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1 Annotated Bibliography

Primary Sources: Armstrong, Louis. "What a Wonderful World." By Bob Thiele and George D. Weiss. GRP Records, 1967. MP3. We chose this song because it has a feel-good sound to it. We used it on the Major League Responsibility page because of its mature feel. It is considered a primary source because it was recorded during the Civil Rights Movement.

““The Disfranchisement of the Negro” (1903), by Charles W. Chesnutt.” Social Issues in America. Sharpe Online Reference (2013): N.p. Web. 5 Nov. 2013. <http://darrow.law.umn.edu/documents/Disenfranschisement_of_Negro_Che snutt_The_Negro_Problem_1903.pdf>. This source was used within the “Segregation” page of the website as quotes. Information throughout this source talked about the civil and voting rights of African Americans in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, setting the tone for the civil rights movement. This qualifies as a primary source because it took place before the civil rights movement and shows how segregated America was.

Jackie Robinson, Civil Rights Advocate. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2013. This source provided us with a lot of documents that supported the fact that Jackie helped fight in the civil rights movement. It also provided us with meaningful quotes from Jackie. It was a website that gave us the most

2 information. This source we used only for quotes so it qualified as a primary source.

"Jackie Robinson, in Kansas City Monarchs uniform." Photograph, Call (Kansas City), 1945. By Popular Demand: Jackie Robinson and Other Baseball Highlights, 1860s-1960s, Library of Congress. <http://www.americaslibrary.gov/jp/bball/jp_bball_jackie_1_e.html>. We used this picture on our homepage in the slideshow. This picture shows Jackie Robinson in his Monarchs uniform. It is considered a primary source because it was taken at the time of our event.

Jackie Robinson of the Brooklyn Dodgers. N.d. Photograph. Time. 12 Apr. 2007. Web. 21 Nov. 2013. <http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1609796,00.html>. We used this picture on our homepage in the slideshow. This picture shows Jackie in his uniform. This is considered a primary source because it was taken at the time of our event.

Jackie Robinson. N.d. Photograph. Library of Congress. Library of Congress. Web. 21 Nov. 2013. <http://www.loc.gov/topics/baseball/featured/jackierobinson.html>. We used this picture on our homepage in the slideshow. This picture shows

3 Jackie in his uniform. This is considered a primary source because it was taken at the time of our event.

Jackie Robinson. N.d. Photograph. Yahoo! Movies. Web. 27 Oct. 2013. <http://www.civication.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/american-jackierobinson.jpg>. We used this picture on the homepage of the website to display Jackie Robinson’s professional career and him in his uniform. It shows us his face and how much he cared about baseball. This qualifies as a primary source because it is a direct picture of Jackie in his baseball uniform.

Jackie Robinson Reads to His Kids. 1950. Photograph. Metro.us. 10 Apr. 2013. Web. 21 Nov. 2013. <http://www.metro.us/newyork/?attachment_id=132760>. We used this picture on our homepage in the slideshow. This picture shows Jackie in his uniform. This is considered a primary source because it was taken at the time of our event.

“Jackie Robinson Retronaut.” Retronaut- See the past like you wouldn’t believe. Jackie Robinson Retronaut. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Nov. 2013. <http://www.retronaut.com/2013/01/jackie-robinson>. This picture is important because of the emotion it portrays on Jackie’s face. We used this on our homepage and on various other pages. This source qualifies as a primary source because it is a direct picture of Jackie as a baseball player.

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Jackie Robinson Rounds Third Base in the 1955 World Series. 1955. Photograph. CNN. Cable News Network, 15 Jan. 2013. Web. 21 Nov. 2013. <http://www.cnn.com/2012/01/15/opinion/greene-life-photos/>. This picture was used on our home page in the slide show. This picture is important because of the emotion portrayed on Jackie’s face. This is a primary source because it is a picture taken at the time of our events.

Jackie Robinson with Wife Rachel and Five-month-old Son, Jack Jr. 1947. Photograph. Brooklyn Public Library. Brooklyn, 17 Feb. 2011. Web. 21 Nov. 2013. <http://brooklynology.brooklynpubliclibrary.org/post/2011/02/17/DodgerBabies.aspx>. This picture was used on our home page in the slideshow. We felt it was important to include the picture to show Jackie and his family as well as baseball photos. This is a primary source because it is a picture taken during the timeframe of our event.

N.d. Photograph. Culture Craver. Craveable, 12 Apr. 2013. Web. 21 Nov. 2013. <http://www.culturecraver.com/craveable/entry/530464>. This picture is featured on our homepage in the slideshow. We used it because of the emotion on Jackie’s face while sliding into home plate. This is considered a primary source because it is a picture of Jackie while he was playing baseball.

