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Issue 2 Oct-Nov 2004/Ramadaan-Shawwal 1425 H

Fatawa Siyam
(fasting verdicts)
Special issue!!
Editorial by Abu Saliha

An Amalgam of Physical and Spiritual worships

long with the physical worship of abstention from food and drink, fasting
incorporates a number of inward worships or worships of the heart. Unlike the
apparent forms of worship like the prayers, fasting is a hidden action, a secret
between the believer and his Lord. Since the people do not see fasting, the chances of it being
corrupt by Riyaa (show off) is reduced. It is thus, a worship done with pure Ikhlas (sincerity),
which is a great form of worship of the heart. Allah's Messenger  said: “He, who observed
the fasts of the month of Ramadaan out of sincerity and hoping for the reward
from Allah; he will have his past sins forgiven." [Saheeh al-Bukharee] One, who fasts,
does so for the sake of Allah, with hope in His Mercy and the promised reward. He fasts out
of love for Allah, in submission to His Command and as a practical expression of devotion
to Him. This love, hope and submission are again great worships of the heart. Thus,
fasting incorporates many important worships of the heart that are directed
towards increasing the faith. Read on .
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Fasting is a means of controlling one's desires, whether in Ramadaan

Bi-Monthly Islaamic Newsletter
or outside it. The Prophet  advised the youth, “O youths, whosoever
amongst you is able to marry then let him do so, since it restrains
the eyes and protects the private parts, and he who is unable, then
let him fast because it is a shield for him." [Saheeh al-Bukharee]
Sister SHAWANA A. AZIZ Fasting teaches Patience: The fast requires patience on the part of the
fasting person in order to suppress his desires, and Allah says, "Verily, the
patient ones will be given their reward in full, without any
As-Sunnah TEAM reckoning." [Soorah Az-Zumar: 15]
MUHAMMAD NAJEEB Attaining Taqwa: Fasting opens the heart to contemplation and
SHAHID SATTAR remembrance of Allah for it restricts the fasting person from food, drink
AMIN KAZI and fulfilling his desires. Often a full stomach makes one heedless and
perhaps hardens the heart. This is why the Prophet  advised us to eat and
drink little, when he  said: “The son of Adam does not fill any vessel
DESIGNING AND LAYOUT worse than his stomach. It is sufficient for the son of Adam to eat a
few mouthfuls, to keep him going. If he must do that (fill his
Sister SHAWANA A. AZIZ stomach), then let him fill one third with food, one third with drink
and one third with air." [Silsilatul-Ahadeth-Saheehah (no. 2265)]
Fasting is a means of attaining Taqwa (piety) and righteousness, because
the one who does not submit to his desires is more inclined and receptive to
CIRCULATION / MARKETING the Words of Allah and His Commands, which in turn makes it easier for
FAIZAL RAKHANGI him to attain piety and become devout to Allah.
Fasting leads to Paradise: Abu Hurayrah  reported a Qudsi Hadeeth,
“…Fasting is a shield (against the Hell and sins)…" [Agreed upon]
Fatawa courtesy to
Fasting is a shield from Hell Fire, because it protects the fasting person
from shameful and unjust deeds, which protect him from the Hell-Fire.
Fatawa on Fasting,
Thus, when Abu Umamah  asked the Prophet  , “O Messenger of Allah,
Zakaat and Taraweeh,'
tell me of an action by which I may enter Paradise." He  said, “Take to
Published by Darussalam
fasting, there is nothing like it." [Saheeh al-Jamee. (no. 4044)]

The Reward of Fasting: The combination of inner and outward forms of worships, entitles a fasting person
to the many glad tidings mentioned in the Qur'aan and the Sunnah. The Messenger of Allah  said, “Every
deed of the son of Adam will be rewarded ten to seven hundred times its worth. Allah, the Mighty
and Sublime, said, 'Except for the fast, for indeed it is for Me, and I will reward it. He leaves off his
desires and his food for My sake...'" [Agreed upon] The presence of Ikhlas (sincerity) and the lack of Riyaa
make fasting a highly rewarding worship; the reward of which is a secret between the Lord and his slave as,
Allah said, 'Except for the fast, for indeed it is for Me, and I will reward it.' While good actions may be
rewarded up to seven hundred times depending upon the sincerity with which an action is performed, the
reward of fasting is known only to Allah … a generous reward from the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful. In
another Qudsi Hadeeth, Allah has promised, “…two times of joy for the fasting person; the time of joy
when he breaks his fast, and the time of joy when he meets His lord…" [Agreed upon] As for the joy at
the time of breaking the fast, then it is the joy of fulfilling an important worship of Allah, Glory be to Him, Who
favored his slave and granted him the ability to fast and worship, while others were deprived from this
blessing. The second time of joy is when the fasting person will meet his Lord and enjoy the abundant rewards
of fasting.

A word of caution! All these merits will not be attained except by him, who fasts with sincerity and abstains
from all Haraam, including listening to the unlawful, looking at the prohibited, and refraining from unlawful
means of earnings, to mention a few. So, the limbs must fast and abstain from sinful acts. The tongue must fast
and abstain from lying, foul speech and false swearing. This is the required fast that results in acquiring the
promised rewards. And if it is not so, then, "Perhaps, all that one who fasts will get from his fast is
hunger and thirst!! And perhaps, all that one who stands at night in prayer will get from his
standing is sleeplessness." [ (saheeh) Ibn Hibban]
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Differences in Moon Sighting between Countries
When and its Effect on those who Travel in Ramadaan
d o e s F a s t i n g Question: What should a Muslim do if he moves from one
Begin country to another, where the people have started fasting
Ramadaan on a different day?
Answer: “Praise be to Allah. If a person finds himself in a
Allah says, “So whoever of you sights (the country where the people have already started fasting, he must
crescent of the first night of) the month (of fast with them, because he must follow the ruling of the country
Ramadaan), he must fast that month.” he is in. The Prophet  said, “Fast when the people fast, break
[Soorah al-Baqarah (2): 185] Fasting begins your fast when the people break their fast, and offer your sacrifice
with the sighting of the new moon. It is when the people offer their sacrifice.” [Reported by Abu Dawood
sufficient that a trustworthy Muslim testifies with a jayyid isnad. There are corroborating reports narrated by
to those in authority of seeing the new moon. Abu Dawood and others]
Thereby, everyone should observe the fasts. Suppose that he moved from a country where he had begun
Abu Hurayrah  narrated, “A bedouin came to fasting with the people there, and went to another country. He
the Messenger of Allah  and reported, 'O has to either break his fast or continue fasting according to the
Messenger of Allah , I have seen the new ruling of the people in the country to which he has traveled, even if
moon of Ramadaan.' Thereupon, the Prophet  they end their fast earlier than the country where he started
asked him, 'Do you bear witness that 'Laa fasting. But if it turns out that he has fasted less than twenty-nine
ilaha illAllah.' (i.e., there is no god worthy of days, he must make up the fasts later on, because the Hijri month
worship except Allah)?', 'I do,' said the bedouin. cannot be less than twenty-nine days.”
The Prophet  further asked him whether he Fatawa al-Lajnah al-Daa'imah, 10/124
testifies that Muhammad () is the Messenger
of Allah. The bedouin affirmed that again. It is Not Allowed for a Few People to Isolate
Thereupon, the Prophet  asked Bilal  to
themselves and Initiate Ramadan or Celebrate Eid.
announce the beginning of Ramadaan.” [Sunan
Abu Dawood no. 2333 and 2334] Question: In our city, there is a group of committed brothers, but
they differ from us with regard to some matters, such as fasting in
Ibn Umar  said, “The people were seeking the Ramadaan. They do not fast until they see the moon with the
new moon. Having sighted it myself, I reported naked eye. Sometimes, we fast two or three days before them in
to the Prophet . He  began his fast and Ramadaan, and they break their fast one or two days after Eid al-
ordered the people to begin theirs, too.” [Sunan Fitr…
Abu Dawood no, 2335 (saheeh)] Answer: “Praise be to Allah. They should fast with the people
and break their fast with the people, and they should offer the Eid
Sighting the new moon is compulsory and it prayer with the Muslims in their city because the Prophet  said:
can not be r ep la ced by ast r onom ic a l “Fast when you see it (the new moon) and break your fast
calculations. The Messenger of Allah  said: when you see it, and if it is cloudy then complete the
“We are an unlettered nation; we neither number (of days, i.e., assume the month is thirty days).”
write, nor know accounts. The month is [Agreed upon]. What is meant by this command to fast and to
like this and this, i.e., sometimes of 29 break the fast is; ‘if the sighting is proven by the naked eye or by
days and sometimes of 30 days.” [Saheeh al- means that help the eye to see,’ because the Prophet  said:
Bukharee] “Fasting is the day when you (i.e., the Muslim community)
fast, iftar is the day when you (all) break your fast and
If it becomes difficult to see the moon due to bad adha is the day when you (all) offer your sacrifice.” [Abu
weather conditions, then 30 days of the month Dawood (2324) at-Tirmidhee (697) Authenticated by al-Albanee
of Shabaan are completed. He  said, “Fast in Saheeh al-Tirmidhee (561)] And Allah is the Source of strength.
when it (the moon) is seen and cease May Allah send blessings and peace upon our Prophet
fasting when it is seen, so if it is concealed Muhammad and upon his family and companions.”
by clouds, then complete thirty days of Shaikh Salih al-Munajjid
Shabaan.” [Saheeh al-Bukharee (vol. 4
number 106) and Saheeh Muslim (no. 1081)] Dua of Sighting the New Moon
It is not permissible to fast a day or two before “O Allaah, make
Ramadaan (the day of doubt) in anticipation of the new moon rise
Ramadaan. The Messenger of Allah  said, on us with
“None of you should start Ramadaan by blessing, faith,
fasting a day or two before it, except for a safety and Islam.
man who usually fasts (on those days), My Lord and
then let him fast that day.” [Saheeh al- Your Lord is
Bukharee (vol. 3,no. 138)] Allah.”
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If fasting on a journey produces hardship, then it is forbidden
to fast. Narrated Jabir Ibn Abdullah , “Allah's Messenger 
was on a journey and saw a crowd of people and a man was
s h o u l d F a s t
& Who
s h o u l d n o t F a s t
being shaded (by them). He asked, 'What is the matter?' they
said, 'He (the man) is observing Saum (fast). The Prophet 
said, 'It is not from al-Birr (righteousness) to observe
fast on a journey.'" [Saheeh al-Bukharee]

