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CHEMISTRY 12 Le Chateliers Principle When a system is in equilibrium, a delicate balance exists between reactants and products.

s. If stress is applied to a system, the balance is interrupted. However, Henri Le Chatelier stated that if a system at equilibrium undergoes a change, the system will shift to relieve the stress. hree types of stress! changes in "# concentration $# temperature %# pressure

"# Concentration! - adding a reactant always pushes a reversible reaction in the direction of products - removing a reactant always pulls a reversible reaction in the direction of the reactants he same principle applies to adding or removing products. &'emoval of products is a tric( used by chemists to increase the yield of products. )s products are removed, the system continuously restores equilibrium by creating new products.# * When concentration changes, the +eq remains the same $# emperature! - increasing the temperature causes the equilibrium position of a reaction to shift in the direction that absorbs heat - adding heat pulls the equilibrium to the left, favoring the reactants &therefore products decrease# for exothermic reaction - removing heat shifts the equilibrium to the right favoring products &therefore products increase# for exothermic reaction * ,ecause the concentration of reactants and products can change, then +eq changes with temperature changes.

%# -ressure! - a change in pressure will only affect an equilibrium position that has an unequal number of moles of gaseous reactants and products &only changes concentration, not +eq# - an increase in pressure on a gaseous system always favors a shift toward the side with the lowest number of total gaseous particles - a decrease in pressure favors highest number of total gaseous particles S mmar! of "aria#les $ffectin% Chemical E& ili#ri m .ariables Concentration /irection of Change Increase /ecrease emperature Increase /ecrease 1verall -ressure Increase 'esponse of 0ystem 0hifts to consume some of the added reactant or product 0hifts to replace some of the removed reactant or product 0hifts to consume some of the added heat 0hifts to replace some of the removed heat 0hifts toward the side with the smaller total amount of gaseous particles 0hifts toward the side with the larger total amount of gaseous particles

/ecrease

CHEMISTRY 12 LE CH$TELIERS PRI'CIPLE PR$CTICE PR()LEMS

"# What effect do the following changes have on the position of equilibrium for this reversible reaction2 -Cl3 &g# 4 heat -Cl% &g# 4 Cl$ &g# a# b# c# d# addition of Cl$ increase in pressure removal of heat removal of -Cl%, as it is formed

$# How is the equilibrium position of this reaction affected by the following changes2 C &s# 4 H$1 &g# 4 heat C1 &g# 4 H$ &g# a# lowering the temperature b# increasing the pressure c# removing H$ from the equilibrium mixture