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THE

WORKS
OF

JOHN OWEN,
EDITED

D.D

BY THOMAS RUSSELL,

M.A.

MEMOIRS OF HIS LIFE AND WRITINGS, BY WILLIAM ORME.

VOL.

III.

CONTAINING

A CONTINUATION OF nNEYMATOAOriA OR A DISCOURSE CONCERNING THE HOLY SPIRIT; THE REASON OF FAITH; AND THE CAUSES, WAYS, AND MEANS OF UNDERSTANDING THE MIND OF GOD, AS REVEALED IN IHS WORD.
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LONDON:
PRINTED FOR RICHARD BAYNES,
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23,

PATERNOSTER ROW:
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D. Brown, sold by J. Parker, Oxford Deigliton and Sons, Cambridge Waugli and Innes, and H. S. Barnes and Co. Edinburgh; Chainiers and M. Keenc, and R. M. Tims, Dublin. Collins, and M. Ogle, Glasgow
;

1826.

with its rules The The Applied unto Illustrated and limitations. Spiritual dispositions unto suitable acts. Actual inherent righteousness in duties of holiness and obedience. Moral i CHAP. Objections thereunto answered. Gospel grace distinct from morality. . declared. The work of the Holy Spirit with respect thereunto. Page Differences in the acts of sanctification as to order. relation unto the mediation of Christ. VII. The nature of holiness as inward. False notions of holiness removed. . 1. and the peculiar efficiency of the honesty not gospel holiness Spirit therein.CONTENTS OF THE THIRD VOLUME. The its rule and measure whereof is the is As the rule of acceptance the covenant of grace. Spirit. The manner of the com- munication of holiness by the revealed will of God. directed. properties of holiness as a spiritual habit. explained. How expressed in the With their effects. BOOK CHAP. THE POSITIVE WORK OF THE SPIRIT IN THE SANCTIFICATION OF BELIEVERS. proved by the manner and of Christ. holiness. Scripture. Proved and confirmed. and practically improved. Righteousness habitual and actual. and especially its all other habits of the mind . proved by many arguments. after true holiness in ourselves. as the way of its communication from the person head of the church. VI. 2. Distribution of the . IV. The principal difference between evangelical holiness and all other habits of the mind. nNEYMATOAOriA : OR A DISCOURSE CONCERNING THE HOLY SPIRIT. OF THE ACTS AND DUTIES OF HOLINESS. Contrary dispositions unto sin and holiness or how consistent. nature of a spiritual habit. Power: the nature thereof . and an inquiry on these principles. what power is required in believers unto holy obedience with its properties and effects in readi- ness and facility.

but as he is in Christ. mortification of sin. and disadvantageously pleaded briefly expressed. IT. Page positive duties of holiness. The nature of the mortification of sin. all Christians : doctrines falsely all. The Holy Spirit the author and cause of mortification in us. as applied by the Holy Spirit. Internal duties of holiness. natural. and taking with the whole interest of grace against sin. directed unto by the Holy Ghost. Nature of it unknown many. The necessity of evangelical holiness owned by it. the object of mortification. the true nature of First argument for the necessity of holiness from the naThis ture of God . Holy Spirit necessary unto Dependence on Providence with respect unto things and on grace with respect unto things supernatural. V. How spiritual duties managed.iv CONTENTS. the second part of sanctification. pressed with its limitation. into the mortification of sin* 87 BOOK CHAP. and their difference. about ties of holiness 74 CHAP. THE NATURE AND CAUSES OF Mortification of sin. Eflfectual operation of the every act of holiness. operations. ex- plained. as also that of crucifying sin. by many . unto every duty of holiness. that sin may be mortified. MORTIFICATION OF SIN. duContrary designs and expressions of the Scripture and some men. What its the name signifies. External duties. the nature and efficacy . Mortification a partmortified. argument cogent and unavoidable. Mistakes and errors of persons are to be failing in this matter. NECESSITY OF HOLINESS FROM THE CONSIDERATION OF THE NATURE OF GOD. Influence of the virtue of the • death of Christ. How sin is wby the subduing of it is so called. charged with an inconsistency with Though owned by for yet practised it by few. and a most effectual motive unto the same end . frequently proposed unto our consideration for that end. the foundation of this necessity. compared. Indwelling sin in principle. Frequently prescribed with the reason thereof: and enjoined as a duty. to Directions for the right discharge of this duty. The manner of the operation of the Spirit in the mortification of sin. I. vin. Ar- guments to prove the necessity of actual grace. Not the nature of God absolutely. Contrariety between sin and grace. Particular means of the Duties necessary unto the mortification of sin. and effects.

and truth. An objection against the • • • • necessity of holiness. from the freedom and efficacy of grace. aud our accesses unto God thereby. from the gospel commands of God in the law and the 169 # CHAP. Necessity of holiness farther argued. of that motive declared. The principal argument farther enforced. V. True force of that consideration vindicated merit rejected. from the pre-eminence of our natures and persons by this conformity to God . sorts of graces. The 152 CHAP. vindicated election. and the room of gospel holiness. from our own state and condition in this world Christ . Two . answered 121 CHAP. with our future everlasting enjoyment of . V Page The argument holiness . Other arguments for the necessity of holiness. III. ETERNAL ELECTION A CAUSE OF AND MOTIVE UNTO HOLINESS. as faith and love and those which are declarative of that assimilation. IV. False accusations of the doctrine of grace. improved. The necessity of holiness Christ. NECESSITY OP HOLINESS FROM GOd's SENDING JESUS CHRIST.CONTENTS. by whose exercise we grow . from the consideration of our conformity unto God by with that communion and likeness with him which depend thereon him. Necessity of holiness proved. with what is required of as with respect unto our giving glory to Jesus r 214 . NECESSITY OF HOLINESS FROM OUR CONDITION IN THIS WORLD. in order unto oar eternal enjoyment of him : as it also alone renders us useful in this world unto others. . HOLINESS NECESSARY FROM THE COMMANDS OF GOD. and the neglect of the true means of prosubstitution of morality in the moting gospel obedience. II. with the proved from the design of ends of his mediation' • • • God in sending Jesus 198 CHAP. into conformity with God those that are assimilating. discarded . charged. as goodness or benignity. from God's eternal argument from thence explained. enforced.

an answer unto that inquiry. Psal. 18. 27. 25. of the work asserted. are so. the Spirit of God himself. How far all true believers are infallibly led into all truth. Right and abi- of lity all believers as to their own duty herein asserted. OF UNDERSTANDING THE MIND OF GOD. III. or right understanding mind of God therein. ii. Col. General assertions to be proved. Luke xxiv. i. explained and pleaded. 13. assertion confirmed with testimonies of the Scripture. cxix. Page THE REASON OF FAITH Or. WAYS. The main question stated. 24. And the manner how they John vi. ii. 9 CHAP. 20.45. : THE CAUSES. Spirit in the illumination of our understanding of the Scripture. Importance of the truth proposed. 17 — 19. '- The Preface 369 CHAP. in the confirmation of the same truth . 1 John 6. 18. at large. II. Other testimonies pleaded opened. The general opened Objections answered i. Eph. 1.vi CONTENTS. cxix. as- surance of the truth they have xxxvi. Hos. 22. declared and vindicated. John v. are declared and vindicated 227 2TNE2I2 nNEYMATIKH OR. with reference unto the interpretation of the Usurpation of the church of the Scripture. opened and vindicated 424 . 45. 1 Pet. Lukei. with faith divine and supernatural. The principal efficient cause of will of the understanding which believers have in the mind and God as re- vealed in the Scriptures. AND MEANS. Wherefore : we believe the Scripture to be the word of God : with the causes and nature of that faith wherewith is we do so : wlicrein the grounds whereon the holy Scripture believed to be the word of God. explained. The especial work of the Holy IV. iii. opened. The nature i. of Rome. Isa. What v. 13 — 18. Job • • Practical truths inferred from the assertion proved 401 CHAP. posed and answered. explained. 13. declared. 1 John 20. minds unto the Objections proPsal. firmation of the truth. AS REVEALED IN HIS WORD. XXV. John xvi. Eph. xiv. who are taught of God. Inferences from tbem 375 CHAP. in con383 . 9. 2 Cor. Declared in sundry particulars. 18.

vii CHAP. God and of about it . 502 ecclesiastical in the interpretation of the Scripture . The second sort of VIII. and how they are removed 439 CHAP. which are dis- ciplinarian 482 CHAP. means for the interpretation of the Scripture. Causes of the ignorance of the mind of errors Page V. The work of the VI. Helps IX. what they are . Means ture. composing and disposal of the Scripture as the perspicuity of the Scripture unto the un- a means of sacred illumination derstanding of the mind of God declared and vindicated 456 CHAP. be used for the right understanding of the mind of in a God in the Scrip- Those which are prescribed way of duty 470 CHAP. revealed in the Scripture . to VII.CONTENTS. Holy Spirit in the .

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which we now enter upon the description of. IV. VI. B . As the rule Illustrated and practically improved. concerning the cleansing of our natures and persons. go before those other acts which leave a real and positive effect upon the soul. For that which distinction in the Ihe Ghost we have passed through. directed. The nature of a spiApplied unto holiness. and the peculiar efficiency of the Spirit therein. Proved and confirmed. of its acceptance is the covenant Righteousness habitual False notions of holiness removed. nor VOL. Contrary dispositions unto sin and holiness how consistent. Spiritual disposiperties of holiness as a spiritual habit. CHAP. Objections thereunto answered. pro1. than any order of precedency that is between the acts themselves. declared. communication of holiness by the Spirit. With their 2. doth not. especially The principal difference beits relation unto the mediation of Christ. and all other habits of the mind . as the head of the church. we make between the acts of the Holy work of sanctification. effects. III. in order of time. or what power is required in believers unto holy obedience . proved by many arguments. vnth its rules and limitations. tween evangelical holiness and all other habits of the mind. ritual habit. The Power : the nature thereof. The rule and measure whereof is the revealed will of God. The nature of and actual. after true holiness in ourselves. of grace. concerneth more the order of teaching and instruction. Ho7v expressed in the Scripture. proved by the manner and way of its communication from the person of Christ. POSITIVE WORK OF THE IN SPIRIT THE SANCTIFICATION OF BELIEVERS. The manner of the Differences in the acts of sanctification as to order. Gospel grace distinctfrorii morality. tions unto suitable acts. Moral honesty not gospel holiness.BOOK THE. and an inquiry on these princjiples. holiness as inward. with its properties arid effects in readiness and facility.

the Holy Ghost doth work and affections. in them. and that spirit which is born of the Spirit. and enabling all the faculties of our souls unto the duties of holiness. It is therefore acknowledged. wrought in all them that are born again. consisteth in Holy whereby thus we us. That in the sanctification lievers. preparing. whereunto our natures are repaired by the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ. it belongs unto our sanctification. now proceed unto that part of the work of the Holy Spirit. ivherein the substance disposition of living principle. Habits acquired by a multitude of acts. both its infusion and preservation being necessarily required unto holiness. nor doth any way belong thereunto. which is wrought in them. fitting. for the guidance of our understanding in them. This is our new nature. which we shall first propose. according to the mind of God. permanent. that the fruit of it may be good. and increase of root of them all. cherishing. and afterward clear and vindicate. We. of holiness doth consist. without which. such a gracious supernatural habit. This is or essence. their mindsy wills. Herein consists that image of God. positive effect of holiness unto the souls of believers. a gracious supernatural habit. Hereby is the tree made good. what we do is not so. that new and divine nature. . That there is such a divine principle. hath been fully proved in our assertion and description of the work of regeneration. which ariseth not from precedent actions of holiness. doth belong unto the work of our first conversion. unto God. in their of bewhole souls. whereby we are made conformable unto God. firmly and steadfastly adhering unto him through faith and love. that the first supernatural infusion or communication of this principle of spiritual light and life. and whereby he guides and assists them in all the acts. and whereof they are made partakers. but is the But the preservation. and duties of holiness whatever. that new creature.2 THE POSITIVE WORK OF THE SPIRIT Yea. whereby he communicates the great. much of the means absolutely in order of nature. ture also doth. and furtherance of our apprehension of them. now lies before which his of work other Only as the Scripdistinguish them and cast them into this order. works. the life and being. this Ghost the purifieth us. And this part of his work we shall reduce unto two heads. And our first assertion is. and without which it will net so be. therefore.

