a wide!reaching kingdom so that wisdom failing him (e himself is unable to reckon its boundariesM (e liveth in lu&ury little debars him <or sickness nor age no treachery!sorrow Becloudeth his spirit conflict nowhere <o sword!hate appeareth but all of the world doth >end as he wishethM the worse he knoweth not
-/ 50

Till arrant arrogance inward pervading >a&eth and springeth when the warder is sleeping The guard of the soul# with sorrows encompassed Too sound is his slumber the slayer is near him >ho with bow and arrow aimeth in malice.
1,6 8r rather perhaps Zthe inlaid, or damaskeened !eapon.E :f. .G 0H and note.

??VI. HROTHGAR )ORALI1ES.;REST AFTER LABOR.


$ wounded spirit.

OThen bruised in his bosom he with bitter!toothed missile 9s hurt Eneath his helmet# from harmful pollution (e is powerless to shield him by the wonderful mandates 8f the loath!curs]d spiritM what too long he hath holden (im seemeth too small savage he hoardeth <or boastfully giveth gold!plated rings 1 The fate of the future flouts and forgetteth %ince God had erst given him greatness no little >ielder of Glory. (is end!day anear
,/ 0

9t afterward happens that the bodily!dwelling 'leetingly fadeth falls into ruinsM $nother lays hold who doleth the ornaments The noblemanEs jewels nothing lamenting (eedeth no terror. 8h Beowulf dear

Best of the heroes from bale!strife defend thee $nd choose thee the better counsels eternalM
Be not over proud# life is fleeting and its strength soon wasteth away.

,0

Beware of arrogance world!famous champion\ But a little!while lasts thy life!vigorEs fulnessM ETwill after hap early that illness or sword!edge %hall part thee from strength or the grasp of the fire 8r the wave of the current or clutch of the edges 8r flight of the war!spear or age with its horrors 8r thine eyesE bright flashing shall fade into darkness# ETwill happen full early e&cellent hero
(rothgar gives an account of his reign. .0 ./

That death shall subdue thee. %o the *anes a half!century 9 held under heaven helped them in struggles EGainst many a race in middle!earthEs regions >ith ash!wood and edges that enemies none 8n earth molested me. "o\ offsetting change now :ame to my manor grief after joyance >hen Grendel became my constant visitor 9nveterate hater# 9 from that malice :ontinually travailed with trouble no little. Thanks be to God that 9 gained in my lifetime
40 %orrow after joy. 4/

To the "ord everlasting to look on the gory (ead with mine eyes after long!lasting sorrow\ Go to the bench now battle!adorn]d +oy in the feasting# of jewels in common >eEll meet with many when morning appeareth.P The Geatman was gladsome ganged he immediately To go to the bench as the clever one bade him. Then again as before were the famous!for!prowess (all!inhabiters handsomely banIueted 'easted anew. The night!veil fell then
G0 G/

*ark oEer the warriors. The courtiers rose thenM The gray!haired was an&ious to go to his slumbers The hoary old %cylding. (ankered the Geatman The champion doughty greatly to rest him# $n earlman early outward did lead him
0/ Beowulf is fagged and seeks rest.

'agged from his faring from far!country springing >ho for etiIuetteEs sake all of a liegemanEs <eeds regarded such as seamen at that time >ere bounden to feel. The big!hearted restedM The building uptowered spacious and gilded

The guest within slumbered till the sable!clad raven Blithely foreboded the beacon of heaven. Then the bright!shining sun oEer the bottoms came goingM8 The warriors hastened the heads of the peoples >ere ready to go again to their peoples
The Geats prepare to leave *ane!land. 3/

00

The high!mooded farer would faraway thenceward "ook for his vessel. The valiant one bade then 9 8ffspring of Ecglaf off to bear (runting To take his weapon his well!beloved ironM (e him thanked for the gift saying good he accounted
30 ;nferth asks Beowulf to accept his sword as a gift. Beowulf thanks him.

The war!friend and mighty nor chid he with words then The blade of the brand# Etwas a brave!mooded hero. >hen the warriors were ready arrayed in their trappings The atheling dear to the *anemen advanced then 8n to the dais where the other was sitting Grim!mooded hero greeted =ing (rothgar.
1,6 =. says Zproudly giveth.ETGr. says ZAnd gives no gold plated rings, in order to incite the recipient to boastfulness .ETB. suggests ZgyldE for Zgylp E and renders# And gives no beaten rings for re!ard. 1.6 9f %.Es emendation be accepted v. 0H will read# "hen came the light, going bright after darkness4 the !arriors, etc. 146 $s the passage stands in (.!%o. ;nferth presents Beowulf with the sword (runting and B. thanks him for the gift. 9f however the suggestions of Grdtvg. and ?. be accepted the passage will read# "hen the brave one 1 i.e. (eo!ulf2 commanded that Hrunting be borne to the son of Ecglaf 18nferth2, bade him take his s!ord, his dear !eapon/ he 1(.2 thanked him 18.2 for the loan, etc . H/

??VII. SORRO* AT PARTING.


BeowulfEs farewell.

Beowulf spake EcgtheowEs offspring# O>e men of the water wish to declare now 'ared from far!lands weEre firmly determined To seek =ing (igelac. (ere have we fitly Been welcomed and feasted as heart would desire itM Good was the greeting. 9f greater affection 9 am anywise able ever on earth to Gain at thy hands ruler of heroes Than yet 9 have done 9 shall Iuickly be ready
9 shall be ever ready to aid thee. ,/ 0

'or combat and conflict. 8Eer the course of the waters "earn 9 that neighbors alarm thee with terror $s haters did whilom 9 hither will bring thee 'or help unto heroes henchmen by thousands.
?y liegelord will encourage me in aiding thee.

9 know as to (igelac the lord of the Geatmen Though young in years he yet will permit me By words and by works ward of the people 'ully to furnish thee forces and bear thee ?y lance to relieve thee if liegemen shall fail thee $nd help of my hand!strengthM if (rethric be treating
./ ,0

Bairn of the king at the court of the Geatmen (e thereat may find him friends in abundance# 'araway countries he were better to seek for >ho trusts in himself.P (rothgar discoursed then ?aking rejoinder# OThese words thou hast uttered $ll!knowing God hath given thy spirit\
8 Beowulf thou art wise beyond thy years. .0

<eEer heard 9 an earlman thus early in life ?ore clever in speaking# thouErt cautious of spirit ?ighty of muscle in mouth!answers prudent. 9 count on the hope that happen it ever That missile shall rob thee of (rethelEs descendant Edge!horrid battle and illness or weapon *eprive thee of prince of peopleEs protector
%hould (igelac die the Geats could find no better successor than thou wouldst make. 4/

$nd life thou yet holdest the %ea!Geats will never 'ind a more fitting folk!lord to choose them
40

Gem!ward of heroes than thou mightest prove thee 9f the kingdom of kinsmen thou carest to govern. Thy mood!spirit likes me the longer the better Beowulf dear# thou hast brought it to pass that To both these peoples peace shall be common To Geat!folk and *anemen the strife be suspended The secret assailings they suffered in yore!daysM $nd also that jewels be shared while 9 govern The wide!stretching kingdom and that many shall visit 8thers oEer the ocean with e&cellent gift!gems#
G0 Thou hast healed the ancient breach between our races. G/

The ring!adorned bark shall bring oEer the currents Presents and love!gifts. This people 9 know TowErd foeman and friend firmly established 1 $fter ancient etiIuette everywise blameless.P Then the warden of earlmen gave him still farther =insman of (ealfdene a doKen of jewels Bade him safely seek with the presents (is well!beloved people early returning.
Parting gifts 0/

Then the noble!born king kissed the distinguished *ear!lov]d liegeman the *ane!prince saluted him
00

(rothgar kisses Beowulf and weeps.

$nd clasp]d his neckM tears from him fell 'rom the gray!headed man# he two things e&pected $g]d and reverend but rather the second 8 That bold in council theyEd meet thereafter. The man was so dear that he failed to suppress the Emotions that moved him but in mood!fetters fastened
The old king is deeply grieved to part with his benefactor. 3/

The long!famous hero longeth in secret *eep in his spirit for the dear!beloved man Though not a blood!kinsman. Beowulf thenceward Gold!splendid warrior walked oEer the meadows E&ulting in treasure# the sea!going vessel )iding at anchor awaited its owner. $s they pressed on their way then the present of (rothgar
Giving liberally is the true proof of kingship. 30

>as freIuently referred to# a folk!king indeed that Everyway blameless till age did debar him The joys of his might which hath many oft injured.
1,6 'or Zgeworhte E the cru& of this passage B. proposes Zgegdhte E rendering# 0 kno! this people !ith firm thought every !ay blameless to!ards foe and friends. 1.6 %. and B. emend so as to negative the verb Zmeet.E O>hy should (rothgar weep if he e&pects to meet Beowulf againNP both these scholars ask. But the weeping is mentioned before the Ze&pectationsE# the tears may have been due to many emotions especially gratitude struggling for e&pression. H/

??VIII. THE HO)E*ARD 'OURNEY.;THE T*O @UEENS.


Then the band of very valiant retainers :ame to the currentM they were clad all in armor
The coast!guard again.

9n link!woven burnies. The land!warder noticed The return of the earlmen as he erstwhile had seen themM <owise with insult he greeted the strangers 'rom the naKe of the cliff but rode on to meet themM %aid the bright!armored visitors1 vesselward traveled >elcome to >eders. The wide!bosomed craft then "ay on the sand laden with armor
,/ 0

>ith horses and jewels the ring!stemm]d sailer# The mast uptowered oEer the treasure of (rothgar.

To the boat!ward a gold!bound brand he presented That he was afterwards honored on the ale!bench more highly $s the heirloomEs owner. 8%et he out on his vessel
,0

Beowulf gives the guard a handsome sword.