Thus, “…It is permissible for one to observe fast or break his

 Fasting is obligatory on every sane, matureand fast while traveling. But it is recommended for a healthy,
healthy Muslim. Young children are encouraged to strong person to observe fast, whereas a sick person is
fast. [Saheeh al-Bukharee (vol. 3, no. 181)] recommended not to observe fast. The saying of the Prophet ,
'It is not from al-Birr (righteousness) to observe fast on a
 Exempted are those who suffer terminal journey,' is applicable to a particular case, i.e., when one is so
(incurable) illnesses, or are too old to fast. Allah does weak or sick that observing the fast will harm him. In such a
not overburden His slaves. case, one has to break his fast, for Allah does not like His
devotees to harm themselves unnecessarily." [From the
 Permission to abstain from fasting is granted to footnotes of Saheeh al-Bukharee by Dr. Muhammad Muhsin
travelers, who do not travel for the purpose of breaking Khan]
the fast.
Authentic Ahadeeth confirm that a traveler has the  As for those whose sickness does not allow them to fast,
choice to fast or to abstain from fasting. Anas Ibn they fall into three categories;
Malik al-Ka'bi  narrates that the Prophet  said, a) If fasting does not impose hardships and does not harm,
“Allah has permitted the traveler to postpone then it is better to fast.
his fasts and shorten his prayer…" [Reported by b) If fasting is hard but not harmful, then he is permitted to
Ahmad, Abu Dawood, an-Nisaee, at-Tirmidhee and break his fast.
Ibn Majah] c) If fasting is harmful for him, then he is ordered to abstain
Hamzah Ibn Amr al-Aslamee asked Allah's Messenger from fasting, because Allah says, “Do not throw yourselves
, “Shall I fast while traveling?" and he was a person into destruction." [Soorah al-Baqarah (2): 195] And the
who fasted often, so Allah's Messenger  said to him, Messenger of Allah  said, “There is (to be) no harm or
“Fast if you wish and refrain from fasting if you reciprocating harm." [(saheeh) Musnad Ahmad, Ibn Majah
wish." [Saheeh al-Bukharee (4/156) and Saheeh (Saheeh al-Jamee as-Sagheer no. 7517)]
Muslim (no. 1121)]
Anas Ibn Malik  reported, “I traveled along with  During menstrual period or the post-natal bleeding,
Allah's Messenger  in Ramadaan, and the fasting women should abstain from fasting. The Prophet  said,
person would not criticize the one not fasting, nor “Isn't it true that a woman does not offer prayer and
would the one, not fasting, criticize the fasting does not observe fast on menstruating? And that is the
person." [Saheeh al-Bukharee (4/163) and Saheeh defect (a loss) in her religion." [Saheeh al-Bukharee (304)]
Muslim (no. 1118)]
Ibn Abbas  also said, “Do not condemn one who
observes fast, or one who does not observe it (on a
 The pregnant or breast feeding women, whose health or
the health of the suckling baby might be affected due to
journey), for the Messenger of Allah  observed fast on
fasting, may abstain from fasting.
a journey or he did not observe it (too)." [Saheeh
Muslim (no. 2471)]

Question: When should a young girl begin fasting?

Allamah Abdullah Ibn Jibreen (hafidahullah) replied, “When a young girl attains the age of puberty and
becomes a woman, she must begin to fast. If a girl attained puberty at an age of ten years or up, she must begin to fast. If
a young girl's menstruation starts she must fast theprescribed month of Ramadaan regardless of her age.”
'Fatawa on Fasting, Zakaat and Taraweeh,' Published by Darussalam

