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‫أشهد أن ال إله إال اهلل‬ ‫وأشهد أن محمداً‬ ‫رسول اهلل (صلى اهلل‬

‫عليه وسلم)‬

Reference:

Elementary Linear Algebra
by : Ron Larson David C. Falvo Brook / Cole Cengage Learning 6th edition - 2010

Determinants

‫المحــددات‬

The Determinant of a Matrix

The Determinant of a 2✕2 Matrix
The determinant of the matrix

is given by

Example (1) : compute the determinant of
6 A= 5 1 2

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * .

Definition of Minors and Cofactors of a Matrix If A is a square matrix . The cofactor is given by . then the minor of element is the determinant of the matrix obtained by deleting the i th row and j th column of A.

A= .

.

Example (2) Find the minors and the cofactors of if A= 2 2 1 2 3 -2 1 4 1 .

2 2 1 2 1 3 -2 4 1 .

…… + + .Signs of cofactors + + - + + + + - .

. That is. then the determinant of A is the sum of the entries in the first row of A multiplied by their cofactors.Definition of the Determinant of a Matrix If A is a square matrix .

Example (3) : compute the determinant of A= 2 2 1 2 3 -2 1 4 1 ‫باستخـدام التعـرٌـف السابق‬ .

3 -2 |A|= +2 2 -2 -2 +1 2 3 1 4 4 1 1 1 = 2 [3-(-8)] -2[2-(-2)]+[8-3] = 19 .

Then the determinant of A is given by .Theorem 3.1 Expansion by Cofactors Let A be a square matrix of order n.

ith row expansion .

jth column expansion .

Example (4) : compute det (A) where 3 0 1 1 -7 3 4 -2 -5 1 -2 2 3 0 1 6 0 8 0 0 2 3 0 1 -1 1) A = 2) A = .

.

Example (5) : compute 4 2 -1 -5 3 0 1 2 -3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 4 -2 0 6 7 -7 = 4 1 2 -3 1 0 4 4 6 0 0 -2 7 0 0 0 -7 .

0) = = 4x1x4x-2x-7 = 224 = 4.1.1.4 -2 7 .4 (-2x-7 .=4 1 2 -3 1 0 4 4 6 0 0 = 4.1 4 0 0 0 0 4 -2 0 -2 0 6 7 -7 7 -7 0 -7 = 4.

4 2 -1 -5 3 0 1 2 -3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 4 -2 0 6 7 -7 .

. then its determinant is the product of the entries on the main diagonal.2 Determinant of a Triangular Matrix If A is a triangular matrix of order n.Theorem 3. That is.

‫‪Example (6) : compute‬‬ ‫‪11 1‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬ ‫‪3 12 4‬‬ ‫‪7‬‬ ‫‪4 -4‬‬ ‫‪9 -11 7‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬ ‫‪5 -7‬‬ ‫‪8‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬ ‫‪6‬‬ ‫‪6‬‬ ‫‪-6‬‬ ‫‪9‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬ ‫‪-3‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪= 0‬‬ ‫بسبب وجود‬ ‫عمود صفري‬ .

The determinant of a Matrix of Order 3 see example 5 page 128 -4 0 3 4 2 -1 -4 1 2 1 0 0 3 4 6 2 -1 -4 0 16 -12 The determinant = 0+16+(-12) – [-4+0+6] = 2 .

66.41.1 1.‫الواجــة‬ Exercises 3.71.75 .63 odd.33 odd.

Evaluation of a Determinant Using Row Operations .

B= 1 5 4 0 4 0 .|B| if 2 3 3 A= 1 5 2 0 4 0 2 3 6 .Example (1) Evaluate |A|.

B= 1 5 4 0 4 0 .|B| = -8 notice that 2 3 3 A= 1 5 2 0 4 0 |B|= 2x|A| 2 3 6 .|A|= -4 .

1.3 Elementary Row Operations and Determinants Let A and B be square matrices. If B is obtained from A by interchanging two rows of A .Theorem 3.det (A) . then det (B) = .

Theorem 3.3 2. 3. then det (B) = det (A). If B is obtained from A by adding a multiple of a row of A to another row of A . . If B is obtained from A by multiplying a row of A by a nonzero constant c . then det (B) = c det (A).

Elementary column Operations .

The column operations have the same effects on determinants as row operations. .

Example (2) : Exercise 10 page 140 which property of determinants is illustrated by the equation? 1 4 5 2 -8 4 3 6 12 1 4 5 1 -4 2 1 2 4 = 6 .

1 2 2 0 0 -1 6 0 2 1 8 0 2 8 1 4 -4 6 0 2 2 3 2 0 2 .Example (3) : Exercise 37 page 140 Use elementary row or column operations to evaluate the determinant.