Hence are we so strictly required neither to add unto it. Rev. or reasons so neither doth anything. according to the tenor of the coveFor God promiseth to write his law in our nant of grace. in our acSecondly. God's will. do what not to are that we is. only mally . 32. I . we may observe two things 1 That there is a certain fixed rule and measure of this obedience. which gives great direction as to moral there know B 2 . God. fellowship with angels. xxix. that we may fear him and walk in his statutes. is the rule of our obedience. The matter of our holiness consists tual obedience unto God. 18. ii. (2. likeness interest in the family of God. in a conformity and answerableness whereunto it doth consist. 6. 2. hearts. are not a new nature. xxix. Col. word of God It is belong thereunto. (1.) It is so foris commanded. iv. 19 22. do all consist herein. which to deo-rees and exercise. This is the revealed will of God in the Scripture . 8. cannot be taught us but by God only. as he teaches other The creatures in whom he planteth a natural instinct. but a readiness for acting from use and custom. 24. as it is absolutely inexpressible. nor any thing from it. compliance Holy Spirit. is vi. as to its so beauty and glory hereof. Prov. an in-bred light of nature as yet remaining in us. word.IN THE SANCTIFICATION OF BELIEVERS. 25. in general. xxii. Deut. xxx. 29. Josh. xii. though not as It is that we cannot learn. it to somewhat have we spoken Conformity to the with to Christ. though never so specious. or it is no part of to diminish or take i. same in. Deut. our obedience or holiness Psal. But the is the adequate rule of all holy obedience. all believers. And it is common unto. it is that in us which is born of God. inclinations. before. Deut. 7. their direction. which we do in compliance with them or by . as revealed unto us in the . and nothing else.) All that is — so materially. A rule it must have. much less are our own imaginations. nor can be so called. 6 whether in things moral or artificial. I say. commanded in that word belongs unto our obedience. 19. 9. which nothing else can pretend to be. But this nature is from God its parent. or the kind and being. The secret will or hidden purposes of God are not the rule of our obedience . but whatever we do we are to do it because it is commanded. Micah vi. and nothing else doth so. all that is commanded. cxix. separation from darkness and the world. : And concerning this.

is not the rule of gospel holiness as such. is enjoined us in the word. ii. answers unto written in the word that is given unto us. all our souls. Gen.' The Spirit worketh nothing in us. and designs. The whole renovation of our natures. this is teousness. but what the word first reIt is. nothing but the for we ' are born again by the incorruptible seed of the word of God. the rule of our holiness. evangelical obedience.) With respect unto all our out- ward actions and duties. 20. of ciple spiritual life. and our living to him.) With respect all the actual frames.4 THE BOSITIVE WORK OF THE SPIRIT evil. public. 12. (2. nor any part of it. 1. and all our strength. As there so there is And . the whole principle of holiness before described. and as the first is the only principle. this is the tenor of the new covenant . xvii. word changed into grace in our hearts is .) As it requires the image of God in us. and his his that word Spirit shall always accompromised to the one one another. God may be considered as our rule in a threefold respect The habitual (1. (3. all the motions of our affections. 2. answers thereunto. so the latter is the only For this end hath God of our rule. lix. Titus ii. is their All regularity or irregularity to be tried. is a rule oi o\xx performance of this obedience. the rule of the inward prinquireth of us. are to be regulated by that word which requires us to love the Lord our God with all our minds. a rule of the acceptance of our obedience wdth God. yea. : rectitude of our nature with respect unto God. all the volitions unto of the will. so far are we holy and no farther. therefore. So far as what we are. Rom. made subservient and subordinate thereunto. The law which God by the law that is his grace writes in our hearts. all the internal actings of our minds. and what we do. private. Isa. purposes of the heart. Whatever acts of devotion or duties of morality may be per- formed without respect hereunto. quicken our souls. however it may be other. of rightowards ourselves or others . and the growth thereof is nothing but its increase in conformity to that word. and wrought in us thereby. of piety. good and commanding the one and forbidding the But this light. and the pany And the word of other to guide our lives. 14. that holiness which is in them consists in their conformity to Hereby the revealed will of God. belong not to our sanctification. 15.

16. than would have done so under the old.holiness. but only in We have yet remaining in us a contrary principle of part. that a lower and more imperfect kind of righteousness. in general. being in in the room and stead of that which plete. was the law and covenant of And this required that it should be absolute. required hereunto. both as to the universality of the whole. properties ner under the new covenant than the old.IN THE SANCTIFICATION OF BELIEVERS. Wherefore. But now. than that required in the other. 5 What answers hereunto is accepted. or interposition of it in the least instance. accompanied with failings. or more dishonourable to the gospel. without the least intermixture of sin with our good. the rule of the acceptance of this holy obedience. eminent. answer all the ends of God and his glory now under the new covenant. covenant of grace is of that to obedience which is universal accept holy pleased as to all parts. in particular. required of us? perfect. and absolutely sinless. the rule of our acceptworks. perfect and degrees. For what would he be accept of a else. God in the to the manner of their performance. difference lies solely herein. alin parts though we are renewed again by grace in the image of God really and truly. and gloBut the reason of this rious.and obedience. if he had procured that God would weak imperfect obedience. that our evangelical obedience God having determined . answer now. far more complete. the legal perfection at first required of us. and sins. and the sin- And cerity that accompanies each particular duty in it. which was inconsistent with that covenant. many nothing comwas complete. it was necessary that there should be a righteousness and obedience required therein. is not our present work to declare. universality and sincerity. V. yet not absolutely nor perfectly. Nowill thing can be imagined more distant from the truth. ignorance and sin. I only aim to fix. nor that seems to have a nearer approach unto the making of Christ the minister of sin. in all known instances of duty. these two things. which he to exalt first and glorify the holy his in of a more eminent and glorious mannature. for which cause and end alone it is so exalted and preferred above it. 17. as to some certain ends. ance with God. and what doth not so is rejected. Yea. is What. in our obedience. infirmities. and sincere as Gal. which we must always conflict withal . Now the reason hereof is not. In the estate of original righteousness.

of using and improving the effects of his love. essentially or specifically distinct from all natural habits. even the works of the law. comprise what I have farther to offer in the declaration and vindication of gospelsanctification and holiness. that whereby we should have been justified in his in a due prosight. the Holy Spirit by his grace. a supernatural princior habit of ple grace and holiness. There is of all believers. than all that we should have done had we abode steadfast in the covenant of works. however or by what means soever acquired or improved. I say only. whereby we may glorify him in this world. two ensuing assertions. I shall wrought and preserved in the minds and souls by the Spirit of God. Whereunto then. serves our I holiness and obedience. according to the tenor covenant. is far more eminent and glorious. In it mean time. and demonstrate it from its proper principles and ends. For therein it should have been our righteousness absolutely before God. required unto every act of holy . which is sufficient. our dependance on the him. so he hath appointed it as the only means whereby we may express our subjection to him. and for which. being the obedience of the Son of God. been have should of we eternally rewarded. There is an immediate work or effectual operation of I. portion justice. II. and the only orderly way whereby we may be made meet for the inheritance of the saints in light. the only way of our communion and intercourse with him. where I shall prove at large the necessity of this holiness. in the. in general. in general. and what is the necessity of it? must defer the answering of this inquiry unto its proper place. and perform that obedience which he requireth and accepteth through Christ in the covenant of grace. and therein the exaltation of his glory. that as God requireth of us. whereby they are made meet and enabled to live unto God. to manifest both its necessity and its use. our fruitfulness and thankfulness.6 which THE POSITIVE WORK OF THE SPIRIT new of the is accepted with God. premised. But this place is now filled up by the righteousness and obedience of Christ our mediator. or tends more to the manifestation of the properties of God's nature. doth not hold the same place which our obedience should have had under the covenant of works. which. These things being then. in general. intellectual and moral. it may be some will say. the benefits of the mediation of Christ.

In the handling of these things. that is. heavenly. so denominated from its nature. that ritual gifts that by any means we may acquire ut attain or spimay be conferred on any persons whatever. and enables it to live unto God in all holy obedience. we must be partakers of in this world. which some. and" unto all duties of obedience in our walking before God. ference that is I shall manifest the dif- between a spiritual supernatural life of evangelical holiness. it inclines and disposeth the mind. The first of these assertions I affirm not only to be true. Such a spiritual.IN THE SANCTIFICATION OF BELIEVERS. if ever And herein we mind to attain eternal life in another. therefore. It doth not only incline and dispose the mind. and beauty of holiness. 1. what I believe. But as we holiness. and it is the second great And there principle constituting our Christian profession. and always abiding in them. unto acts of holiness suitable unto its own nature. That. such a hahit or principle supernatural. 3. glory. First. but gives it power. or external also. habit. 7 obedience. clare. unto all the holy actings of our understandings. and what I desire an experience of. intellectual or is That there or created in believers moral. I say. That it differs specifically from all other habits. 2. and affections. and with regard unto its proper end. supernatural life. Prove that there is such a habit reby : . that I shall endeavour to de. 4. or a principle of spiritual life. And with respect hereunto I shall briefly do these three things 1. and do confess. it is but little of them which I can comprehend. it is a gracious supernatural habit. . It is a matter indeed often spoken unto but the essence and true nature of it. do endeavour to substitute in the room thereof. causes. are much hidden from the eyes of all living men. are four things that are to be confirmed concerning it. will. to the rejection of the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ. but of so great weight and importance. no more are are not in this life perfect in the duties of we in the knowledge of its nature. and to make us meet to live unto God. acts. we shall take what view we are able of the nature. Shew whati mean a such 2. and ends. that our hope of life and salvation depends thereon. infused by the Holy Ghost. The sense of what the Scripture proposeth. and a course of moral virtue. whether internal only in faith and love. and affections. according to the nature of all habits. wills.