Question: My son is a minor, who insists to fast, although he is not too healthy. Should I force him to break his fast?
Allamah Mohammed Ibn Salih al-Uthaimeen (rahimahullah) replied, “A minor who has not yet attained
puberty is not required to observe fasting. If a minor, however, can afford to fast without hardship and difficulty, he
should be rather commanded to perform fasting. The Companions of the Prophet commanded their youngsters to fast
during the month of Ramadaan. A small child may cry, because of hunger and fatigue. The parents will give such a
child, a toy to play with, until the time of sunset. But if it is proven and obvious that such a child may endanger his
health by observing the fasts, then such a minor must be forbidden to observe the fast. No force must be applied,
however, to forbid minors from fasting, force is not preferred in the Islamic method for upbringing.”
'Fatawa on Fasting, Zakaat and Taraweeh,' Published by Darussalam
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His fasting servants. The Prophet  said, “If one of you hears the
Duration nidaa (call) and the drinking vessel is in his hand, then let him
not put it down until he has satisfied his need from it." [Reported
o f F a s t i n g by Abu Dawood (no. 235), Musnad Ahmad (2/423), al-Hakim (1/426), al-
Baihaqee (2/218) and Ibn Jareer (no. 3115) from Abu Hurayrah. Its
The fast has to be observed from the isnad is hasan, and it has another chain of narrators reported by Ahmad
appearance of Fajr until the daytime ends and (2/510) and al-Hakim (1/203,205) and it is saheeh.]
the night begins, i.e. from dawn (sunrise) to
dusk (sunset). Allah says in the Qur'aan, An-Nidaa here means the second adhaan given for the appearance of the
“And eat and drink until the white true dawn. This meaning is attested to by what Abu Umaamah 
thread (i.e., light, whiteness of dawn) reports, “That the call for prayer was given and a drinking vessel was in
appears to you distinct from the black
the hand of Umar , so he said, 'Shall I drink it, O Messenger of Allah?'
thread (i.e., darkness of night)." [Soorah
He  said, 'Yes,' so he drank it." [Reported by Ibn Jareer (2/102) through
al-Baqarah (2): 187] two isnads]
The Prophet  explained: “The Fajr is two Narrated Aisha (radhi allahu anha), “Bilal used to pronounce the Adhan
Fajrs; as for the first Fajr, it does not
at night, so the Messenger of Allah  said, 'Carry on taking your
make food forbidden, nor does it make
meals (eat and drink) till Ibn Umm Maktum pronounces the
the prayer lawful. As for the second, it
Adhan, for he does not pronounce it till it is dawn.'" [Saheeh al-
makes food forbidden and the prayer
lawful." [Reported by Ibn Khuzaimah (3/210),
al-Hakim (1/191- 495), ad-Daaraqutnee
(2/165) and al-Baihaqee (4/261) by way of Withholding from Food before the Appearance of the
Sufyan, from Ibn Juraij, From Ataa, From Ibn True Fajr due to Claims of Taking Precaution is a Bidah
Abbas and its isnaad is saheeh. It has a (innovation). Al-Hafidh Ibn Hajr (rahimahullah) says in al-Fath
supporting witness from Jabir reported by al- (4/199), “One of the reprehensible innovations which have appeared in
Hakim (1/191), al-Baihaqee (4/ 215) and ad- this time is to make the secondary adhaan about a third of an hour
Daaraqutnee (2/165) and they differ about its before Fajr in Ramadaan, and the extinguishing of lights, which is used
being mawsool or mursal, and it has a third as a sign indicating the forbiddance of eating and drinking for the one,
witnessing narration from Thawbaan intending to fast, claiming that what he has innovated is a
reported by Ibn Abee Shaibah (3/27)] precautionary measure to protect his worship...This has lead them to
the stage, where they do not give adhaan until four minutes or so after
1. The False Fajr is the rising vertical the actual sunset, to make sure of the time as they claim. So, they delay
column of whiteness that appear looking like breaking the fast and take suhoor early and act in contradiction to the
the tail of a fox. Sunnah. Therefore, there is little good found in them and much evil and
2. The True Fajr is the horizontally Allah's Aid is sought."
spreading reddishness, which can be seen
above the mountain passes and tops, which The Time of Iftar: Breaking the Fast
spread its light throughout the roads, streets, Umar  said, “The Prophet  said, 'When the night approaches from
and houses. here, and the day passes away from here, and the sun sets, then
the fasting person's fast is broken.'" [Saheeh al-Bukharee (4/171)
Samurah  said, Allah's Messenger  said, and Saheeh Muslim (no. 1100)]
“Let not the adhaan of Bilal deceive you,
nor this vertical whiteness of dawn until This is something, which, comes about immediately after the sun sets,
it spreads horizontally." [Saheeh Muslim even if the sky is bright and clear. During his fasts, Allah's Messenger 
(no. 1094)] would order a man to climb upon something and check the status of the
sun, which if had set, he would break his fast. [See, al-Hakim (1/434) and
From Talq Ibn Alee  that the Prophet  said, Ibn Khuzaimah (no. 2061). Al-Hakim declared it authentic according
“Eat and drink and do not let the tall
the standards of al-Bukharee and Muslim]
vertical brightness deceive you, but eat
and drink until the reddish one spreads
It may be misunderstood that the night does not appear directly after
horizontally for you." [Reported by at-
the setting of the sun, but rather starts when the darkness spreads in
Tirmidhee (3/76), Abu Dawood (2/304),
the east and west. Such is how some of the Sahabah also understood the
Musnad Ahmad (4/23) and Ibn Khuzaimah
matter, so they were made aware that the beginning of darkness in the
(3/211). Its isnad is saheeh]
east directly after the sun disappears is sufficient. Abdullah Ibn Abee
Awfaa  said, “We were with Allah's Messenger  on a journey and he
If there is Cup of Water in Your was fasting (in the month of Ramadaan), so when the sun set he said to
Hand, then drink it at ease, even if you hear one of the people, 'O so and so (and in a narration of Abu Dawood, 'O
the nidaa (call for prayer), since it is an Bilaal') stand and mix gruel (thin porridge) for us.' He said, 'O
allowance from Allah, the Most Merciful, for Messenger of Allah , if you were to wait until evening' (and in a
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narration of al-Bukharee, 'The sun!') He  said, 'Get down and mix gruel for us.' He said, 'It is still day time!' He  said, 'Get
down and mix gruel for us.' So he dismounted and made the gruel and the Prophet  drank (and he said, 'if anyone had
mounted his camel to try and see the sun, he would have seen it'. Then he beckoned (in a narration of al-Bukharee, 'he
indicated with his hand), (and in a narration of al-Bukharee and Muslim, 'he indicated with his finger towards the east')
then said, 'when you see that the night has approached from here then the fasting person's fast is broken."
[Saheeh al-Bukharee (4/199), Saheeh Muslim (no.1101), Ahmad (4/381) and Abu Dawood (no. 2352). The first addition is
reported by Muslim (no. 1101) and the second by 'Abdur-Razzaq (4/226). The Hadeeth contains many valuable points,
which can be read in al-Fath (4/198)]

Note: One should break the fast and pray according to the Sunnah even if for some reason the
adhan is deliberately delayed.

Intention “Some scholars were of the view that in

o f F a s t i n g the case of a repeated act of worship, it is
sufficient to form the intention once the
An-Niyyah is in the Heart: The Prophet  said, “The actions first time one does, unless the sequence
are Innama (only, certainty) tied to the intentions and every of repetition is interrupted, in which case
person will earn that which he intended.” [Agreed upon] An-Niyyah is
a new intention must be formed. On this
the resolution (intention) of the heart. The place of the intention is the
heart and announcing the Niyyah aloud is an innovation (Bidah) that has basis, if a person has the intention of
no basis in the Book and the Sunnah. fasting on the first day of Ramadaan that
he will fast this whole month, that is
An-Niyyah for the Fard (obligatory) Fasts: It is obligatory to enough to cover the whole month, so long
have the intention for the obligatory fasts prior to the dawn (sunrise) as the as he does not have an excuse to break
Prophet  said, “He, who does not resolve to fast before it is Fajr, his fast and thus break this continuity,
then there is no fast for him” [Reported by Abu Dawood (no. 2454). Ibn
such as traveling during Ramadaan. In
Khuzaimah (no. 933), al-Baihaqee (4/202), an-Nisaee (4/196) and at
Tirmidhee (no. 730). Its isnad is saheeh.] that case, when he wants to resume
fasting he must form the intention of
An-Niyyah for the Nafl (voluntary) Fasts: One may intend to fasting again. This is the more correct
fast voluntarily even after the crack of dawn, unlike the obligatory fasts, opinion, because all the Muslims, if you
provided that one has avoided eating, drinking, and sexual intercourse. ask them, will say that they intend to
Evidence for this ruling is the Hadeeth of Aisha (radhi allahu anha), when
fast the whole month from beginning to
she narrated, “The Prophet  came to visit me one day and asked, “Do you
have anything (to eat)?” I said, “No.” He replied, “Then, I am fasting.” the end. So, even if the intention is not
[Saheeh Muslim] formed literally, it is there by
implication, because the basic principle is
There is No Specific Dua for an-Niyyah. that it does not stop. Hence, we say that
if the continuity is broken for some
permissible reason, then one starts
“If it crosses a person's mind that fasting again, the intention must be
he is going to fast tomorrow, renewed. This is the view which brings
peace of mind.”
then he has made the intention.
Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah in al-Ikhtiyaaraat (p. 191) Al-Sharh al-Mumti', vol. 6, p. 369-370.

They Found Out During the Day that Ramadan had Begun, so they Fasted
Question: Some of our Muslim brothers did not know that Ramadaan had begun until after the sun had risen, but they
completed their fast. Is that sufficient or do they have to repeat their fast?
Answer: Al-Hamdulillah. They have done the right thing by refraining from eating, etc. for the rest of the day, but
they have to fast another day in its place.
“The reason why they have to make up the fast is that they did not have the intention of fasting from the night before.
The Prophet  said, “Whoever does not make the intention before dawn, there is no fast for him.” [Narrated
by Ahmad (6/287), Abu Dawood (no. 2454), at-Tirmidhee (730), an-Nisaee (2331) classed as saheeh by Shaikh al-
Albanee in Saheeh Abu Dawood (2143)]” Standing Committee for Academic Research and Issuing Fatawa (10/245)
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o f F a s t i n g
 Suhoor (the pre-dawn meal) is the name for the food taken at late night before
Fajr. Allah’s Messenger  ordered taking the meal of suhoor saying, “The distinction
between our fasting and the fasting of the People of Book is the taking of the
“He who gives
pre-dawn meal (suhoor).” [Saheeh Muslim (1096)]
The Excellence of Suhoor is that it is a blessing from Allah. A companion of Allah's
Messenger said, “I entered upon the Prophet  and he was taking the suhoor and he said
food for a
to me, “It is a blessing which Allah has given to you, so do not leave it.” [(Saheeh)
Ahmad (5/270) and An-Nisa'ee (4/145).] The Prophet  also said, “Take Suhoor as
there is a blessing in it.” [Saheeh al-Bukharee (vol. 3, no. 146) and Saheeh Muslim fasting
(2412)] Even drinking a cup of water instead of a meal for Suhoor has blessings, for, it
implies obeying the Messenger of Allah  and following his Sunnah. Furthermore,
Suhoor adds to the physical health, and provides the essential nutrition and strength to person to
sustain the body during the long tiring hours of the day. [See, Fatawa as-Siyam, p.40]