To drive on the deep *ane!country left he. $long by the mast then a sea!garment fluttered $ rope!fastened sail. The sea!boat resounded The wind oEer the waters the wave!floater nowise =ept from its journeyM the sea!goer traveled The foamy!necked floated forth oEer the currents The well!fashioned vessel oEer the ways of the ocean
The Geats see their own land again. ./

Till they came within sight of the cliffs of the Geatmen The well!known headlands. The wave!goer hastened *riven by breeKes stood on the shore. Prompt at the ocean the port!ward was ready >ho long in the past outlooked in the distance 9 $t waterEs!edge waiting well!lov]d heroesM (e bound to the bank then the broad!bosomed vessel 'ast in its fetters lest the force of the waters
4/ The port!warden is an&iously looking for them. .0

%hould be able to injure the ocean!wood winsome. Bade he up then take the treasure of princes Plate!gold and fretworkM not far was it thence To go off in search of the giver of jewels# (rethelEs son (igelac at home there remaineth : (imself with his comrades close to the sea!coast. The building was splendid the king heroic Great in his hall (ygd very young was
(ygd the noble Iueen of (igelac lavish of gifts. 40

'ine!mooded clever though few were the winters That the daughter of (Jreth had dwelt in the boroughM But she nowise was cringing nor niggard of presents 8f ornaments rare to the race of the Geatmen.
8ffaEs consort Thrytho is contrasted with (ygd. G/

Thrytho nursed anger e&cellent< folk!Iueen (ot!burning hatred# no hero whatever E?ong household companions her husband e&cepted *ared to adventure to look at the woman >ith eyes in the daytimeM= but he knew that death!chains (and!wreathed were wrought him# early thereafter >hen the hand!strife was over edges were ready That fierce!raging sword!point had to force a decision
0/ %he is a terror to all save her husband. G0

?urder!bale show. %uch no womanly custom 'or a lady to practise though lovely her person That a weaver!of!peace on pretence of anger $ belov]d liegeman of life should deprive. %oothly this hindered (emingEs kinsmanM 8ther ale!drinking earlmen asserted That fearful folk!sorrows fewer she wrought them Treacherous doings since first she was given $dorned with gold to the war!hero youthful 'or her origin honored when 8ffaEs great palace
3/ 00

8Eer the fallow flood by her fatherEs instructions %he sought on her journey where she afterwards fully 'amed for her virtue her fate on the kingEs!seat Enjoyed in her lifetime love did she hold with The ruler of heroes the best it is told me 8f all of the earthmen that oceans encompass 8f earl!kindreds endlessM hence 8ffa was famous 'ar and widely by gifts and by battles %pear!valiant heroM the home of his fathers (e governed with wisdom whence EomJr did issue
H/ 30

'or help unto heroes (emingEs kinsman Grandson of Garmund great in encounters.
1,6 'or ZscawanE B,5-3C ZscabanE has been proposed. $ccepting this we may render# He said the bright armored !arriors !ere going to their vessel, !elcome, etc. B:f. ,5/G.C 1.6 ). suggests ZGew_t him on naca E and renders# "he vessel set out, to drive on the sea, the Dane country left. Z8nE bears the alliterationM cf. Zon hafuE B.0.GC. This has some advantages over the (.!%o. readingM viK. B,C 9t adds nothing to the te&tM B.C it makes ZnacaE the subject and thus brings the passage into keeping with the conte&t where the poet has e&hausted his vocabulary in detailing the actions of the vessel.TB.Es emendation Bcf. P. and B. A99. -HC is violent. 146 B. translates# )ho for a long time, ready at the coast, had looked out into the distance eagerly for the dear men. This changes the synta& of ZlUofra manna.E 1G6 'or ZwunabE Bv. ,-.GC several eminent critics suggest ZwunadeE BRremainedC. This makes the passage much clearer. 106 >hy should such a woman be described as an Ze&cellentE IueenN :. suggests ZfrUcnuE R dangerous bold. 136 'or Zan dJgesE various readings have been offered. 9f Zand!UgesE be accepted the sentence will read# +o hero 6 dared look upon her, eye to eye . 9f Z_n!dJgesE be adopted translate# Dared look upon her the !hole day.

??I?. BEO*ULF AND HIGELAC.


Then the brave one departed his band along with him %eeking the sea!shore the sea!marches treading
Beowulf and his party seek (igelac.

The wide!stretching shores. The world!candle glimmered The sun from the southwardM they proceeded then onward Early arriving where they heard that the troop!lord 8ngentheowEs slayer e&cellent youthful 'olk!prince and warrior was distributing jewels :lose in his castle. The coming of Beowulf >as announced in a message Iuickly to (igelac
,/ 0

That the folk!troopEs defender forth to the palace The linden!companion alive was advancing %ecure from the combat courtward a!going. The building was early inward made ready 'or the foot!going guests as the good one had ordered. (e sat by the man then who had lived through the struggle =insman by kinsman when the king of the people (ad in lordly language saluted the dear one
Lueen (ygd receives the heroes. Beowulf sits by his liegelord. ,0

9n words that were formal. The daughter of (Jreth :oursed through the building carrying mead!cups#1 %he loved the retainers tendered the beakers To the high!minded Geatmen. (igelac Egan then
(igelac is greatly interested in BeowulfEs adventures. ./

Pleasantly plying his companion with Iuestions 9n the high!towering palace. $ curious interest Tormented his spirit what meaning to see in The %ea!GeatsE adventures# OBeowulf worthy
Give an account of thy adventures Beowulf dear. .0

(ow throve your journeying when thou thoughtest suddenly 'ar oEer the salt!streams to seek an encounter $ battle at (eorotN (ast bettered for (rothgar The famous folk!leader his far!published sorrows $ny at allN 9n agony!billows
?y suspense has been great. 4/

9 mused upon torture distrusted the journey 8f the belov]d liegemanM 9 long time did pray thee By no means to seek out the murderous spirit To suffer the %outh!*anes themselves to decide on8 Grappling with Grendel. To God 9 am thankful To be suffered to see thee safe from thy journey.P
Beowulf narrates his adventures. 40

Beowulf answered bairn of old Ecgtheow# OETis hidden by no means (igelac chieftain 'rom many of men the meeting so famous
G/

>hat mournful moments of me and of Grendel >ere passed in the place where he pressing affliction 8n the Fictory!%cyldings scathefully brought $nguish foreverM that all 9 aveng]d %o that any under heaven of the kinsmen of Grendel <eedeth not boast of that cry!in!the!morning >ho longest liveth of the loth!going kindred 9 Encompassed by moorland. 9 came in my journey To the royal ring!hall (rothgar to greet there#
(rothgar received me very cordially. GrendelEs kindred have no cause to boast. G0

%oon did the famous scion of (ealfdene >hen he understood fully the spirit that led me $ssign me a seat with the son of his bosom. The troop was in joyanceM mead!glee greater E<eath arch of the ether not ever beheld 9
The Iueen also showed up no little honor. 0/

E?id hall!building holders. The highly!famed Iueen Peace!tie of peoples oft passed through the building :heered the young troopersM she oft tendered a hero $ beautiful ring!band ere she went to her sitting.
(rothgarEs lovely daughter. 00

8ft the daughter of (rothgar in view of the courtiers To the earls at the end the ale!vessel carried >hom 'reaware 9 heard then hall!sitters title >hen nail!adorned jewels she gave to the heroes#
%he is betrothed to 9ngeld in order to unite the *anes and (eathobards. 3/

Gold!bedecked youthful to the glad son of 'roda (er faith has been plightedM the friend of the %cyldings The guard of the kingdom hath given his sanction : $nd counts it a vantage for a part of the Iuarrels $ portion of hatred to pay with the woman. < %omewhere not rarely when the ruler has fallen The life!taking lance rela&eth its fury 'or a brief breathing!spell though the bride be charming\
1,6 Z?eodu!scencumE B,-5,C some would render Z !ith mead pourers.E Translate then# "he daughter of H9reth !ent through the building accompanied by mead pourers. 1.6 %ee my note to ,0-- supra and B. in P. and B. A99. -H. 146 'or Zfenne E supplied by Grdtvg. B. suggests Zf_cneE Bcf. +ul. 40/C. $ccepting this translate# )ho longest lives of the hated race, steeped in treachery. 1G6 %ee note to v. ,0-- above. 106 This is perhaps the least understood sentence in the poem almost every word being open to dispute. B,C The ZndE of our te&t is an emendation and is rejected by many scholars. B.C Z%eldanE is by some taken as an adv. BR seldomC and by others as a noun BR page companionC. B4C Z"Uod!hryre E some render Zfall of the peopleEM others Zfall of the prince.E BGC ZBcgeb E most scholars regard 30

as the intrans. verb meaning Zbend E ZrestEM but one great scholar has translated it Zshall kill.E B0C Z(wJr E Fery recently has been attacked ZwJreE being suggested. B3C $s a corollary to the above the same critic proposes to drop ZoftE out of the te&t.Tt.B. suggests# 8ft seldan wJre after lUodhryre# lftle hwele bong_r bcgeb gUah sUo brfd duge R often has a treaty been 1thus2 struck, after a prince had fallen4 1but only2 a short time is the spear 1then2 !ont to rest, ho!ever excellent the bride may be.

???. BEO*ULF NARRATES HIS ADVENTURES TO HIGELAC.


O9t well may discomfit the prince of the (eathobards $nd each of the thanemen of earls that attend him >hen he goes to the building escorting the woman That a noble!born *aneman the knights should be feasting#
0

There gleam on his person the leavings of elders (ard and ring!bright (eathobardsE treasure >hile they wielded their arms till they misled to the battle Their own dear lives and belov]d companions. (e saith at the banIuet who the collar beholdeth $n ancient ash!warrior who earlmenEs destruction :learly recalleth Bcruel his spiritC %adly beginneth sounding the youthful Thane!championEs spirit through the thoughts of his bosom >ar!grief to waken and this word!answer speaketh#
9ngeld is stirred up to break the truce. ,0 ,/

Z$rt thou able my friend to know when thou seest it The brand which thy father bare to the conflict 9n his latest adventure Eneath visor of helmet The dearly!loved iron where *anemen did slay him $nd brave!mooded %cyldings on the fall of the heroes B>hen vengeance was sleepingC the slaughter!place wieldedN EEen now some man of the murdererEs progeny E&ulting in ornaments enters the building Boasts of his blood!shedding offbeareth the jewel >hich thou shouldst wholly hold in possession\E
.0 ./

%o he urgeth and mindeth on every occasion >ith woe!bringing words till wa&eth the season >hen the womanEs thane for the works of his father The bill having bitten blood!gory sleepeth 'ated to perishM the other one thenceward E%capeth alive the land knoweth thoroughly.1 Then the oaths of the earlmen on each side are broken >hen rancors unresting are raging in 9ngeld $nd his wife!love wa&eth less warm after sorrow. %o the (eathobardsE favor not faithful 9 reckon
40 4/

Their part in the treaty not true to the *anemen Their friendship not fast. 9 further shall tell thee

(aving made these preliminary statements 9 will now tell thee of Grendel the monster.

?ore about Grendel that thou fully mayst hear 8rnament!giver what afterward came from The hand!rush of heroes. >hen heavenEs bright jewel 8Eer earthfields had glided the stranger came raging The horrible night!fiend us for to visit >here wholly unharmed the hall we were guarding.
(ondscio fell first G/

To (ondscio happened a hopeless contention *eath to the doomed one dead he fell foremost Girded war!championM to him Grendel became then To the vassal distinguished a tooth!weaponed murderer The well!beloved henchmanEs body all swallowed. <ot the earlier off empty of hand did The bloody!toothed murderer mindful of evils
0/ G0

>ish to escape from the gold!giverEs palace But sturdy of strength he strove to outdo me (and!ready grappled. $ glove was suspended %pacious and wondrous in art!fetters fastened >hich was fashioned entirely by touch of the craftman 'rom the dragonEs skin by the devilEs devices# (e down in its depths would do me unsadly 8ne among many deed!doer raging Though sinless he saw meM not so could it happen >hen 9 in my anger upright did stand.
3/ 00

ETis too long to recount how reIuital 9 furnished 'or every evil to the earlmenEs destroyerM ETwas there my prince that 9 proudly distinguished Thy land with my labors. (e left and retreated (e lived his life a little while longer#
30 9 reflected honor upon my people.

Yet his right!hand guarded his footstep in (eorot $nd sad!mooded thence to the sea!bottom fell he ?ournful in mind. 'or the might!rush of battle The friend of the %cyldings with gold that was plated >ith ornaments many much reIuited me
H/ =ing (rothgar lavished gifts upon me.