as of justice. Declare. And this holiness. Every one that hath this holiness and shall come to the pleaseth God. 11 15. nor did either minate them holy. a multiplication. of acts and duties of obedience either constitute or denominate any All the duties. temperance* . do get a ready facility in and unto all the parts and duties of it. formed. And every jected of him here and hereafter. and their bodies to be give burned. were signal single acts of obedience materially .nd form of holi- any one is truly and really made and what is the formal reason of that holiness which our nature is partaker of in this world. or mystery. as to virtues and vices. but they constitute none holy nor will a series.' and yet be nothing . is accepted with him. 3. art. or with respect unto eternity. Single acts may evidence holiness. though good in their own si?igle may be perwith of them. therein. in the first place. yea many examples by unholy persons. ihe properties of it. and acceptable unto him. 1 Cor. yea. Cain's sacrifice and Ahab's repentance. in the sight of God. that men may * all their goods to the poor. that from which denominated holy . and frequent acts in the exercise of any science. that the therein. There are some seeds and sparks of moral virtues remaining . they have an intellectual habit It is so in things moral. usage. doth not consist in any acts of obedience unto God. ]. who can go farther ? Such fruits may hath no root. on their own part. in general. however obtained or acquired. 1. whereof are there rejected for want of holiness. hath it not. as Abraham's obedience in sacrificing his son. xiii. devotion. When men by Intellectual habits are arts and sciences. nature. or obedience. something excellent and sacred. yet in single acts spring from seed that . whereof the Scripture aboundeth. custom. Nor doth it congood sist in an habitual disposition of mind unto any outward duties of piety. is rethat one enjoyment of him. were plication in and themselves. as that which constitutes the great and only difference that is between mankind.8 THE POSITIVE WORK OF THE SPIRIT nature of holiness consists quired unto holiness. a series and multione so Isa. For such acts make or denoyet no acts of holiness formally. Such habits there are both intellectual and moral. And our apostle tells us. a course. appointed of God. This must be something peculiar. — in the ruins of depraved nature. Our first inquiry is after the essence Q. ness.

because. from an internal renewed principle of grace. which are inThese prinseparable from us as we are men Isa. it agreeth in sundry things with much more acquired intellectual or moral habits. improved by education. which are produced by them and not otherBut this holiness is such a habit or principle as is wise. many superstitious persons. in acts of outward obedience unto God. it otherwise what it will. Jer. And the reason is. Isa. 8. fortitude.IN THE SANCTIFICATION OF BELIEVERS. Many acts and duties. Wherefore. But in all these things. in its effects and manner of operation. any act or duty of high degree with true holiness performed. the acts do still precede the habits of the same nature and kind. But it hath call this principle of holiness a habit. or not to act contrary to the principles. But herein God teacheth us more than the ' . antecedent unto all acts of the same kind. There never was by any. be holiness. . because every act of true holiness must have something supernatural in it. 9 and the like. that in their obedience unto him they did not answer that instinct which is in other creatures towards their lords and^ benefactors . nor ever can be. God chargeth it on men. instruction. viii. until persons. and absolutely of the would in all things answer to our conceptions and descriptions of them but we only call it so. where there was not in order of nature antecedently a habit of holiness in the persons by whom they are performed. than unto any acquired habit. men by the same means may so accustom themselves unto them. by an assiduous diligent performance of the acts and duties of them. 3. and that which hath not so. but no one that hath the proper form and nature of holiness can be so. in the duties of piety and religion. ners to . as is not by an outward means easily changed or diverted and this is a moral habit in like manner. and example. i. as to have an habitual disposition unto their exercise. 7. as we shall prove. Hence God calls on profligate sinremember and shew themselves men. I doubt not but that it is so unto a . may attain such a readiness unto them and facility in them. : And I conformity unto a natural unchangeable instinct. for the substance of them good and approveable. is no act or duty of true not as though kind with same it were acquired habits. may be performed without it. and which they cordially observe . xliv. and ciples may be so excited in the exercise of natural light. and light of nature.

a virtue. a principle. and no otherwise. if this be not actually and always continued. John iv. For the farther explanation of things. have a natural efficacy to preserve themselves. if I may so say. in them. disposed. and heaven. 16. unto all and by become holy. in adhering unto the faculties of our souls. wherein the nature of holiness doth consist. This. that are sanctified. firm its own station. and is the next cause of the fruit-bearing of the branch. (2. He which works it in us. iv. And the reason hereof is.) Though this principle or hahit of holiness be of the same . infused into our souls. 3. a power. and from which. whence they are always holy.10 THE POSITIVE WORK OF THE SPIRIT maketh us wiser than the fowls of beasts of the earth. Habits that are acquired by many actions. And this is that. in those that are adult. therefore. but by a continual emanation and communication from the Let that be. or abide and continue in us. with respect unto its root Christ Jesus. thus wrought and abiding in us. Col. the actual discharge of all duties and works of holiness all is This abideth always in and with inseparable. I shall only add three (1. and the next cause of. See Eph. wrought. doth also preserve it in us. duties of obedience. it is with this principle in us. 11. But it doth not live and abide by itself. whatever is in us would die and wither of itself. and not only so when they are actually exercised in the duties of holiness. which constantly abiding. is that which I intend . which is frequently (though not easily) done. as we shall shew immediately. by its own natural efficacy. as was said. and inlaid in all the faculties of them.) That this hahit or principle. and enabled. created. So root. 14. is iii. until some opposition that is too hard for them. really and formally. all acts of true holiness whatever. the influence hereof into their acts and duties do they it. prevail against them. it being only an emanation of virtue and power from him unto us by the Holy Ghost .intercepted and it quickly withers. and unchangeably residing. because the spring of it is in our head Christ Jesus . It is in us as the frucIt is there tifying sap in a branch of the vine or olive. Hereby are they prepared. of spiritual life and grace. But this is preserved in us by the constant powerful actings and influence of the Holy Ghost. doth not.' Job xxxv. is antecedent unto.

yet is it in away of diwiy preserved. wherein of Some few testimonies many shall suffice as to its present confirmation. is antecedently necessary unto ' all acts of holiness But herewithal. in the next place. removal of hinderances. is it kept alive and stirred up. I answer. that we may live. that although it were easy to demonstrate. that thou mayest live. This is more . 33. that this effectual work of God upon ' The Lord expressed. God hath appointed that we should live in the exercise of it. that this work of circumcising our hearts cannot be effected without an implantation of the principle pleaded for in them. in all 11 that are sanctified. and in and by the multiplication of its acts and duties. to love the Lord our God with all our hearts and souls. that there is such a spiritual habit or principle of spiritual their holiness doth consist.' is The habit or principle which we have described. The work of thy God with all thy heart. and inactive. This is holiness in the habit and principle of it. as cannot here be spoken unto. law in their inward parts. and all thy soul. is consequential unto God's circumcising of our But it should seem that this work of God is only a hearts. (3. without which it will not be. without which it will be weakened and decay. implanted and abiding on our hearts. put my his law in our hearts. Every act of love and fear. increased. in others more weak.) more That although by any or many this habit and principle is not acquired acts of duty or obedience. and the principal work of holiness is. vigorous. and doth not express the collation of the principle which we assert. and flourishing.IN THE SAJVCTIFICATION OF BELIEVERS. to love the Lord thy God it is our hearts in us. shew. In some it is strong.' The end of holiness is. Dent. This being what I intend as to the substance of it. and consequently of every duty of holiness whatever. the whole will of God therein. 6. dLXiA improved ihevehy. and on so many occasions. /?/e wrought in believers. will circumcise thy heart. and this in so great variety. 2. and answer unto. strengthened. whereby we comply with. feeble. xxxi. xxx. yet them very distinct degrees of it. God writes I will Jer. lively. we must. And this is the effect of God's circumcising our hearts. kind or nature in there are in all believers. yet it shall suffice at present to evince from hence. nothing but a transcript of the law of God. and write it in their hearts.

which is born of the Spirit. And until this spirit is formed is. and unto all duties of obein us.' Cor. is confirmed namely. as Gal. The . the next cause of them. It is act of the power of a living creature. is that habit of grace or principle of holiness which we intend. the Spirit. There is a work of the Spirit * of God upon us in our regeneration. xxxvi. This new heart is a heart with and this the law of God written in it. keep my judgments and cause as and the thereof. thing abiding in us. It is yet more expressly revealed and declared in the New Testament John iii. v. we are born again of . v. as before mentioned ' . communicated unto us. acting in a continual opposition against the flesh or sin . so it is also a divine nature . that which is born in this new birth. there is. . and a nature is the principle of all operations . that by an almighty creating of God by his Spirit. and that is is spirit also. that hath the nature and this is what we plead for. A new heart will I give you. and ye shall keep my judgments and do them. It is something existing in us. And so also is it called a new 1 creature. 17. 2 Pet. that anteceand as dently unto all duties and acts of holiness whatever. nor any one act of vital obedience. God gives a unto. And herein the whole of what we have asserted. and a new spirit will you to walk in my statutes. is produced in the souls of all that are in Christ Jesus. 26. i. 4. And as it is called the new creature. by the Holy Ghost. This spirit.' Antecedent hereand tutes. spiritual principle or and abiding in us. that dience unto God. something. is contained in these expressions ye shall walk in my stato do them. I ' fully expressed. a new habit of grace.' And there is the product of this work of the Spirit of God in us.' The whole of all that actual obedience. 6. our whole souls have a furnishment of spiritual power and ability. by which alone we are enabled to live to God. and all those duties of holiness which God requireth of us. or spiritual nature. that It is someof a spiritual nature and spiritual efficacy. principle new heart and a new spirit. put within you. and cause new life spirit is the habitual inclination of that heart unto the all of God. or duties of obedience. we cannot perform any one act that is spiritually good. . 17. 27. from whence we are made and denomi- nated holy. * He that is in Christ is a new creature .12 THE POSITIVE WORK OF THE SPIRIT Ezek.

the body of Christ. Originally and efficiently the Holy him and us. which is the prin- Where ciple and next cause of all acts of the life of God. this is not. we cannot attain unto. 17. what honour. new principle of grace is so. and security depend thereon. vi. and renders us one with him. iv. and to It is the same grace in the kind his person as our head. (3. It is that become we members of his bones and of his flesh . How excellent is this grace. to fear him. Col. 24. 11. (1.) It is our life. 24. the head of the church. . of one and the same spiritual nature with him . whatever else there may be. because she had the same nature with him. to admire the love of Christ. This the Scripture plentifully testifieth unto but withal I must add. none can perfectly understand its glory some few things may be added to illustrate it. partakers of the same divine nature with him. . For it is the reparation of his image in us Eph. to walk in his ways. 1 I is ineffable.) This is that whereby we have union with Jesus Christ. is which in the thereof. image of God in believers. 'joined unto the Lord is one spirit. whereby we all live to : God. so are we of him. no mind can apprehend it. 10. there is no evangeThis is that whereby we are enabled to live lical holiness. hope. that as to the proper nature or essence of it.IN THE SANCTIFICATION OF BELIEVERS. iv. and that derived from him. which the apostle alludeth unto. is interest in. which gives us our and continuity unto. no tongue can express it. whereby it is renewed in us but the thing itself .' 1 Cor. is the cause of this union. 11. Spirit of 13 God createth a new nature in us. safety. Thus. Life is the foundation and sura of excellencies . is. Heb. and is bestowed on us. (2. As Eve was of Adam she was one with him. 23. 14. he that that ii. Col. this apprehend concerning Something. 23. Spirit dwelling in But formally. and to yield obedience according to his mind and will. this * . and of their likeness unto him. . 30.' whereby Eph. iii. and the efficacy of his mediation. See Eph. how great a privilege it is. our spiritual life. iii. what duties are required of us on the account thereof: but perfectly to conceive or express the nature and glory of it. V. but should learn to adore the grace whence it doth proceed. 10.) Our likeness and conformity unto God consists herein. holy nature of Christ. unto God.

