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2013-2014

George Frideric Handel (1685-1759)
Handel was born in Halle in Saxony (where Hanover was the capital city). As a young man,
he travelled widely, including to Italy, learning the ins-and-outs of composing Italian opera.
After a brief time in Hanover, at the Elector’s court, he moved to London where he knew
there were good opportunities opening up for a composer of Italian opera. The English
aristocracy was developing a strong appetite for this newly-imported genre (sung in Italian
by mainly Italian singers). His first opera, Rinaldo (1711), was a great success and Handel
was soon very much in favour at court: Queen Anne awarded him a pension of £200 a year.
When she died in 1714, by a strange quirk of English law, it was the Elector of Hanover who
succeeded her as King George I. Handel stayed in London, eventually becoming a British
citizen.
By the time Handel died in 1759 he was almost revered as a native English composer. During
his lifetime musical fashions had changed: Italian opera had been overtaken by a middle-
class taste for oratorios (dramatic music on biblical themes, sung in English, composed in
the Italian style by not acted on stage). Handel was the leading composer of this genre – the
best-known being his Messiah (1742).




SET WORK SUMMARY 1
Water Music Suite no. 2 in D major, HWV 349 - Handel

PART 1 – PLACING THE SET WORK IN ITS MUSICAL, SOCIAL & HISTORICAL CONTEXT

About the Composer – Placing the Set Work in a Social & Historical Context

 George Frideric Handel – born in Germany in 1685, died in England in 1759.
 Leading composer of the Baroque period (c.1600-1750).
 Busy life as a composer, mingling with leading Italian musicians such as Corelli & Scarlatti.
 Worked as the Kapellmeister in Hanover under the Elector (later George I of England).
 Lived and worked most of his adult life in London for Queen Anne and later King George I & II
respectively.
 Famous and in demand in his own lifetime – unusual.
 Composed 42 operas, 23 organ concertos, 28 concerto grossi & 29 anthems amongst his many
other works.
 He is well-known for his anthems, particularly Zadok the Priest (1727) which was written for
King George II’s coronation.
About the Set Work – Placing the Set Work in a Musical Context
King George I and his entourage arranged several royal boat trips along the River Thames in a bid to make him more visible to the public and
increase his popularity in his new kingdom – his position as King of England was a delicate one, being a foreigner and a remote relation of
the late Queen Anne. He succeeded to the throne only because he was a Protestant. Handel was commissioned to write three suites to be
played at this event. The first of these boat trips probably took place in 1715 but it was the 1717 trip on the evening of 19
th
July that is the
most fully documented. It is well-known that the music of Handel’s three Water Music suites was performed at this event. The ‘water party’
travelled from Whitehall to Chelsea and back, with several barges carrying the King, his entourage and other important people and a
separate barge just for the musicians. The Water Music suites no.1-3 were written in the Baroque Dance Suite style - all of the movements
are derived from popular dances of the time that each have their own unique mood and feel. The Water Music Suite no. 2 in D major was
written in five movements, each movement has its own structure:
 ALLEGRO (OVERTURE) – ANTIPHONAL STRUCTURE
 ALLA HORNPIPE – TERNARY FORM (ABA)
 MENUET – BINARY FORM (AB)
 LENTEMENT – TERNARY FORM (ABA)
 BOURREE – BINARY FORM (AB)
PART 2 – MUSICAL ELEMENTS, INSTRUMENTATION & MUSICAL FEATURES
Time signature

Alternates between
4/4, 3/2 and 3/4.
Tonality




D major
Tempo
Allegro – stately
Hornpipe – bouncy
Menuet – slow
Lentement – slow & noble
Bourree - lively
Dynamics
No written dynamics
but mostly loud due
to outdoor venue.
Pitch (trumpets)
Rhythm
Bouncy dotted rhythms.
Harmony
Chords mostly closely
related to D major – A
major. Modulation to
relative B minor.
Texture
Antiphonal texture
between trumpets & horns.
Homophonic texture, with
some polyphony.
Musical Features
 Antiphonal exchanges
 Combinations of ‘unusual’
instruments
 Woodwind double strings
Melody and Structure
Simple melodies to cater for the limitations of
the brass instruments (harmonic series).

Alla Hornpipe - Horn I part (bars 15-18)
Instrumentation
Woodwind: 2 oboes, 1 bassoon. Brass: 2 trumpets (in D), 2 horns (in D). Strings: Violin I, Violin II, Viola, Cello, Double Bass.
It is known from a newspaper review that the instruments would have been doubled in numbers to cater for playing outdoors
(50+ musicians). Stylistic performances typically add in a harpsichord and timpani as would have been customary at the time.



Characteristics of Baroque Music
 No firm format of the orchestra until the mid-17th century – different occasions called for
different instruments
 Orchestra was string dominated – mostly violins – end of the 17th century a set format for the
orchestra was established
 Composers such as Lully in Paris and Corelli in Rome wrote music for a large number of strings in
sections with basso continuo
 Pairs of woodwind or brass were used according to what was available
 Basso Continuo: harpsichord (sometimes organ, lute or another plucked/strummed string
instrument) + cello/double bass/bassoon; realization of figured bass through embellishment.
 Clarinets (in A) were in their early stages and other more unusual instruments (e.g. oboe
d’amore. hunting horns) may have been available to some composers.
 Italian violin makers e.g. Stradivari and Guarneri started to manufacture violins with a brighter,
more powerful tone. The gut strings were tightly strung to increase the volume. Longer bows
suitable for melodic lines
 French and German woodwind and brass instruments
 Lots of ornamentation
 Use of the harpsichord
 Use of sequence – a common way of extending & developing a melodic phrase

Allegro – 1
st
movement
Bars Description

1-5

In a rousing fanfare, the trumpets stride up the tonic chord followed by a
melodic flourish of semiquavers on the dominant; the strings and oboes
hurtle in unison down a rapid D major scale.





5-9
Copied an octave down by the lower group, accompanied by bass
instruments only (bassoons, cellos/basses); the horns stand out well, even
though much less bright than trumpets. A short, 2-bar exchange in crotchets
follows, almost as though horns are determined to dog the trumpets’
footsteps.
In a composition designed to feature horns and trumpets so prominently,
their restricted melodic function limits the variety of harmonies that can be
used. Handel makes the most of the simple tonic/dominant chords, which
form the basis of most of the musical material, by clothing them in a
succession of varying rhythmic figures. The pattern of alternating phrases
continues throughout the piece.






37
2
-50
The two groups combine in a grand tutti that is repeated: the dotted
crotchets of bars 38-40 are filled out with insistent quavers (e.g. bar 41) that
drive the music towards its cadence (bars 44-45). The cadence is repeated,
spaced out with rests, to bring the movement to its natural close at bar 47.
Handel then adds three bars in quite a different tempo and mood (Adagio),
which suggest a link, either to a repeat, or to the next movement. Links
between movements were quite lead to an imperfect cadence in the relative
minor key of B minor, which leaves the end of the movement unresolved.
(This type of imperfect cadence in a minor key was a common feature at the
time of writing. It is known as a Phrygian cadence, a term that relates it to an
earlier modal system). The slow speed and rests between the chords offer an
opportunity for a soloist to improvise.



Alla Hornpipe – 2
nd
movement
Bars Description














1-39
This section is complete in itself. Handel again varies the scoring: although the
opening also sounds rather fanfare-like, in fact both trumpets and horns are
silent – it is the strings and woodwind that open. Trumpets wait until bar 11
to take up the theme unaccompanied, followed immediately by the horns.

The second half of the principal theme, initiated in the second half of bar 5,
proves to be the one that generates most of the thematic material for the
movement. Its catchy rhythm is heard
throughout, antiphonally between trumpets and horns; tutti; and extended in
sequences, bouncing the music towards its strong perfect cadences. The first
of these cadences is at bars 10-11 in the tonic; the next in the dominant key
(A major) at bars 26-27; and the third (which, apart from its fuller scoring,
mirrors the first) back in the tonic at bars 38-39. They all share the same
rhythmic technique in which the natural accents in the bar are displaced: this
is known as hemiola. The time signature 3/2 indicates that there are 3 minim
beats in each bar. In a hemiola, two bars – a total of 6 minim bears – are
heard as though there are three bars of 2 minim beats:


Regrouping the notes this way redistributes the normal strong and weak
beats in the bar. In performance these cadences are often played with slight
accents that emphasise this rhythmic displacement:

The hemiola was a common feature of English music in triple time.





40-74
A substantial middle section follows. It begins with a reference to the
rhythmic figure first heard in bar 5, but, although the three-crotchet pattern
persists in the accompaniment, and there is some additional syncopation, this
part of the movement has a very different character.
 It is in the relative minor key of B minor, with a modulation to its
dominant, F# major, at bar 57.
 The 1
st
violins have a very elaborate part (which the oboes cannot
always double).
 A 3
rd
violin part has been added to thicken the harmony in the middle
of the texture.
 Trumpets and horns are silent throughout.



Until bar 66 the music is fully scored for all the instruments, but from there
they gradually drop out, thinning the previously busy texture and winding
down, preparing for the return of the first section of the movement.
The Italian words ‘da capo’ (meaning ‘from the beginning’) at the end of this
section indicate a repeat of the first half of the piece, sending the players
back to bar 1. The finishing point of the movement has already been indicated
by another Italian term ‘Fine’ at bar 39. The simple structure of this otherwise
elaborate piece is, therefore, ternary, A-B-A.

Minuet – 3
rd
movement
Description
A minuet (English) of menuet (French) was a popular court dance in 3/4 time. It was usually
short and rhythmically straightforward. Almost all the sources agree that this piece was to
be played three times: first with trumpets and strings; next with horns, oboes and
bassoon(s); lastly the full band (tutti).