‫‪Example (4) :‬‬ ‫حولً المحدد إلى الصورة المثلثٌة ثم أوجدي‬ ‫قٌمته‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪-1‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪-1‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪-1‬‬ ‫‪-3‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬ ‫‪8‬‬ ‫‪-2‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ .

An entire row consists of zeros.Theorem 3.4 If A is a square matrix and one of the following conditions is true. 1. 3. 2. Two rows are equal. One row is a multiple of another row. then det(A)=0. .

Example (5) : Why? 2 -3 1 0 7 0 -3 2 3 4 -3 4 -6 9 -3 0 =0 .

39.35 odd.2 1.55 odd .‫الواجــة‬ Exercises 3.

Determinants ‫المحــددات‬ .

Example (1) : compute -12 13 -6 24 18 -8 9 16 5 .

Example (1) : -12 13 -6 -2 24 -8 16 = 6 4 18 9 5 3 0 1 1 0 13 -6 -8 16 = 6x4 9 5 9 -2 15 -2 1 3 13 -2 9 -6 4 5 2 4 -7 = 24 = -24 9 15 2 -7 = -24 x -93 = 2232 .

determinant Row (column)-operations common factor * * * * .

‫اللهم صلى وسلم وبارك‬ ‫على نبينا محمد وعلى آله‬ ‫وصحبه أجمعين‬ .

Properties of Determinants .

then det (AB) =det(A) det(B) .5 Determinant of a Matrix Product If A and B are square matrices of order n .Theorem 3.

.

Theorem 3.6 Determinant of a Scalar Multiple Matrix If A is an a scalar . then matrix and c is .

Theorem 3.7
Determinant of an Invertible Matrix A square matrix A is invertible (nonsingular) if and only if

det A ≠ 0

Theorem 3.8
Determinant of an Inverse Matrix
If A is invertible , Then

Proof

then .Theorem 3.9 Determinant of a Transpose If A is a square matrix .

Example (2) : compute 2 0 0 0 3 -1 0 0 1 3 5 0 5 1 7 2 if A= .

2 det(A) = 0 0 0 3 -1 0 0 1 3 5 0 5 1 7 2 = 2 ⨉ -1 ⨉ 5 ⨉2 = -20 .

(-20) .5) = det (A) . det (A) = |A| |A| |A| = (-20). (-20). det (A).=AAA By theorem (3.

Example (3) : Exercise 8 page 149 |A| = 1 2 3 -4 = 25 x -10 = .250 .

Equivalent Conditions for a Nonsingular Matrix If A is an matrix . 1. Ax=b has a unique solution for every column matrix b. then the following statements are equivalent. . Ax=0 has only the trivial solution. 3. A is invertible 2.

6. A is row-equivalent to 5. det(A) 0 .) Equivalent Conditions for a Nonsingular Matrix 4.(cont. A can be written as the product of elementary matrices.

Example (4) : Exercise 44 page 150 1 1 1 1 -1 1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 0 0 0 2 -2 0 0 2 -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 .

0 0 0 2 -2 0 0 2 -1 -1 1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 -1 -1 -2 .2 0 0 -1 -1 1 -1 -1 -1 -2 x -2 -2 x -2 x 2 = 8 The system has a unique solution .

69 odd.3 1.73 .72.‫الواجــة‬ Exercises 3.

◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ Applications of Determinants ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ ◆ .

The Adjoint of a Matrix .

‫عند تعريف طريقة حساب محدد مصفوفة‬ ‫عرفنا‬ ‫‪cofactors of a matrix‬‬ .

j)-cofactor is given by where is the determinant .(i.

.

‫نعرف‬ ‫المصفوفة المرافقة‬ ‫‪adjoint of matrix‬‬ .

‫‪adjoint of A‬‬ ‫= )‪adj (A‬‬ ‫الحظً طرٌقة ترتٌب العناصر فً المصفوفة‬ .

Theorem 3. .10 If A is an Then invertible matrix .

Example(1) : Exercises 2.6 page 168 Find the adjoint of the matrix A . Then use the adjoint to find the inverse of A. .

2. A = -1 0 0 4 .

6. A = 0 1 -1 1 2 -1 1 3 -2 .

.0 |A|= 1 1 2 1 3 0 = 1 0 1 2 1 1 3 1 -1 -1 -2 |A|= 0 two rows are equal Then A is noninvertible.

‫ال حول وال قـوة‬ ‫إال باهلل‬ ‫العلي العظيــم‬ .

Cramer’s Rule ‫قاعـدة كرامر‬ .

.Gabriel Cramer (1704-1752) Cramer’s Rule Is a formula that uses determinants to solve a system of n linear equations in n variables.

Using Cramer’s Rule to solve the system .

Theorem 3. then the solution of the system is given by .11 If a system of n linear equations in n variables has a coefficient matrix with a nonzero determinant |A|.

) Theorem 3.(con.11 Where the i th column of is the column of constants in the system of equations. .