 The best form of Suhoor is dates as understood from the following Hadeeth of break his fast,
the Prophet , “How excellent are dates as the believer's suhoor.” [(saheeh) Abu
Dawood (2/303), Ibn Hibban (223), al-Baihaqee (4/237)]
he will receive
“Suhoor is Not a Condition for  Delaying Suhoor is a Sunnah:
the Fast to be Valid, rather it is The Prophet  said, “The people will the same
mustahabb (recommended), because remain on the right path as long as
the Prophet  said, “Have suhoor, they hasten the Iftar (breaking of the,
for, in suhoor, there is blessing.” fast) and delay taking Suhoor.” [Abu- reward as
[Agreed upon] Dawood, at-Tirmidhee, Ibn-Majah and
Fatawa al-Shaikh Ibn Baz, (vol. 4, p. 259) others]
him, and
 Hastening in Iftar (breaking the fast) as soon as the sun sets (as explained
earlier) is from the Sunnah. Allah's Messenger  said, “My Ummah (nation) will not nothing will
cease to be upon my Sunnah as long as they do not await the stars when
breaking the fast.” [Saheeh al-Bukharee (4/173) and Saheeh Muslim (1093)] and he 
also said, “The Deen will not cease to be uppermost as long as the people hasten
to break the fast, since the Jews and the Christians delay it.” [(hasan) Abu
be reduced
Dawood (2/305) and Ibn Hibban (224)]

 Breaking the fast before praying Salaat al-Maghrib. “The Prophet 

from the
used to break his fast before offering the (Maghrib) prayer…” [(saheeh) At-Tirmidhee]
 Recommended foods for Iftar. “The Prophet  used to break his fast before
offering the (Maghrib) prayer with some fresh dates, if he didn't get any, then dried dates,
and failing that too, he  would drink a few mouthfuls of water.” [(saheeh) Saheeh
Muslim, Musnad Ahmad (3/163), Abu Dawood 2/306]
Breaking the fast with salt in not established in the Sunnah

 The virtues of Dua at the Time of Iftar. The Messenger of Allah  said
extolling the time of Iftar for supplication, “Indeed, the fasting person has at the
time of breaking the fast, a supplication that is not rejected.” [Ibn Majah and al-
Hakim] One should supplicate to Allah hoping that it will be answered, and knowing that
Allah does not respond to a heedless and inattentive heart.

Dua of Iftar:
‘The thirst has gone and the veins are quenched and the reward is confirmed, if Allah wills.’
[Abu-Dawood, al-Baihaqi, al-Hakim, Ibn Al-Sunni and An-Nisaee, ad-Daraqutni with hasan isnad]
 07
w h i l e F a s t i n g
OR actions which Do Not Nullify
t h e F a s t

Postponing the Ghusl (purity bath):

If one is in the state of Janabah, he is allowed to make the intention of fasting and take his suhoor while postponing his
ghusl until the break of dawn. Aisha and Umm Salamah (radhi allahu anhuma) narrated, “Sometimes, the Prophet  was
in a state of Janabah from his wives and Fajr came upon him, then he would bath and fast.” [Saheeh al-Bukharee]

Menstruating women and women experiencing post-natal bleeding may delay the ghusl until after the dawn (if
the blood ceases at night) and observe the fast, but the intention of fasting should be made before dawn (for obligatory

Note: Ghusl is a pre-condition for offering prayer and prayer is an obligation without which the fast is incomplete,
therefore, one should hasten the ghusl in order to offer the Fajr prayer.

 Using Siwaak: Question: Is it permissible to brush the teeth using a toothbrush after dawn is
Amir Ibn Rabea  declared? If so, what is the ruling on bleeding while brushing the teeth? Does it break
narrates, “I have seen the fast?
Allah's Messenger  Allamah Ibn Jibreen (hafidahullah) replied, “It is permissible to rinse the mouth
using siwaak so many and use Siwak, wooden brush or other brushes. Some scholars disliked the use of
times whilst fasting that Siwak in the afternoon because using it freshens the mouth. Thus, using the
I cannot count.” [Saheeh toothpaste and toothbrush becomes more disliked on this analogy. Moreover,
al-Bukharee] and he  toothpaste has a flavoring taste that will be felt during brushing. Yet, the user might
said, “The siwaak is a swallow a very little amount during the brushing process or may not. Therefore, it is
means of cleansing highly advised and recommended to use toothpaste and toothbrush after finishing the
the mouth and Suhoor meal, before declaring the beginning of fast. However, careful use of toothpaste
pleasing the Lord.” and brush is permissible during the fasting hours of the day. Minor gum bleeding does
[Saheeh al-Jaami as- not render fasting null. Allah, the Almighty, knows best.”
Sagheer (no, 3695)] 'Fatawa on Fasting, Zakaat and Taraweeh,' Published by Darussalam]

 R i ns i ng t he M o ut h a nd Question: Will gargling with mouthwash render the fasting null?

Allamah Muhammed bin Salih al-Uthaimeen (rahimahullah)
Sniffing: The Prophet  used to wash his
replied, “Gargling with mouthwash while fasting does not break the
mouth and nose whilst fasting, but he
fast provided it is not swallowed. It is better, however, not to use
prohibited the fasting person from sniffing
mouthwash while fasting unless it is an extreme necessity. Gargling
strongly. He said, “… and breath water
generally does not break the fast unless the fasting person swallows
into your nose strongly, unless you are
even a drop.” ‘Fatawa on Fasting, Zakaat and Taraweeh,'
fasting.” [Musnad Ahmad (4/32), Abu
Published by Darussalam
Dawood (2/305) and at-Tirmidhee (3/146)]
Question: What is the verdict concerning the use of oil perfumes
 S melling P erfumes: One is during the day of fasting Ramadaan?
permitted to smell perfumes and good Allamah Muhammed bin Salih al-Uthaimeen (rahimahullah)
odors, but he should avoid directly sniffing replied, “It is allowed to wear perfume while fasting as long as one
the Indian Qust (incense) (al-Bukhour) and does not inhale the smoke if it is burnt incense.”
all that has smoke. ‘Fatawa on fasting, Zakaat and Taraweeh,
Published by Darussalam]

 Taking Bath or Pouring Cold Water Over the Head:

The Prophet  used to pour water over his head whilst fasting due to heat. [Abu Dawood]
Ibn Umar  would soak a garment in water and put it over himself while he was fasting. And al-Hasan  said, 'There is no
harm in rinsing the mouth and cooling one's body with cold water while fasting.' [See, Fath al-Baree (4/153) Mukhtasar
Saheeh al-Bukharee (no. 451) of Shaikh al-Albanee]
08 
Applying Kohl (eyeliner, Effect of Medicines and Medical Treatments on Fasting
surma) or similar things, which
Question: Are medicinal preparations permitted whilst fasting, specifically,
enter the eyes for beauty or
a) tablets/syrups b) inhalers for asthma c) suppositories and d) intravenous
medicinal purposes do not nullify
forms of treatment. A detailed response will be appreciated.
the fast. This was the conclusion
Answer: “Praise be to Allah. What follows is a list of a number of things used
preferred by Shaikhul-Islam Ibn
in the medical field, explaining what does and does not break the fast. This is
Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) in his
a summary of Shareeah research presented to the Islamic Fiqh Council
important treatise, ‘Haqeeqat as-
during its regular meetings. Following does not haveany effect on the fast,
Siyam’ and also by his student, Ibn
i) Eye drops, ear drops, ear syringing, nose drops and nasal sprays, so long as
Qa yy i m al-J awz iyy ah
one avoids swallowing any material that may reach the throat.
(rahimahullah) in his valuable
ii) Tablets or lozenges that are placed beneath the tongue for the treatment of
book, ‘Zaadul-Ma'aad.’ Imam al-
angina pectoris etc., so long as one avoids swallowing any material that
Bukharee (rahimahullah) says in
reaches the throat.
his Saheeh, “…Anas, al-Hasan
iii) Vaginal pessaries, douching, use of a speculum, or internal digital
and Ibraheem did not see any
harm in using Kohl for the fasting
iv) Introduction of a scopeor coil (IUD), etc., into the uterus.
person.” [Mukhtasar Saheeh al-
v) Introduction of a scope or catheter into the urethra (male of female), or
Bukharee (no. 451) of Shaikh Al-
injection of dyes for diagnostic imaging, or of medication, or cleaning of the
vi) Drilling of teeth (prior to filling), extraction or polishing of teeth, using a
 E ye, Ear or Nose D rops, miswaak or toothbrush, so long as one avoids swallowing any material that
Wearing Perfumes, Oiling one's reaches the throat.
Hair do not break the fast because vii) Rinsing, gargling or applying topical treatment in the mouth, so long as
they are neither food nor its one avoids swallowing any material that reaches the throat.
substitute. viii) Injections, whether subcutaneous, intra-muscular or intra-venous with
the exception of those used for purposes ofnutrition.
Taking Injections, which do not ix) Oxygen.
provide nourishment and are x) Anesthetics, so long as they do not supply nutrition to the patient.
meant for medical treatment only, xi) Medicines absorbed through the skin, such as creams, lotions and patches
such as penicillin, insulin, or used to administer medication through the skin.
injections for the purpose of xii) Introduction of a catheter into the veins in order to examine or treat the
vaccinations, do not affect the fast vessels of the heart or other organs.
at all, regardless of whether they xii) Laparoscopy for the purpose of diagnosis or surgical treatment of the
are taken via muscle or vein. The abdominal organs.
injections with nutritional values xiii) Biopsies of the liver and other organs, so long as this is not accompanied
such as glucose or vitamins, etc., by the administration of nutrients.
are considered as food and xiv) Gastroscopy, so long as this is not accompanied by the administration of
therefore, nullify the fast. nutrients.
xv) Introduction of medicine or instruments into the brain or spinal cord.
 B lood le t ti ng f or M e di cal xvi) Involuntary vomiting (as opposed to self-induced vomiting).
Purposes; If the amount of blood is The Muslim doctor should advise his patients to postpone the above-
small and it does not harm the described treatments and procedures until after he has broken his fast, if it is
person, then it does not invalidate safe to do so and will not cause any harm (even though these procedures do not
his fast, such as the small amount effect thefast).”
of blood that is taken for testing. Majmoo al-Fiqh al-Islami (Islamic Fiqh Council), p. 213.
[See, Blood, which invalidates
fasting (pg. 10)] Wet Dreams during the Fasting Hours of Ramadaan
Question: Do wet dreams nullify one's fast?
Kissing and Embracing one's Answer: “Whoever has a wet dream whilst he is fasting or is in a state of
Wife is permissible, if one is able ihram for Hajj or Umrah, there is no sin on him and he does not have to offer
to control his desires. Aa'isha Kaffarah. It does not affect his fast, but he has to perform ghusl to cleanse
(radhi allahu anha) reported that himself from janabah (impurity) if maniy (semen) was emitted.”
Allah's Messenger  used to kiss See, Fatawa al-Lajnah ad-Daaimah (vol. 10, p. 274)
her and embrace (his wives) while Umm Salamah, the Mother of the Believers, narrated, “Umm Sulaym the
he was fasting and he had more wife of Abu Talhah came to the Messenger of Allah  and said, 'O Messenger
power to control his desires than of Allah, verily Allah is not shy of (telling you) the truth. Is it necessary for a
anybody else did. [See, Saheeh al- woman to take ghusl after she has a wet dream?' The Messenger of Allah 
Bukharee (4/131) and Saheeh replied, 'Yes, if she notices a discharge.'” [Saheeh al-Bukharee, (al-Ghusl-
Muslim (no. 1106)] 373), Saheeh Muslim (al-Hayd - 471)]…”
 09
Unintentional Vomiting, Allah's Messenger  said, Fasting Person Swallowing Saliva
“Whoever has an attack of vomit, then no atonement is
required of him, but whoever vomits intentionally then let Question: Does saliva invalidate the fast?
him make al-Qadaa for it.” [Abu Dawood (2/310), at-Tirmidhee Answer: “Praise be to Allah. A fasting
(3/79), Ibn Majah (1/536) and Musnad Ahmad (2/498). Its isnad is person swallowing his saliva does not
saheeh as Shaikhul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah said in Haqeeqat as- invalidate his fast even if there is a lot of it.
Siyaam (p. 14).] However, if it is thick like mucus, one should
not swallow it; rather one should spit it out
into a tissue or whatever if he is in the
Tasting Food does not nullify the fast provided the food does mosque. And Allah is the Source of strength.”
not reach the throat, in light of the report from Ibn Abbas , who Al-Lajnah ad-Daaimah li'l-Buhooth wa'l-
said, “There is no harm for a person to taste vinegar or anything else Ifta, 1-/270.
whilst he is fasting as long as it does not enter his throat.”
[(Mu'allaq) Saheeh al-Bukharee(4/154)]

Actions which Ibn Abbas  said, “There is no harm if one fasts them separately.”

Nullify [(mu'allaq) Saheeh al-Bukharee (4/189)] See, Taghleequt-Ta'leeq

(3/186)] And Abu Hurayrah  said, “One may fast them together if he
t h e F a s t wishes.” [(saheeh) Daaraqutnee, al-Irwa (4/95)]
&require al-Qadaa However, it is not permissible to postpone al-Qadaa fasts until after
the next Ramadan without a legal excuse like, continuous illness,
Meaning of al-Qadaa (atonement) nursing mothers, etc.
and its Rulings:
Al-Qadaa is making up missed fasts of If one does not make al-Qadaa of the missed fasts until the next
Ramadaan with similar number of fasts on Ramadaan, then he should make al-Qadaa and feed a poor person for
days other than Ramadaan. each day. Abu Hurayrah  narrates concerning a person who falls
sick and thus breaks his fast and does not makeal-Qadaa of his missed
It is not obligatory to make al-Qadaa fasts until the next Ramadaan arrives, “He should fast the present
immediately after Ramadaan. Al-Qadaa for Ramadaan, and then make al-Qadaa for the missed fasts of the
the missed fasts of Ramadaan may be delayed previous Ramadaan and feed a poor person for each missed fast.
until the next Ramadaan as is known from [Reported by Daraqutni]
Aa'isha (radhi allahu anha), who relates, “It
used to be that I had days to make up for
Ramadaan and I would not be able to do so Guidelines concerning Things that Break the Fast
except in Shabaan (the month before
Ramadaan).” [Saheeh al-Bukharee (4/166) On the following pages, are mentioned things, which nullify
and Saheeh Muslim (no. 1146)] the fast. All of them, apart from menses and nifas, only
Al-Hafidh (rahimahullah) says in al-Fath invalidate the fast if three conditions are met:
(4/191), “The (above) Hadeeth contains proof
for allowance of delaying al-Qadaa of missed
Ramadaan fasts unrestrictedly, with or  The person was aware of the ruling and not ignorant of it.
without any excuse.” If he does not know the ruling then it does not break his fast,
because Allah says: “And there is no sin on you
Although, it is better to hasten in making up concerning that in which you made a mistake, except in
the missed fasts than to delay them, since this regard to what your hearts deliberately intend.”
falls under the general command of hastening
[Soorah al-Ahzaab (33): 5]
to do good deeds and not delaying them, such
as the saying of Allah in the Qur'aan, “And
march forth in the way (which leads to)  The person did it knowingly and not out of forgetfulness.
forgiveness from your Lord, and for The Prophet  said: “My Ummah is forgiven for mistakes
Paradise as wide as are the heavens and and forgetfulness and for what they are forced to do.”
the earth, prepared for al-Muttaqoon Similar is the case of the person, who does something that
(the pious).” [Soorah al-Imran, (3): 133]
breaks the fast, thinking that it does not break the fast.
It is also not obligatory to make up the days
together (i.e. one immediately after the other).  The person did it by choice and not due to force. The
Allah, the Exalted, says, “The same number Prophet  said: “My Ummah is forgiven for mistakes and
(of days which one did not fast must be forgetfulness and for what they are forced to do.”
made up) from other days.” [Soorah al See, Fatawa al-Shaikh Ibn Uthaimeen (vol. 1, p. 508)
Baqarah (2):185]
10 
Eating and Drinking Intentionally: It Blood that Invalidates Fasting
is well known that fasting is abstaining from
eating and drinking, therefore, if one eats or  If the blood comes out as a result of a person's action or choice
drinks deliberately and in full consciousness, he is and its amount is large and has an effect on the person's body,
obliged to make al-Qadaa for the sin he then this invalidates his fast (such as donating blood). One should
committed. However, he, who eats or drinks make up that day (so as to avoid an area of scholarly dispute and
accidentally or out of forgetfulness or is forced, be on the safeside and besure that he has fulfilled his obligation).
nothing is required from him. The Prophet  said,
“If one of you eats and drinks out of  If the blood comes out as the result of a person's actions or choice
forgetfulness, then let him complete his fast and its amount is small and it does not harm the person, then it
(maintain his fast for the rest of the day) for does not invalidate the fast, such as the small amount of blood
it was indeed Allah, Who gave him food and that is taken for testing.
drink.” [Saheeh al-Bukharee (41135) and Saheeh
Muslim (no. 1155)] Thus, while eating or drinking,  If the blood comes out as a result of no deliberate action, such as
if one remembers that he is fasting, he must an accident or nosebleed or an injury to any part of the body, the
immediately stop and spit out any food still fast is still valid even if the amount of blood is large.
present in his mouth and continue his fast. Allah's
Messenger  said, “Allah has excused for my  If the blood that comes out as a result of no deliberate action
Ummah mistakes, forgetfulness and what and is of such a large amount that the person becomes weak and
they are forced to do.” [(Saheeh) ad- unable to fast, then it is permissible for him to break his fast and
Daraqutnee (4/171) from Ibn Abbas] he should fast another day to make up for it.