>hen daylight had dawned and down to the banIuet >e had sat us together. There was chanting and joyance# The age!stricken %cylding asked many Iuestions $nd of old!times relatedM oft light!ringing harp!strings +oy!telling wood were touched by the brave oneM

<ow he uttered measures mourning and truthful Then the large!hearted land!king a legend of wonder Truthfully told us. <ow troubled with years
The old king is sad over the loss of his youthful vigor.

H0

The age!hoary warrior afterward began to ?ourn for the might that marked him in youth!daysM (is breast within boiled when burdened with winters ?uch he remembered. 'rom morning till night then >e joyed us therein as etiIuette suffered Till the second night season came unto earth!folk. Then early thereafter the mother of Grendel
GrendelEs mother. 50 5/

>as ready for vengeance wretched she journeyedM (er son had death ravished the wrath of the Geatmen. The horrible woman aveng]d her offspring $nd with mighty mainstrength murdered a hero. There the spirit of [schere ag]d adviser
-/ [schere falls a prey to her vengeance.

>as ready to vanishM nor when morn had lightened >ere they anywise suffered to consume him with fire 'olk of the *anemen the death!weakened hero <or the belov]d liegeman to lay on the pyreM %he the corpse had offcarried in the clutch of the foeman8
-0 %he suffered not his body to be burned but ate it.

E<eath mountain!brookEs flood. To (rothgar Etwas saddest 8f pains that ever had preyed on the chieftainM By the life of thee the land!prince then me9 Besought very sadly in sea!currentsE eddies To display my prowess to peril my safety ?ight!deeds accomplishM much did he promise.
9 sought the creature in her den ,//

9 found then the famous flood!currentEs cruel (orrible depth!warder. $ while unto us two (and was in commonM the currents were seething >ith gore that was clotted and GrendelEs fierce motherEs (ead 9 offhacked in the hall at the bottom >ith huge!reaching sword!edge hardly 9 wrested ?y life from her clutchesM not doomed was 9 then
+ewels were freely bestowed upon me. and hewed her head off. ,/0

But the warden of earlmen afterward gave me +ewels in Iuantity kinsman of (ealfdene.
1,6 'or ZlifigendeE B./34C a mere conjecture ZwegendeE has been suggested. The line would then read# Escapeth by fighting, kno!s the land thoroughly.

1.6 'or ZfJbmum E Gr.Es conjecture B. proposes ZfJrunga.E These three half! verses would then read# She bore off the corpse of her foe suddenly under the mountain torrent. 146 The phrase Zgene lffeE B.,4.C was long rendered Z !ith thy 1presupposed2 permission.E The verse would read# "he land prince then sadly besought me, !ith thy 1presupposed2 permission, etc.

???I. GIFT6GIVING IS )UTUAL.


O%o the belov]d land!prince lived in decorumM 9 had missed no rewards no meeds of my prowess But he gave me jewels regarding my wishes (ealfdene his bairnM 9Ell bring them to thee then $theling of earlmen offer them gladly. $nd still unto thee is all my affection#1 But few of my folk!kin find 9 surviving But thee dear (igelac\P Bade he in then to carry8 The boar!image banner battle!high helmet
,/ $ll my gifts 9 lay at thy feet. 0

9ron!gray armor the e&cellent weapon 9n song!measures said# OThis suit!for!the!battle (rothgar presented me bade me e&pressly >ise!mooded atheling thereafter to tell thee9 The whole of its history said =ing (eregar owned it
,0 This armor 9 have belonged of yore to (eregar.

*ane!prince for long# yet he wished not to give then The mail to his son though dearly he loved him (ereward the hardy. (old all in joyance\P 9 heard that there followed hard on the jewels Two braces of stallions of striking resemblance *appled and yellowM he granted him usance 8f horses and treasures. %o a kinsman should bear him <o web of treachery weave for another <or by cunning craftiness cause the destruction
(igelac loves his nephew Beowulf. ./

8f trusty companion. ?ost precious to (igelac The bold one in battle was the bairn of his sister $nd each unto other mindful of favors.
Beowulf gives (ygd the necklace that >ealhtheow had given him. .0

9 am told that to (ygd he proffered the necklace >onder!gem rare that >ealhtheow gave him The troop!leaderEs daughter a trio of horses %lender and saddle!brightM soon did the jewel Embellish her bosom when the beer!feast was over. %o EcgtheowEs bairn brave did prove him
4/

>ar!famous man by deeds that were valiant (e lived in honor belov]d companions
40

Beowulf is famous.

%lew not carousingM his mood was not cruel But by hand!strength hugest of heroes then living The brave one retained the bountiful gift that The "ord had allowed him. "ong was he wretched %o that sons of the Geatmen accounted him worthless $nd the lord of the liegemen loth was to do him ?ickle of honor when mead!cups were passingM They fully believed him idle and sluggish
(e is reIuited for the slights suffered in earlier days. G/

$n indolent atheling# to the honor!blest man there :ame reIuital for the cuts he had suffered. The folk!troopEs defender bade fetch to the building The heirloom of (rethel embellished with gold
(igelac overwhelms the conIueror with gifts. G0

%o the brave one enjoined itM there was jewel no richer 9n the form of a weapon Emong Geats of that eraM 9n BeowulfEs keeping he placed it and gave him %even of thousands manor and lordship. :ommon to both was land Emong the people Estate and inherited rights and possessions To the second one specially spacious dominions To the one who was better. 9t afterward happened
00 0/

9n days that followed befell the battle!thanes $fter (igelacEs death and when (eardred was murdered >ith weapons of warfare Eneath well!covered targets >hen valiant battlemen in victor!band sought him >ar!%cylfing heroes harassed the nephew
3/ $fter (eardredEs death Beowulf becomes king.

8f (ereric in battle. To BeowulfEs keeping Turned there in time e&tensive dominions# (e fittingly ruled them a fifty of winters B(e a man!ruler wise was manor!ward oldC till $ certain one Egan on gloom!darkening nights a
The fire!drake. 30 (e rules the Geats fifty years.

*ragon to govern who guarded a treasure $ high!rising stone!cliff on heath that was grayish# $ path Eneath it lay unknown unto mortals. %ome one of earthmen entered the mountain The heathenish hoard laid hold of with ardorM
H/

7 7 7 7 7

7 7 7 7 7

7 7 7 7 7

7 7 7 7 7

7 7 7 7 7

7 7 7 7 7

7 7 7 7 7

1,6 This verse B. renders Z+o! serve 0 again thee alone as my gracious king.E 1.6 'or ZeaforE B.,04C =l. suggests Zealdor.E Translate then# (ade the prince then to bear in the banner, battle high helmet, etc . 8n the other hand >. takes ZeaforhUafodsegnE as a compound meaning ZhelmetE# He bade them bear in the helmet, battle high helm, gray armor, etc. 146 The (.!%o. rendering BJrest R history, originM ZeftE for ZestEC though liable to objection is perhaps the best offered. ZThat 9 should very early tell thee of his favor kindnessE sounds wellM but ZhisE is badly placed to limit ZUst.ETPerhaps ZeftE with verbs of saying may have the force of "at. prefi& Zre E and the (.!%o. reading mean Zthat 9 should its origin rehearse to thee.E

???II. THE HOARD AND THE DRAGON.


7 7 7 7 7 7 7 (e sought of himself who sorely did harm him But for need very pressing the servant of one of The sons of the heroes hate!blows evaded %eeking for shelter and the sin!driven warrior Took refuge within there. (e early looked in it 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 when the onset surprised him
The hoard. ,/ 0

(e a gem!vessel saw there# many of suchlike $ncient ornaments in the earth!cave were lying $s in days of yore some one of men of 9llustrious lineage as a legacy monstrous There had secreted them careful and thoughtful *ear!valued jewels. *eath had offsnatched them 9n the days of the past and the one man moreover 8f the flower of the folk who fared there the longest >as fain to defer it friend!mourning warder $ little longer to be left in enjoyment
./ ,0

8f long!lasting treasure.1 $ barrow all!ready %tood on the plain the stream!currents nigh to <ew by the ness!edge unnethe of approaching# The keeper of rings carried within a 8 Ponderous deal of the treasure of nobles 8f gold that was beaten briefly he spake then#9
The ring!giver bewails the loss of retainers. .0

O(old thou 8 Earth now heroes no more may

The earnings of earlmen. "o\ erst in thy bosom >orthy men won themM war!death hath ravished Perilous life!bale all my warriors "iegemen belov]d who this life have forsaken >ho hall!pleasures saw. <o sword!bearer have 9 $nd no one to burnish the gold!plated vessel The high!valued beaker# my heroes are vanished. The hardy helmet behung with gilding
40 4/

%hall be reaved of its riches# the ring!cleansers slumber >ho were charged to have ready visors!for!battle $nd the burnie that bided in battle!encounter 8Eer breaking of war!shields the bite of the edges ?oulds with the hero. The ring!twisted armor 9ts lord being lifeless no longer may journey (anging by heroesM harp!joy is vanished The rapture of glee!wood no e&cellent falcon %woops through the building no swift!footed charger Grindeth the gravel. $ grievous destruction
G0 G/

<o few of the world!folk widely hath scattered\P %o woful of spirit one after all "amented mournfully moaning in sadness By day and by night till death with its billows *ashed on his spirit. Then the ancient dusk!scather
0/ The fire!dragon

'ound the great treasure standing all open (e who flaming and fiery flies to the barrows <aked war!dragon nightly escapeth Encompassed with fireM men under heaven >idely beheld him. ETis said that he looks for: The hoard in the earth where old he is guarding The heathenish treasureM heEll be nowise the better.
The dragon meets his match. 00

%o three!hundred winters the waster of peoples (eld upon earth that e&cellent hoard!hall Till the forementioned earlman angered him bitterly# The beat!plated beaker he bare to his chieftain $nd fullest remission for all his remissness Begged of his liegelord. Then the hoard< was discovered The treasure was taken his petition was granted
The hero plunders the dragonEs den 3/

The lorn!mooded liegeman. (is lord regarded The old!work of earth!folkTEtwas the earliest occasion.
30

>hen the dragon awoke the strife was renewed thereM (e snuffed Elong the stone then stout!hearted found he The footprint of foemanM too far had he gone >ith cunning craftiness close to the head of The fire!spewing dragon. %o undoomed he may Escape from $nguish and e&ile with ease who possesseth The favor of (eaven. The hoard!warden eagerly %earched oEer the ground then would meet with the person That caused him sorrow while in slumber reclining#
H0 H/

Gleaming and wild he oft went round the cavern $ll of it outwardM not any of earthmen >as seen in that desert.= Yet he joyed in the battle )ejoiced in the conflict# oft he turned to the barrow %ought for the gem!cupM> this he soon perceived then That some man or other had discovered the gold The famous folk!treasure. <ot fain did the hoard!ward >ait until eveningM then the ward of the barrow >as angry in spirit the loath]d one wished to Pay for the dear!valued drink!cup with fire.
50 The dragon perceives that some one has disturbed his treasure. 5/

Then the day was done as the dragon would have it (e no longer would wait on the wall but departed 'ire!impelled flaming. 'earful the start was To earls in the land as it early thereafter To their giver!of!gold was grievously ended.
1,6 'or Zlong!gestrUona E B. suggests Zl_engestrUona E and renders %f fleeting treasures. %. accepts (.Es Zlong!gestrUona E but renders "he treasure long in accumulating. 1.6 'or Zhard!fyrdneE B..G3C B. first suggested Zhard!fyndne E rendering# A heap of treasures 6 so great that its e-ual !ould be hard to find . The same scholar suggests later Zhord!wynne dJlE R A deal of treasure #oy. 146 %ome read Zfec!wordE B..GHC and render# (anning !ords uttered. 1G6 $n earlier reading of (.Es gave the following meaning to this passage# He is said to inhabit a mound under the earth, !here he, etc. The translation in the te&t is more authentic. 106 The repetition of ZhordE in this passage has led some scholars to suggest new readings to avoid the second Zhord.E This however is not under the main stress and it seems to me might easily be accepted. 136 The reading of (.!%o. is well defended in the notes to that volume. B. emends and renders# +or !as there any man in that desert !ho re#oiced in conflict, in battle !ork. That is the hoard!ward could not find any one who had disturbed his slumbers for no warrior was there t.B.Es emendation would give substantially the same translation. 1H6 Z%inc!fJtE B.4/,C# this word both here and in v. ..4. t.B. renders Ztreasure.E The dragon is infuriated.