The menuet is a strong movement and it is easy to understand why it might have been the
very last piece of the Water Music. It plays firmly in the tonic key, has a strong forward-
moving rhythm, a purposeful, striding bass line, and some brief moments of dissonance
which also help to push it on.

In bar 1 all the instruments repeat the tonic chord, except the bassoons, cellos and basses –
their C# immediately gives the music a feeling of moving forward. This happens again, but
differently, in bar 2: the B changes the harmony to chord VI (a strong progression), and in
bar 4 the lower instruments hold a B against the upper parts’ repeated tonic chord. This
moment in bar 4 could be explained as chord VI
7
, but it is probably better heard (and more
typically at this period) as a decorated suspension resolving (eventually) upwards onto IVb
(bar 4
3
). The chords in bar 5 also form a strong progression initiating a II-V
7
-I cadence. This
striding bass line counteracts the otherwise static harmonies of the parts above it.

The harmonic interest continues in the second section, this time with passing notes on the
beat in the upper parts. For example, in bar 10
2
the passing-note B against the harmonising
C# in the bass pushes the melodic line upwards; the A at bar 13
2
, and E at 14
2
serve the
same purpose on the downward scale.

The whole piece is punctuated by the drum-like rhythm in bars 7, 11, 15 and 23. (The
temptation for modern performers to enhance this rhythm by adding timpani is
understandable).

Bars 17-18 and 19-20 seem to invite a contrast of f and p. It was not normal practice, at the
time that Handel was working, to notate dynamic markings, but an established convention
of performing such contrasts was well understood (and is often referred to today as
‘terraced dynamics’).




Lentement – 4
th
movement
Description
All the sources agree about this title. The word ‘lentement’ is not actually a title, but a
French term for the tempo, meaning ‘slowly’. It has been suggested that the dotted rhythm
that pervades the piece is a version of a French dance movement, a slow gigue called a
loure. It is, of course, another da capo ternary-form piece. It is unusual in that its middle
section begins in the relative key of B minor but ends in E minor. Calling this the supertonic
minor makes it sound rather a remote modulation, but it is a related key: think of it as the
relative minor of the subdominant key of G major.

Bourrée – 5
th
movement
Description
This short piece has no official title but, in several sources, as instrument that it be played
three times. It is effectively another dance movement, having all the characteristics of a
bourrée. It has the bourrée’s defining rhythmic characteristics – it’s quick, in duple time and
starts every phrase on the last crotchet of the bar. It does not modulate but, for such a
quick piece, its harmonic rhythm is quite lively – mostly two chords per bar, but sometimes
a different one on each crotchet (such as in bars 3 and 7).







G353-style exercises
1. Explain the following terms used in the printed score:

a) Numbered figures (bar 8, bass part)
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………(2)

b) tr (bar 50, 2
nd
violins) ………………………………………………………………………………………………….(1)

2. a) Name the key to which the music has modulated to at bar 25 onwards
…………………………………………………………………………………….. (1)

b) What is the structure of movement two (alla hornpipe)? ……………………………………………… (1)

3. Describe the rhythmical device used in the second movement at bars 9-10.
……………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………
…………………………..………………………………………..…………………………………………..………………………… (2)


4. Identify the chords used in bars 44-48 in the second movement.
……………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………
…………………………..……………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….(3)


5. On the stave below, write out the viola part in bars 22-25 in the treble clef (4).


6. Discuss the structure of movement five (bourrée).
……………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………
…………………………..………………………………………..…………………………………………..………………………… (2)


7. Briefly describe the music that follows the A section in the Bourrée.
……………………………………………………………………………………..…………………………………………………………
…………………………..……………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….(3)




Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
(1756-1791)
Mozart’s father brought his son to London in 1764, five years after Handel’s death. The child was eight years
old, a musical prodigy being put on show in a gruelling concert tour which had taken him and his sister to the
most important cities across Europe. Not only was the young Mozart already an accomplished performer and
improviser, he was also a precocious composer. In London, the fashionable composers were now Johann
Christian Bach (youngest song of the ‘great’ J.S. Bach) and Carl Friedrich Abel (both also of German origin).
Mozart learned a great deal from them. He would undoubtedly have encountered the music of Handel. Much
later, Mozart was to share the enthusiasm and respect for Handel’s oratorios which fired an inner circle of
Viennese musicians and music-lovers in the 1780s, and copies of the dead composer’s music began to circulate
there. In 1789 Mozart paid his own tribute in a ‘modernising’ re-orchestration and performance of Messiah.
Mozart’s great friend and mentor, Haydn, had been invited to London to compose symphonies for a series of
concerts. On a return visit, Haydn was so impressed by a performance of Messiah with a huge choir and
orchestra in Westminster Abbey, that he then composed an oratorio, The Creation (1798).
As Vienna grew into a thriving business city during the 18
th
century, it also became an influential cultural
centre, a magnet which attracted musicians from all over the world. Many stayed, but there was also a great
deal of coming-and-going, in spite of what would seem to us now as formidable travelling difficulties. Other
fashionable cities, such as Paris and London, and many in Italy (Venice, Naples, Rome, Milan) were also on the
concert circuit. Although there were sometimes strong regional differences in the sort of music that local
audiences enjoyed, there were also styles that become popular internationally. One of the most successful of
these was Italian opera (to which Mozart was also drawn), and another was the style of purely instrumental
music that developed rapidly in late-18
th
century Vienna.
Mozart had been born and grew up in Salzburg (now a part of modern Austria). At the time Salzburg was an
independent state ruled by an Archbishop, by whom Mozart was briefly employed when he was a young man.
However, Mozart found the atmosphere provincial and stifling, and hated the working conditions, so, like
Handel, he moved on, but in his case to Vienna.
Financially, Mozart led a hand-to-mouth existence, struggling to survive independently. When he did have a
commission, or a concert was imminent, his ability to compose quickly, under pressure to meet the deadline, is
well known, as was the tendency for the music to be almost completely formed in his head before he put pen
to paper. The horn concertos, however, were composed for pleasure, as a favour to a good friend, and their
composition was spread over a longer period of time.





Joseph Ignaz Leutgeb (1732-1811)
Nothing is known about any performances of this work but, as Mozart had already
composed several other pieces for Leutgeb, it must be assumed that he would not have
written yet another unless at least one performance was likely. The very small size of the
orchestra suggests that this concerto may have been prepared for an informal setting rather
than a public or grand aristocratic occasion. Something is known, however, about the actual
performer for whom the music was performed.
Leutgeb had played the horn (and violin) in the same orchestra as Mozart’s father, Leopold,
in Salzburg, as far back as 1763 when Mozart was a young boy. As well as playing in
orchestras he had also been performed solo horn concertos in many European cities as far
back as the early 1750s, including 14 times in Vienna in the 1760s. Before going to Salzburg,
Leutgeb had been briefly a member of Haydn’s orchestra in Eszterhàz. In 1770 he performed
in Frankfurt and Paris, as well as in Italy. An enthusiastic review of his performance in Paris
in 1770 described his tone as ‘mellow’ and praised his ability to make the instrument ‘sing’
in slow movements.
The relationship between Leutgeb and Mozart seems to have been a very good-humoured
one. Anecdotes about shared jokes occur frequently in biographies, some of which are
supported by evidence in the composer’s own letters (Mozart usually wrote Leutgeb’s name
as ‘Leitgeb’). They remained good friends right up to Mozart’s death.

Ausgarten, Vienna



SET WORK SUMMARY 2
Horn Concerto no. 4 in Eb major, 3
rd
movt. (Rondo) - Mozart

PART 1 – PLACING THE SET WORK IN ITS MUSICAL, SOCIAL & HISTORICAL CONTEXT

About the Composer – Placing the Set Work in a Social & Historical Context

 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart – born in Salzburg in 1756, died in 1791.
 Leading composer of the Classical period (c.1750-1850), a child prodigy.
 Manic phases of composition, followed by states of depression – possible bi-polar disorder.
 Worked at the Salzburg Court as court musician (1773-77).
 Travelled all around Europe in search of employment, including Paris, Italy and Germany.
 Famous and in demand in his own lifetime – unusual.
 Composed 41 symphonies, 27 piano concertos, 5 violin concertos, 4 horn concertos and 23
operas.
 He is well-known for his keyboard music and his operas, particularly The Marriage of Figaro
and The Magic Flute.
About the Set Work – Placing the Set Work in a Musical Context
The Horn Concerto no. 4 in Eb major was written and premiered in 1786 at the Ausgarten in Vienna. Since Handel had included horns in the
Water Music suites in c.1717, horn playing had changed somewhat; pairs of horns were fairly standard in the Classical orchestra of the
1780s. Around 1760, a technique had been developed known as hand-stopping where a player inserted their hand into the bell of the
instrument. This had the effect of lowering a pitch by a semitone or more, giving better control over the tuning of the instrument.
Therefore, horn players could now play more pitches than just those of the harmonic series, leading to much more interesting melodies
than previously heard on the horn. This horn concerto was written for an virtuoso Austrian horn player called Joseph Ignaz Leutgeb (1732-
1811) – Mozart had a great friendship with him. Leutgeb was a famous horn player working in Vienna & Salzburg. He had many horn
concertos written for him by various composers of the time. It is clear from Mozart’s horn parts that Leutgeb must have been particularly
adept at hand-stopping and also lipping – the shifting of embouchure in order to alter pitch. The following are some examples of virtuosic
writing for the solo horn:
 HAND-STOPPING – bars 88-99 – written A, B, G#, Eb.
 LIPPING – F naturals in bar 94, B flats in bar 96.
 FAST REPEATED NOTES – bars 148-150
 IDEAS BASED ON ARPEGGIOS/TRIADS – bars 20-22, 39-40
 CHROMATIC LINES – bars 62-65
 WIDE LEAPS – bars 8, 201
 GRACE NOTES – bar 168
 HIGH NOTES – written G in bar 62, Ab in bar 144, A in bar 154
 LOW NOTES – written G below middle C in bars 208, 210
PART 2 – MUSICAL ELEMENTS, INSTRUMENTATION & MUSICAL FEATURES
Time signature Tonality



Eb major
Tempo

Allegro vivace
Fairly fast paced, especially
for the solo horn.
Dynamics

Dynamics written
p - f
Pitch (solo horn)

Rhythm
Mostly quaver movement for solo
horn but some faster movement at
bar 157-161

Harmony
Chords mostly closely
related to Eb major –
Bb major. Modulation
to relative C minor and
even G minor (bar 109).
Texture
Homophonic texture, solo
horn with simple
accompaniment during the
solo sections.
Musical Features
 Hand-stopping
 Lipping
 Harmonic series
 Pedals
Melody and Structure
Rondo theme
Instrumentation
Solo: Horn, Woodwind: 2 oboes, Brass: 2 horns (in Eb), Strings: Violin I, Violin II, Viola, Cello, Double Bass.