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Robinson, Jackie: Stealing Home, 1948. 1948. Photograph. Encyclopedia Britannica. Web. 21 Nov. 2013. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/media/110411/Jackie-Robinsonstealing-home-in-a-game-against-the-Boston>. This picture was beneficial to portray the fact that he brought the black skin color into the major leagues since he was sliding into a white colored pitcher. We used this on our homepage and on various other pages. This qualifies as a primary source because it is a picture taken of Jackie playing baseball.

Robinson, Jackie. “Baseball Hall of Fame. N.p., n.d. Web 5 Nov. 2013. <http://www.baseballhall.org/hof/robinson-jackie>. This picture provided us a way to show the lasting effects of Jackie and how he was still affecting people after ending his baseball career. Also showed and explained the text on his plaque in the Hall of Fame. This source qualifies as a primary source because it is a picture so it is an audio-visual source.

Shay, Dorothy. "Feudin’ and Fightin’." By Al Dubin and Burton Lane. Orch. Mischa Russell. Columbia., 1946. MP3. We used this music on the “Right’s Revoked” page of our website. We thought the name of the song fit with this page because the Negro people were fighting back when their rights were being taken away. This is a primary source because it was recorded during our time frame.

6 "Teaching With Documents: Beyond the Playing Field - Jackie Robinson, Civil Rights Advocate." Jackie Robinson, Civil Rights Advocate. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2013. <http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/jackie-robinson>. This source provided us with a lot of documents that supported the fact that Jackie fought in the civil rights movement. It also provided us with meaningful quotes from Jackie. This source was used for quotes and pictures so it qualifies as a primary source.

Tobin, Louise. "There'll Be Some Changes Made." Perf. Benny Goodman. By Thomas Newman. Benny Goodman & His Orchestra. Parlophone., 1939. MP3. We used this music on our homepage. This qualifies as a primary source because it was recorded while Jackie Robinson was playing baseball and the color barrier was in effect. We chose to use this piece because of its upbeat tempo and name, it suits our topic well.

"Transcript of Interview with Branch Rickey by Davis J. Walsh [1955?]." Interview by David J. Walsh. The Library of Congress. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Oct. 2013. <http://memory.loc.gov/ammen/collections/robinson/davis.html>. This interview in particular gave background knowledge into what Rickey thought in regard to choosing Jackie to play on the Major Leagues. Also showed the risks that Rickey thought we associated with it. This source qualifies as a primary source because it is an interview with Branch Rickey.

7 Williams, Tony, David Lynch, Paul Robi, Herb Reed, and Zola Taylor. "Twilight Time." By Buck Ram, Morty Nevins, Al Nevins, and Artie Dunn. Rec. Apr. 1958. The Platters. 1958. MP3. We used this music on the “His Legacy” page of our website. We chose this piece because of its tempo and meaningful lyrics. It is considered a primary source because it was recorded within the time period of our topic.

1949. Photograph. StamfordAdvocate. 11 Apr. 2013. Web. 21 Nov. 2013. <http://www.stamfordadvocate.com/news/article/With-42-movie-releaseRobinson-remembered-4428358.php#photo-4411910>. This picture was used in the slideshow on the home page. We used this picture so viewers of our website could see picture of Jackie playing baseball and Jackie’s family in their everyday life. This is considered a primary source because it is a picture of Jackie and his family taken in the middle of our timeframe.

1956. Photograph. Mail Online. 11 Apr. 2013. Web. 21 Nov. 2013. <http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2307763/Jackie-Robinson-42Iconic-rare-pictures-baseballs-black-player-broke-racial-barriers-65-yearsago.html>. This picture is used on our homepage in the slideshow and throughout our website. We chose this picture because of the emotion you get from the picture. This is considered a primary source because it is a picture of Jackie taken in the middle of our time frame.

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1962. Photograph. By Phellom McDaniels, III. Blogspot.com, 13 Apr. 2012. Web. 16 Apr. 2013. <http://meditations-msmm.blogspot.com/2012/04/connectingjackie-robinson-sports-and.html>. This image is great on just showing how big of an impact Jackie had on the civil rights movement. This shows Robinson and Martin Luther King Jr. having a conversation and how they connected over a common bond. This is a primary source because it was a photograph taken at the time of the meeting of Robinson and MLK Jr.