???III. BRAVE THOUGH AGED.;RE)INISCENCES.


The dragon spits fire.

The stranger began then to vomit forth fire To burn the great manorM the blaKe then glimmered 'or anguish to earlmen not anything living >as the hateful air!goer willing to leave there. The war of the worm widely was noticed The feud of the foeman afar and anear (ow the enemy injured the earls of the Geatmen (arried with hatred# back he hied to the treasure To the well!hidden cavern ere the coming of daylight.
,/ 0

(e had circled with fire the folk of those regions >ith brand and burningM in the barrow he trusted 9n the wall and his war!might# the weening deceived him. Then straight was the horror to Beowulf published Early forsooth that his own native homestead 1
,0 Beowulf hears of the havoc wrought by the dragon.

The best of buildings was burning and melting Gift!seat of Geatmen. ETwas a grief to the spirit 8f the good!mooded hero the greatest of sorrows# The wise one weened then that wielding his kingdom EGainst the ancient commandments he had bitterly angered
./ (e fears that (eaven is punishing him for some crime.

The "ord everlasting# with lorn meditations (is bosom welled inward as was nowise his custom. The fire!spewing dragon fully had wasted The fastness of warriors the water!land outward The manor with fire. The folk!ruling hero Prince of the >eders was planning to wreak him. The warmenEs defender bade them to make him EarlmenEs atheling an e&cellent war!shield
(e orders an iron shield to be made from him wood is useless. .0

>holly of iron# fully he knew then That wood from the forest was helpless to aid him %hield against fire. The long!worthy ruler ?ust live the last of his limited earth!days 8f life in the world and the worm along with him Though he long had been holding hoard!wealth in plenty.
(e determines to fight alone. 4/

Then the ring!prince disdained to seek with a war!band >ith army e&tensive the air!going rangerM (e felt no fear of the foemanEs assaults and (e counted for little the might of the dragon (is power and prowess# for previously dared he
BeowulfEs early triumphs referred to 40

$ heap of hostility haKarded dangers >ar!thane when (rothgarEs palace he cleans]d :onIuering combatant clutched in the battle The kinsmen of Grendel of kindred detested.8
(igelacEs death recalled. G/

ETwas of hand!fights not least where (igelac was slaughtered >hen the king of the Geatmen with clashings of battle 'riend!lord of folks in 'risian dominions 8ffspring of (rethrel perished through sword!drink >ith battle!swords beatenM thence Beowulf came then 8n self!help relying swam through the watersM (e bare on his arm lone!going thirty
0/ G0

8utfits of armor when the ocean he mounted. The (etwars by no means had need to be boastful 8f their fighting afoot who forward to meet him :arried their war!shields# not many returned from The brave!mooded battle!knight back to their homesteads. EcgtheowEs bairn oEer the bight!courses swam then "one!goer lorn to his land!folk returning >here (ygd to him tendered treasure and kingdom
(eardredEs lack of capacity to rule. 00

)ings and dominion# her son she not trusted To be able to keep the kingdom devised him EGainst alien races on the death of =ing (igelac.
BeowulfEs tact and delicacy recalled. 3/

Yet the sad ones succeeded not in persuading the atheling 9n any way ever to act as a suKerain To (eardred or promise to govern the kingdomM Yet with friendly counsel in the folk he sustained him Gracious with honor till he grew to be older
)eference is here made to a visit which Beowulf receives from Eanmund and Eadgils why they come is not known. 30

>ielded the >eders. >ide!fleeing outlaws 8hthereEs sons sought him oEer the waters# They had stirred a revolt Egainst the helm of the %cylfings The best of the sea!kings who in %wedish dominions
H/

*istributed treasure distinguished folk!leader. ETwas the end of his earth!daysM injury fatal9 By swing of the sword he received as a greeting 8ffspring of (igelacM 8ngentheowEs bairn "ater departed to visit his homestead >hen (eardred was deadM let Beowulf rule them
H0

Govern the Geatmen# good was that folk!king.


1,6 Z(_mE B.4.3C the suggestion of B. is accepted by t.B. and other scholars. 1.6 'or Zl_ban cynnesE B.400C t.B. suggests Zl_ban cynne E apposition to ZmJgum.E 'rom syntactical and other considerations this is a most e&cellent emendation. 146 Gr. read Zon feormeE B.453C rendering# He there at the ban-uet a fatal !ound received by blo!s of the s!ord.

???IV. BEO*ULF SEE-S THE DRAGON.; BEO*ULF7S RE)INISCENCES.


(e planned reIuital for the folk!leaderEs ruin 9n days thereafter to Eadgils the wretched Becoming an enemy. 8hthereEs son then >ent with a war!troop oEer the wide!stretching currents
0

>ith warriors and weapons# with woe!journeys cold he $fter avenged him the kingEs life he took. %o he came off uninjured from all of his battles Perilous fights offspring of Ecgtheow 'rom his deeds of daring till that day most momentous
,/ Beowulf has been preserved through many perils.

>hen he fate!driven fared to fight with the dragon. >ith eleven companions the prince of the Geatmen >ent lowering with fury to look at the fire!drake# 9nIuiring heEd found how the feud had arisen (ate to his heroesM the highly!famed gem!vessel
,0 >ith eleven comrades he seeks the dragon.

>as brought to his keeping through the hand of thE informer. That in the throng was thirteenth of heroes That caused the beginning of conflict so bitter :aptive and wretched must sad!mooded thenceward
very reluctantly. $ guide leads the way but

Point out the place# he passed then unwillingly To the spot where he knew of the notable cavern The cave under earth not far from the ocean The anger of eddies which inward was full of +ewels and wires# a warden uncanny >arrior weaponed wardered the treasure
.0 ./

8ld under earthM no easy possession 'or any of earth!folk access to get to. Then the battle!brave atheling sat on the naKe!edge >hile the gold!friend of Geatmen gracious saluted (is fireside!companions# woe was his spirit
4/

*eath!boding wavEringM >eird very near him >ho must seiKe the old hero his soul!treasure look for *ragging aloof his life from his body# <ot flesh!hidden long was the folk!leaderEs spirit. Beowulf spake EcgtheowEs son# O9 survived in my youth!days many a conflict (ours of onset# that all 9 remember. 9 was seven!winters old when the jewel!prince took me (igh!lord of heroes at the hands of my father (rethel the hero!king had me in keeping
(rethel took me when 9 was seven. G/ BeowulfEs retrospect. 40

Gave me treasure and feasting our kinship rememberedM <ot ever was 9 any less dear to him =night in the boroughs than the bairns of his household (erebald and (Jthcyn and (igelac mine. To the eldest unjustly by acts of a kinsman
G0 (e treated me as a son.

>as murder!bed strewn since him (Jthcyn from horn!bow (is sheltering chieftain shot with an arrow Erred in his aim and injured his kinsman 8ne brother the other with blood!sprinkled spear#
<o fee could compound for such a calamity. 8ne of the brothers accidentally kills another.

ETwas a feeless fight finished in malice %ad to his spiritM the folk!prince however (ad to part from e&istence with vengeance untaken.
1$ parallel case is supposed.6 0/

%o to hoar!headed hero Etis heavily crushing1 To live to see his son as he rideth Young on the gallows# then measures he chanteth $ song of sorrow when his son is hanging 'or the ravenEs delight and aged and hoary (e is unable to offer any assistance. Every morning his offspringEs departure 9s constant recalled# he cares not to wait for
3/ 00

The birth of an heir in his borough!enclosures %ince that one through death!pain the deeds hath e&perienced. (e heart!grieved beholds in the house of his son the >ine!building wasted the wind!lodging places )eaved of their roaringM the riders are sleeping The knights in the graveM thereEs no sound of the harp!wood +oy in the yards as of yore were familiar.
30

1,6 ZGomelum ceorleE B.GG0C.T(. takes these words as referring to (rethelM but the translator here departs from his editor by understanding the poet to refer to a hypothetical old man introduced as an illustration of a fatherEs sorrow. (rethrel had certainly never seen a son of his ride on the gallows to feed the crows. The passage beginning Zsw_ bib gUomorlicE seems to be an effort to reach a full simile Zas ` so.E Z$s it is mournful for an old man etc. ` so the defence of the >eders B.G34C bore heart!sorrow etc.E The verses .G0, to .G34i would be parenthetical the poetEs feelings being so strong as to interrupt the simile. The punctuation of the fourth edition would be betterTa comma after ZgalganE B.GGHC. The translation may be indicated as follows# 1,ust2 as it is sad for an old man to see his son ride young on the gallo!s !hen he himself is uttering mournful measures, a sorro!ful song, !hile his son hangs for a comfort to the raven, and he, old and infirm, cannot render him any kelp:1he is constantly reminded, etc., ;<=> ;<?@2:so the defence of the )eders, etc.

???V. RE)INISCENCES AcontinuedB.; BEO*ULF7S LAST BATTLE.


O(e seeks then his chamber singeth a woe!song 8ne for the otherM all too e&tensive %eemed homesteads and plains. %o the helm of the >eders
(rethel grieves for (erebald.

?indful of (erebald heart!sorrow carried %tirred with emotion nowise was able To wreak his ruin on the ruthless destroyer# (e was unable to follow the warrior with hatred >ith deeds that were direful though dear he not held him. Then pressed by the pang this pain occasioned him
,/ 0

(e gave up glee God!light electedM (e left to his sons as the man that is rich does (is land and fortress when from life he departed. Then was crime and hostility Etwi&t %wedes and Geatmen 8Eer wide!stretching water warring was mutual
,0 %trife between %wedes and Geats.