Characteristics of Classical Music
 Tonic-dominant alternation
 Balanced phrases (question & answer/four bar phrases)
 Introduction of the piano
 Gradual phasing out of the basso continuo and the establishment of a conductor
 A more varied orchestra including clarinets (Bb)
 Prominence of melody and accompaniment
 Alberti bass
 Symphony, sonata, string quartet
 Graded dynamics
 Sonata form
 Fewer ornaments than Baroque music
 Quick change of mood

Rondo theme (A) bars 1-16, Eb major (tonic)
Solo 1-8
Tutti 9-16

(whether the soloist plays or not)
Episode 1 (B
1
) bars 16-67
Solo 16-24
24-38
Solo 38-46
Tutti 46-48
Solo 48-52
Tutti 52-54
Solo 54-68
Eb major
transition to Bb major
Bb major
transition to Eb major
transition back to Bb major
= bars 46-48 repeated
Leading back to rondo theme: begins by repeating bars 48-49, but with
changed harmony to strengthen the dominant feel. It treats the perfect
cadence in Bb (bars 59-60) as the dominant of the original tonic key; the
return of A (with three quavers in place of the original one) is prepared by
a sustained dominant pedal (Bb) in the bass line (bars 60-67).
Rondo theme (A), bars 67-83
= bars 1-16 repeated without any change.
Episode 2 (C), bars 84-121
Solo 84-91
92-99
99-120
C minor
begins as a repetition of 84-91 but turns to Ab major (bar 96)
solo and orchestra in quiet conversation, modulating:
C minor (relative minor) – bar 105
G minor (relative minor of the dominant) – bar 109
F minor (relative minor of the subdominant) – bar 114
Eb major (tonic)
Rondo theme (A), bars 121-136
The beginning dovetails with the end of C.
Episode 3 (B
2
) bars 136-178




First four bars the same (136-140) but the second phrase is repeated with
a Gb, making the music minor; soloist stretches up to the highest note so
far – Cb. Much is omitted, cutting out the modulatory passage, reaching
the dominant key very quickly and turning away immediately at bar 151




178
with the orchestra’s tutti intervention from bar 46.
pause/cadenza
Rondo theme/Coda (A), bars 178-213
The horn begins as in bars 1-8, followed by the tutti, but this time the
orchestra takes off in a series of energetic sequences (188-197). In a loud,
busy texture and with very conventional harmonies, it seems to be
romping towards the finishing line. It is suddenly halted by an unusual
interrupted cadence: the 1
st
violins’ Eb is harmonised by chord V
7
b in the
dominant key (bar 197). More rich harmonies accompany the soloist’s
next two repeats of the concluding phrase of A (197-205). The tonic key is
finally confirmed by the soloist’s descending arpeggios, the orchestra’s
tonic pedal in horns and bass, and undulating tonic/dominant quavers in
the strings.




G353-style exercises
1. Identify the cadences at the following points (2):
Location Bars 7
2
-8
1
Bars 59
2
-60
1

Cadence







2. Explain the notation in the viola part at bars 35
2
-39
1
.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…….. (2)

3. On the stave below, write out the solo horn part in bars 21-24
1
at sounding pitch (4).


4. Discuss Mozart’s use of tonality at bars 84-121.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………….………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………....(4)

5. Identify the overall structure of the movement and discuss its significance within the
Classical period.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………….………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………....(4)

6. Discuss the similarities and differences between the material in the coda and the first time
this material is heard in the movement.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………
………………………………………………………………………….……..………………………………………….…………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……….………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………............(6)




Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)
Beethoven arrived in Vienna, from his home town of Bonn, in 1790. He too was hoping to
make his reputation (and earn a living) as a pianist and composer. He had a few
disappointing lessons in composing from Haydn, but had probably already learned all that
he could from close study of the older man’s music. He admired the music of Mozart, whose
death the following year was deeply mourned.
None of the composers that you have studied worked in a vacuum. They kept a close ear on
their competitor’s music, knew what would attract a fee-paying audience, and what would
sell well when published. The concert-going public had a thirst for novelty but was less quick
to accept complete originality – they liked music to be new, but still within the bounds of a
familiar style.
In the early 19
th
century Beethoven was the first to overcome this ambivalence, but he too
sometimes pushed these boundaries beyond the limits of ready acceptability. His listeners
had to work hard to get to grips with his music. He was more fortunate than Mozart in
securing the support of a group of influential aristocrats who guaranteed him a pension.
Once Beethoven was established in Vienna he composed bigger and grander pieces – the
ideas taking shape over long periods of time in his sketchbooks. His manuscripts are full of
crossings-out and second thoughts. He was his own severest critic, composing to satisfy
himself. He was also a shrewd businessman. By the beginning of the 19
th
century composers
could earn a significant income from publishing. He had, in fact promised the score of the
Fifth symphony to a music-loving aristocrat, and even been paid in advance on it, but in the
end he dedicated it to his regular patrons and lost no time in getting it published.
Although Beethoven never came to England, all his new music was devoured by his fans as
soon as it arrived, and it was an English musical society, the Philharmonic Society of London,
that commissioned his last symphony (no. 9). He was also a keen student of Handel’s music,
and was seen by visitors shortly before his death in 1827 sitting up in bed immersed in the
latest volume, which was being published in a new edition.






SET WORK SUMMARY 3
Symphony no. 5 in C minor, 1
st
movt. (Allegro con brio) - Beethoven

PART 1 – PLACING THE SET WORK IN ITS MUSICAL, SOCIAL & HISTORICAL CONTEXT

About the Composer – Placing the Set Work in a Social & Historical Context

 Ludwig van Beethoven – born in Germany in 1770, died in Vienna in 1827.
 Leading composer of the Classical period (c.1750-1820). Often said to have paved the way for
the Romantic period (c. 1820-1910).
 A virtuoso pianist and improviser, he was paraded around various German courts by his
domineering father – much like Mozart.
 Worked as a court organist and viola player, eventually working as Kapellmeister.
 Studied music with Haydn in Vienna – Mozart was a good friend of Haydn’s.
 A fiery individual with a bad temper – believed to have suffered from bipolar disorder.
 Composed 9 symphonies, 32 piano sonatas and 16 string quartets, amongst many other works.
 He is well-known for his symphonies, particularly Eroica (1805) and his Symphony no. 5 (1804-
1807), which were both written in Beethoven’s ‘middle-period’ of life/composition.
About the Set Work – Placing the Set Work in a Musical Context
Beethoven’s first ideas for his Symphony no. 5 in C minor were written down in 1804, shortly after finishing Symphony no. 3 known as
‘Eroica’. However, it was not until 1807 that he completed it. Beethoven was a meticulous composer, often logging his compositional ideas
in scrapbooks where he frequently drafted and re-drafted ideas. He was based in Vienna when the piece was composed, which is the same
city in which Mozart composed his Horn Concerto no. 4 in Eb major. The first performance of the work was given in the Theater an der Wien
on 22
nd
December 1808. The occasion was a benefit concert, requested by Beethoven from the Directors of the Imperial Theatre. Concerts
such as this raised money for Beethoven and provided a showcase for his music and performing abilities. The concert contained four hours
of Beethoven’s music, much of it new and also featured the first performance of his Symphony no. 6 in F major (also known as the Pastoral
Symphony) and the Choral Fantasy, op. 80. The theatre was freezing cold and the music was under-rehearsed so the concert cannot have
been a complete success with the public. Many of Beethoven’s concerts followed a similar pattern – due to him being such a perfectionist
when it came to his compositions, he would frequently make changes to the music until just hours before the performance, which affected
the work of the copyists and ultimately the rehearsal process for the musicians involved.
The structure of a typical classical symphony is as follows:
 I – a sonata form 1
st
movt. Quick tempo, slow introduction.
 II – a slow movt. In Sonata form or Variation form.
 III – a minuet and trio (became scherzo and trio in Beethoven’s time)
 IV – a fast finale, often in sonata form or sometimes in rondo form.
PART 2 – MUSICAL ELEMENTS, INSTRUMENTATION & MUSICAL FEATURES
Time signature Tonality

C minor
Tempo
Allegro con brio
(fast with spirit)

Dynamics
Expressive dynamics
written (ff – pp). Heavy
use of sf, cresc., dimin.,
piu f and hairpins.
Pitch (violins)

Rhythm
Based around the important
upbeat

Harmony
Use of chords that are
related to the tonic key
but further away than
early Classical music.
Texture
Entire movement based
upon an imitative texture.
Use of homophony and
polyphony throughout.
Musical Features
 ‘x’ rhythm of motto theme
 ‘y’ falling two-note figure,
with accent on 1
st
beat
Melody and Structure
Opening ‘motto theme’ that the entire
first movement is based upon.