yea. whence all vital acts in the life of God do proceed. 11 16. 3. But all is lost. well what is the true form it. the fruits of other principles. discern and judge of glorious. much which which do we know the form and essence of life spiritual. But before I proceed unto a farther description of this before laid down. afflictions. But God expressly rejecteth not only such duties. not to satisfy ourselves. First. But this is the internal principle of life. which is and our own concernment in this no empty notion. and their most frequent reiteration. or as they need to be. and are quickened by the Holy Ghost. by education. it principle of holiness in its effects. works. wrought in it immediately by the Holy Ghost. whereas. the apostle draws a veil over it. nor howsoever multiplied by us. in learn hence. we know not and essence of life natural. will be therein declared.' Col. far * more excellent and This is that life hid with Christ in God. Yet we must here observe these two things That so»far as these duties. we are dead in trespasses and sins. as knowing that we ate unable steadfastly to behold its glory and beauty. or any acts or duties of obedience. . And some men's religion hath consisted in the multiplying of outward duties. if if it be not possessed with the principle of grace and holiness insisted on. but the greatest multitude of them. the heart be not antecedently purified and sanctified. a few useful holiness in our hearts. be they of morality or : re- . iii. by its effects . only it we less is is find it. do satisfy some persons. as these general conover to call amiss not be practkaUy may siderations of its nature truth. Fears. Such acts and duties may be the — effects of other causes. unless there be ^ vital principle of A few honest actions. We may not to rest. And. duties. terrors of conscience. that they are as holy as they should be. dictates of reason improved custom. 1. if the soul be not prepared with this spiritual principle of habitual holiness. Isa. will direct. that they might be meritorious for themselves and others.14 without THE POSITIVE WORK OF THE SPIRIT how we this. men do but labour in the fire about them. i. and put men upon a course of them. In which words. and confirmed by compel men unto their observance. hath been declared. And. in any good how good and useful soever in themselves. Mere legal convictions will produce them.

the persons by whom they are performed as when they are not done in faith. But this we may do. for which Cain's sacrifice was rejected . an obstruction unto any duty of obedience. and duties of religious in their piety. or want faith. yea. 3. condemn or undervalue the duties themselves. . and come to no aclast day. on as hath been looked a men persecution good work. nor take off men from the performance of them. is among unsanctified persons than we do. ligion. There are sundry ways. we may speak one thing legal duties). that we could see more of the fruits of moral virtues. that render them unacceptable before God. 31. without which all you do will be lost.IN THE SANCTIFICATION OF BELIEVERS. ix. which. to have others impious . Rom. with respect unto . as is known. or ought we to. encouraged in them. And there are reasons and causes. whereby the best duties may be abused and misappUed. as they were called (indeed abuses). are they ought to be approved. yet are evil in themselves. although they may make a specious show and appearance in the world. x. which are good and when the heart own nature. as when men rest in them. supposing they did God good service when they slew the disciples of Christ. on principles that ends that will them is (as and endure the trial. Christ. nor ever can be. of piety or divine worship. as if they were meritorious. 4. under the name of duties and obedience unto God. we may tell our Saviour did the young man. But yet. and men 15 good in themselves. 32. The world not in a condition to spare the good acts of bad men. on neither of these grounds or pretences can we. and take men off from the«i. or for and corrupt all they do. and men giving their goods unto pious uses.' you want you want a spiritual principle of evangelical holiness. The due assertion of grace never was. is an effectual means to divert the souls of sinners from faith in Christ for life and salvation . is not previously sanctified and prepared with a spiritual principle of obedience. it were greatly to be desired. and as we are called we ought to do: when men are engaged in a course of duties and good works. who gave that will not abide spoil great account of his diligence in or all yet wanting unto you . when any will give up themselves unto such works or actings. you ' count at the So against them. Indeed. or the matter of their justification before God For this. deny them. or such as God requireth not of men.

Secondly. in the life. whence it is that such various courses with respect unto holiness. and the like other innumerable'pretended duties. These. that is more frequently insisted on. of the true nature of evangelical holiness on the one hand. wherein we are spiritually and eternally concerned. But real moral virtue will hardly be abased into an opposition unto grace the pretence of it will be so easily. in the strict . to enable us to comply with that grace of God. 12. whilst their lives are barren in the fruits of righteousness and duties of obedience. that holiness is absolutely necessary unto them that would be saved by Jesus Christ. That which we press for. in those that are adult. That wherever there it is this heart. There is nothino. It will men propose and steer some take one false way. gospel. and some actually Now all this ariseth from ignorance despise and reject it. there will principle of holiness in the be the fruits and effects of liness. maybe judged. Wherever this root is. and is so every day. and to live soberly. when they were gone out of this world. as they suppose. on the other hand. * in all duties of righteousness. are agreed. they can understand by their own reason. . make the tree good. and holiness. condemned. in this present world. is the great direction of our Saviour. exploded. as hath been declared. Avithout the least fear of deterring men from obedience. Hence some would have moral virtue to be holiness. which teacheth us to deny all ungodliness and worldly lusts. some another. and the fruit will be so also. and expiate their sins. and righteously.' Tit. there it will assuredly bear fruit. Some. and love of sin on the other. But the thing itself. ii.16 THE POSITIVK AVORK OF THE SPIRIT pray for their souls. is deep and mysterious. appear from hence. in words at least. All men who profess themselves to be Christians. 2. and godly. To deny it. and I heartily wish that we could see more of the fruits of it from them. than is the true nature of sanctification and holiness. place all holiness in superstitious devotions. and practise in their own strength. than for any to pretend unto inward ' habitual sanctification. which. is all one as openly to renounce the But when they should come to the practice of it.' And there can be no more vile and sordid hypocrisy. 11. godFor the main work and end of this principle is. not to be understood without the aid of spiritual light in our minds.

14.IN THE SANCTIFICATION OF BELIEVERS. excellent. is. that it is a to be truly and really holy. than most persons matter greater are aware of. For what the world knoweth not in these things it always hateth. This the natural man cannot do 1 Cor. and glorious a c work it is. in the true root and principle of it. and we have yet And these things do sufficiently maniin our account of it. them. There is not a more foolish and fanatical thing in the world with many. therefore. wherein they discern and judge it. It We causes of it. tending to the extirpation of all sins and vicious habits. what the influence of the mediation and blood of Christ into it. or others with a reputation of religion. What fest. 1 Thess.. as that it cannot be wrought by any but the God of peace himself. and influenceth their minds. is that which men fear and abhor. III. evident from hence. How emphatically doth our apostle ascribe it unto God even the Father . how VOL. to take care that they miss it not in the foundation. in that false light of corrupted reason. and above all. on all that would not wilfully deceive their incumbent highly own souls unto their eternal ruin. or in its own for it must be spiritually dislight and evidence cerned. ' is the immediate work of the Spirit therein. This universal change of the soul in all its principles of operation into the image and likeness of God. But here the love of sin secretly takes place. how great and excellent a work this of sanctification and holiness is. And they cannot discern it clearly. 23. moreover. observance of religious duties. may learn eminently. The why men give up themselves unto such soul-deceiving imaginations. . any thing that will pacify a natural conscience. Even the God of peace himself sanctify you. This makes them take up with morality and superstitious devotion. Aiid hence are they led to despise and to hate it.' It is so great a work. from the Thirdly. which appointed. than that internal habitual holiness which we are in the consideration of. v. to inquire diligently into the true nature of evangelical holiness. how great. For . wherein a mistake will be pernicious. they esteem it foolishness or fancy. And reason . their ignorance and hatred of that only true real principle of evangelical holiness which we have discoursed. and please themselves It is. is. hath been much more to add already in part declared. nor 17 And there is men and not God have no end of their multiplication of measure of the strictness of some in them. ii.

to engage the immediate power and efficacy of such glorious causes and means. received this principle of holiness. three duties incumbent on us. weakened by corruptions. is it required. to take care of. As this principle of inherent grace or holiness hath the nature of a habit. is intrusted with us. And that little entrance which we have made into an inquiry after its naLet us not. that it inclines and disposeth the subject wherein it is. among many others. and that with evenness and constancy. and piety. in the world. so also hath iiihe properties thereof. Yea. fruits in the mortification all duties of holiness. God may be glorified hereby. if we find not this great work at least begun in us. This sacred depositum of the first is. our guilt is great. for the producing of any ordinary or common effect. nor yet with many of them. charity. that we be thankful for what we have received. we expose our And in like manner entire profession of holiness to reproach. or through our neglect. ture. and our trouble will not be small.18 THE POSITIVE WORK OF THE SPIRIT it doth not become divine and infinite wisdom. it is to evidence and manifest it by its of corrupt lusts and affections. and new creature. And then. And the Fourthly. and the life. deceive ourselves with the shadows and appearances of things in a few duties of piety. therefore. And without these visible fruits. whereof we ought to be as careful as of our souls. there are. None. and very few are willing to admit it in its power. to cherish and improve. If we willingly. suffer it to be wounded by temptations. For that righteousness. secondly. in equally incumbent on us. It is sad to see what trifling there is in these things amongst men. unto acts of its own kind. is one of the ends why he endues our natures with it. of the divine nature. clines unto acts or actions which tend thereunto. by gracious operation of the Holy Ghost. Secondly. indeed. And the first property of a habit. no. so of an eminent nature in itself. and insuitable unto it. are contented to be without a religion. or not exercised in all known duties of obedience. Have we of spiritual carefully and diligently by all means to cherish preserve it in our hearts. It must be somewhat as of great importance unto the glory of God. or righteousness . is. moral habits are nothing . manifests how great and excellent it is. or It is directed unto a certain end.