Anything that Comes Under the  The blood of menstruation (haid) and post-natal bleeding
(nifas) invalidates the fast for the women, she must make up for
Same Heading as Eating and Drinking that day and rest of the days until she is pure again.
also invalidates the fast. This includes two things,
See, Fatawa Islamiyyah, 2/132 and al-Lajnah al-Daa'imah li'l-
1. Transfusion of blood to the fasting person
Buhooth al-'Ilmiyyah wa'l-Ifta, 10/263
invalidates the fast because blood is formed from
food and drink.
2. Nourishment via needle as in the case of a drip or injections The Ruling on Using Pills that
intended for nourishment or substitute for food will render the fast Postpone Menstruation Period
invalid. “It is preferable for a woman to keep to her
natural cycle and to accept that which Allah
Vomiting Intentionally: Whoever vomits deliberately by has decreed for her, and not take any
sticking his finger in his throat, pressing his stomach, deliberately medicine to prevent her period. She should
smelling something nasty or persisting in looking at something that accept what Allah has decreed for her of not
makes him vomit, has to make al-Qadaa. Allah's Messenger  said, fasting during her period, and make up those
“Whoever has an attack of vomiting, then no atonement is days later on. This is what the mothers of the
required of him, but whoever vomits intentionally then let believers and the women of the Salaf used to
him make atonement for it.” [Abu Dawood (2/310), at-Tirmidhee do.” Fatawa al-Lajnah al-Daimah (10/151)
(3/79), Ibn Majah (1/536) and Musnad Ahmad (2/498). Its isnaad is Note: It has been medically proven that
saheeh as Shaikhul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah said in Haqeeqat as- these means of preventing menstruation are
Siyaam (p. 14).] harmful and many women have suffered
menstrual irregularities as a result.
Menstruation and Post-Natal Bleeding, When a woman
begins to menstruate (haid) or begins afterbirth bleeding (nifas) I did not Fast Ramadaan,
during the fasting hours of Ramadaan, whether it is at the start of Without any Physical Excuse
the fast or a moment before sunset; her fast is nullified. She must Allam ah Ibn Baz (rahimahullah)
make up for that day and the rest of the days until she is pure again,
replied, ‘It is necessary upon you to make up
and if she were to continue fasting during her days of menstruation, that month in which you did not fast, while,
it would not count, for the Prophet  said, “Is it not that when she
at the same time, repenting and seeking
gets her period, she does not pray or fast?” [Saheeh al- Allah's forgiveness. You must also feed a poor
Bukharee (304)]
person for every day the amount of half a sa'
The order of al-Qadaa is known by the following Hadeeth in which a of the staple food of dates, rice or other such
woman asked Aa'isha (radhi allahu anha), “Why is it that the
foods, if you have the ability to do so. If you
menstruating woman has to make up her fasts but not the prayers?” are poor and do not have the ability to do so,
…She (radhi allahu anha) said, “…We were ordered to make up the
then there is nothing upon you besides the
fasts and were never ordered to make up the prayers.” [Saheeh al-
making up of the fast.’
Bukharee (4/429) and Saheeh Muslim (no. 335)]
'Fatawa on Fasting, Zakaat and Taraweeh,'
Published by Darussalam
 11
you able to feed sixty poor people?” He replied, 'No.' The
Actions which Prophet  said, 'Then sit.' So, he sat down. Then a large basket
Nullify of palm leaves containing dates was brought to the Prophet 
and he  said, 'Give this in charity.' He said, 'There is no one
t h e F a s t
&require al-Qadaa between its two lava-plains poorer than us.' So the Prophet 
smiled until his molar teeth became visible and said, 'Take it
and feed it to your family.' [The Hadeeth is established with
al-Kaffarah various wordings. Saheeh al-Bukharee (11/516), Saheeh
Muslim (no. 1/11) Abu Dawood (no. 2390), at-Tirmidhee (no.
Meaning of al-Kaffarah and its rulings: Al- 724), Ibn Majah (no. 1671) and others]
Kaffarah is to pay, in order to gain forgiveness for the
sin committed in the state of fasting. This payment Is Kaffarah Binding Upon the Woman? “...The wife
should be done in one of the following ways, must also offer expiation for having intercourse if she
1. To set a slave free, if he couldn't find any, then, willingly went along with her husband in that. But if she was
2. He should fast two consecutive months; if he couldn't forced then she does not have to do anything…” [See, Fatawa
do that, then al-Lajnah, (10/320)]
3. He should provide food for sixty poor people on the
average scale of that which he feeds his own family. Only Sexual Intercourse in the State of Fasting
Al-Kaffarah must be carried out in the same order as Requires al-Qadaa and al-Kaffarah
mentioned above. It is not permissible to transfer from Sexual intercourse is the most serious and the most sinful of
one state to another unless one cannot afford the the things that invalidate the fast. Whoever deliberately has
previous option. intercourse during the day in Ramadaan with his or her own
free will, in which the two parts meet, and penetratration
Allah burdens not a person beyond his occurs, has invalidated his fast, regardless of whether
scope: One who has to make al-Kaffarah but is unable ejaculation takes place or not. Whoever commits such a sin
to free a slave or fast two consecutive months, or feed the has to repent, complete that day (i.e., not eat or drink until
poor - then, nothing is binding upon him, since, Allah, sunset), perform al-Qadaa and al-Kaffarah.
the Most High, says, “Allah burdens not a person Ibn al-Qayyim writes in Zaadul-Ma'aad (2/60), “The Qur'aan
beyond his scope.” This is also manifested from the shows that sexual intercourse breaks the fast, just like eating
following Hadeeth. Abu Hurayrah  narrates, “A man and drinking - no disagreement is known concerning this.”
came to the Prophet  and said, 'O Messenger of Allah ! Ash-Shawkaanee said in ad-Daraariyyu-Mudiyyah (2/22),
I am destroyed.' He  asked, 'What has destroyed you?' “There is no disagreement that sexual intercourse breaks the
He said, 'I cohabited with my wife in Ramadaan.' He  fast if it is done deliberately, however, if it is done due to
asked, 'Are you able to free a slave?' He replied, 'No.' The forgetfulness then some scholars make it the same as one who
Prophet  asked, 'Are you able to fast two months eats or drinks forgetfully (i.e., nothing is binding upon the
consecutively?' The man replied, 'No.' He  asked, 'Are person).”