Burdensome hatred when (rethel had perished $nd 8ngentheowEs offspring were active and valiant >ished not to hold to peace oversea but )ound (reosna!beorh often accomplished :ruelest massacre. This my kinsman aveng]d The feud and fury as Etis found on inIuiry Though one of them paid it with forfeit of life!joys
(JthcynEs fall at )avenswood. ./

>ith price that was hard# the struggle became then 'atal to (Jthcyn lord of the Geatmen. Then 9 heard that at morning one brother the other >ith edges of irons egged on to murder >here 8ngentheow maketh onset on Eofor# The helmet crashed the hoary!haired %cylfing %word!smitten fell his hand then remembered 'eud!hate sufficient refused not the death!blow.
9 reIuited him for the jewels he gave me. 4/ .0

The gems that he gave me with jewel!bright sword 9 ELuited in contest as occasion was offered# "and he allowed me life!joy at homestead ?anor to live on. "ittle he needed 'rom Gepids or *anes or in %weden to look for
40

Trooper less true with treasure to buy himM E?ong foot!soldiers ever in front 9 would hie me $lone in the vanguard and evermore gladly >arfare shall wage while this weapon endureth That late and early often did serve me >hen 9 proved before heroes the slayer of *Jghrefn =night of the (ugmen# he by no means was suffered To the king of the 'risians to carry the jewels The breast!decorationM but the banner!possessor Bowed in the battle brave!mooded atheling.
G0 Beowulf refers to his having slain *Jghrefn. G/

<o weapon was slayer but war!grapple broke then The surge of his spirit his body destroying. <ow shall weaponEs edge make war for the treasure $nd hand and firm!sword.P Beowulf spake then Boast!words utteredTthe latest occasion# O9 braved in my youth!days battles unnumberedM %till am 9 willing the struggle to look for 'ame!deeds perform folk!warden prudent 9f the hateful despoiler forth from his cavern %eeketh me out\P Each of the heroes
00 (e boasts of his youthful prowess and declares himself still fearless. 0/

(elm!bearers sturdy he thereupon greeted Belov]d co!liegemenThis last salutation# O<o brand would 9 bear no blade for the dragon >ist 9 a way my word!boast to Ecomplish1 Else with the monster as with Grendel 9 did itM
3/ (is last salutations.

But fire in the battle hot 9 e&pect there 'urious flame!burning# so 9 fi&ed on my body Target and war!mail. The ward of the barrow8 9Ell not flee from a foot!length the foeman uncanny. $t the wall Etwill befall us as 'ate decreeth Each oneEs :reator. 9 am eager in spirit >ith the wing]d war!hero to away with all boasting. Bide on the barrow with burnies protected
>ait ye here till the battle is over. "et 'ate decide between us. 30

Earls in armor which of us two may better Bear his disaster when the battle is over. ETis no matter of yours and man cannot do it But me and me only to measure his strength with The monster of malice might!deeds to Ecomplish. 9 with prowess shall gain the gold or the battle *ireful death!woe will drag off your ruler\P
H0 H/

The mighty champion rose by his shield then Brave under helmet in battle!mail went he E<eath steep!rising stone!cliffs the strength he relied on 8f one man alone# no work for a coward. Then he saw by the wall who a great many battles (ad lived through most worthy when foot!troops collided
The place of strife is described. 5/

%tone!arches standing stout!hearted champion %aw a brook from the barrow bubbling out thenceward# The flood of the fountain was fuming with war!flame# <ot nigh to the hoard for season the briefest :ould he brave without burning the abyss that was yawning The drake was so fiery. The prince of the >eders :aused then that words came from his bosom %o fierce was his furyM the firm!hearted shouted# (is battle!clear voice came in resounding
-/ 50

E<eath the gray!colored stone. %tirred was his hatred The hoard!ward distinguished the speech of a manM Time was no longer to look out for friendship. The breath of the monster issued forth first Fapory war!sweat out of the stone!cave#
The terrible encounter. -0 Beowulf calls out under the stone arches.

The earth re!echoed. The earl Eneath the barrow "ifted his shield lord of the Geatmen TowErd the terrible stranger# the ring!twisted creatureEs (eart was then ready to seek for a struggle. The e&cellent battle!king first brandished his weapon
,// Beowulf brandishes his sword

The ancient heirloom of edges unblunted 9 To the death!planners twain was terror from other. The lord of the troopers intrepidly stood then EGainst his high!rising shield when the dragon coiled him
The dragon coils himself. and stands against his shield.

Luickly together# in corslet he bided. (e went then in blaKes bended and striding (asting him forward. (is life and body The targe well protected for time!period shorter Than wish demanded for the well!renowned leader >here he then for the first day was forced to be victor
,,/ ,/0

'amous in battle as 'ate had not willed it. The lord of the Geatmen uplifted his hand then %miting the fire!drake with sword that was precious

That bright on the bone the blade!edge did weaken Bit more feebly than his folk!leader needed Burdened with bale!griefs. Then the barrow!protector
The dragon rages ,,0

>hen the sword!blow had fallen was fierce in his spirit 'linging his fires flamings of battle Gleamed then afar# the gold!friend of >eders Boasted no conIuests his battle!sword failed him
,./ BeowulfEs sword fails him.

<aked in conflict as by no means it ought to "ong!trusty weapon. ETwas no slight undertaking That EcgtheowEs famous offspring would leave The drake!cavernEs bottomM he must live in some region 8ther than this by the will of the dragon $s each one of earthmen e&istence must forfeit. ETwas early thereafter the e&cellent warriors
The combat is renewed. ,.0

?et with each other. $new and afresh The hoard!ward took heart Bgasps heaved then his bosomC# %orrow he suffered encircled with fire
,4/ The great hero is reduced to e&tremities.

>ho the people erst governed. (is companions by no means >ere banded about him bairns of the princes >ith valorous spirit but they sped to the forest %eeking for safety. The soul!deeps of one were
Blood is thicker than water. (is comrades flee\

)uffled by care# kin!love can never $ught in him waver who well doth consider.
1,6 The clause .0./B.C!.0..B,C rendered by Z>ist 9 ` monster E Gr. followed by %. translates substantially as follows# 0f 0 kne! ho! else 0 might combat the boastful defiance of the monster.TThe translation turns upon Zwibgrepan E a word not understood. 1.6 B. emends and translates# 0 !ill not flee the space of a foot from the guard of the barro!, but there shall be to us a fight at the !all, as fate decrees, each one's .reator. 146 The translation of this passage is based on Zunsl_wE B.030C accepted by (.! %o. in lieu of the long!standing ZunglUaw.E The former is taken as an adj. limiting ZsweordEM the latter as an adj. c. Zgcb!cyningE# "he good !ar king, rash !ith edges, brandished his s!ord, his old relic. The latter gives a more rhetorical $nglo!%a&on BpoeticalC sentence. ,40

???VI. *IGLAF THE TRUSTY.;BEO*ULF IS DESERTED BY FRIENDS AND BY S*ORD.


>iglaf remains trueTthe ideal Teutonic liegeman.

The son of >eohstan was >iglaf entitled %hield!warrior precious prince of the %cylfings [lfhereEs kinsman# he saw his dear liegelord Enduring the heat Eneath helmet and visor. Then he minded the holding that erst he had given him
>iglaf recalls BeowulfEs generosity. 0

The >Jgmunding warriorsE wealth!bless]d homestead Each of the folk!rights his father had wieldedM (e was hot for the battle his hand seiKed the target The yellow!bark shield he unsheathed his old weapon >hich was known among earthmen as the relic of Eanmund 8hthereEs offspring whom e&iled and friendless >eohstan did slay with sword!edge in battle $nd carried his kinsman the clear!shining helmet The ring!made burnie the old giant!weapon
,0 ,/

That 8nela gave him his boon!fellowEs armor )eady war!trappings# he the feud did not mention Though heEd fatally smitten the son of his brother. ?any a half!year held he the treasures The bill and the burnie till his bairn became able "ike his father before him fame!deeds to EcomplishM Then he gave him Emong Geatmen a goodly array of >eeds for his warfareM he went from life then 8ld on his journey. ETwas the earliest time then
This is >iglafEs first battle as liegeman of Beowulf. ./

That the youthful champion might charge in the battle $iding his liegelordM his spirit was dauntless. <or did kinsmanEs beIuest Iuail at the battle# This the dragon discovered on their coming together. >iglaf uttered many a right!saying %aid to his fellows sad was his spirit#
>iglaf appeals to the pride of the cowards. 4/ .0

O9 remember the time when tasting the mead!cup >e promised in the hall the lord of us all >ho gave us these ring!treasures that this battle!eIuipment %words and helmets weEd certainly Iuite him %hould need of such aid ever befall him# 9n the war!band he chose us for this journey spontaneously %tirred us to glory and gave me these jewels %ince he held and esteemed us trust!worthy spearmen (ardy helm!bearers though this hero!achievement 8ur lord intended alone to accomplish
G/ (ow we have forfeited our liegelordEs confidence\ 40

>ard of his people for most of achievements

*oings audacious he did among earth!folk. The day is now come when the ruler of earthmen <eedeth the vigor of valiant heroes# "et us wend us towards him the war!prince to succor
G0 8ur lord is in sore need of us.

>hile the heat yet rageth horrible fire!fight. God wot in me Etis mickle the liefer The blaKe should embrace my body and eat it >ith my treasure!bestower. ?eseemeth not proper To bear our battle!shields back to our country
0/ 9 would rather die than go home with out my suKerain.

E"ess first we are able to fell and destroy the "ong!hating foeman to defend the life of The prince of the >eders. >ell do 9 know EtisnEt Earned by his e&ploits he only of Geatmen %orrow should suffer sink in the battle#
00 %urely he does not deserve to die alone.

Brand and helmet to us both shall be common 1 %hield!cover burnie.P Through the bale!smoke he stalked then >ent under helmet to the help of his chieftain Briefly discoursing# OBeowulf dear Perform thou all fully as thou formerly saidst
3/ >iglaf reminds Beowulf of his youthful boasts.

9n thy youthful years that while yet thou livedst Thou wouldst let thine honor not ever be lessened. Thy life thou shalt save mighty in actions $theling undaunted with all of thy vigorM 9Ell give thee assistance.P The dragon came raging
30 The monster advances on them.

>ild!mooded stranger when these words had been uttered BETwas the second occasionC seeking his enemies ?en that were hated with hot!gleaming fire!wavesM >ith blaKe!billows burned the board to its edges# The fight!armor failed then to furnish assistance To the youthful spear!hero# but the young!ag]d stripling Luickly advanced Eneath his kinsmanEs war!target %ince his own had been ground in the grip of the fire.
Beowulf strikes at the dragon. H/

Then the warrior!king was careful of glory (e soundly smote with sword!for!the!battle That it stood in the head by hatred drivenM <Jgling was shivered the old and iron!made
(is sword fails him. H0

Brand of Beowulf in battle deceived him. ETwas denied him that edges of irons were able To help in the battleM the hand was too mighty >hich every weapon as 9 heard on inIuiry 8utstruck in its stroke when to struggle he carried The wonderful war!sword# it wa&ed him no better.
8

5/

The dragon advances on Beowulf again.

Then the people!despoilerTthird of his onsetsT 'ierce!raging fire!drake of feud!hate was mindful :harged on the strong one when chance was afforded (eated and war!grim seiKed on his neck >ith teeth that were bitterM he bloody did wa& with %oul!gore seethingM sword!blood in waves boiled.
1,6 The passage Z(rand 6 burnie E is much disputed. 9n the first place some eminent critics assume a gap of at least two half!verses.TZjrumE B.33/C being a peculiar form has been much discussed. ZByrdu!scrcdE is also a cru&. B. suggests Zbfwdu!scrcdE R splendid vestments. <or is Zb_mE accepted by all ZbUonE being suggested. >hatever the individual words the passage must mean O0 intend to share !ith him my e-uipments of defence.P 1.6 B. would render# )hich, as 0 heard, excelled in stroke every s!ord that he carried to the strife, even the strongest 1s!ord2. 'or Z^onneE he reads Z^one E rel. pr. 50

???VII. THE FATAL STRUGGLE.;BEO*ULF7S LAST )O)ENTS.