' Behold what a weariacted are is. it is so with respect unto the life of God. ciple we may live to God. or permanency. c2 .' without which we cannot do so in any one single act or duty whatever. therefore. whereby all outward duties shall be quickened and animated. 19 but strong and firm dispositions and inclinations unto moral as righteousness. so that it shall attend unto them. perance. utterly alienated from them.) . by virtue thereof wrought grace. for the internal actings it. or temacts and duties of their own kind a Such or meekness. Yea. a life of spiritual obedience unto God. Although it be a great work in itself. are our natures thus spirihabit and printually renewed. With respect unto this life of God. 13. ings of persons under the power of cormay perform them. there must be in this new spiritual nature. (2. principle whereby they ness it is . they that are in the Rom. and all the acts that belong thereunto.' 18. duties The outward of it. disposition and inclination. conviction or external impression only. i. or principle of holiness. the first flesh cannot please God that it inclineth and inseparable adjunct of it is. life it not.' this divine spiritual life.' Rom. unto all acts and duties Uiat belong to the life of God.IN THE SANCTIFICATION OF BELIEVERS. Wherefore.) The inward frame and act(1. And this life of God hath two parts. we like we have an aversion unto it. constancy. viii. .' Mai. viii. rupted nature and love. we are made like unto God. which we have described. yet is it not wrought in any but with respect unto a farther end And this end is. 6. By the depravation of our natures. that we may live unto God. But as to the second. property and disposeth the soul wherein it is. but from an internal * . It hath a certain end. that we may live to God in this world. that is universally opposed unto that for to be carnally minded is death . that wherein the renovation of the image of God in us doth consist. 1. For the first . 8. iv. and such hypocrites will not pray alof faith ways. Eph. but ' of God. wherewith the souls of believers are inlaid and furnished by the Holy Ghost in their sanctification. we are 'alienated from this . or furnished with this spiritual that in It of is us. they are utter strangers unto them. that is. For. For. to enable us whereunto it is bestowed on us. we are under the life power of a death. and do so. or unto all the duties of not from holy obedience. but without The language of that delight.

or is . against neither indeed can be . as hath been declared. and keep all my commandments always . ' it is not subject unto the law of God.' which is the same with the new spirit. which I place as the j first property or effect of the principle of holiness. Ezek. xi. that they would fear me. introduced is that which is Now and to the exclusion of. before declared and explained. the new . which is seated in the mind. or the in all things mind and will of God. the bent and the principle of all whom it is and this carnal . and will. 2. or understanding. love. that 39. And this new spirit. the first fruit hereof is. deand by the names of such other affections as express a light. The first effect. There is in the state of nature a carnal mind . This disposition of heart and soul. xxxii. to hear and do whatsoever God commanded. which And is in moral and spiritual operations. as tending always unto actions spiritually good. is still of the new heart. the new spiritual supernatural principle of holiness. 29. Jer. ' I will give them one heart.' Deut. that is. It is that which is intended in the promise of the covenant. God adds concerning it. So when the people of Israel had engaged themselves by solemn covenant. 7. The new heart. the carnal mind so this disposition and inclination of it. genuine principle so inelining these things may be ilhistratedby whatis contrary unto them. For these things do not denote the principle of holiness itself. viii. whereas they are the names of affections only but they signify the first way whereby that principle doth act itself in a holy inclination of the heart unto spiritual obedience. God enmity. which concern a life of as this principle of holiness obedience unto himself. according to the mind of God. our into souls in opposition unto. is in the Scripture calledj^ear. that the bent and inclinations of their hearts were always unto obedience. that is. is the new nature.20 THE POSITIVE WORK OF THE SPIRIT and disposing them thereunto. they may fear me. or the writing of the law of expressed as the inseparable consequent God in our „^>(-«»I . or a new spiritual bent and inclination of soul unto all the will and commands of God. creature. constant regard and inclination unto their objects. this fear of God. 19. inclination of it lies directly against spiritual things. is opposite and contrary unto the enmity of the carnal mind.' Rom. in them mind hath an enmity. ' O that there were such a heart in them. the fear of God always. v.

' 21 which are the same. with a reverence due unto his nature. disposed towards things. and gradually taken away. and a delight in him suited unto that covenant-relation wherein he stands unto us.) JJniv er sally .' Hos. and mind earthly things Phil. Psal. and come unto the enjoyment of him like the earnestness which : the pursuit of something continually in his eye. This. moreover. or set our affections on them . the contrary impaired and subdued. ready for all things that lead us to the enjoyment of them. . Every nature .' Rom. hereby we mind the things that are above. iii. wherever this holiness is. it doth dispose or incline the whole soul unto acts and duties of holiness: and principle of sin and flesh that. or impartially. as our apostle expresseth it . 3. iii. we live to God. or evenly. expressed by being spiritually minded: be spiritually minded is life and peace . the bent and inclination of the mind unto spiritual 3. that is. or inclined earnestly unto all those ways whereby he might live unto him. a new or divine nature ciple wherever it is. 5.' By nature we savour only the things of the flesh. our minds or hearts are set upon them. ii. iii. iii. . 8. therefore. It is. it constantly inclines the soul unto duties its and acts of holiness unto them. 14. By virtue hereof David professeth. 19. is weakened. that his soul followed hard after God. By the apostle Peter it is compared unto that natural inclination is is in * inhim w^ho 1 Pet. viii. Ixiii.) Constantly. Phil.' which is a constant unalter. 2. It is a regard unto God and his will. Col. is that whereby 'it is? life . so by this gracious disposition. fearing the Lord and his goodness . with delight and complacency. hearts. (2. that you may grow thereby . The prinof holiness is such a nature. able inclination. them. and enjoy peace and peace. Wherefore. ' to with him. (1. is that which I intend. 6. But. So it is called.IN THE SANCTIFICATION OF BELIEVERS. impaired. it produceth a constant disposition the principle is And as by itself. which is the inclination of the soul unto all acts of obedience unto God and communion with him. In like manner it is expressed by love. the inclination unto sin which is in us. hath disposition unto actings suitable unto it. 13. which is in those that are hungry unto food As new-born babes desire the sincere milk of the word. and satisfaction in them.

But. (1. and that habitually. however. fire . will be admitted upon any other principle of temporary indulgence unto corrupt affections. w^ould. and a way of profession. have a reserve to bow in the house of Rimmon. but there is a There is a respect Some of them may be more ivliatever.. For every nature hath an equal propensity unto all its natural operations. some some sin. Light and darkness. it. if there be a gracious principle in our hearts. And the reason hereof is. obedience.22 (3. may be surprised into actual omission of duties. is eternally inconsistent with this principle of holiness.) THE POSITIVE WORK OF THE SPIRIT Permanently. some attended and with more difficulties and disadvantages than others . because it being a new nature. And where these things are or denomi- not. that all he This immediately carried him off. was not from an internal prinlife. unto the end.) There is no duty of holiness disposition in a sanctified heart unto unto all God's commands. in a reserve of some pride of life. who vowed obedience upon his conviction of the power of the God of Israel. duties that are dangerous. some more cross unto our present secular interests. it will equally incline and dispose us unto every one of them in its proper place and season. nevertheless. with one that lay close unto his secular interests and worldly satisfactions. contrary unto our natural inclinations than others. who sons. give way unto an habitual reserve of one thing or other that is contrary thereIt will admit either of the omission of some duties. ciple of spiritual ties Any other principle or cause of du- will. gave an account of his duties and righteousness. So omissions of or of the commission of lust. it equally inclines unto aU that belongs unto it. thing that is sinful or morally evil. commission of sins. upon solicitations. But habiAn habitual reserve for any tually they cannot be so. unto. or of the retaining of So Naaman. as all acts of holy obedience do. some may be rendered very hazardous by the circumstances of times and seasons. For even those who have this real spiritual principle of holiness. love of the world. and obedience. no multiplication of duties will either make nate any person holy. and evidenced had done besides. or the corrupt affections. upon the solicitation of his worldly interest. in their times and seaHence our Saviour tried the rich young man.

And again. all these things. in itself and its own nature. is accidental unto it. 14. and impeded. they leave the soul . they are not a new nature in and unto the soul.' As this stream passeth in its course ' it may meet it vert for a season nually. Men may perform duties of obedience unto God. it equally disposeth the mind unto acts of holy obedience.) It thus disposeth the heart unto duties of holiness He in whom it is feareth always. on all occasions. John iv. yea. Moreover. And hereby is it distinguished from all other principles. or is constantly and evenly. Whatever falls out otherwise. incline the soul at all times and on all occasions. whether in solemn duties.IN THE SANCTIFICATION OF BELIEVERS. yea. than we are at some other times. and obstructive of its operations. that but its waters Hereby doth the soul set . and by virtue of other motives. and so do not dispose men constantly and evenly unto what they lead unto. it doth constantly and evenly. (2. and walk continually as in his sight. or on particular occasions. with oppositions. and diligently intent on all occasions of acting grace. in the fear of the Lord all the day long. that we are ourselves sometimes more watchful. whereon men may perform any duties of obedience towards God. unto duties of holiness. In all instances. or the like. many of them. as our Saviour A well of water springing up expresseth it. which are contrary unto it. It is so also. there is no withstanding of them. or in our general course. from other principles. Sometimes their impressions on the mind are strong and violent. whereby this holy disBut notwithstanding position is intercepted. on other grounds. that the actings of grace which proceed from it. This disposition is like a stream that ariseth equally from a living fountain. So is it when convictions are excited by dangers or afflictions. But whatever they are. are in us sometimes more intense and vigorous than at other times. 23 and water^ may as soon be reconciled in one. or causes. but the duties they require must instantly be complied withal. into everlasting life. there are especial seasons wherein we meet with greater difficulties and obstructions from our lusts and temptations than ordinary. It is true. reasons. as to their outward performance. may still either stop it or di- press forward contiGod always before him. be engaged into a constant course of them. strong desires.

shall never thirst any more. which worketh its way. and improve both the principle itself. And never do so in endless. We are to full assurance of hope unto the end. that will evenly and constantly incline unto the sion from acts of it. It springs up. that it is it is also true. preserve. are like those at sea. evenly. It is living water. with a total indigence of supplies of grace. in the lodged enjoyment of it. which they again suppose will dispatch their this prinvoyage . diligence. will never cease inclining. and its actings in these * shew all diligence unto the holy dispositions. This is expressly promised ' I will put my fear in their hearts. Where them carries which current natural have a ciple is. least impres- There is no this one besides of reason or nor obedience. who sometimes meet or vehement winds which fit them for their course. is this fear. whom which is It is true. that it is our duty. the current. 11. Men of convicproceeding only upon the power with storms tions. c^use principle. and in the covenant. 31. cherish. until in the it comes unto the end of enjoyment of God. with . but it well of water springing up into everlasting life .' John iv.24 unto its THE POSITIVE WORK OF THE SPIRIT own the formality and course. and to drive them as it were with viowould seem immediately lence into their port or harbour. infallibly kept and preserved Isa. tempests. 14. It (3. no breath of air stirs to help them forward . . xl. is natural. persons falls on quickly. and holds on its course through all exter. nal occasional impediments. without them towards any duties whatever. are safely ing life. because it is living water from which vital acts are inseparable. insisted on. at length yet the stream. They shall they and faileth permanent and all care and in of the use all to means. and cross winds. the whole soul unto acts and them all duties of obedience. and constantly and although they may sometimes meet with storms. shall not depart from me . and whosoever drinketh of it. and disposing. but quickly after they have an utter calm. And in the use of means.' Heb. and the exercise of grace is it.) It is also permanent herein. 40. but that also quickly fails them. so permanently without ceasing. vi. after a while another gust of vand be- them. it may be. it springs up into everlast- not until those in whom it is. that ' is a is. xxxii.' Jer. and that as always without intermission. and abideth for ever. and then.