Instrumentation
Woodwind: 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets (Bb), 2 bassoons. Brass: 2 horns (in Eb), 2 trumpets (in C). Strings: Violin I, Violin II,
Viola, Cello, Double Bass. Percussion: 2 in C and G.
Of importance is the use of separate parts for the cello and double bass – these instruments have typically doubled each other
in octaves up until this point.



Characteristics of Romantic Music
 Dramatic dynamics – pp to ff – with sudden accents – sfz
 Bold/dramatic contrasts – dynamics, keys, time signature, mood, themes, etc.
 Experimentation of form – sonata form with two expositions
 Expression of emotion – telling a story (programme music)
 Adventurous modulations/keys
 Chromatic harmonies
 Use of rubato
 Large orchestra – new instruments (piccolo, ophecleide)

Bars Structure Description


1-43


Exposition: 1
st

subject
C minor. Dominated by the famous motto theme beginning on the second quaver of
the bar; three quavers followed by a longer note (theme A1). After two loud, dramatic
unison statements, it is used in an imitative texture that builds towards an imperfect
cadence. Another dramatic statement of the motto on the subdominant (bar 22) is
followed by another imitative texture (bars 25-32), culminating in a rising sequence
over a tonic pedal (bars 33-43).

44-58

Transition
C minor then modulates. The 1
st
subject ends with a new idea (derived from A1)
consisting of a downward arpeggio figure in quavers (T1) with sustained chords in the
woodwind. A very abrupt transition (bars 52-58) – the surprise chord in bar 52 is a
diminished 7
th
chord, one which can be ambiguous in its key.


59-124


Exposition: 2
nd

subject (with
codetta)
Eb major (relative major). Begins with a four bar melody in the horns that is an
extension of A1 (known as theme B1 at bars 59-62). This is answered by a lyrical idea in
crotchets (theme B2 at bar 63), which eventually climbs upwards towards a climax. A1
is still present as its rhythm is being used in the bass line in bars 65-92. There are other
melodic ideas presented in this material – there is a melody in quavers on the violins
containing accented appoggiaturas (known as theme B3 at bars 94-109). The exposition
finishes with a codetta (bars 110-122) which opens with the descending arpeggio idea
(theme T1) from the transition and ends with three emphatic perfect cadences to the
rhythm of A1.



125-247



Development
F minor (subdominant minor), then modulates through various related keys. Opens
with a dramatic statement of A1 imitated in the strings, preparing the music to enter
the subdominant. The imitative texture (A2) is then developed and extended (bars 129-
167), culminating in the emphatic chords and repeated quavers derived from T1 (bars
168-178). These are progressively fragmented, leading to two phrases combining an
extended version of the four bar melody of B1 with a downward arpeggio figure in
staccato crotchets in the lower strings (bars 179-186 and 187-194). At bar 195, a
remarkable passage begins in which the four bar B1 figure is progressively shortened
and passed antiphonally between wind and strings, reducing from three bars (bars 195-
197) to two (bars 198-209) and finally one bar (bars 210-227), getting quieter all the
time. It is abruptly interrupted by a fortissimo variation of B1 (bars 228-232), after the
one bar antiphonal dialogue briefly resumes (bars 233-239). At this point, the motto
returns (on Ab and F), firstly in imitation (bars 240-244) and finally as repeated unison
quavers (bars 245-247), leading seamlessly into the return of A1 at its original pitch for
the recapitulation.


248-287


Recapitulation: 1
st

subject
C minor. Some subtle differences from the exposition:
 A dominant pedal is added to A1 in the trumpet and timpani (bars 248-252).
 A2 includes a countermelody in the bassoon and pizzicato chords in the lower
strings (bars 253-267).
 A cadenza-like oboe solo (bar 268) replaces the subdominant statement of A1.
288-302 Transition Brief bridge passage linking the two subjects together.






C major (tonic major). Some subtle differences from the exposition:
 Chord at bar 302 is now G major (1
st
inversion) rather than Bb major (1
st

inversion), allowing the music to stay in the tonic rather than modulate to the






303-397



Recapitulation: 2
nd

subject
relative major.
 B1 is now played on bassoon rather than horns (bar 303).
 An extra four bar phrase is included at bars 319-322 and there are changes in
the scoring of B2.
 The sequential development of B2 is now in antiphonal two bar phrases (bars
323-330).
 The passage based on a repeated four-crotchet phrase (bars 83-93) is
extended and chromatically raised near the end (bars 331-345).
A1 is first repeated in changing harmonies under an inverted tonic pedal (bars 374-
381), leading into a repeated Neapolitan chord (bar 382), and a diminished seventh
chord (bar 390). A passage based on B1 follows, initially over a dominant pedal (bar
396).





398-502





Coda
C minor. The coda is an extra section added onto the recapitulation that ends the
movement, leading to a final cadence in the tonic key. In this movement, it is
particularly dramatic and substantial, constantly striving to find a convincing and
emphatic enough ending in C minor. It begins immediately after the end of the 2
nd

subject.
A descending sequence based on bars 2 and 3 of B1 in diminution (bar 407) is followed
by further sequential phrases in C minor that recall the crotchets of B2 and the two-
note figure ‘y’ (beginning at bars 423, 439 and 461), and finally a dominant pedal in
repeated quavers that ends in a statement of A1 (bars 478-482). A ghostly section
based on the imitative A2 idea ensues, over a tonic and dominant pedal in the cellos
(bars 483-490) which is abruptly ended with an emphatic perfect cadence to the A1
rhythm (bars 491-502).
Tonally, the movement contains a strong argument between C minor and C major: one
of the main factors of the coda is to crush the optimistic major ending of the 2
nd
subject
with repeated, emphatic reinforcement of C minor.







G353-style exercises
1. Explain the following terms used at the following points:
a) sf (bar 282 – oboes) ………………………………………………………….…………………………………………(1)
b) piu f (bar 175 – tutti orchestra) ……………………………………………………………………………………(1)
c) dimin. (bars 210-211 – strings) …………………………………………………………………………………….(1)

2. Explain the notation in the upper strings at bars 501-502.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…….. (2)

3. On the stave below, write out the bassoon part in bars 398
2
-401 the treble clef (4).


4. Describe the melodic and harmonic features of the following passage: bars 6-21.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………….(4)

5. Identify the overall structure of the movement and discuss the similarities and differences to
the standard form of the Classical period.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………….…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………….………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...(4)

6. Describe briefly the music that follows the development section.
………………………………………………………………………….……..………………………………………….…………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……….………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………............(3)

OCR AS MUSIC - SET WORK SUMMARIES
Set work summary
“Hotter Than That” – Louis Armstrong & ‘His Hot Five’
PART 1 – PLACING THE SET WORK IN ITS MUSICAL, SOCIAL & HISTORICAL CONTEXT
About the Composer – Placing the Set Work in a Social & Historical Context

 Louis Armstrong – born in New Orleans in 1901, died in 1971
 Influential trumpeter, singer & composer
 Pioneered scat singing – an imitative vocal style that mimics different
instrument sounds through ‘nonsense’ syllables
 Known as a ‘hot’ player because he swung the rhythm much more than his
contemporaries.
 Leader of the ‘Hot Five’ and later, the ‘Hot Seven’, including his wife Lil Hardin
 Related composers – Charlie Parker (1920-1955), Duke Ellington
(1899-1974), Count Basie (1904-1984), Jelly Roll Morton (1885-1941)

About the Set Work – Placing the Set Work in a Musical Context
“Hotter Than That” was recorded on the 13
th
December 1927 by Louis Armstrong and his ‘Hot Five’. It was recorded in
Chicago for OKeh Records. It was one of the first recordings of jazz music that used the new technology of gramophone &
shellac discs. The piece was recorded using the ‘hierarchical’ order from the microphone/recording horn; the soloist would
have been the closest to the device (and therefore, louder), whilst the trombonist would have been the furthest away
(hence, the sound quality of the trombone in the main mix). The ‘Hot Five’ had an additional member (Lonnie Johnson) who
played the blues guitar and banjo on the recording, although he was never a fully-fledged member of the band. The line-up
of the band changed many times throughout its’ career and eventually expanded to the ‘Hot Seven’. Many of their pieces
were written by Lil Hardin and “Hotter Than That” is no exception – she based it on the jazz standard ‘Tiger Rag’.

Key features of the soloists’ playing include:
 DOIT
 FALL-OFF
 GLISSANDO/SMEAR
 TERMINAL VIBRATO
 TAILGATE STYLE
 CLARINO RANGE
 RIP
 VIBRATO
 STOP TIME
PART 2 – MUSICAL ELEMENTS, INSTRUMENTATION & MUSICAL FEATURES
Time signature

Tonality
Eb major
Tempo
Prestissimo
A very fast pace!
Dynamics
Dynamics vary from
instrument to
instrument on the
recording, according to
closeness to the
microphone.
Pitch (trumpet range)

Rhythm
Heavily swung rhythms,
particularly in the solo lines.