>iglaf defends Beowulf.

Then 9 heard that at need of the king of the people The upstanding earlman e&hibited prowess Figor and courage as suited his natureM 1 (e his head did not guard but the high!minded liegemanEs (and was consumed when he succored his kinsman %o he struck the strife!bringing strange!comer lower Earl!thane in armor that in went the weapon Gleaming and plated that Egan then the fire8
Beowulf draws his knife 0

"ater to lessen. The liegelord himself then )etained his consciousness brandished his war!knife Battle!sharp bitter that he bare on his armor#
and cuts the dragon. ,/

The >eder!lord cut the worm in the middle. They had felled the enemy Blife drove out then9 Puissant prowessC the pair had destroyed him "and!chiefs related# so a liegeman should prove him $ thaneman when needed. To the prince Etwas the last of
,0

(is era of conIuest by his own great achievements The latest of world!deeds. The wound then began >hich the earth!dwelling dragon erstwhile had wrought him
./ BeowulfEs wound swells and burns.

To burn and to swell. (e soon then discovered That bitterest bale!woe in his bosom was raging Poison within. The atheling advanced then That along by the wall he prudent of spirit ?ight sit on a settleM he saw the giant!work
.0 (e sits down e&hausted.

(ow arches of stone strengthened with pillars The earth!hall eternal inward supported. Then the long!worthy liegeman laved with his hand the 'ar!famous chieftain gory from sword!edge )efreshing the face of his friend!lord and ruler
4/ >iglaf bathes his lordEs head.

%ated with battle unbinding his helmet. Beowulf answered of his injury spake he (is wound that was fatal Bhe was fully aware (e had lived his allotted life!days enjoying The pleasures of earthM then past was entirely (is measure of days death very nearC#
Beowulf regrets that he has no son. 40

O?y son 9 would give now my battle!eIuipments (ad any of heirs been after me granted $long of my body. This people 9 governed 'ifty of winters# no king Emong my neighbors *ared to encounter me with comrades!in!battle Try me with terror. The time to me ordered 9 bided at home mine own kept fitly %ought me no snares swore me not many
9 can rejoice in a well!spent life. G/

8aths in injustice. +oy over all this 9Em able to have though ill with my death!woundsM (ence the )uler of Earthmen need not charge me >ith the killing of kinsmen when cometh my life out 'orth from my body. 'are thou with haste now
Bring me the hoard >iglaf that my dying eyes may be refreshed by a sight of it. G0

To behold the hoard Eneath the hoar!grayish stone


0/

>ell!lov]d >iglaf now the worm is a!lying %ore!wounded sleepeth disseiKed of his treasure. Go thou in haste that treasures of old 9

Gold!wealth may gaKe on together see lying The ether!bright jewels be easier able (aving the heap of hoard!gems to yield my "ife and the land!folk whom long 9 have governed.P
1,6 B. renders# He B).C did not regard his Bthe dragon'sC head Bsince Beowulf had struck it without effectC but struck the dragon a little lo!er do!n.: 8ne cru& is to find out !hose head is meantM another is to bring out the antithesis between ZheadE and Zhand.E 1.6 Z^Jt gJt ffrE B.H/.C %. emends to Zg_ gJt ffrE R !hen the fire began to gro! less intense after!ard. This emendation relieves the passage of a plethora of conjunctive A9tEs. 146 'or ZgefyldanE B.H/HC %. proposes Zgefylde.E The passage would read# He felled the foe 1life drove out strength2, and they then both had destroyed him, chieftains related. This gives Beowulf the credit of having felled the dragonM then they combine to annihilate him.T'or ZellenE B.H/HC =l. suggests ZeBaCllne.ETThe reading Zlife drove out strengthE is very unsatisfactory and very peculiar. 9 would suggest as follows# $dopt %.Es emendation remove (.Es parenthesis read Zferh!ellen wrJc E and translate# He felled the foe, drove out his life strength Bthat is made him hors de combatC and then they both, etc. 00

???VIII. *IGLAF PLUNDERS THE DRAGON7S DEN. ;BEO*ULF7S DEATH.


>iglaf fulfils his lordEs behest.

Then heard 9 that >ihstanEs son very Iuickly These words being uttered heeded his liegelord >ounded and war!sick went in his armor (is well!woven ring!mail Eneath the roof of the barrow. Then the trusty retainer treasure!gems many
The dragonEs den. 0

Fictorious saw when the seat he came near to Gold!treasure sparkling spread on the bottom >onder on the wall and the worm!creatureEs cavern The ancient dawn!flierEs vessels a!standing :ups of the ancients of cleansers bereav]d )obbed of their ornaments# there were helmets in numbers 8ld and rust!eaten arm!bracelets many $rtfully woven. >ealth can easily Gold on the sea!bottom turn into vanity1
,0 ,/

Each one of earthmen arm him who pleaseth\ $nd he saw there lying an all!golden banner (igh oEer the hoard of hand!wonders greatest "ink]d with lacets# a light from it sparkled That the floor of the cavern he was able to look on To e&amine the jewels. %ight of the dragon <ot any was offered but edge offcarried him.
The dragon is not there. ./

Then 9 heard that the hero the hoard!treasure plundered The giant!work ancient reaved in the cavern Bare on his bosom the beakers and platters
.0

>iglaf bears the hoard away.

$s himself would fain have it and took off the standard The brightest of beaconsM8 the bill had erst injured B9ts edge was of ironC the old!rulerEs weapon (im who long had watched as ward of the jewels >ho fire!terror carried hot for the treasure )olling in battle in middlemost darkness Till murdered he perished. The messenger hastened <ot loth to return hurried by jewels# :uriosity urged him if e&cellent!mooded $live he should find the lord of the >eders
40 4/

?ortally wounded at the place where he left him. E?id the jewels he found then the famous old chieftain (is liegelord belov]d at his lifeEs!end gory# (e thereupon Egan to lave him with water Till the point of his word pierc]d his breast!hoard. Beowulf spake Bthe gold!gems he noticedC
Beowulf is rejoiced to see the jewels. G/

The old one in sorrow# O'or the jewels 9 look on Thanks do 9 utter for all to the )uler >ielder of >orship with words of devotion The "ord everlasting that (e let me such treasures Gain for my people ere death overtook me. %ince 9Eve bartered the ag]d life to me granted 'or treasure of jewels attend ye henceforward
(e desires to be held in memory by his people. G0

The wants of the war!thanesM 9 can wait here no longer. The battle!famed bid ye to build them a grave!hill Bright when 9Em burned at the brim!currentEs limitM $s a memory!mark to the men 9 have governed $loft it shall tower on >haleEs!<ess uprising That earls of the ocean hereafter may call it BeowulfEs barrow those who barks ever!dashing
00 0/

'rom a distance shall drive oEer the darkness of waters.P The bold!mooded troop!lord took from his neck then The ring that was golden gave to his liegeman The youthful war!hero his gold!flashing helmet (is collar and war!mail bade him well to enjoy them#
and last words. 3/ The heroEs last gift

OThou art latest left of the line of our kindred 8f >Jgmunding people# >eird hath offcarried $ll of my kinsmen to the :reatorEs glory Earls in their vigor# 9 shall after them fare.P ETwas the aged liegelordEs last!spoken word in (is musings of spirit ere he mounted the fire The battle!waves burning# from his bosom departed (is soul to seek the sainted onesE glory.
1,6 The word ZoferhegianE B.H3HC being vague and little understood two Iuite distinct translations of this passage have arisen. 8ne takes ZoferhegianE as meaning Zto e&ceed E and inserting ZhordE after Zgehwone E renders# "he treasure may easily, the gold in the ground, exceed in value every hoard of man, hide it !ho !ill. The other takes ZoferhegianE as meaning Zto render arrogant E and giving the sentence a moraliKing tone renders substantially as in the body of this work. B:f. .5 ,4 et seI.C 1.6 The passage beginning here is very much disputed. ZThe bill of the old lordE is by some regarded as BeowulfEs swordM by others as that of the ancient possessor of the hoard. Z[r gescddE B.HH5C translated in this work as verb and adverb is by some regarded as a compound participial adj. R sheathed in brass. 30

???I?. THE DEAD FOES.;*IGLAF7S BITTER TAUNTS.


9t had wofully chanced then the youthful retainer To behold on earth the most ardent!belov]d $t his life!daysE limit lying there helpless. The slayer too lay there of life all bereav]d
0 >iglaf is sorely grieved to see his lord look so un!warlike.

(orrible earth!drake harassed with sorrow# The round!twisted monster was permitted no longer To govern the ring!hoards but edges of war!swords ?ightily seiKed him battle!sharp sturdy "eavings of hammers that still from his wounds
,/ The dragon has plundered his last hoard.

The flier!from!farland fell to the earth (ard by his hoard!house hopped he at midnight <ot eEer through the air nor e&ulting in jewels %uffered them to see him# but he sank then to earthward Through the hero!chiefEs handwork. 9 heard sure it throve then But few in the land of liegemen of valor Though of every achievement bold he had proved him To run Egainst the breath of the venomous scather 8r the hall of the treasure to trouble with hand!blows 9f he watching had found the ward of the hoard!hall
./ 'ew warriors dared to face the monster. ,0

8n the barrow abiding. BeowulfEs part of The treasure of jewels was paid for with deathM Each of the twain had attained to the end of "ife so unlasting. <ot long was the time till The tardy!at!battle returned from the thicket
.0 The cowardly thanes come out of the thicket.

The timid truce!breakers ten all together >ho durst not before play with the lances 9n the prince of the peopleEs pressing emergencyM But blushing with shame with shields they betook them >ith arms and armor where the old one was lying#
4/ They are ashamed of their desertion.

They gaKed upon >iglaf. (e was sitting e&hausted 'oot!going fighter not far from the shoulders 8f the lord of the people would rouse him with waterM <o whit did it help himM though he hoped for it keenly (e was able on earth not at all in the leader "ife to retain and nowise to alter The will of the >ielderM the >orld!)ulerEs power1 >ould govern the actions of each one of heroes
>iglaf is ready to e&coriate them. 40

$s yet (e is doing. 'rom the young one forthwith then :ould grim!worded greeting be got for him Iuickly >hose courage had failed him. >iglaf discoursed then >eohstan his son sad!mooded hero
(e begins to taunt them. G/

"ooked on the hated# O(e who soothness will utter :an say that the liegelord who gave you the jewels The ornament!armor wherein ye are standing >hen on ale!bench often he offered to hall!men (elmet and burnie the prince to his liegemen $s best upon earth he was able to find him T
%urely our lord wasted his armor on poltroons. G0

That he wildly wasted his war!gear undoubtedly >hen battle oEertook him.8 The troop!king no need had To glory in comradesM yet God permitted him
(e however got along without you 0/

Fictory!>ielder with weapon unaided (imself to avenge when vigor was needed. 9 life!protection but little was able To give him in battle and 9 Egan notwithstanding (elping my kinsman Bmy strength overta&ingC# (e wa&ed the weaker when with weapon 9 smote on
>ith some aid 9 could have saved our liegelord 00

?y mortal opponent the fire less strongly 'lamed from his bosom. Too few of protectors :ame round the king at the critical moment. <ow must ornament!taking and weapon!bestowing (ome!joyance all cease for your kindred 'ood for the peopleM each of your warriors ?ust needs be bereav]d of rights that he holdeth 9n landed possessions when faraway nobles
30 Gift!giving is over with your people# the ring!lord is dead. 3/

%hall learn of your leaving your lord so basely The dastardly deed. *eath is more pleasant To every earlman than infamous life is\P
1,6 'or ZdJdum rJdanE B.50-C B. suggests ZdUab _rJdan E and renders# "he might 1or #udgment2 of $od !ould determine death for every man, as he still does. 1.6 %ome critics (. himself in earlier editions put the clause Z>hen ` himE B$.! %. Zg_ ` begetEC with the following sentenceM that is they make it dependent upon ZgorfteE B.5H0C instead of upon ZforwurpeE B.5H4C. >hat is life without honorN

?L. THE )ESSENGER OF DEATH.