Permission to People who are Granted the Permission to Refrain from

Refrain Fasting and Offer al-Fidya Only:
Old men and women, who are incapable of observing fasts in Ramadaan,
f r o m f a s t i n g
& payal-Fidya may recompense for it by offering al-Fidya. Abdullah Ibn Abbas 
narrates, “Old people are allowed to refrain from fasting. But for every
only missed fast, one should feed the poor and he is not obliged to make al-
Meaning of al-Fidya and its Rulings: Qada.” [Daraqutni and al-Hakim]
Al-Fidya is to abstain from fasting or break A sick person whose health is not likely to improve, for example, if one is
one's fast in Ramadaan, due to legal excuse, afflicted with the incurable disease of cancer then he should offer al-Fidya.
and feed a poor person for each day (either
lunch or supper) on the average scale of that
which one feeds his own family.
Old Age which Entitles one to Abstain from Fasting
One can either feed a poor person for each and Pay al-Fidya only
day individually or gather poor people Allamah Abdullah Ibn Jibreen (hafidahullah) replied, “If an
according to the number of days that require old person becomes totally and physically unable to observe the
al-Fidya and feed them all at once. [See, fasting then such a person will become exempted from fasts and he
Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa'imah (10/198)] must offer al-Fidya... However, if the old person reaches the age of
Or one may give each poor ¼ Saa' (i.e. half kg lack of recognition, then fasting will become un-required from him.
and ten gm) of good wheat and it is better to Such a person is not even required to pay al-Fidya.... Such a person
offer it with some meat and oil. will become unaccountable for his deeds just like a minor or an
Al-Fidya should be offered in Ramadan and insane.” Fatawa on Fasting, Zakaat and Taraweeh.
not before that. Published by Darussalam
12 
Actions that should be The Relationship
Avoided between Fasting and Prayer
w h i l e F a s t i n g Question: Some Muslim scholars criticize
those who observe fasting, but do not
Carelessness in Performing other acts of Worship: maintain the prescribed daily prayers. What
Performing the other obligatory acts of worship and duties is is the relationship between fasting and
important; specifically Salaat, because without it no act of prayer? I want to fast to be entitled to the
worship is accepted by Allah. reward of the fasting people. I know that,
"Fasting Ramadaan, then fasting next
Ramadaan will abrogate all sins committed
Not praying in Congregation: Praying in congregation
in between." Please explain.
is of great importance in our religion, thus everyone must attend
the congregational prayer. It is rewarded twenty-seven times Answer by Allamah Muhammad Ibn
greater than the prayer performed individually. [Saheeh al- Salih al-Uthaimeen (rahimahullah),
Bukharee (vol. 1, no. 618)] Once, the Messenger of Allah  was “Those who criticize you for fasting and not
about to burn the houses of those who did not attend the maintaining the daily-prescribed prayers
congregational prayers. This was due to the gravity of their sin. are right. Prayer is a main pillar of Islam.
[Saheeh al-Bukharee (vol. 1, no, 17) and Saheeh Muslim (no. The person who purposefully neglects the
1369)] daily-prescribed prayers is declared a non-
Regularly attending the congregational prayer is directed to men Muslim, denying the right of His Lord, Allah
and the best place for a woman is to pray in her house. The the Almighty. This person will not be
Messenger of Allah  said, “Do not prevent your women (from entitled to the rewards of fasting, charity,
going to) the Masjid, but their houses are better for them.” pilgrimage or anything else. This is based on
[(saheeh) Musnad Ahmad, Abu Dawood, al-Hakim, Saheeh al- the verse of the Holy Qur'aan, "And
Jamee as-Sagheer no. 7458] nothing prevents their contributions
from being accepted from them except
Bad behavior such as lying, cheating, backbiting, that they disbelieved in Allah and in His
slandering, etc., are Haraam even out of Ramadaan and should be Messenger; and that they came not to
consciously avoided even more in this sacred month. Abu as-Salaat (the prayer) except in a lazy
Hurayrah  said, “Allah's Messenger  said, “Whoever does sta te, and tha t t hey off e r n ot
not abandon falsehood in word and action, then Allah the contributions but unwillingly." [Soorah
Mighty and Majestic has no need that he should leave his Tawbah (9): 54]
food and drink.” [Saheeh al-Bukharee (4/99)] The meaning of Thus, if one fasts, but does not maintain the
this Hadeeth is that such a fast is not acceptable to Allah because prescribed daily prayers, this will render his
“Fasting is not (merely abstaining) from eating and fasting null. Such a person will not benefit
drinking, rather it is (abstaining) from ignorant and from fasting. As for the misconception you
indecent speech, so if anyone abuses or behaves have, concerning fasting (alone) will
ignorantly with you, then say, 'I am fasting, I am fasting.' abrogate the sins committed between two
[(saheeh) Ibn Khuzaimah (no. 1996) and others] Ramadaans; (then) you should understand
that the true meaning of this Hadeeth of
He who Cannot Control his Desires Should Not Allah's Messenger . The statement
Approach his Wife, Kiss or Embrace her. Abu reported by Musli m is as follows,
"Maintaining the five daily prescribed
Hurayrah  narrates, “A man approached Allah's Messenger and
asked him concerning embracing one's wife whilst fasting, Allah's prayers, maintaining the prayer of
Friday, to the second Friday prayer,
Messenger  allowed him. Then, another man approached him
and fasting the month of Ramadaan, to
and asked him concerning embracing one's wife whilst fasting,
the next month of Ramadaan will
Allah's Messenger  forbade him. (Abu Hurayrah  says) He
abrogate the sins committed in
whom Allah's Messenger allowed was an old man and he whom
between so long as one avoids any and
Allah's Messenger forbade was a young man.” [Abu Dawood]
all major sins."
Aa'isha (radhi allahu anha) reported that Allah's Messenger 
We notice that Allah's Messenger 
used to kiss her and embrace (his wives) while he was fasting and
preconditioned that one must avoid all major
he had more power to control his desires than anybody else did.
sins in order to be entitled to have his sins
[See, Saheeh al-Bukharee (4/131) and Saheeh Muslim (no. 1106)]
abrogated and wiped out between the two
months of Ramadaan. As for the person who
Sniffing Water Strongly into the Nose in such a fasts but does not maintain the five daily
manner that it is feared the water will reach the throat. Allah's prayers, he is not actually avoiding the
Messenger  said, “…and breath water into your nose major sins. Purposeful negligence of the
strongly unless you are fasting.” [Abu Dawood (2/305) and daily-prescribed prayers is one of the gravest
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major sins. In fact, neglecting the prayer in itself is an act It is Obligatory on the Woman with Istihada
of disbelief, namely it is a denial of the Existence of Allah, to Observe Fasting:
the All Mighty. Thus, fasting will not be accepted from
such a person. One must repent to Allah; establish what is
required to do in terms of the five daily-prescribed prayers A woman whose menstrual bleeding lasts for
first, then observe fasting. Thus, when Allah's Messenger more than the normal time period, then she should
 sent Mu'adh , his Companion, to Yemen, he perform ghusl after the normal menstrual time period is
commanded him, as reported by al-Bukharee, “…Let the over and start fasting and praying because the bleeding
first thing you call them to be the testification that which is prolonged is not the menstrual blood, rather the
none has the right to be worshiped except Allah, blood of Istihada and is thus tahir (pure).
and I am the Messenger of Allah. If they obey you in
that, then inform them that Allah has made five A woman whose bleeding lasts for more than
prayers obligatory upon them in each day and forty days. If this blood coincides with her regular
night…” We notice that the Prophet  began with the menstrual cycle, then she is menstruating; if it does not
prayers right after the declaration of faith.” ['Fatawa on coincide with her regular menstrual cycle, then it is the
Fasting, Zakat and Taraweeh,' Published by Darussalam] blood of Istihada. She should, therefore, perform ghusl
after forty days,and fast and pray.
Sleeping All Day Long during Ramadaan
“If a woman in nifaas sees that she has become
Question: If a person stays up all night during pure before forty days are over, then she should do
Ramadaan, then he prays Fajr and sleeps until Zuhr, and ghusl and pray and fast, and her husband may cohabit
prays and then sleeps until Asr, and prays then sleeps with her.'
until the time of Iftar, is his fasting valid? See, Fatawa al-Lajnah al-Daa'imah (5/458)
The following is the advice of Allamah Abdul-Azeez
Ibn Baz (rahimahullah) to those who are fasting and
others, to make the most of their time and not waste it “Some of the things that invalidate the fast involve
sleeping. He said, “There is nothing wrong with sleeping things coming out of the body, such as intercourse,
during the day or the night, so long as it does not lead to deliberate vomiting, menstruation… These things come
missing out on any of the obligatory duties or committing out of the body and weaken it. Hence Allah has
any Haraam (prohibited) action. What is prescribed for the described them as being things that invalidate the fast,