Harmony
Major harmonies throughout.
The piece is mostly in Eb
major with the use of chords
Eb, Bb & Ab major.
Microtonal inflections are
used in the Duet section by
the guitar (blues tuning).
Texture
NEW ORLEANS
POLYPHONY or
COLLECTIVE
IMPROVISATION
(in Intro & Chorus 4). Mainly
homophonic but also
elements of monophonic
and polyphonic.
Musical Features
 Walking bass
 Improvisation
 Comping
 Frontline
 Rhythm section
 Stride piano
 Scat singing
32 bar song form Melody and Structure
Introduction (ensemble)
Chorus 1 (trumpet)
Chorus 2 (clarinet)
Chorus 3 (vocals)
Duet (vocal + guitar)
Link (piano)
Chorus 4 (trombone solo + ensemble)
Coda (vocals + guitar)
Instrumentation
Written for the following instruments: Trumpet – Louis Armstrong, Clarinet – Johnny Dodds, Piano – Lil Hardin, Trombone – Kid Ory,
Banjo – Johnny St. Cyr, Guitar – Lonnie Johnson
OCR AS MUSIC - SET WORK SUMMARIES
Revision Questions
1. Explain why Louis Armstrong made such an impact on audiences and musicians. Use examples
from Hotter Than That to illustrate your answer.
2. Why do you think Armstrong added a guitar player to the line-up of the Hot Five in this recording?
What effect does it have?
3. How does the rhythm section of this piece differ from that of Duke Ellington in Koko?
4. Why do you think Armstrong chose not to use drums or any form of percussion in Hotter Than
That?
5. Explain the meaning of each of the following terms:
 Smear
 Comping
 Rip
 Collective improvisation
 Tailgate style
 Stop time
6. What were the “bluesy” adjustments that Lonnie Johnsons made to the music?
7. Name each of the players and their instruments.
8. Describe what scat singing is and how it came about.
9. Explain the changes in texture heard between the two halves of Chorus 4.
10. In which city was this performance recorded and which record label was it for?


Characteristics of New Orleans jazz
 Collective improvisation/New Orleans polyphony
 Frontline = clarinet/ trumpet/ trombone/ guitar
 Banjo
 Scat singing
 Simple accompaniment
 Stride piano technique
 Heavy emphasis on the frontline
 Virtuosic players
 32-bar song form
 12-bar blues
 Instrument techniques such as smear, rip, terminal vibrato, etc
 Stemmed from ragtime
 Comping crotchets in piano & banjo


Time Structure Description
0’00” Introduction
8 bars
Makes use of the final 8 bars of the chorus’ 32-bar chord pattern. The texture is
typical of the New Orleans polyphony style.
Short phrases in the trumpet melody. Agile clarinet countermelody (balanced much
further back in the mix) – more audible in its higher register or when the trumpet
rests.
The trombone begins in the traditional tailgate style with glissandi up to sustained
semibreves – breaks into crotchets at the end of the introduction.
0’09” Chorus 1
32 bars
Clarinet & trombone drop out, leaving the rhythm section to accompany the trumpet
solo. Armstrong’s solo is confident and well-shaped. Two-note syncopated upbeat at
beginning of each 4-bar phrase. Accents on this to make it stand out – a strong
sense of swing. The similarity of phrasing helps to keep the improvisation highly
melodic.
Most of the phrases extend over an octave – showing Armstrong’s ability and range.
There is a rip up to the high Bb which can be clearly heard on the recording – it
sounds very much like a very quick, subtle, glissando.
The second half of the solo is more virtuosic and varied. There are less rests and
more use of broken-chord figures and chromatic triplets. The final phrase includes a
lip trill (shake) on a sustained high G.
0’45” Chorus 2
32 bars
Blues sound of Johnny Dodds’ first note – which uses a clarinet smear – makes a
striking contrast with Armstrong. The solo begins in the high clarino range of the
instrument. Dodds was known for his bright, assertive tone, which is even more
piercing at these registers. The fast vibrato) fashionable in the 1920s) is most
obvious at the end of long notes – terminal vibrato.
Emphasises the strong crotchet beats of the bar in contrast to Armstrong
emphasising the upbeats. He then moves into swung quavers. Heavy use of smear
OCR AS MUSIC - SET WORK SUMMARIES
to add to the blues feel.
Accompaniment in the banjo and piano only. Energetic comping by Lil Hardin but
not restricted to repeated chords. Bass octaves at the beginning in the left hand
alternating tonic-dominant. This then changes to movement between registers
(stride piano). Use of some higher register to create variety in texture.
1’21” Chorus 3
32 bars
Armstrong enters as a vocalist for the first time. The piano drops out of the
accompaniment, leaving the banjo to comp. Lonnie Johnson improvises
countermelodies on the guitar.
The scat solos on the Hot Five recordings were very popular with the public.
Armstrong gives the scat solos many of the same qualities as the earlier trumpet
solo in Chorus 1 – the first 16 bars have a similar overall shape. He imitates the
trumpet-style rip and uses smears, fall offs and vibrato regularly.
A succession of 24-dotted crotchets occurs covering 9 bars. This creates a
polyrhythmic effect against the crotchet beat of the rhythm section – a very unusual
technique for its time, showing his gift for rhythmic freedom and invention.
1’56” Duet
16 bars
Voice & guitar exchange two-bar phrases in a call and response style. Armstrong &
Johnson give a strong blues flavour to their dialogue. The start of each phrase
begins with a microtonal smear on the 3
rd
of the scale (G or Gb). This exploits the
expressive flexibility of blues tuning compared to the western classical approach to
intonation.
2’14” Link
4 bars
Piano played by Lil Hardin. Back in the original tempo.

2’18”
2’36”
Chorus 4
16 bars
16 bars
Music returns to the original mood. Kid Ory’s trombone solo occupies the first half of
the chorus. He uses the slide on the trombone to decorate the pitches of the melody
with three techniques – glissando up, fall-off at the end of notes and a slide between
notes.
Rhythm section continues to drive on energetically. Hardin plays an elaborate
countermelody in the high register of the right hand which is typical of ragtime.
Armstrong leads the second half of the chorus with an unaccompanied ascending
scale in straight quavers – chromatic scale rising over an octave to a high Bb.
New Orleans polyphonic style. Dramatic sequence of ‘stop time’ – the
accompaniment plats short staccato chords separated by silences, which build up
the anticipation for the end of the piece.
2’51” Coda Avoidance of the predictable full ensemble ending that the listener expects. Instead,
Armstrong uses the final two-bar break at the end of Chorus 4 to return to the idea
explored during the duet section: call & response.
The final diminished chord makes for an intriguing and inconclusive ending –
another flavour of the blues style.

OCR AS MUSIC - SET WORK SUMMARIES
Set work summary
“Koko” – Duke Ellington & ‘His Famous Orchestra'
PART 1 – PLACING THE SET WORK IN ITS MUSICAL, SOCIAL & HISTORICAL CONTEXT
About the Composer – Placing the Set Work in a Social & Historical Context
 Duke Ellington – born in Washington D.C. in 1899, died in 1974
 Influential pianist and composer
 Had his own style nicknamed “the Ellington effect” – a particular sound
that his band had which came from having input from the players.
 Known as a ‘swing’ player because of the large numbers of players in
his ensemble and the ‘Big Band’ style.
 Leader of “His Famous Orchestra” including Johnny Hodges, Cootie
Williams and Ben Webster.
 Related composers – Benny Goodman (1909-1986), Cab Calloway
(1907-1994), Billie Holiday (1915-1959).
About the Set Work – Placing the Set Work in a Musical Context
“Koko” was recorded on the 6
th
March 1940 by Duke Ellington & ‘His Famous Orchestra’. It was recorded in Chicago for
RCA Victor records. It was one of many recordings of swing/Big Band music that used the new technology of multiple RCA
ribbon microphones. The piece was recorded using much more sophisticated equipment compared to the recording horn;
each set of instruments would have had their own microphone. ‘His Famous Orchestra’ had 15 members which was the
standard for the swing era. Ensembles were much bigger as the music was made for dancing and filling huge dance halls
with music. Although many of the solos were still improvised, the act of collective improvisation was no longer practical with
such a large ensemble and arrangements using written notation became a necessity. The band toured extensively around
America and Europe but had a residency at the Cotton Club in Harlem (1927-
1931). They performed equally to both white and black audiences. It is likely that
this piece was composed by Ellington on a train on the way to another gig.

Key features of “the Ellington effect”:
 Chords arranged for sections of reeds, trumpets or trombones – one
player to each note
 Unison melodies or riffs for a section
 Antiphonal effects of pitting one section against another, either as call
and response or as countermelodies
 Solo improvisation with accompaniment from one or more contrasting
sections
PART 2 – MUSICAL ELEMENTS, INSTRUMENTATION & MUSICAL FEATURES
Time signature

Tonality
Eb minor (aeolian mode)
Tempo
Vivace
A fairly fast pace

Dynamics
Dynamics were varied
& had greater depth,
partly to do with the
more advanced
recording technology
used to record the
piece.
Pitch (saxophones)

Rhythm
Key motif seen throughout the
piece.
Harmony
Rich 7
th
chords – bluesy sounds
Texture
Mixture of homophonic
& polyphonic
throughout.
Musical Features
 Chase chorus
 Shout chorus
 Rich 7
th
chords
 Motifs/ riffs
 Dissonance – tritons
 Walking bass
Introduction (reduced ensemble) Melody and Structure
Chorus 1 (valve trombone solo)
Chorus 2 (trombone solo)
Chorus 3 (trombone solo)
Chorus 4 (piano solo)
Chorus 5 (trumpets in unison)
Chorus 6 (double bass solo +
ensemble)
Chorus 7 (Full ensemble)
Coda (reduced ensemble)
Instrumentation
Written for the following instruments: Alto sax – Johnny Hodges & Otto Hardwick, Clarinet – Barney Bigard, Tenor sax – Ben Webster,
Bariton Sax – Harry Carney, Trumpets – Wallace Jones, Cootie Williams & Rex Stewart, Trombones – Lawrence Brown, Joe “Tricky
Sam” Nanton & Juan Tizol, Guitar – Fred Guy, Piano – Duke Ellington, Double bass – Jimmy Blanton, Drums – Sonny Greer.
OCR AS MUSIC - SET WORK SUMMARIES
Revision Questions
1. What is meant by the jungle style?
2. Why do you think the big bands became popular in the 1930s and 1940s?
3. Explain the meaning of the following terms:
 Walking bass
 Shout Chorus
 Chase Chorus
 ‘Ya-ya’
 Straight eights
 ‘Du-wah’
4. Describe how Ellington uses harmony and tonality in Koko.
5. Ellington’s ability to create a sound that was unique to his band is often referred to as ‘the Ellington
Effect’. Give examples of how Ellington employs his signature sounds in this arrangement of Koko.
6. Name each of the players and their instruments.
7. Identify two differences between the first chorus and the second chorus.
8. In which year and city was this music recorded and for which record label?
9. How is the sound of the trombone modified in Chorus 2 and Chorus 3?
10. What is the role of the double bassist throughout?
11. How is the tonality of this piece unusual?
12. Compare Ellington’s use of brass and reeds in Chorus 6 and Chorus 7.
13. Identify the structure used for the choruses throughout.
14. Explain the differences in sound that both the plunger and pixie mutes produce.
15. How are the mute positions (open and closed) notated in sheet music?