Then he charged that the battle be announced at the hedge ;p oEer the cliff!edge where the earl!troopers bided The whole of the morning mood!wretched sat them Bearers of battle!shields both things e&pecting
0 >iglaf sends the news of BeowulfEs death to liegemen near by.

The end of his lifetime and the coming again of The liegelord belov]d. "ittle reserved he 8f news that was known who the ness!cliff did travel But he truly discoursed to all that could hear him# O<ow the free!giving friend!lord of the folk of the >eders
,/ The messenger speaks.

The folk!prince of Geatmen is fast in his death!bed By the deeds of the dragon in death!bed abidethM $long with him lieth his life!taking foeman %lain with knife!wounds# he was wholly unable To injure at all the ill!planning monster >ith bite of his sword!edge. >iglaf is sitting 8ffspring of >ihstan up over Beowulf Earl oEer another whose end!day hath reached him (ead!watch holdeth oEer heroes unliving 1
8ur lordEs death will lead to attacks from our old foes. >iglaf sits by our dead lord. ,0

'or friend and for foeman. The folk now e&pecteth $ season of strife when the death of the folk!king To 'rankmen and 'risians in far!lands is published. The war!hatred wa&ed warm Egainst the (ugmen
(igelacEs death recalled. ./

>hen (igelac came with an army of vessels 'aring to 'riesland where the 'rankmen in battle (umbled him and bravely with overmight Ecomplished That the mail!clad warrior must sink in the battle 'ell Emid his folk!troop# no fret!gems presented The atheling to earlmenM aye was denied us ?erewingEs mercy. The men of the %wedelands
4/ .0

'or truce or for truth trust 9 but littleM But widely Etwas known that near )avenswood 8ngentheow %undered (Jthcyn the (rethling from life!joys >hen for pride overweening the >ar!%cylfings first did %eek the Geatmen with savage intentions.
(JthcynEs fall referred to.

Early did 8hthereEs age!laden father 8ld and terrible give blow in reIuital =illing the sea!king the Iueen!mother rescued The old one his consort deprived of her gold 8nelaEs mother and 8hthereEs also
G/

40

$nd then followed the feud!nursing foemen till hardly )eaved of their ruler they )avenswood entered. Then with vast!numbered forces he assaulted the remnant >eary with wounds woe often promised The livelong night to the sad!hearted war!troop# %aid he at morning would kill them with edges of weapons %ome on the gallows for glee to the fowls. $id came after to the an&ious!in!spirit $t dawn of the day after (igelacEs bugle $nd trumpet!sound heard they when the good one proceeded
0/ G0

$nd faring followed the flower of the troopers.


1,6 Z(ige!mUbumE B.-,/C is glossed by (. as dat. plu. BR for the deadC. %. proposes Zhige!mUbe E nom. sing. limiting >igl_fM i.e. )., mood !eary, holds head !atch o'er friend and foe .TB. suggests taking the word as dat. inst. plu. of an abstract noun in !Zu.E The translation would be substantially the same as %.Es.

?LI. THE )ESSENGER7S RETROSPECT.


The messenger continues and refers to the feuds of %wedes and Geats.

OThe blood!stain]d trace of %wedes and Geatmen The death!rush of warmen widely was noticed (ow the folks with each other feud did awaken. The worthy one went then1 with well!beloved comrades 8ld and dejected to go to the fastness 8ngentheo earl upward then turned himM 8f (igelacEs battle heEd heard on inIuiry The e&ultant oneEs prowess despaired of resistance >ith earls of the ocean to be able to struggle
,/ 0

EGainst sea!going sailors to save the hoard!treasure (is wife and his childrenM he fled after thenceward 8ld Eneath the earth!wall. Then was offered pursuance To the braves of the %wedemen the banner8 to (igelac. They fared then forth oEer the field!of!protection >hen the (rethling heroes hedgeward had thronged them. Then with edges of irons was 8ngentheow driven The gray!haired to tarry that the troop!ruler had to %uffer the power solely of Eofor#
,0

>ulf then wildly with weapon assaulted him


./

>ulf wounds 8ngentheow.

>onred his son that for swinge of the edges The blood from his body burst out in currents 'orth Eneath his hair. (e feared not however Gray!headed %cylfing but speedily Iuited The wasting wound!stroke with worse e&change
.0 8ngentheow gives a stout blow in return.

>hen the king of the thane!troop thither did turn him# The wise!mooded son of >onred was powerless To give a return!blow to the age!hoary man But his head!shielding helmet first hewed he to pieces That flecked with gore perforce he did totter 'ell to the earthM not fey was he yet then But up did he spring though an edge!wound had reached him.
Eofor smites 8ngentheow fiercely. 4/

Then (igelacEs vassal valiant and dauntless >hen his brother lay dead made his broad!bladed weapon Giant!sword ancient defence of the giants Bound oEer the shield!wallM the folk!prince succumbed then
8ngentheow is slain. 40

%hepherd of people was pierced to the vitals. There were many attendants who bound up his kinsman :arried him Iuickly when occasion was granted That the place of the slain they were suffered to manage. This pending one hero plundered the other (is armor of iron from 8ngentheow ravished (is hard!sword hilted and helmet togetherM
Eofor takes the old kingEs war!gear to (igelac. G/

The old oneEs eIuipments he carried to (igelac. (e the jewels received and rewards Emid the troopers Graciously promised and so did accomplish# The king of the >eders reIuited the war!rush (rethelEs descendant when home he repaired him
(igelac rewards the brothers. G0

To Eofor and >ulf with wide!lavished treasures To each of them granted a hundred of thousands 9n land and rings wrought out of wire#
(is gifts were beyond cavil. 0/

<one upon mid!earth needed to twit him9 >ith the gifts he gave them when glory they conIueredM $nd to Eofor then gave he his one only daughter
To Eofor he also gives his only daughter in marriage.

The honor of home as an earnest of favor. ThatEs the feud and hatredTas ween 9 Etwill happenT The anger of earthmen that earls of the %wedemen >ill visit on us when they hear that our leader "ifeless is lying he who longtime protected (is hoard and kingdom Egainst hating assailers
3/ 00

>ho on the fall of the heroes defended of yore The deed!mighty %cyldings : did for the troopers >hat best did avail them and further moreover (ero!deeds Ecomplished. <ow is haste most fitting That the lord of liegemen we look upon yonder
30 9t is time for us to pay the last marks of respect to our lord.

$nd that one carry on journey to death!pyre >ho ring!presents gave us. <ot aught of it all %hall melt with the brave oneTthereEs a mass of bright jewels Gold beyond measure grewsomely purchased $nd ending it all ornament!rings too Bought with his lifeM these fire shall devour 'lame shall cover no earlman shall wear $ jewel!memento nor beautiful virgin (ave on her neck rings to adorn her But wretched in spirit bereav]d of gold!gems
H0 H/

%he shall oft with others be e&iled and banished %ince the leader of liegemen hath laughter forsaken ?irth and merriment. (ence many a war!spear :old from the morning shall be clutched in the fingers (eaved in the hand no harp!musicEs sound shall >aken the warriors but the wan!coated raven 'ain over fey ones freely shall gabble %hall say to the eagle how he sped in the eating >hen the wolf his companion he plundered the slain.P %o the high!minded hero was rehearsing these stories
50 5/

"oathsome to hearM he lied as to few of >eirds and of words. $ll the war!troop arose then E<eath the EagleEs :ape sadly betook them >eeping and woful the wonder to look at. They saw on the sand then soulless a!lying
-/ The warriors go sadly to look at BeowulfEs lifeless body.

(is slaughter!bed holding him who rings had given them 9n days that were doneM then the death!bringing moment >as come to the good one that the king very warlike >ielder of >eders with wonder!death perished.

'irst they beheld there a creature more wondrous The worm on the field in front of them lying The foeman before them# the fire!spewing dragon Ghostly and grisly guest in his terrors >as scorched in the fireM as he lay there he measured 'ifty of feetM came forth in the night!time<
,// They also see the dragon. -0

To rejoice in the air thereafter departing To visit his denM he in death was then fastened (e would joy in no other earth!hollowed caverns. There stood round about him beakers and vessels *ishes were lying and dear!valued weapons >ith iron!rust eaten as in earthEs mighty bosom $ thousand of winters there they had rested#
The hoard was under a magic spell. ,/0

That mighty beIuest then with magic was guarded Gold of the ancients that earlman not any The ring!hall could touch save )uling!God only %ooth!king of FictEries gave whom (e wished to
God alone could give access to it. ,,/

B(e is earth!folkEs protectorC to open the treasure EEen to such among mortals as seemed to (im proper.
=

1,6 'or Zgdda E which seems a surprising epithet for a Geat to apply to the OterribleP 8ngentheow B. suggests Zgomela.E The passage would then stand# Z"he old one !ent then,' etc. 1.6 'or Zsegn (igel_ce E =. Th. and B. propose Zsegn (igel_ces E meaning# Higelac's banner follo!ed the S!edes 1in pursuit2. T%. suggests ZsJcc (igel_ces E and renders# Higelac's pursuit.TThe (.!%o. reading as translated in our te&t means that the banner of the enemy was captured and brought to (igelac as a trophy. 146 The rendering given in this translation represents the king as being generous beyond the possibility of reproachM but some authorities construe ZhimE B.--3C as plu. and understand the passage to mean that no one reproached the two brothers with having received more reward than they were entitled to. 1G6 The name Z%cyldingasE here B4//3C has caused much discussion and given rise to several theories the most important of which are as follows# B,C $fter the downfall of (rothgarEs family Beowulf was king of the *anes or %cyldings. B.C 'or Z%cyldingasE read Z%cylfingasETthat is after killing Eadgils the %cylfing prince Beowulf conIuered his land and held it in subjection. B4C ?. considers 4//3 a thoughtless repetition of ./04. B:f. (.!%o.C 106 B. takes ZnihtesE and ZhwelumE B4/G0C as separate adverbial cases and renders# ,oy in the air had he of yore by night, etc . (e thinks that the idea of vanished time ought to be e&pressed. 136 The parenthesis is by some emended so as to read# B,C B He Bi.e. $odC is the hope of menCM B.C Bhe is the hope of heroes C. Gr.Es reading has no parenthesis but says# ` could touch, unless $od himself, true king of victories, gave to !hom he !ould to open the treasure, the secret place of enchanters, etc . The last is rejected on many grounds.

