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2011 Part B Mathematics Examination in Algebra. Inlcuding questions on Representation, Group and Character Theory

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DMCN 2641

DMPB 2641

SECOND PUBLIC EXAMINATION

Honour School of Mathematics Part B: Paper B2

Honour School of Mathematics and Computer Science Part B: Paper B2

Honour School of Mathematics and Philosophy Part B: Paper B2

ALGEBRA

Trinity Term 2011

Monday, 20 June 2011, 2.30pm to 5.30pm

You may submit answers to as many questions as you wish; the best two from each section

will count for the total mark.

You must start a new booklet for each question you attempt. Group together the booklets for

each section, and indicate on the front page of each group, the questions attempted. Attach all

groups of answer booklets together with the treasury tag provided. At least one booklet must be

handed in for each section.

1

Do not turn this page until you are told that you may do so

A. Introduction to Representation Theory

1. Let K be a ﬁeld and let A, B be ﬁnite dimensional K-algebras with n = dim

K

(A).

(a) Deﬁne the centre Z(A) of the algebra A. Let A = A

1

A

2

be the product of two

algebras A

1

and A

2

. Show that

Z(A) = Z(A

1

) Z(A

2

).

(b) (i) For a ∈ A, deﬁne the linear map ϕ

a

: A → A, given by ϕ

a

(x) = a x for x ∈ A.

Let M

a

be the matrix corresponding to ϕ

a

with respect to some ﬁxed basis B

of A. Show that

ψ : A → M

n

(K), a → M

a

is an injective algebra homomorphism.

(ii) Let B be a subalgebra of A, is Z(B) ⊆ Z(A)? Justify your answer.

(c) Assume now that A is a semisimple algebra over the ﬁeld of complex numbers. Let

z ∈ Z(A) be nilpotent (that is, there exists n ∈ N

1

with z

n

= 0). Prove that z = 0.

[Any standard theorems may be used if stated carefully.]

2. Let A be a ﬁnite dimensional algebra over the ﬁeld K of complex numbers, let M be a left

A-module. Note that the algebra A carries both a left and a right A-module structure.

(a) (i) State the Jordan–H¨older Theorem for A-modules.

(ii) On the vector space V := Hom

A

(M, A), we deﬁne the action

V A → V, (f, x) → f x

with (f x)(m) := f(m) x for all x ∈ A, f ∈ V and m ∈ M.

Show that f x is an A-module homomorphism.

Show that V is a right A-module.

(iii) Let A be a simple algebra, and assume that M is a simple A-module. Determine

the dimension of the right A-module

V

M

:= Hom

A

(M, A) (1)

(with respect to some representation theoretical data of the algebra A).

Is V

M

a simple A-module? Justify your answer.

(b) Let A be the 3-dimensional algebra of upper triangular 2 2 matrices.

(i) Give a composition series of the left regular A-module A. Give a decomposition

of the left regular A-module A as a direct sum of indecomposable A-modules.

[Only brief explanations are required.]

(ii) Describe two non-isomorphic simple left A-modules S

1

and S

2

(by giving a

vector space basis and the action of A on this basis). Determine the composition

factors in your composition series given in (b)(i).

(iii) Determine the radical of the left A-module A and the socle of the left A-module

A. Decide whether the right A-modules V

S

1

and V

S

2

(deﬁned as in (1)) are

simple. Justify your answers.

DMAB 2641

DMCN 2641

DMPB 2641

2

3. (a) Let V be a C-vector space of dimension n and α : V → V linear. Let A = C[X]

and make V into a left A-module

A

V via X acting as α.

(i) State the Cyclic Decomposition Theorem for ﬁnite dimensional modules over

the polynomial algebra C[X].

(ii) Explain how the Cyclic Decomposition Theorem is applied to C[X]-modules to

prove the existence of the Jordan Canonical Form for a linear map α : V → V .

(b) Let B = C[Y ]. Show that Y → X

2

induces a unique injective algebra homomor-

phism B → A that gives

A

M the structure of a B-module

B

M.

(c) Let M be an A-module with X acting by the linear map corresponding to the matrix

D =

2 1 1

1 1 2

2 1 1

.

Determine a decomposition of the following modules into a direct sum of indecom-

posable modules:

(i) the A-module

A

M;

(ii) the B-module

B

M.

(d) Classify all two-dimensional indecomposable A-module that are also indecomposable

as B-modules.

B. Group Theory

4. (a) Let G be a ﬁnite group, and let p be a prime divisor of [G[. What is meant by

a Sylow p-subgroup of G? Assuming that Sylow p-subgroups exist, show that the

number of them is congruent to 1 modulo p, and that they are all conjugate in

G. Show in addition that if P ∩ P

= 1 whenever P and P

**are distinct Sylow
**

p-subgroups of G, then the number of Sylow p-subgroups is congruent to 1 modulo

[P[.

(b) Let G be a group of order 168 having a Sylow 2-subgroup S that is a quaternion

group. Suppose that if Z(S) = ¸t), then C

G

(t) = N

G

(S). Show that if S

is a Sylow

2-subgroup and S ∩ S

,= 1, then t ∈ Z(S

). Deduce that S

**= S and then, from
**

part (a), that S is a normal subgroup of G.

5. Let G be a nonabelian group of order 27. Show that [Z(G)[ = 3 and that the quotient

group G/Z(G) is elementary abelian. What is the order of C

G

(x) if x / ∈ Z(G)? Show

further that G can be expressed as a semidirect product and that there are exactly two

such groups up to isomorphism.

Do these two groups have the same or diﬀerent character tables? Justify your answer.

DMAB 2641

DMCN 2641

DMPB 2641

3 Turn Over

6. (a) The character table of a group G (which is otherwise unknown) is

(

1

(

2

(

3

(

4

(

5

(

6

(

7

(

8

(

9

χ

1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

χ

2

7 -1 -2 1 1 1 0 0 0

χ

3

7 -1 1 -α -β -γ 0 0 0

χ

4

7 -1 1 -β -γ -α 0 0 0

χ

5

7 -1 1 -γ -α -β 0 0 0

χ

6

8 0 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 1

χ

7

9 1 0 0 0 0 ξ η φ

χ

8

9 1 0 0 0 0 η φ ξ

χ

9

9 1 0 0 0 0 φ ξ η

where α = e

2πi/9

+ e

−2πi/9

, β = e

4πi/9

+ e

−4πi/9

, γ = e

8πi/9

+ e

−8πi/9

, and

ξ = e

2πi/7

+e

−2πi/7

, η = e

4πi/7

+e

−4πi/7

, φ = e

6πi/7

+e

−6πi/7

.

Find the order of Gand the orders of centralisers of elements in each of the conjugacy

classes, and show that the orders of elements in the conjugacy classes are 1, 2, 3, 9,

9, 9, 7, 7 and 7 respectively. Deduce that

(i) a Sylow 2-subgroup is elementary abelian,

(ii) two distinct Sylow 2-subgroups intersect in the identity subgroup, and

(iii) G has exactly nine Sylow 2-subgroups.

Show that Gacts doubly transitively by conjugation on the set of Sylow 2-subgroups.

How does the character table show you that no non-identity element ﬁxes more than

two points in this action?

(b) Determine the order of the group SL(2,8) and explain brieﬂy how it acts faithfully

and doubly transitively on a set of nine points. Describe the stabiliser of a point

(up to conjugacy).

[You may assume that [α[

2

+[β[

2

+[γ[

2

= 6 and that [ξ[

2

+[η[

2

+[φ[

2

= 5.]

DMAB 2641

DMCN 2641

DMPB 2641

4 End of Last Page

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