education. the principle itself may seem for a season to be as it utterly stifled. Yet such is the nature of it. as that it shall never utterly cease or be extinguished. with the violent and deceitful working of lusts. upon the fierce interpositions of temptations. It abideth disposing and inclining the heart unto all duties of holy obedience unto the grave. Yea ordinarily. all their actings growing insensibly weaker and . that it is immortal. dangers. from what they have been habituated unto. impartially. fears. tinually unto the end. and mediation of Christ. than those who have been acted by the power of conviction unto a course of obedience in the performance of many duties. of conviction. and permanently. so in them the inward man is daily renewed in strength and power. therefore. in some persons. unto obedience. and which shall never absolutely die such is the relation of it unto the covenant-faithfulness of God. finding it compliant with their present circumstances and conditions in the world. and as the outward man decayeth.IN THE SANCTIFICATION OF BELIEVERS. But the power fall who of these principles. 25 that sometimes. or some powerful temptations at one time or other put an utter end unto them. and if their eyes were open. it thrives and grows conHence. and where its genuine work and tendency is not interrupted by cursed negligence or love of the world. all in one. . die before men. doth the new divine nature that is in believers. may be . most part either the increase of carnal wisdom. And those of them not openly to profaneness or lasciviousness. everlasting. One that there thing yet remains to be cleared. they might see the end of them. or the love of the world. or neglect of all duties of religion. some are not only fruitful. as also having been preserved from such ways and practices as are inconsistent with their present course by the power of their former convictions. dispose and incline them. as it is in their own nature to decay and wither. But as unto all other principles of obedience whatever. less eflicacious. but fat and flourishing in their old age. Hence there is not a more and are of no use at all. all acts and duties of holy evenly. do continue in their course. In this manner. impressions from afflictions. and this property of it to be destroyed seems to have been with David under his sad fall and decay. so for the they secure 2:eneration of sinners in the world.

and condemning its commission. inclining them unto evil. will. according to the power and efficacy that is remaining unto it in various degrees.' *the * that dwelleth in us. and all that is so. We intend no more but what the apostle so plainly asserts The flesh lusteth against the spirit. that in those. which disorder is discernible in the light of nature. and these are contrary the one unto their wills . contrary habits and inclinations. in the mind. and afspirit against fections of believers. continually opposing one another. who are thus constantly inclined and disposed unto all the acts of a heavenly spiritual life. of a person regenerate. so it cannot be denied without an open rejecting of the gospel. and the Gal. which came upon us by the loss of the image of God. Sundry things are here observable . and the initial renovation of it by Jesus Christ. This the Scripture calls the flesh. (1. light of their minds and consciences on the other.) As this cannot be apprehended but by virtue of a previous conviction and acknowledgment. will. and acting adversely about the same objects and ends. There are yet in them inclinations and dispositions to sin. and is sufficiently canvassed by the old philosophers. (2.26 THE POSITIVE WORK OF THE SPIRIT in this matter. namely. the flesh .' the body of death . there are yet remaining con- no mistake trary dispositions and inclinations also. This yet continueth in them. depravation of our nature. And this is. ' so that ye cannot do the .' lust. corrupted.' being what yet re- maineth in believers of that vicious. And this is not from any jarrings or disorder between the distinct faculties of the soul itself.) This is that which is smgular in this life of God. or know any thing of what it is to live to God. 17. as.' that is. as in natural men there are adverse actings be- and affections. both of the total corruption of our nature by the fall. inclinations. are in the same faculties. prohibiting the committing of sin. v. wherein these contrary habits and dispositions do consist.' trary inclinations they are contrary principles attended with conand actings. proceeding from the remainders of a contrary habitual ' ' sin principle. and affections. and actings. on the one hand bent unto tween the and sin. ' ' the other . But these contrary habits. disposing the whole soul unto all that is evil. There are in the same mind. and contradiction to the experience of all that do believe.

Only conscience brings in from without the judgment of God. its uncontrolla- Rom. nor be actually prevalent or predominant in the same instances. against it. wholly predominant and universally prevalent. and that continually:' and. this habit of sin is weakened. in the same soul contrary inclinations efficacious for then would they absolutely obstruct equally all sorts of operations whatever. 'they that are in the flesh cannot please God. ' all the imaginations of men's hearts are evil. by hurrying us into the pursuit of ble inclinations . But by nature. against what the will and affections are bent upon. Only they cannot be in the . highest degree at the same time. vi. in the same subject. upon the introduction of the new principle of grace and holiness in our sanctification. depraved. nor press unto it ordinarily with the same ur- gency and violence.' There dwelleth no good thing in them. impaired. nor shall incline unto sin. or the flesh. Nor have they the same inthat it Nor can they have . as was said. of grace and sin. and a conscience fiercely condemning for sin. sin and grace cannot bear rule in the same heart at the same time. so as that they should not be justly denominated from one of them.' and the 'mortification of it in believers. either gracious or sinful. habit of sin. otherwise in the contrary principles or habits of spirit and flesh. But.) There cannot be contrary habits. as that it cannot. with that constancy and prevalency as formerly.' (3. with respect unto the same object. with their adverse inclinations and actings. . But it is. 12. at the same time at least they cannot be so in any high degree. and conscience. so as should be equally under the conduct of them both. whereby sinners are sometimes torn and even distracted. reader may consult my Concerning these things the remainder of intreatises of the ' dwelling sin. are not contrary habits in the same subject. For violent inclinations unto sin. convictions. and so disenabled.' . Hence in the Scripture it is said to be dethroned by grace.IN THE SANCTIFICATION OF BELIEVERS. so as that it shall not reign or lord it over us. nor can they do any thing that is good and the flesh is able generally to subdue the rebellions of light. fluence into particular actions. 27 things that ye would. the is vicious. merely natural or moral. That is. so as to incline and act contrary one to another with urgency or efficacy. Hence constantly disposing and inclining the soul to sin.

remaining strength and advantages are. and disabled. inseparably and necessarily . perfectly and abple grace life of God. or of no contrary motions and inclinations unto sin. ye. There it will remain. By ariseth hence that and the opposition against it. : : But this belongs unto the principle of holiness. and keep the soul pointed to holiness continually. and against the spirit. should be that this flesh. This belongs unto its nature. however it may be dethroned. is predominant and bears rule in the soul. the principle of sin. that it inclineth and disposeth the soul wherein it is. which a holy soul will constantly contend against. and condemn sin both be- In them that are regenerate the principle of grace and holiness that is predominant and beareth rule but there is in them still a principle of lust and sin. impaired. it is from the prevailing reaction of the principle of sin. and there it more or less. is it never wholly and absolutely dispossessed and cast out of the soul in this life. which being heightened with instructions and convictions do continually oppose fore and after its commission. corrected. For. In the state of nature. it may be. universally unto all acts of holy obedience. so do these on the other side in them that are rethey hinder them from doing many good things generate which their ruling principle inclines unto. and where there is a cessation or interruption in these inclinations. this principle of sin. advantaged by outward temptations and incentives. much in the proportion that light and convictions rebel against the rule of sin in the unregenerate. which rebels against the rule of grace. For as they hinder men from doing many evils. and unto the and soul heart incline the solutely. it is it. which their ruling principle of sin strongly inclines them unto. but there is a light remaining in the mind. so as that they in whom it is. and puts them on many duties that it likes not.28 But THE POSITIVE WORK OF THE SPIRIT SO it is. and carry them into many evils which it doth abhor. as well as the spirit against these are contrary. work. according as its will seduce. the acts thereof. This is the analogy that is between these two states. the flesh will lust the flesh. and sensible of no opposition made thereunto. And these inclinations are predominant unto any other. reason hereof. Where this is not. or the flesh. there is no . and a judgment in the conscience. tempt. the princinor doth and holiness of cannot.

IN THE SANCTIFICATION OF BELIEVERS.
holiness.

29

The performance of duties, whether of religious or of morality, how frequently, sedulously, and worship, will denominate no man holy, unless his soever, usefully whole soul be disposed and possessed with prevalent inclinations unto
all

that is spiritually good, from the principle

of the imase of

what

sort

God renewed in him. Outward duties of soever, may be multiplied upon light and convic-

they spring from no root of grace in the heart, and that which so riseth up will quickly wither; Matt.xiii. And unforced inclination of the mind and this free,
tion, when

genuine,

and universally unto all that is spiritually good, and duties of holiness, with an inward labourto break through and to be quit of all opposition, is the ing first fruit and most pregnant evidence of the renovation of
soul, evenly unto all acts

our natures by the Holy Ghost. It may be inquired. Whence

it is (if

the habit or inherent

do so constantly incline the soul unto principle of holiness all duties of holiness and obedience), that David prays, that God would incline his heart unto his testimonies; Psal. cxix. 36.
should seem from hence to be a new act of grace that is required thereunto, and that it doth not spring from the habit mentioned, which was then eminent in the psalmist.

For

it

I shall shew afterward, that notwithstanding all there is required and the power efficacy of habitual grace, yet unto its actual exhis the of act a new grace, Holy Spirit by

Ans.

1.

2. ercise in particular instances. duties and obedience, principally

God
by

inclines our hearts to

strengthening, increasitig,

and

exciting,

rent in us.

the grace we have received, and which is inheBut we neither have, nor ever shall have in this

world, such a stock of spiritual strength, as to do any thing as we ought, without renewed co-operations of grace. this habit of grace, Thirdly, There is poiver accompanying It doth not merely disas well as propensity or inclination.

but enable-s it unto the acts pose the soul to holy obedience, unto Our God, our walking in his and duties of it. living

ways and

statutes,

keeping his judgtnents, which things ex-

actual obedience, are the effects of the new press our whole heart that is given unto us, whereby we are enabled unto them ; Ezek. xxxvi. 26, 27. But this must be somewhat fardeclared. And, 1. I shall shew, that there ther and
distinctly
is

such a power of holy obedience in

all tha|;

have the prin-

30

THE POSITIVE WORK OF THE SPIRIT

f

the wrought in them by the sanctification of 2. shew, what from which is and, it; Holy Spirit, inseparable
ciple of holiness
is, or wherein it doth consist. That by nature we have 7io pozcer unto, or for, any thing that is spiritually good, or to any acts or duties of evangeWhen lical holiness, hath been sufficiently proved before. the for we were vet without strength, in due time Christ died

that potver

'

ungodly

;'

Rom.
'

v. 6.

Until

we

are

made
'

partakers of the

benefits of the death of Christ, in

and by his sanctifying
without strength,' or was said, this hath

are ungodly,' so have no power to live to God. grace, as

we

we

are

But, as

been formerly, fully, and largely confirmed in our declaration of the impotency of our nature by reason of its death in sin, and so need not here to be farther insisted on. 1. The present assertion which we are to prove is. That there is in and by the grace of regeneration and sanctification, a power and ahility given unto us of living unto God, or
performing
the
first

all

the duties of acceptable obedience.