‫‪i‬‬ ‫العمود رقم‬ .

Example (2) : Exercise 28 page 169 Use Cramer’s Rule to solve the system of linear equations. if possible. .

‫محدد المعامالت‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪8‬‬ ‫‪-2‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪-5‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬ ‫‪-2‬‬ ‫‪= .82‬‬ .

410‬‬ ‫‪16‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪8‬‬ ‫‪-5 -2‬‬ ‫أوالً ‪:‬‬ ‫اٌجاد المجهول األول‬ ‫قٌمة محدد المعامالت‬ .‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪-2‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪-2‬‬ ‫المعامالت‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫محدد ‪2‬‬ ‫‪5 = .

‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪-2‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪-2‬‬ ‫محدد المعامالت‬ ‫‪2 16‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪8‬‬ ‫‪-5‬‬ ‫‪-2‬‬ ‫ثانٌا ً ‪:‬‬ ‫اٌجاد المجهول الثانً‬ ‫‪= -656‬‬ ‫قٌمة محدد المعامالت‬ .

‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪-2 -2‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫محدد المعامالت‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪2 16‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪8‬‬ ‫‪-5‬‬ ‫‪-2‬‬ ‫ثالثا ً ‪:‬‬ ‫اٌجاد المجهول الثالث‬ ‫‪= 164‬‬ ‫قٌمة محدد المعامالت‬ .

‫= ‪x‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬ ‫‪8‬‬ ‫‪-2‬‬ ‫متجـه الحل‬ .

‫اللهم صلى وسلم وبارك‬ ‫على نبينا محمد وعلى آله‬ ‫وصحبه أجمعين والحمد‬ ‫هلل رب العالمين‬ .

43 .14.16.‫الواجــة‬ Exercises 3.5 1-13 odd . 17-31 odd .

‫‪Vector Spaces‬‬ ‫فضـاءات المتجـهــــات‬ .

Definition Let V be a set on which two operations (vector addition and scalar multiplication) are defined. If the listed axioms are satisfied for every u. then V is called a vector space.v and w in V and every scalar (real number) c and d. .

. u + 0 = u 5) u in V . u + (-u) = 0 .u in V s.t. 3) (u + v) + w = u + (v + w) 4) V has a zero vector 0 in such that for every u in V .Addition 1) u + v is in V 2) u + v = v + u .

Scalar Multiplication 6) cu is in V . 7) c (u+v) = cu+ cv 8) (c+d) u = cu+ du 9) c(du) = (cd) u 10) 1 (u) = u .

Addition Scalar multiplication .Example (1) : Exercise 34 page 198 Let V be the set of all positive real numbers . Determine whether V is a vector space with the operations below.

. = The set of all continuous functions defined on the real number line .  P = set of all polynomials.Important Vector Spaces    = set of all n-tuples. n.b]. = The set of all continuous functions defined on a closed interval [a.  = set of all polynomials of degree  = set of all mxn matrices.

. suppose these two operations are defined as follows.Example (2) : Exercise 30-c page 197 Rather than use the standard definitions of addition and scalar multiplication in .

.

Show that the set V with the two operations is not a vector space in each of the following . no. V Operations Answer .

1 matrix addition and scalar multiplication .

2 { : a.b are real numbers} Standard operations in .

3 vector addition and c(x.z)=(0.0) .0.y.

Exercise 29 page 197 .

0v = 0 2. c 0 = 0 3. 1. Then the following properties are true.Theorem 4. then c = 0 or v=0 4. and let c be any scalar .v .4 Let v be any element of a vector space V . If c v = 0 . (-1) v = .

30 (b. 36. 38.2 2-26 even.d).‫الواجــة‬ Exercises 4.40 .

Subspaces of Vector Spaces ‫الفضـاءات الجزئيــة‬ .

Definition A nonempty subset W of a vector space V is called a subspace of V if W is a vector space under the operations of addition and scalar multiplication defined in V . .

for example with the standard definitions of matrix addition and scalar multiplication is a vector space .

W is a vector space and W⊂ W is a subspace of .

If u is in W and c is any scalar . then W is a subspace of V if and only if the following closure conditions hold. 1.Theorem 4. then u + v is in W . . then cu is in W .5 If W is a nonempty subset of a vector space V . If u and v are in W . 2.

Example (1): Exercise 2 page 205 .

Example (2): Show that W is not a subspace of V 1) and .

2) and .

3 ) V = C[0.1] and .

then the intersection of V and W (denoted by V∩W) is also a subspace of U . .6 If V and W are both subspaces of a vector space U .Theorem 4.

.

7.3 4.26.6.‫الواجــة‬ Exercises 4.31.44.20.47 .37.11.39.16. 43.32.

‫سبحانك اللهم وبحمدك‬ ‫أشهد أن ال إله إال أنت‬ ‫أستغفرك وأتوب إليك‬ .