Secondary Sources: “Baseball and Jackie Robinson.” Baseball, the Color Line, and Jackie Robinson (American Memory from the Library of Congress). N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2013. <http://memory.loc.gov/ammen/collections/robinson/jr1962.html>. This website breaks up Jackie Robinson’s life into six sections. We gathered general information from this website, like how he started playing baseball. This qualifies as a secondary source because it is a web page.

“Biography.” Jackie Robinson. Web. 09 Oct. 2013. <http://www.jackierobinson.com/about/bio.html>. This showed the history of Jackie Robinson and all of his accomplishments and foundations. This information was insightful to the history of the integration of baseball. We used many of these quotes in our website. This

9 qualifies as a secondary source because it is a web page that has information about Jackie.

Cassavell, AJ. "Wearing No. 42 with Pride, MLB Honors Jackie." MLB. N.p., 16 Apr. 2013. Web. 26 Dec. 2013. <http://mlb.mlb.com/articles.jsp?ymd=20130413*content_id=44707692>. This resource provided us information on how Jackie still has a lasting effect on people today. The website summarized and explained the importance of Jackie Robinson Day. This source qualifies as a secondary source because it is a web page.

"Civil Rights Movement." The American Heritage® New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005. 16 Dec. 2013. <http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/civil rights movement>. We used this source within the text of our “Civil Rights Movement” page. It is a secondary source because the definition was not set when the civil rights movement was taking place.

"The Civil Rights Movement." The Civil Rights Movement. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2013. <http://www.socialistalternative.org/literature/malcolmx/ch3.html>. This website went into depth about court case in 1954 that set segregation to be legal. This really showed how Jackie’s rise to stardom helped in the fight by going against these “laws”. This is a secondary source because it was published years after the event happened.

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“Civil Rights Movement.” The History Channel website. 16 Dec. 2013. <http://history.com/topics/civil-rights-movement>. This website offered great information on the civil rights movement. It helped to show what the nation was like during Jackie Robinson’s career. The website also gave great background information on how the civil rights movement was started. This is a secondary source because it is gathered information from a wide range of different sources not from one person or document that lived during the times.

Goldstein, Richard. "Jackie Robinson: Brooklyn Dodgers Legend and Civil Rights Pioneer. “The New York Times. The New York Times, 13 Apr. 2007. Web. 16 Dec. 2013. <http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/13/timestopics/topicrobinson.html?_r=3>. This website described how truly inspirational and ahead of his times Jackie Robinson was. It went on to describe various awards given to Robinson and all of his achievements that contributed to the civil rights movement. It is a secondary source because it was a report done by the New York Times as a reflection of a truly great man’s life.

“Jackie Robinson.” 2013. The Biography Channel Website. 23 Oct. 2013. <http://www.biography.com/people/jackie-robinson-9460813>.

11 This particular website held a large amount of new information including events that were significant to our topic. This gave us background information on Jackie before he came into baseball. The source also showed his actions for the civil rights movement. We also used this source for pictures. This source qualifies as a secondary source because it is a website with information from after the time of the event. It also could qualify as a primary source because of the pictures we used on the website.

"Jackie Robinson Day: April 15." Major League Baseball. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2013. <http://mlb.mlb.com/mlb/events/jrd/>. This source gives information about Jackie Robinson day. More specifically, it gave information on how it started and what it is still doing to this day. The site also has more in-depth information on Robinson’s impact on the civil rights movement. This is a secondary source because it is Major League Baseball describing one of the events they have annually and also their description of Jackie Robinson.

“Race in Sports.” Issues & Controversies on File. Issues & Controversies. Facts on File News Services. 31 Dec. 2008. Web. 5 Nov. 2013. <http://www.2facts.com/article/i0900270>. This website article was important because it held a lot of dates that we needed. We used these dates in our project to add accuracy to our information. This is a primary source because it is an journal article that was online.

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Witherbee, Amy. “Jackie Robinson.” Jackie Robinson. (2007): 1-2. History Reference Center. Web. 24 Oct. 2013. This was an essential website that we needed because it helps us get ideas to form our thesis in the beginning. We did not use it word for word but we based it off of the same ideas as what the website has. This source qualifies as a secondary source because it is a biography not an autobiography.

42. Dir. Brian Helgeland. Prod. Thomas Tull, Dick Cook, Jon Jashni, and Jason Clark. By Mark Ishan. Perf. Harrison Ford, Chadwick Boseman. Warner Bros., 2013. DVD. We used this movie as a resource because we watched and gained valuable information on Jackie Robinson that we did not know before. It gave us more of a detailed aspect of his life and his attitude towards segregation. Also we used clips from the video on our website as a visual aspect for the viewer. This source even though it is an audio it is considered a secondary source because it isn’t the real Jackie Robinson, only an actor.