Characteristics of Swing jazz
 Music for dancing to in large ballrooms so & concert halls so ensembles were big (15+)
 Written arrangements used to cater for large ensembles – collective improvisation is no longer
viable so only the soloist tends to improvise
 Saxophones = leading solo instruments
 Banjos became outdated – rhythm section is now generally: bass, piano, drums, (guitar)
 Instrumentalists = better quipped and more ‘technically’ trained, reading music at a higher level
 Most big bands included: trombones, trumpets, saxophones + rhythm section
 Double bass replaced the tuba – walking bass style
 Piano players moved away from the stride piano style of ragtime
 Drums relied heavily on the hi-hat for swing rhythms
 Emphasis on the off-beat

Time Structure Description
0’00” Introduction
8 bars
Brooding, jungle mood from the beginning. Dark sound of the baritone saxophone
plays a low tonic pedal on Eb. Brighter sounds of the trumpets and higher reeds are
not used in the introduction. Hollow sounds from the tom-tom and the crotchet beat
of the bass drum makes for a distinctive African colour in the passage. The four note
‘x-motif’ is stated for the first time.
Syncopated chords in the three trombones – move in parallel, descending
chromatically in each phrase.
0’12” Chorus 1
12 bars
Opening melody on the valve trombone. Trombone phrases are answered by close
harmonies in the four saxophones, which move in parallel. Rich sounds of the 7
th

chords and the bluesy sound of having Db and D in the same chord.
Double bass plays pizzicato walking bass – stepwise motion. The drums have
changed from the jungle colouring to keeping time on the hi-hat and bass drum.
Repeated two-bar phrasing between the trombone and saxophones is shortened in
bars 9-10 to two one-bar phrases.
Piano plays a syncopated dominant pedal on Bb with a crescendo, which adds
momentum towards the next chorus.
0’32” Chorus 2
12 bars
Slide trombone solo across two choruses – distinctive sound incorporates three
effects:
 Growling ‘ya-ya’ (which Joe Nanton was well known for) using a plunger
mute
 Pixie (straight) mute – fixed inside the trombone to create a buzz to the
sound
 Style of blowing through the instrument that gives the impression of words
being produced
0’51” Chorus 3
12 bars
OCR AS MUSIC - SET WORK SUMMARIES
Only a few pitches are used throughout the solo but the three specific techniques
mentioned above with the addition of smears and fall-offs creates a highly
expressive calling effect that suits the jungle atmosphere of the piece.
Saxophones play a two-bar riff in a low unison, using the ‘x-motif’ and sustained
notes. Single staccato chords on the piano emphasise the first note of the ‘x’ rhythm.
Brass play a syncopated rhythm, alternating repeated notes quickly between closed
and open plunger mute positions (‘du-wah’ effect).
The rhythm section keeps time with a very clear walking bass. Guitar comps and
drums keep time.
The second half of the solo (Chorus 3) begins with higher pitches – the plunger
mute is tight against the bell of the instrument, restricting the sound even further.
The soloist returns to the ‘ya-ya’ style of playing to conclude the solo.
1’08” Chorus 4
12 bars
Piano solo – accompanying riffs begin to move in one-bar phrases. The Aeolian
mode is reinforced by the repeated Dbs on each first beat. The boldest harmonies
are created in the solo – the right hand plays a whole-tone scale in semiquavers
(ascending & descending over an octave and a half). The use of the bright high
register of the piano emphasises its polytonal dissonance as it clashes with the Eb
minor chord in the left hand and the rest of the band.
A whole-tone scale on Cb creates a similar colourful dissonance against the Ab
minor chord. The solo ends with a syncopated Ebm7 chord – leaps in pairs (10
th

apart) across the range of the instrument.
1’26” Chorus 5
12 bars
The riff moves to the trumpets for the first time in this chorus – reverts back to two-
bar phrases. The repeated phrase is higher so that the 9
th
of the chord is the most
prominent – more dissonant than the 7
th
in the previous chord.
The sound of the unison trumpets with plunger mutes half open gives the music a
more insistent feel. Full ensemble apart from piano. Reeds & trombones play a two-
note rhythm and sustained chords which each other antiphonally.
Clarinet takes the highest note in the chord. The baritone sax has its own decorated
figure.
1’44” Chorus 6
12 bars
The ‘x-motif’ is passed around the sections of instruments within the band and each
section harmonises it differently. The sections enter one after another in imitation at
a distance of one minim apart. The full band then sustains the chord until an
emphatic shop on two ff repeated quavers.
The double bass breaks the dramatic pause with a two-bar solo – descending scale
in walking bass crotchets.
The rest of the chorus continues to alternate between full band sections in imitation
and solo bass in two-bar phrases – referred to as the ‘chase chorus’.
2’03” Chorus 7
12 bars
The full ensemble takes over for the final climactic chorus – known as a ‘shout
chorus’. Melody in unison in the saxophones with the clarinet supplying the highest
note of the sustained chords in the brass section. Highly dissonant chords – the Eb
minor chord now includes an added 7
th
, 9
th
& 11
th
. Insistent E s in the saxophones,
causing a dissonant triton against the Bb in the bass. The phrase also includes
whole-tone inflections, previously referred to in Ellington’s piano solo.
2’22” Coda
12 bars
Concludes with a return to material from the introduction but the orchestration is now
reduced to baritone sax, trombones & rhythm section. The final bars bring back the
full band, section by section in ascending phrases. ‘Straight eights’ replace the
swung rhythm to finish the piece.


OCR AS MUSIC - SET WORK SUMMARIES
Set work summary
“Boplicity” – Miles Davis & ‘His Orchestra'
PART 1 – PLACING THE SET WORK IN ITS MUSICAL, SOCIAL & HISTORICAL CONTEXT
About the Composer – Placing the Set Work in a Social & Historical Context
 Miles Davis – born in Chicago in 1926, died in 1991
 Influential trumpeter and jazz composer
 Pioneered two new styles of jazz: bebop & cool
 Extremely virtuosic and distinctive trumpet player – kept
to a simple style of playing
 Had a close working relationship with Gil Evans
(1912-1988)
 Related composers – Charlie Parker (1920-1955), Dizzy Gillespie
(1917-1993) & Thelonious Monk (1917-1982)
About the Set Work – Placing the Set Work in a Musical Context
“Boplicity” was written and arranged by Miles Davis and Gil Evans. It was recorded on 22
nd
April 1949 in New York for
Capitol Records. The piece is in a cool jazz style – during the 1950s the trend towards a softer, less dauntingly complex
style of jazz was sought by musicians and critics. The album “Birth of Cool” was a reissue of 11 tracks (1949-50) that was
produced on an LP in 1957. “Boplicity” was seen as one of the first recordings of music in the cool jazz style and this album
is a tribute to this. The “Boplicity” track itself was originally credited to Miles Davis’ mother (Cleo Henry) for ‘business
reasons’. Whilst the real reason remains unknown, it is said that this
was probably due to many of Miles Davis’ melodies being stolen and
produced by other composers of the time and so he was simply trying
to disguise his work. The band that Miles Davis used is a nonet
featuring mainly brass with just two saxophones, which was highly
unusual at a time where most bands featured large numbers of
saxophones.

Key features of Gil Evan’s arranging style:
 Unusual instrumentation, including the use of French
horns and tuba
 Minimal use of vibrato
 Emphasis on soft, subdued sounds in low registers
PART 2 – MUSICAL ELEMENTS, INSTRUMENTATION & MUSICAL FEATURES
Time signature

Tonality
F major

Tempo
Vivace
Marginally quicker than
Allegro – although it
has a laid back feel
compared to swing
music of Duke
Ellington.
Dynamics
Dynamics stay around
the same level
throughout – typical of
the cool jazz style –
easy listening with no
sudden changes in
dynamics.
Pitch (trumpet)


Rhythm
Syncopated rhythms with use
of triplets and offbeat accents
throughout. Swung rhythms
but not as much as in the
swing style.
Harmony
Begins with a Gm7 chord and
use of chromatic chords
throughout. Each F chord uses
different extensions (7ths, 9ths,
11ths) in Chorus 1.
Texture
Unison rhythms in
Chorus 1. Mainly
homophonic
throughout. Some use
of antiphony.
Musical Features
 Unusual harmonies
(F major but begins
with Gm7 chord)
 Syncopation
 Light, soft & lyrical
melodies.
Melody and Structure

Chorus 1 (full ensemble – no piano)
Chorus 2 (bari. sax solo, full ensemble – no piano,
trumpet solo, full ensemble – no piano)
Chorus 3 (trumpet solo with ensemble,
trumpet solo with rhythm section, piano solo, full
ensemble – no piano)

Instrumentation
Written for the following instruments: Trumpet – Miles Davis, Trombone – J.J. Johnson, French horn – Sandy Siegelstein, Tuba – John
‘Bill’ Barber, Alto Saxophone – Lee Konitz, Baritone saxophone – Gerry Mulligan, Piano – John Lewis, Double bass – Nelson Boyd,
Drums – Kenny Clarke.
OCR AS MUSIC - SET WORK SUMMARIES
Revision Questions
1. What is cool jazz? How is it different from bebop?
2. Why do you think Boplicity interested musicians and critics more than the public when it was first
released?
3. Compare the arranging techniques of Duke Ellington and Gil Evans.
4. List the similarities and differences between the trumpet styles of Louis Armstrong and Miles
Davis.
5. Name the players and the instruments.
6. Describe the main features of the piano solo.
7. How did the life of a jazz musician change between the 1920s and the end of the 1940s?
8. Which city was this piece recorded and for which record company?
9. Describe the music played by the rhythm section in Chorus 2.
10. What are the key characteristics of Miles Davis’ trumpet playing?