This

is

act of that spiritual habit, arising out of it and inse' ' it. from It is called strength' or power;' Isa. xl. parable * 31, They that wait upon the Lord shall renew their strength ;'
is, for and unto obedience, or walking with God without weariness strength they have, and in their walking with God it is renewed or increased. By the same grace are we * strengthened with all might, according to the glorious power of God;' Col. i. 11. or strengthened with might by * his Spirit in the inner man ;' Eph. iii. 16. whereby we can

1

^

that

;

'

do

all

things through Christ that strengtheneth us;' Phil.

iv.

13. In our calling or conversion to God, all things are given unto us by his ' divine power which pertain unto life and

godliness;' 2 Pet.

i.

3.

every thing that

is

needful to enable

The habit and principle of grace that is in believers, wrought gives them new power and spiritual unto all duties of obedience. The water of the strength
us unto a holy
life.

Spirit therein,

is

not only a

'

well of water' abiding in them,

but

springeth up into everlasting life;' John iv. 14. or enables us continually to such gracious actings as have a tendency thereunto. There is a sufficiency in the grace of
it

*

God bestowed on them that believe, to enable them unto the obedience required of them. So God told our apostle, when
he was ready to
faint

under his temptations, that

'

his grace

IN THE SANCTIFICATION OF BELIEVERS.
was
all

31

sufficient for

him

;'

2 Cor.

xii. 9.

or there

is

a power in

that are sanctified,

obedience unto
ritual life

whereby they are able to yield all holy God. They are alive unto God, alive to

righteousness and holiness.
;

They have
there
is is

a principle of spi-

and where there

is life,

and

for its end.

Whence

there

power in its kind not in our sanctification

only a principle or inherent habit of grace bestowed on us,

whereby we
differ

really and habitually, as to state and condition, from all unregenerate persons whatever, but there belongs moreover thereunto, an active power, or an ability for and unto spiritual holy obedience, which none are partakers of but those who are so sanctified. And unto this power

there is a respect in all the commands or precepts of obediThe commands of ence, that belong to the new covenant. each covenant respect the power given in and by it. What-

ever

God required or doth require of any, by virtue of the old covenant or the precepts thereof, it was on the account

and proportionate unto, the strength given under and by And that we have lost that strength by the entrance of sin, exempts us not from the authority of the command and thence it is that we are righteously obliged to do, what we have no power to perform. So also the command of God under the new covenant, as to all that obedience which he requireth of us, respects that power which is given and communicated unto us thereby. And this is that power which belongs unto the new creature, the habit and principle of grace and holiness, which as we have proved, is wrought by the Holy Ghost in all believers.
of,

that covenant.

;

2.

We may,

therefore, inquire into the nature of this spi-

what it is, and wherein it doth consist. Now this cannot be clearly understood without a due consideration of that impotency unto all spiritual good which is in us by nature, which it cures and takes away. This we have before at When we large declared, and thither the reader is referred. know what it is to be without power or strength in spiritual things, we may thence learn what it is to have them to this
ritual power,
:

purpose we may consider, that there are three things or faculties in our souls, which are the subject of all power or impotency in spiritual things namely, our understandings,wills, and affections. That our spiritual impotency ariseth from their depravation hath been proved before and what power
; ;

32
we have

THE POSITIVE WORK OF THE SPIRIT
for holy spiritual obedience,
it

must consist

in

some

faculespecial ability communicated distinctly unto all these ties. And our inquiry therefore is, what is this power in the

mind, what in the will, and what in the affections. (1.) This poller in the mind consists in a spiritual
ability to

men
14.

discern spiritual things in in the state of nature are utterly
Spirit, in the first

And, light and a spiritual manner, which
devoid
of; 1 Cor.
ii.

13,

The Holy

communication of the printo

ciple of spiritual life
*

and holiness, shines into our hearts,

give us the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ;' 2 Cor. iv. 6. yea, this strengthening of the mind by saving illumination, is the most eminent act of our

Without this there is a veil, with fear and sanctification. bondage upon us, that we cannot see into spiritual things. But where the Spirit of God is, where he comes with his with sanctifying grace, there is liberty and thereby we all
*
;

open face beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord, are changed into the same image from glory to glory;' 2 Cor. iii. 18. See Eph. i. 17, 18. Wherefore, all sanctified believers have an ability and power in the renewed mind and understanding, to see, know, discern, and receive, spiritual things, the mysteries of the gospel, the mind of Christ, in a due and spiritual manner. it is true, they have not all of them this power and ability in the same degree; but every one of them hath a sufficiency of it, so as to discern what concerns themselves and their duties necessarily. Some of them seem indeed to be in and in comparison of others very low very knowledge, For there are different degrees in these things ignorant. And 7. some of them are iv. Eph. kept in that condition by their own negligence and sloth. They do not use as they ought, nor improve those means of growing in grace and in the knowledge of Jesus Christ, which God prescribes unto them; as Heb. vi. 14 16. But every one who is truly sanctified, and who thereby hath received the least
;

degree of saving grace, hath light enough to understand the When spiritual things of the gospel in a spiritual manner.
the mysteries of the gospel are preached unto believers, some of them may be so declared as that those of meaner
capacities and abilities may not be able to comprehend aright the doctrine of them, which yet is necessary to be so

IN THE SANCTIFICATION OF BELIEVERS.

33

proposed for the edification of those who are more grown knowledge. Nevertheless, there is not any the meanest of them, but hath a spiritual insight into the things themin

selves intended, so far as they are necessary unto their faith

and obedience

in the condition

wherein they are.

This the

Scripture gives such abundant testimony unto, as to render ' it unquestionable. For we have received the Spirit of God,
the things that are freely given us of what we have received, we know or disBy cern spiritual things ; 1 Cor. ii. 12. So we 'know the mind of Christ;' ver. 15. This is the substance of that double testimony ; 1 John ii. 20. 27. This abiding unction is no that

we may know

God.'

virtue of

and by
things
is
;

other but that habitual inherent grace which we plead for, it, as it is a holy light in our mind, we know all
true

;

the understanding that is given us to know him that 1 John v. 20. Only it is their duty continually to

endeavour the improvement and enlargement of the light they have, in the daily exercise of the spiritual power they have received, and in the use of means Heb. v. ult.
;

This poiver in the will consists in its libe7'ti/, freedom, and ability, to consent unto, choose, and embrace spiritual Believers have free-will unto that which is spirithings.
(2.)

For they are freed from that bondage and sin which they were under in the state of naunto slavery whatever some dispute concerning the nature of freeture will, that it consists in an indifferency unto good or evil,
tually good.
:

one thing or another, with a power of applying itself unto its operations, whatever their objects be, as the Scripture knoweth nothing of it, so it is that which we cannot have, and i^ we could, it would be no advantage at all unto Have it indeed us, yea we had much better be without it. we cannot, for a supposition of it includes a rejection of all our dependance on God, making all the springs of our actions to be absolutely and formally in ourselves. Neither,
all

considering the prejudices, temptations, and corruptions, that we are possessed and exercised with.'would such a flexibe of any use or advantage unto us, but would bility of will rather certainly give us up to the power of sin and Satan.
All that the Scripture knows about free-will, is, that, in the state of nature, antecedent unto the converting sanctifying work of the Spirit, all men whatever are in bondage unto

VOL.

III.

D

34
sin,

THE POSITIVE WORK OF THE SPIRIT
*

and that in all the faculties of their souls. They are sold under sin, are not subject unto the law of God, nor can be ;' can neither think, nor will, nor do, nor desire,
nor love any thing that is spiritually good, according to the mind of God. But as unto what is evil, perverse, unclean,
that they are free and open unto, ready for, prone, and inOn the other side, in clined, and every way able to do.

those

renewed by the Holy Ghost and sanctified, it acknowledgeth and teacheth a freedom of will, not in an inand evil, but in a power differency and flexibility unto good and ability to like, love, choose, and cleave unto God and his will in all things. The will is now freed from its bondage unto sin, and being enlarged by light and love, willeth and

who

are

chooseth freely the things of God, having received spiritual

power and

ability so to do.

It is the truth, that is, faith in

the gospel, the doctrine of the truth, which is the means of ' this freedom. The truth that makes you free ;' John viii. 32.

And

it is

the

Son of God by
'

his Spirit

who

is

the principal

For if the Son make us free, then are we free indeed ;' ver. 36. and otherwise we are not, whatever we pretend. And this freedom unto spiritual good we have for if we have, theii not of ourselves in the state of nature are we free indeed, and there would be no need that the Son
efficient

cause of

it.

;

should make us

free.

The

difference, therefore,
:

about

free-will, is

reduced unto

these heads

there be a power in man, indifferently to determine himself, his choice and all his actings, to this or that, good or evil, one thing or another, indepen[1.]

Whether

dently on the will, power, and providence of God, and his disposal of all future events. This indeed we deny, as that which is inconsistent with the prescience, authority, de-

and dominion of God and as that which would prove [2.] Whecertainly ruinous and destructive to ourselves. ther there be in men unregenerate, not renewed by the Holy Ghost, a freedom, power, and ability, unto that which is
crees,
;

mind and

spiritually good, or to believe and obey according to the will of God. This also we deny, as that which is contrary to innumerable testimonies of Scripture, and ab-

[3.]

solutely destructive of the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ. Whether the freedom of will that is in believers, do consist in an indifferency and freedom from any determina-

IN

THE SANCTIFICATION OF BELIEVERS.

35

with a powei* equally ready for good or evil, according as the will shall determine itself; or whether it consist in a gracious freedom and ability to choose, will, and do that which is spiritually good, in opposition to the bondage and slavery unto sin, wherein we were before detained. This last is that liberty and power of the will which we as.tion only,

with the Scripture in persons that are sanctified. And a liberty this is every way consistent with all the operations of God, as the sovereign first cause of all things every way compliant with, and an effect of, the special grace of God,
sert
;

and the operations of the Holy Ghost

;

a liberty whereby

our obedience and salvation are secured, in answer to the promises of the covenant. And who, that understands him-

would change this real, useful, gracious free-will, given by Jesus Christ the Son of God, when he makes us free
self,
;

and an

effect of

God's writing his law in our hearts, to

cause us to walk in his statutes, that property of the new heart whereby it is able to consent unto, choose, and embrace freely, the things of God, for that fictitious imaginary freedom yea, for if it were real, of an indifferency unto all
;

and an equal power unto every thing, whether it be yood or evil. I say then, that by the habit of grace and
things,

by the Spirit of sanctification, the freed, enlarged, and enabled to answer the commands Df God for obedience, according to the tenor of the new coThis is that freedom, this is that power of the will, i^enant.
loliness infused into us
tvill is

which the Scripture reveals and regards, and which by all the promises and precepts of it we are obliged to use and exercise, and no other. (3). The affections, which naturally are the principal seri^ants and instruments of sin, are hereby engaged unto God; Deut. XXX. 6. And from what hath been thus far discoursed, :he sense of our former assertion is evident, as also the nature

The Holy Ghost,

md

of the principle of holiness insisted on. in our sanctification, doth work, effect, create in us,a new, holy, spiritual, vital principle of grace, of our souls, according as their esmanner of a perma-

L-esiding in all the faculties

pecial nature is capable thereof, after the

lent and prevalent habit, which he cherisheth, preserveth, in;reaseth,and strengtheneth continually, by effectual supplies
of grace

from Jesus Christ, disposing, inclining, and enabling D 2

I

36

THE POSITIVE WORK OF THE SPIRIT
all

the whole soul unto

whereby we

ways, acts, and duties of holiness, opposing, resisting, and finally is opposite and contrary thereunto. whatever conquering, This belongs essentially unto evangelical holiness, yea, herein doth the nature of it formally and radically consist. This
live to

God

;

that from whence believers are denominated holy, and without which none are so, or can be so called. Secondly, The properties of this power are readiness and
is

facility.