Muslim, whether he is fasting or not, is not to stay up late so that the fasting person will not combine the
at night, and to hasten to sleep after doing whatever he is weakness that results from fasting with the weakness
able to, of Qiyaam al-Layl. Then, he should get up for that results from these things, and thus be harmed by
suhoor, if it is Ramadaan, because eating suhoor is a
his fast or his fast no longer be moderate. And some of
confirmed Sunnah as the Prophet  said, “Eat al-Suhoor,
for in Suhoor there is barakah (blessing).” [Agreed the things that invalidate the fast involve things
upon] And the Prophet  said, “The thing that entering the body, such as eating and drinking. If the
differentiates between our fasting and the fasting of fasting person eats or drinks, he does not achieve the
the People of the Book is eating al-Suhoor.” [Saheeh purpose of fasting.”
Muslim] See, Majmoo al-Fatawa (25/248)
Those who are fasting and others must also adhere to
offering the five daily prayers in congregation, and avoid
being distracted from them by sleep or anything else. People who are Granted Permission to Break
Those who are fasting and others must also do all their their Fast
duties on time for the government or other duties, and not One is also allowed to break his fast in all those situations,
be distracted from them by sleep or anything else. And which allow a person to refrain from fasting, like sickness,
they must strive to seek Halaal provision which they and traveling, old age, menstruation, post-natal bleeding, etc.
their dependents need, and not be distracted from it by
sleep or anything else. Question: If one sets out during the day, then he is
In conclusion, my advice to everyone, men and women, allowed to break his fast, but is that subject to the
those who are fasting and those who are not, is to fear condition that he leaves his village first, or if he has
Allah in all situations, and to continue to perform duties on decided to travel, can he break his fast (before departure)?
time in the manner enjoined by Allah, and to avoid being Answer by Allamah Salih Ibn Uthai meen
distracted from it, by sleep or any other permissible thing. (rahimahullah): The answer is that two views have
If the thing that distracts them from that is an act of been narrated from the salaf. The correct view is that he
disobedience towards Allah, then the sin is greater and should not break his fast until he has left his city or village,
more serious. because he is not yet traveling, rather he has the intention
May Allah guide the Muslims, enable them to understand of traveling. Hence, it is not permissible for him to shorten
their religion and make them steadfast in adhering to the his prayers until he has left his town, so by the same token,
truth, and guide their leaders, for He is Most Generous, it is not permissible for him to break his fast until he has
left his town. Al-Sharh al-Mumti (6/218)
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by al-Albanee in Saheeh al-Nisaee. The Prophet  stated that
The Verdict of the Pregnant Woman the ruling on pregnant and breastfeeding women is like the
and the Nursing Mother ruling on the traveler. The traveler may not fast and has to
make it up later, and this also applies to pregnant and
It is permissible for the Muslim woman if she is pregnant breastfeeding women. See Ahkaam al-Qur'aan by al-Jassaas.
or nursing her baby to break her fast in Ramadan, if she is 2. Analogy to the sick. Just as the sick are allowed not to fast
afraid that fasting may affect her health or affect her baby and have to make it up later, the same applies to those who
or affect both. However, if she is healthy and strong and are pregnant and breastfeeding. See al-Mughni, 3/37; al-
does not find fasting difficult and it does not affect her Majmoo', 6/273.
fetus then the woman is obliged to fast, because she has no This view was favored by a number of scholars.
excuse not to do so. Shaikh Ibn Baz said in Majmoo' al-Fatawa (15/225),
'Pregnant and breastfeeding women come under the same
Question: Is it permissible for pregnant women and ruling as those who are sick. If it is too difficult for them to
breastfeeding mothers not to fast, and that they can fast, then it is prescribed for them not to fast, but they have to
feed the poor and do not have to make up the missed make up the fasts when they are able to do so, like those who
days? are sick. Some of the scholars are of the view that it is
S ha i kh M u h a mm ad S a l ih al - M u na j ji d sufficient for them to feed one poor person for every day they
(hafidahullah) replied: 'Praise be to Allah. The missed, but this is a weak view. The correct view is that they
scholars differed concerning the ruling on pregnant have to make up missed fasts, just like travelers and those
woman and breastfeeding mothers if they do not fast. who are sick, because Allah says: “but if any of you is ill or on a
There are several opinions. journey, the same number (should be made up) from other
1. That they have to make up the fasts only. This is the days.” [Soorah al-Baqarah (2): 184]
view of Imam Abu Haneefah (rahimahullah). Among He also said in Majmoo' al-Fatawa, 15/227, 'The correct view
the Sahabah, it was the view of Ali Ibn Abi Taalib . concerning this matter is that pregnant and breastfeeding
2. That if they fear for themselves, they have to make women have to make up the fasts, and what was narrated
up the fast only, and if they fear for their children then from Ibn Abbas and Ibn Umar that pregnant and
they have to make up the fasts and feed one poor breastfeeding women have to feed the poor instead, is a weak
person for each day. This is the view of Imam al- view that goes against the Shareeah evidence. Allah says
Shaafa'ee and Imam Ahmad. Al-Jassaas also narrated (interpretation of the meaning): “but if any of you is ill or on a
this from Ibn 'Umar . journey, the same number (should be made up) from other
3. That they have to feed the poor only, and do not have days.” [Soorah al-Baqarah (2): 184]
to make up the fasts. Among the Sahabah, this was the Pregnant and breastfeeding women are likened to those who
view of Abdullah Ibn Abbas  . Ibn Qudaamah also are sick, and do not come under the ruling on old men who are
narrated this in al-Mughni (3/37) from Ibn 'Umar . unable to fast. Rather, they come under the ruling on those
Abu Dawood (2318) narrated from Ibn Abbas  and who are sick, so they should make up the fasts when they
Ali  that this phrase; “those who can fast with become able to do so, even if that is delayed.
difficulty” [Soorah al-Baqarah (2):184] was a It says in Fatawa al-Lajnah al-Daa'imah (10/220), 'If a
concession granted to old men and old women who find pregnant woman fears for herself or her fetus because of
it difficult to fast, allowing them not to fast and to feed fasting in Ramadaan, she may break the fast and she only has
one poor person for each day instead, and the same for to make up the missed fasts. In this regard, she is like one who
pregnant and breastfeeding women if they are afraid. is sick and is unable to fast or fears that fasting will harm
Abu Dawood said, 'i.e., for their children they may not him. Allah says: “but if any of you is ill or on a journey, the
fast and may feed (the poor) instead.' Al-Nawawi said, same number (should be made up) from other days.” [Soorah
'its isnad is hasan.' al-Baqarah (2): 184]
This was also narrated by al-Bazzaar who added at the Similarly, if a breastfeeding woman fears for herself, or she
end, 'Ibn Abbas used to say to a concubine of his who fears for her child, then she may not fast, and she only has to
was pregnant: “You are like one who cannot fast, so make up the missed fasts.
you have to pay the Fidya but you do not have to make It also says in Fatawa al-Lajnah al-Daa'imah (10/226), 'A
up the fasts.” Al-Daraqutni classed its isnad as pregnant woman has to fast when she is pregnant, unless she
saheeh, as stated by al-Hafiz in al-Talkhees. fears for herself or her foetus if she fasts, in which case she is
Al-Jassaas narrated in Ahkaam al-Qur'aan that the allowed not to fast, but she has to make up the missed fasts
scholars differed concerning this issue. He said, 'The after she gives birth and becomes pure from nifas… it is not
Salaf differed concerning this matter, and there were sufficient for her to feed a poor person instead, rather she has
three opinions. Ali said, 'they have to make up the fast to fast and does not have to feed a poor person if she does that.'
if they do not fast, but they do not have to pay the Shaikh Ibn Uthaimeen said in al-Sharh al-Mumti (6/220),
Fidya.' Ibn Abbas said, 'They have to pay the Fidya but after mentioning the difference of scholarly opinion about the
do not have to make up the fasts.' Ibn Umar said, 'They ruling on this matter, and expressing his preference for the
have to pay the Fidya and make up the fasts.' view that she only has to make up the missed fasts:
Those who said that they only have to make up the This view is the most likely to be correct in my (Shaikh
fasts quoted the following as evidence: Muhammad Salih al-Munajjid) opinion, because at most they
1. The report narrated by al-Nisaee (2274) from Anas are like one who is sick or traveling, who only have to make up
that the Prophet  said: “Allah has waived half of the missed fasts. And Allah knows best.'
prayer for the traveler, and fasting, and for those who
are pregnant and breastfeeding.” Classed as saheeh
 15
Quran Sunnah Educational Programs
Explanation of the book,
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Shirk: It's Definition and Types