Characteristics of Cool jazz
 Relaxed form of jazz – a reaction against ‘bebop’
 Originated on the West Coast of America in Los Angeles
 Incorporates elements of classical music – Debussy, Stravinsky, Gershwin
 Light & lyrical sound
 Gentle, flowing rhythms
 Whispery saxophones & muted trumpets
 Intricately arranged
 Unusual time signatures (Dave Brubeck’s “Take Five” & “Unsquare Dance”
 Orchestral instruments used – French horns, oboes, bassoons, bass clarinet, alto flute
 Controlled use of vibrato
 Brass dominated

Time Structure Description
0’00” Chorus 1
32 bars
AABA (each section = 8 bars). There is no introduction, the opening chorus is fully
written out for the full ensemble, minus the piano. The melody on the trumpet is doubled
an octave lower by the baritone saxophone. The six horns (wind/brass) form a rhythmic
unit that plays complex chords in close harmony.
F major tonality at the beginning but begins with a Gm7 chord and chromatic chords –
each F major chord uses a different extension (7ths, 9ths, 11ths). Bars 6-7 a dominant
pedal of C suggests the key more clearly.
First four bars = highly syncopated. The melody notes rarely coincide with the strong
beat in double bass and drums. Triplet rhythms add to the flexibility of the melody – the
answering phrase hits the strong beats regularly in stark contrast. Dominant pedal in the
tuba and clear offbeat hits of the cymbal.
The B section has more conventional phrasing and chord progressions.
0’57”






1’25”
Chorus 2
34 bars
Baritone saxophone = not commonly used as a solo instrument – light, soft tone in the
middle and upper registers of the instrument, using little vibrato. The solo is clear and
uncomplicated. Relaxed crotchet and swung quaver movement – avoids the complex
double time of many bebop solos. Melody develops in a logical, unhurried way, using
silences to create a feeling of space.
The rhythm section only plays the accompaniment – the chord pattern is a simpler
version of the opening chorus.
Section B – the rest of the frontline instruments enter in quiet low octaves (the C minor
tonality darkening the mood). The brighter sound of the trumpet is left out, then
descends slowly in a sequence of syncopated phrases to a sustained F, two octaves
below. The extended descent lengthens this part of the bridge section by two bars.
The trumpet solo begins to the accompaniment of sustained chords in the rest of the
ensemble – the bass plays repeated Bbs. After the band’s mysterious and meandering
descent to the low F during the six preceding bars of section B, the bright sound of the
trumpet then transforms the mood.
Clear sense of direction in the modulation through the circle of 5ths and in the way that
the trumpet melody is shaped – this gradually reaches higher and higher until it reaches
a top F two octaves above the band’s low F previously heard.
1’57”


2’25”
Chorus 3
33 bars
Improvised solo – first 8 bars = a bar of double time with chords and antiphonal
accompaniment, second 8 bars = use of silences with no other frontline players &
rhythm section only.
Section B – texture is reduced to that of a jazz piano trio – relaxed swung quaver
movement and a long silence between the phrases in the piano. First 4 bars = melody
OCR AS MUSIC - SET WORK SUMMARIES
emphasises the interval of a perfect 5
th
. This is briefly echoed two octaves lower in the
next four bars.
The piece ends with a full-band reprise of the final A section. There is no coda.
Additional accents in the drums and cymbals give the final section an extra sense of
swing. Quiet and contained mood continue to the end.
Final three chords – fully scored but quiet. The drums have a quiet fill on the final chord.
The tuba plays a tremolo between two notes before coming to rest on its sonorous low
F.





PRACTICE G353 ESSAY QUESTIONS
1. Compare the way music was made available to audiences during 1920-1960 with the
customs during the 18
th
and early 19
th
centuries. Refer in your answer to the background of
one of the orchestral scores and one of the jazz recordings that you have studied.
- The contrast between transmission via live performance intended for an audience and one produced
within a recording studio.
- The issues relating to transmission: the score as a means of musical communication and preservation,
or the “authenticity” of a recorded performance.
- Aspects of editing: the reception of music as a “live” art against the potential to edit recorded
performances – references to issues relating to “authenticity” in performance and the limitations of a
score; issues relating to Urtext versions of the score.
- The contrasting methods of “communication”: direct interaction with an audience, hearing the
performance in person; transmission of “art” music produced in a studio via the indirect means of LP
purchase and via radio broadcasts.
- Clear and accurate references to aspects such as social and/or geographical diversity.

2. Explain how the recording conditions experienced by Gil Evans and Miles Davis in 1949
contrasted with those of jazz groups from the early twentieth century.
- The development of recording technology and the effects this had on jazz performers; in particular on
the positioning of performers within an ensemble layout.
- The availability of multiple microphones and the ability to balance recording input across a range of
timbres – changing conditions between early jazz recordings of 1920s and the more sophisticated
technology available by the 1950s (positioning of players within the ensemble or the length of recording
time available).
- The effects on performance of the amount of recording time available to the players – the occasional
necessity to “rush” an ending in order to avoid the time limit as opposed to a greater freedom to
improvise in later performances.
- The effects of performance practice, with particular regard to the layout of musicians, the selection of
instruments performing and the development of specific performing conventions within the jazz
tradition.

3. Explain the circumstances that influenced the creation and performance of either Louis
Armstrong’s Hotter Than That or Duke Ellington’s Koko.
- The historical background to the chosen work, including references to pre-existent models that served
as the basis for the prescribed repertoire.
- The development of styles (notably “New Orleans Jazz”) and swing in the 1920s and 1930s –
demonstrate awareness of the year and place of composition.
- The changes in characteristic instrumentation between styles (addition of saxophones as a main feature
in swing) – reference to characteristic musical features that are revealed in the music.
- Increasing popularity of jazz and the desire to give the genre an authority comparable with that of
classical music.
- Reference to Louis Armstrong’s Hot Five as a recording band and Ellington’s development of his
residency band beginning at the Cotton Club and then extensive touring.
- Reputations of the band leaders and the technical expertise of the soloists – significant features of the
soloists’ virtuosity and link to a specific personality or instrument within the group.
- Audience reaction and reception, especially in relation to the revision of a previously established model.





4. Explain the importance of recordings to the transmission of music in the twentieth century.
Refer to at least two items of prescribed repertoire in your answer.
- The growth of the recording industry in the twentieth century and its influence on music – references to
sales distribution and/or related aspects of radio broadcasts.
- The effects on performance duration as a result of limited recording time: the need to “edit”
performances to fit the recording time available – references to this in relation to instrumental sound in
early jazz recordings.
- The effects of distribution, both in terms of record sales and in relation to radio broadcasts.
- The ability of recordings to preserve a tradition, in relation to both classical and jazz repertoire.
- Financial aspects of recording contracts: the need to make a living – references to the frequently harsh
conditions imposed on musicians by record companies in the drawing up of extended contracts with
royalties.

5. In what ways does Handel’s use of instrumental forces in his Water Music Suite no. 2 in D
major, reflect the style of its time?
- The nature of the orchestra in the early 16
th
century – description of the nature of the baroque suite and
the orchestra in the early 1700s.
- The range and nature of the instruments contained within the ensemble.
- The increasing emphasis on new sonority within music – reference to doubling the orchestral numbers
to cater for the Royal Barge performances.
- Exploitation of wide range of orchestral timbre available at the time, especially in respect of brass –
reference to changes of composing style characteristic/uncharacteristic of the late Baroque period,
Handel introducing the horn as a main feature in the orchestra.
- Specific instrumental features (e.g. extensive use of brass instruments).

6. Compare and contrast the orchestral forces and their use in any two of the prescribed
orchestral scores that you have studied.
- Respective size of the orchestra for each work – a comprehensive description of the similarities and
contrasts between the two orchestral ensembles, supported by specific musical evidence.
- The range and nature of the instruments contained within the ensemble – composers’ use of the
instruments involved, specific capabilities of instruments with musical evidence.
- The dominance of string foundation in both groups.
- The principal similarities/differences between periods – reference to the changes in the orchestra
affecting changes of composing style/handling of instruments.
- Specific instrumental features (e.g. differences in the use of the horn) – discussion of how the
instruments used are representative of their time.

7. Describe some of the ways in which the limitations of early recording technology affected
the style and performance of jazz in the early twentieth century.
- The nature of early recording technology; in particular the need to record all performers from a single
microphone source – references to specific and significant limitations (microphone design or the process
of transferring recording sound to a shellac disc).
- The effects on performance duration as a result of limited recording time,
- Aspects of editing: the necessity to record “live” with no possibility for editing at a later stage -
references to early jazz performance practice such as the need to tailor originally longer “live”
performances to a specific time limit.
- The effects of recording limitations on performance practice, with particular regard to the layout of
musicians and the selection of instruments performing – references to the division of early ensembles
into frontline and rhythm sections in order to achieve clarity of line for the soloists.