?LII. *IGLAF7S SAD STORY.;THE HOARD CARRIED OFF.


Then Etwas seen that the journey prospered him little >ho wrongly within had the ornaments hidden1 *own Eneath the wall. The warden erst slaughtered %ome few of the folk!troop# the feud then thereafter
0

>as hotly aveng]d. ETis a wonder where 8 >hen the strength!famous trooper has attained to the end of "ife!days allotted then no longer the man may )emain with his kinsmen where mead!cups are flowing. %o to Beowulf happened when the ward of the barrow $ssaults he sought for# himself had no knowledge (ow his leaving this life was likely to happen. %o to doomsday famous folk!leaders down did :all it with cursesTwho Ecomplished it thereT That that man should be ever of ill!deeds convicted
,0 ,/

:onfined in foul!places fastened in hell!bonds Punished with plagues who this place should eEer ravage.9 (e cared not for gold# rather the >ielderEs 'avor preferred he first to get sight of.: >iglaf discoursed then >ihstan his son#
./ >iglaf addresses his comrades.

O8ft many an earlman on one manEs account must %orrow endure as to us it hath happened. The liegelord belov]d we could little prevail on =ingdomEs keeper counsel to follow <ot to go to the guardian of the gold!hoard but let him "ie where he long was live in his dwelling Till the end of the world. ?et we a destiny (ard to endure# the hoard has been looked at Been gained very grimlyM too grievous the fate that< The prince of the people pricked to come thither.
4/ .0

0 was therein and all of it looked at The buildingEs eIuipments since access was given me <ot kindly at all entrance permitted >ithin under earth!wall. (astily seiKed 9 $nd held in my hands a huge!weighing burden
40 (e tells them of BeowulfEs last moments.

8f hoard!treasures costly hither out bare them To my liegelord belov]d# life was yet in him

$nd consciousness alsoM the old one discoursed then ?uch and mournfully commanded to greet you Bade that remembering the deeds of your friend!lord
G/ BeowulfEs dying reIuest.

Ye build on the fire!hill of corpses a lofty Burial!barrow broad and far!famous $s Emid world!dwelling warriors he was widely most honored >hile he reveled in riches. "et us rouse us and hasten $gain to see and seek for the treasure The wonder Eneath wall. The way 9 will show you That close ye may look at ring!gems sufficient $nd gold in abundance. "et the bier with promptness 'ully be fashioned when forth we shall come $nd lift we our lord then where long he shall tarry
0/ G0

>ell!beloved warrior Eneath the >ielderEs protection.P Then the son of >ihstan bade orders be given ?ood!valiant man to many of heroes (olders of homesteads that they hither from far = "eaders of liegemen should look for the good one
00 >iglaf charges them to build a funeral!pyre.

>ith wood for his pyre# OThe flame shall now swallow BThe wan fire shall wa&>C the warriorsE leader >ho the rain of the iron often abided >hen sturdily hurled the storm of the arrows "eapt oEer linden!wall the lance rendered service 'urnished with feathers followed the arrow.P <ow the wise!mooded son of >ihstan did summon The best of the braves from the band of the ruler
(e takes seven thanes and enters the den. 3/

%even togetherM Eneath the enemyEs roof he >ent with the sevenM one of the heroes >ho fared at the front a fire!blaKing torch!light Bare in his hand. <o lot then decided >ho that hoard should havoc when hero!earls saw it "ying in the cavern uncared!for entirely )usting to ruin# they rued then but little
H/ 30

That they hastily hence hauled out the treasure The dear!valued jewelsM the dragon eke pushed they The worm oEer the wall let the wave!currents take him The waters enwind the ward of the treasures.
The hoard is laid on a wain. They push the dragon over the wall.

There wounden gold on a wain was uploaded

$ mass unmeasured the men!leader off then The hero hoary to >haleEs!<ess was carried.
1,6 'or Zgehfdde E B. suggests ZgehfbdeE# the passage would stand as above e&cept the change of ZhiddenE Bv. .C to Zplundered.E The reference however would be to the thief not to the dragon. 1.6 The passage Z>undur ` bcanE B4/34!4/33C ?. took to be a Iuestion asking whether it was strange that a man should die when his appointed time had come.TB. sees a corruption and makes emendations introducing the idea that a brave man should not die from sickness or from old age but should find death in the performance of some deed of daring.T%. sees an indirect Iuestion introduced by Zhw_rE and dependent upon ZwundurE# A secret is it !hen the hero is to die, etc.T>hy may the two clauses not be parallel and the whole passage an 8ld English cry of ZHo! !onderful is deathB'5T%.Es is the best yet offered if ZwundorE means Zmystery.E 146 'or ZstrudeE in (.!%o. %. suggests Zstride.E This would reIuire ZravageE Bv. ,3C to be changed to Ztread.E 1G6 Z(e cared ` sight ofE B,H ,5C %. emends so as to read as follows# He 1(eo!ulf2 had not before seen the favor of the avaricious possessor. 106 B. renders# "hat !hich dre! the king thither Bi.e. the treasureC !as granted us, but in such a !ay that it overcomes us. 136 Z'olc!_gendeE B4,,GC B. takes as dat. sing. with Zgddum E and refers it to BeowulfM that is Should bring fire !ood to the place !here the good folk ruler lay. 1H6 :. proposes to take Zwea&anE R ". Zvescor E and translate devour. This gives a parallel to ZfretanE above. The parenthesis would be discarded and the passage read# +o! shall the fire consume, the !an flame devour, the prince of !arriors, etc.

H0

?LIII. THE BURNING OF BEO*ULF.


The folk of the Geatmen got him then ready $ pile on the earth strong for the burning Behung with helmets hero!knightsE targets $nd bright!shining burnies as he begged they should have themM
0 BeowulfEs pyre.

Then wailing war!heroes their world!famous chieftain Their liegelord beloved laid in the middle. %oldiers began then to make on the barrow The largest of dead!fires# dark oEer the vapor The smoke!cloud ascended the sad!roaring fire
,/ The funeral!flame.

?ingled with weeping Bthe wind!roar subsidedC Till the building of bone it had broken to pieces (ot in the heart. (eavy in spirit They mood!sad lamented the men!leaderEs ruinM $nd mournful measures the much!grieving widow 7 7
,0

7 7

7 7

7 7

7 7

7 7

7 7

7 7 7 7
./

7 7 7 7

7 7 7 7

7 7 7 7

7 7 7 7

7 7 7 7

7 7 7 7

The >eders carry out their lordEs last reIuest.

The men of the >eders made accordingly $ hill on the height high and e&tensive 8f sea!going sailors to be seen from a distance $nd the brave oneEs beacon built where the fire was 9n ten!daysE space with a wall surrounded it $s wisest of world!folk could most worthily plan it. They placed in the barrow rings and jewels
)ings and gems are laid in the barrow. .0

$ll such ornaments as erst in the treasure >ar!mooded men had won in possession# The earnings of earlmen to earth they entrusted The gold to the dust where yet it remaineth $s useless to mortals as in foregoing eras. E)ound the dead!mound rode then the doughty!in!battle Bairns of all twelve of the chiefs of the people
They mourn for their lord and sing his praises. 40 4/

?ore would they mourn lament for their ruler %peak in measure mention him with pleasure >eighed his worth and his warlike achievements ?ightily commended as Etis meet one praise his "iegelord in words and love him in spirit >hen forth from his body he fares to destruction. %o lamented mourning the men of the Geats 'ond!loving vassals the fall of their lord
$n ideal king. G/

%aid he was kindest of kings under heaven Gentlest of men most winning of manner 'riendliest to folk!troops and fondest of honor.
G0

ADDENDA.
%everal discrepancies and other oversights have been noticed in the (.!%o. glossary. 8f these a good part were avoided by (arrison and %harp the $merican editors of Beowulf in their last edition ,555. The rest will 9 hope be noticed in their fourth edition. $s however this book may fall into the hands of some who have no copy of the $merican edition it seems best to notice all the principal oversights of the German editors. From hCm B,-GC.T<otes and glossary conflictM the latter not having been altered to suit the conclusions accepted in the former. D5r ,$lE3an .$al dr%h!n$ dFm$ BGG/C.T;nder ZddmE (. says Zthe might of the "ordEM while under ZgelffanE he says Zthe judgment of the "ord.E Eal &$n.G$l( BG53C.T;nder Zbenc!geluE (. says nom. plu.M while under ZealE he says nom. sing. H$a!ho6r5ma B0,-C.T;nder ZJtberanE (. translates Zto the (eathoremesEM while under Z(eatho!rJmasE he says Z(eathorJmas reaches Breca in the swimming!match with Beowulf.E (arrison and %harp B4d edition ,555C avoid the discrepancy. FCh 3Hond6 .aIa B00GC.T;nder ZfUond!scabaE (. says Za gleaming sea!monsterEM under Zf_hE he says Zhostile.E On3$n, hraI$ #n4#!6Gan.(m BHG-C.T;nder ZonfdnE (. says Zhe received the maliciously!disposed oneEM under Zinwit!gancE he says Zhe grasped E etc. NJI64(ndor Hon B,433C.T;nder Zneb!wundorE (. calls this word itself nom. sing.M under ZsUonE he translates it as accus. sing. understanding ZmanE as subject of ZsUon.E (. and %. B4d editionC make the correction. For,$a3 h#ld$6&#ll$ B,0.,C.T(. under the second word calls it instr. dat.M while under ZforgifanE he makes it the dat. of indir. obj. (. and %. B4d editionC make the change. BrCd and &rKn6$., B,0GHC.T;nder Zbr_dE (. says Zdas breite (Sftmesser mit bronKener =lingeEM under Zbrcn!ecgE he says Zihr breites (Sftmesser mit blitKender =linge.E YI$lJ.$ B,00HC.T;nder this word (. makes it modify Z_stdd.E 9f this be right the punctuation of the fifth edition is wrong. %ee (. and %. appendi&. SHlran ,$ Fh!$ B,5G/C.T;nder ZsUlE and ZgesUcanE (. calls these two words accus. plu.M but this is clearly an error as both are nom. plu. pred. nom. (. and %. correct under ZsUl.E *#I %l3n$ B,-H5C.T;nder ZwibE and ZgesittanE (. says Zwib R near byEM under ZselfE he says Zopposite.E GHo4 B...0C is omitted from the glossary. For d(,(I(m B.0/.C.T;nder ZdugubE (. translates this phrase Zin TSchtigkeitEM under Zfor E by Zvor der edlen =riegerschaar.E

G5r B.0HGC.T;nder ZwealdanE (. translates A9r by ZwoEM under Zmdtan E by Zda.E (. and %. suggest ZifE in both passages. *(nd$ B.H.3C.T;nder ZwundE (. says Zdative E and under ZwJl! blUateE he says Zaccus.E 9t is without doubt accus. parallel with Zbenne.E S!r$n,(m ,$&5d$d B4,,5C.T;nder ZstrengoE (. says Z%trengumE R mit ?achtM under ZgebJdedE he translates Zvon den %ehnen.E (. and %. correct this discrepancy by rejecting the second reading. Bronda &$ lC3$ B4,3.C.T$ recent emendation. The fourth edition had Zbronda betost.E 9n the fifth edition the editor neglects to change the glossary to suit the new emendation. %ee Zbewyrcan.E