8. Compare the use of brass instruments in Mozart’s Horn Concerto no. 4 in Eb major and Miles
Davis’ Boplicity, pointing out similarities and differences.
- The respective content of the instrumental brass group required for each work – references to specific
musical evidence.
- The range and nature of the brass instruments contained within the ensemble – references to
instrumental capabilities with musical evidence from the scores/recordings.
- The contrasting nature of the trumpets used.
- The respective ranges used in each work, especially in relation to the trumpet – references to the
changes made to instruments (design, lack of key system for Mozart and the exploitation of the middle
range that characterises Miles Davis’ performances) and resulting composing styles/handling of the
instruments.
- Specific details of instrumental writing features (e.g. aspects of ornamentation and performance
techniques) – reference to how the writing is representative of their time.

9. Describe the approaches to jazz performance in any two examples of the prescribed works
(scores and/or recordings) you have studied.
- The musical nature of the works discussed, including an awareness of the use of soloists and the
relationship between the solo players and the contribution of the ensemble as a whole.
- The nature of early recording technology and the effects this had on jazz performers; in particular on
the positioning of performers within an ensembles layout.
- The effects on performance of the amount of recording time available to the players.
- Comparison between performances that are recorded live and those which are capable of being
balanced/edited within a studio – reference to the occasional necessity to “rush” an ending in order to
avoid the time limit as opposed to greater freedom to improvise in later performances.
- The effects of performance practice, with particular regard to the layout of musicians, the selection of
instruments performing and the development of specific performing conventions within the jazz
tradition.

10. Describe the approaches to improvisation in any two examples of the prescribed works
(scores and/or recordings) you have studied.
- The role of improvisation in each of the recordings discussed.
- The stimulus used for improvisation (e.g. melodic line, chord progression).
- Consideration of soloist/ensemble differentiation and its effect on the nature of improvisation.
- The use of various instrumental ranges to effect in improvisation.
- Consideration of idiomatic writing and performing conventions for the instrument.
- Specific details of the ways in which the stimulus is treated and developed within each recording
discussed, drawing relevant comparisons.

11. Compare and contrast the use of wind instruments (woodwind and brass) in any two of the
prescribed orchestral works you have studied.
- The composition of the wind group in each work discussed.
- The range and nature of the instruments contained within the ensemble, including some consideration
of the use of register – references to specific capabilities of particular instruments (e.g. horn) using
musical evidence.
- The use of wind instruments for effect and/or aural contrast.
- The contrasting approach to wind sonority in the two works discussed.
- Exploitation of wide range of woodwind timbre and/or specific performing conventions in the works
discussed – how does the performer/composer make use of the instruments.
- Specific instrumental features (e.g. instrument design contrasts).




12. Explain why so many performances in the period from 1920 to 1950 were keen to secure
contracts with recording companies and radio stations.
- The emergence and subsequent growth of a recording industry in the USA during the first half of the
20
th
century – emergence of the recording companies and radio stations in America.
- The emergence of local and national radio broadcasting companies at the same time.
- Financial security provided for jazz musicians by securing a recording contract – disadvantages of the
single payment system for musicians whose recordings sold particularly well.
- The potential effects of radio and recording exposure on the personal reputation of jazz musicians and
their career development.
- The effects of the availability of recorded performances on jazz style and the dissemination of
performance practice.

13. In what ways is Hotter Than That typical and unusual in the context of 1920s jazz?
- The basic nature of jazz ensemble music in the 1920s – relating these features/characteristics to Hotter
Than That using musical evidence.
- Consideration of soloist/ensemble interaction and collective improvisation – reference to the increasing
levels of instrumental virtuosity.
- The effect of restricted time available in early recording technology.
- Consideration of developing styles of jazz during the 1920s and Armstrong’s position in relation to
newer styles of jazz – references to changes of composing style and/or handling of instrumental sounds
typical and/or unusual in the 1920s.
- Specific details of instrument use, range and/or timbre, together with an awareness of the use of these
in relation to historical context – references to changing trends in jazz music, moving away from the
older style of Dixieland jazz and towards more virtuosic performances leading to increasing emphasis on
personal reputations as a jazz improviser.

14. Describe some of the ways in which approaches to recording changed between Louis
Armstrong’s recording of Hotter Than That in 1927 and Miles Davis’ recording of Boplicity in
1949.
- The contrast between recording around a single microphone and recording in a studio environment that
allows individual instruments to be recorded and balanced - referencing key developments between
1920 and 1950-60.
- The development of the Sound Engineer and his role within the recording process – set against the need
for a frontline ensemble pattern in early recordings.
- Understanding of the limitations of early recordings, referring to significant examples of these in
relation to the repertoire studied.
- The issues relating to transmission: the move from 78rpm recordings with a strict time limit (e.g. the
need for performances to end suddenly in order to avoid overrunning) to LP recordings (with close-
micing and subtle balancing of sound sources) that allow more extended development of musical ideas.
- Aspects of editing: the view of music as a “live” art against the potential to edit recorded performances.
- The contrasting methods of “communication”: direct interaction with an audience, hearing the
performance in person; transmission of “art” music produced in a studio via the indirect means of LP
purchase and via radio broadcasts – reference to recording, radio broadcast, television.










Further Practice essay questions
15. What is distinctive about the use of instruments in Duke Ellington’s Koko and/or Miles Davis’
Boplicity?

16. Explain how the recording conditions experienced by Miles Davis in 1949 contrasted with
those of Louis Armstrong in 1927 and Duke Ellington in 1940.

17. In what ways is Mozart’s use of the orchestra and soloist in his Horn Concerto no. 4 in Eb
major, typical of its time?

18. Compare and contrast the approaches to sonata form in Mozart’s Horn Concerto no. 4 in Eb
major and Beethoven’s Symphony no. 5 in C minor.

19. Discuss the principle differences between the orchestras of Handel and Beethoven and how
the composers wrote for them.

20. Explain the circumstances in which either Handel composed the Water Music Suite no. 2 in
D major or Mozart composed the Horn Concerto no. 4 in Eb major.

21. Compare the different approaches to arrangement of Duke Ellington and Gil Evans, with
specific reference to Koko and Boplicity.

22. If you were asked to prepare a performance of one of the prescribed orchestral works, what
aspects would you need to consider? To what extent do you think it is important to respect
the composer’s intentions?

23. Compare and contrast the different styles of trumpet playing by Louis Armstrong and Miles
Davis.

24. What similarities and differences were there between the working conditions of orchestral
players in the 18
th
and early 19
th
centuries, compared to the jazz musicians in 1920-1960?

25. Compare the contributions of Louis Armstrong and Miles Davis to the jazz recordings you
have studied.

26. Explain which musical features of either Duke Ellington’s Koko or Miles Davis’ Boplicity
would have been familiar to audiences of the 1940s and which features would have been
new.

27. In what ways does Beethoven’s use of instrumental forces in his Symphony no. 5 in C minor,
reflect the style of its time?





28. Describe the effect of radio and recording on the work of jazz musicians. Consider issues
such as the advance of technology, the role of the radio and recording companies, the
artistic and business opportunities presented by radio and recording, and the public
response to broadcast and recorded performances.

29. Compare how Handel or Beethoven used woodwind and brass instruments with the use of
reeds and brass in one of the prescribed jazz recordings.

30. Discuss the use of imitation in the orchestral and jazz repertoire you have studied. Refer to
examples from at least one orchestral and one jazz piece.

31. Compare the contributions of both Duke Ellington and Miles Davis to the pieces you have
studied.

32. Discuss the role of the soloist in jazz. What would be expected of them? In what ways did
the role change over time? Refer to examples from at least two of the jazz recordings you
have studied.




General Guidance on Gaining essay marks
19-20 Thorough and detailed knowledge and understanding of background to the
repertoire, supported (where appropriate) by detailed and specific examples of
music, well-assimilated and applied in direct answer to the question. Ideas well-
structured and expressed in language of consistently high quality, essentially without
faults of grammar, punctuation or spelling.

16÷18 Specific knowledge and understanding of the background to the repertoire,
supported (where appropriate) by reference to clearly-identified examples of music,
mostly well applied towards answering the question. Ideas generally well structured
and expressed in language that is of good quality with very few lapses in grammar,
punctuation or spelling.

13÷15 Good general knowledge and understanding of the background supported (where
appropriate) by some accurate references to examples of music. Some attempt to
apply this in direct answer to the question. Ideas fairly clearly expressed in language
that is mainly of good quality, but with minor flaws in grammar, punctuation and
spelling.

10÷12 Some knowledge of the background to the repertoire, supported (where
appropriate) by references to a few accurate examples of music but with little detail.
Ideas not always clearly related to the question and expressed in language that
displays some weaknesses in grammar, punctuation and spelling.

7÷9 Limited knowledge and/or confused understanding of the background, perhaps
illustrated by references to music that are not always accurate and/or not well
understood. Ideas not always relevant or accurate and rather poorly expressed with
persistent errors in grammar, punctuation and spelling.

4÷6 Little knowledge of relevant background, with little illustration from music examples
and few ideas that bear little relevance to the question. Ideas poorly expressed with
serious weaknesses in grammar, punctuation and spelling.

0-3 Very little knowledge of any relevant background, with no musical illustrations
and/or very few ideas. Little coherent thought in the answer and expressed in
language of very poor quality.
Grade boundaries for G353
A 72/90 80%
B 63/90 70%
C 54/90 60%
D 45/90 50%
E 36/90 40%