Wherever

it is,

it

renders the soul ready unto

all

duties of holy obedience, and renders all duties of holy obedience easy unto the soul.
1. It gives readiness, by removing and taking away all those encumbrances, which the mind is apt to be clogged with and hindered by, from sin, the world, spiritual sloth, and un-

belief.
;

This is that which we are exhorted unto in a way of Heb. xii. 1. Luke xii. 35. 1 Pet. i. 13. iv. 1. duty Eph, vi. 14. Herein is the Spirit ready, though the flesh be weak ; Mark xiv. 35. And those encumbrances which g-ive an unreadiness unto God, may be considered two ways. (1.) As they are in thenfnilpotver andefficaci/, in persons unregenerate; whence they are unto every good work reprobate; Tit. i. 13.

Hence proceed

all

those prevalent tergiversations against a
'

compliance with the will of God, and their own convictions, which bear sway in such persons. Yet a little slumber, a lit'tle sleep, a little folding of the hands to sleep;' Prov. vi, 10. By these do men so often put off the calls of God, and perniciously procrastinate from time to time a full compliance with their convictions. And whatever particular duties such persons do perform, yet are their hearts and minds never prepared or ready for them but the encumbrances mentioned, do influence them into spiritual disorders in all that they do. (2.) These principles of sloth and unreadiness, do
;

minds of believers themselves unto great indispositions unto spiritual duties so the spouse states her case Cant. v. 2, 3. By reason of her circumstances in the world, she had an unreadiness for that converse and communion with Christ, which she was called unto. And it is so not unfrequently with the best of men in this
oft-times /)fl;f/aZ/j/ influence the
;
;

A spiritual unreadiness unto holy duties, arising from the power of sloth or the occasions of life, is no small Both these are removed by part of their sin and trouble.
world.

IN THE SANCTIFICATION OF BELIEVERS.

37

,

this spiritual power of the principle of life and holiness in The total prevailing power of them, such as is in believers.

persons unregenerate,

is

broken by the

first

infusion of

it

into the soul, wherein it gives an habitual fitness ration of heart unto all duties of obedience unto

and prepaGod. And

by various degrees
and

it

freeth believers from the remainders

of the encumbrances, which they have yet to conflict with ; this it doth three ways. As, [1.] it weakeneth and taketh off the bent of the soul from earthly things, so as they shall not possess the mind as formerly ; Col. iii. 2. How it doth
this

was declared before, and when this is done the mind is unto its greatly eased of its burden, and some way ready
duty.

into the beauty, the excel[2.] It gives an insight all duties of obedience. This and of and holiness, glory lency, are under the they see nothing of who being unsanctified, darkness. They can see no beauty natural their of power in holiness, no form nor comeliness why it should be desired ;

and it is no wonder if they are imfree to the duties of it, which they are but as it were compelled unto. But the spiritual light wherewith this principle of grace is accompanied, discovers an excellency in holiness and the duties of it, and in the communion with God which we have thereby, so as mind unto them, and prepare it for greatly to incline the them. [3.] It causeth the affections to cleave and adhere How do I love thy law,' saith unto them with delight. is in thy statutes, they are sweeter unto David delight
' ;

'my

me

Where these three things concur, freed from the powerful influences of carnal lusts and love of this world ; where the beauty and excellency of holiness, and the duties of obedience, lie clear in the eyes
than the honey-comb.'
that the

mind

is

of the soul
things as

;

and where the affections cleave unto

spiritual

commanded, then will be ence which we inquire after.

that readiness in obedi-

2. It gives facility or easiness in the

performance of

all

Whatever men do from a habit, they duties of obedience. do with some kind of easiness. That is easy to them which hard and difficult in itthey are accustomed unto, though And what is done from nature, is done with facility. self.
of grace, as we have shewed, is a new naan infused habit with respect unto the life of God, or all I duties of holy obedience. grant, there will be opposition

And the principle

ture,

38

THE POSITIVE WORK OF THE

SPilllT

unto them even in the mind and heart itself, from sin, and Satan, and temptations of all sorts, yea, and they may sometimes arise so high, as either to defeat our purposes and intentions unto duties, or to clog us in them, to take off our
is in

But still it chariot-wheels, and to make us drive heavily. the nature of the principle of holiness to make the whole

course of obedience and all the duties of it easy unto us, and to give us a facility in their performance. For, (1.) it introduceth a suitableness between our minds and the duties we are to perform. By it is the law written in our hearts that is, there is an answerableness in them unto all that the law of God requires. In the state of nature, the great things of the law
;

of God are a strange thing unto us Hos. viii. 12. there is an enmity in our minds against them Rom. viii. 7. There But this is is no suitableness between our minds and them. taken away by the principle of grace. Thereby do the mind and duty answer one another, as the eye and a lightsome body. Hence the commands of Christ are not grievous unto them in whom it is 1 John v. 2. They do not appear to
; ; ;

contain any thing uncouth, unreasonable, burdensome, or any way unsuited to that new nature whereby the soul is influenced and acted. Hence 'all the ways of wisdom are' unto believers, as they are in themselves, ' pleasantness, and all her paths are peace;' Prov. iii. 17. The great notion of some in these days, is, about the suitAnd to make good ableness of Christian religion unto reason. their assertion in the principal mysteries of it, because reatheir reason.

son will not come to them, they bring them by violence unto But it is with respect unto this renewed principle, that there
is

a suitableness in any of the things of

God

unto our minds and aiFections. (2.) It keeps up the heart or whole person unto di frequency of all holy acts and duties. And frequency gives facility in every kind. It puts the

and love, or renewed and meditations. It is a spring that is conholy thoughts in on the them, tinually bubbhng up frequent repetition of the daily duties of prayer, reading, holy discourse as on closing with all opportunities and occasions of mercy, benignity, charity, and bounty amongst men. Hereby is the heart so accustomed unto the yoke of the Lord, and made so conversant in his ways, that it is natural and easy to it to.
soul

upon

reiterated actings of faith

;

the more difficulty we shall find in the performance of them. and . against the inroads of their spiritual adversaries. no more. and as they are from without. then is their condition to be beBut if themselves are sensible and convinced. they think that the principle of grace and holiness. to keep themselves from the insinuations of the world. the new creature. perhaps. which the Lord Christ careth for. and unwillingness to bear the i/oke of Christ. (3. And when is by the supplies of his Spirit unto the strength of Christ is engaged. will say. and Some. or that they were never made partakers of it. They meet with secret unwillingnesses in themselves. that the more intermissions of duties of any sort we fall under. only they are kept up unto it by their convictions which they cannot cast off. I answer. 39 bear them. and in the duties of it. duly consider. they hate and abhor. and that principle whereby they are they complain of is . they find not this facility or easiness in the course of obedience. 1.IX THE SANCTIFICATION OF BELIEVERS. and not to faint . as far as they are within arise they them. It is the divine nature.) It engageth the assistance of Christ and his Spirit. his then and there his yoke easy. and they are ready to be beset round about every moment. doth not give the facility and easiness mentioned. Wherefore. are such as they look on as enethen what mies unto them. Christ continually its For cause doth the Lord come in assistance. are almost ready to give over. and do watch against them . that are so well-pleasing to God: many weights and burdens are upon them in their course many difficulties press them. yea. that wailed. and up unto those sacrifices of charity and bounty. pediments do arise from what they know themselves to be opposite unto them. whence they are apt to be faint and weary. all that believe have experience of. and burden light. And it will be found by experience. It is hard to them to pray continually. whence these obstructions and difficulties they complain of do arise : if they are from the inward inclinations of their souls. which. and long to be freed from. but what. that great oppositions on other accounts. Let these persons examine themselves. from principles. to stand in their watch night and day. in one degree or And if their imother. in and by its actings in all duties of obedience doth its life consist: therein also this is it strengthened and improved. and to be engaged in them.

gives constancy its guidance and inclination in the former. these things we may inquire after the habit or princiof holiness in our own minds. or its duties easy. hearing. The in all duties of grace and holiness. touching upon it sometimes. prayer. then. now complain : constant in all acts of obedience. always beginning. attain who is always beginning As this is the way in all tual. patience. or at facility in ledge of the truth so. to give facility in all the duties of 2. and frequently is so. if men then easiness and and assiduity. in the practice of holy obedience. if men are. disquiet. and never to come to the know- any readiness. meekness. any art or science. Let not those who can omit proper seasons of meditation. Let us take heed. its him never think to paths pleasant. that set aside extraordinary occasions. as make them both easy and pleasant. and yet our assertion not impeached. notwithstanding this objection. fearing. and the like. none of them will ever be and due easy unto us. come unto of. falsely pretendeth thereunto. and sinful neglects. it. and distract the mind. this principle of grace and holiness doth give that suitableness to the mind unto all duties of obedience. We only say. that we be not deceived ple that As.40 THE POSITIVE WORK OF THE SPIRIT acted. Let inquiry be made. sorts of things natural and spirito be always learning. to engage into a constant. whether they have been constant and assiduous in the performance of all those duties. 3. at their pleaon the least occasions. as By . or diversions. but in the proper way and order. excuses. . that love unto them. This maybe. delight. by any thing 1. Let sure. not with comply If w^e are not it is in vain for them to expect the latter. which weary. the duties of it. equal. charity. ever think or hope to have the ways of obedience smooth. they will be always striving. another intermitting. assiduous discharge of them. it may be in the nature of the principle of holiness. it. as it were. that constancy in them. The difficulty and burdensomeness complained may proceed from the interposition o^ perplexing temptations. but never any readiness or facility in them. that we deceive not ourselves. which they that they find so much difficulty in. gives facility principle It first of obedience. one while performing. moderation in all things. or being unwilling.

not to insist on what will absolutely frustrate all the designs of such persons. doing sundry things. Hos. promise and engage unto a change of their course. living under the means of light ness. which they are regardless of. though it 41 unto gospel holiness. should so vainly and wofully delude their own That which they aim at and intend. and grace. with whose haunt they are much perplexed. it may be. All that they do in this kind is utterly lost. But it is to be lamented. they project and design. would suffice with the effects which such purposes will produce. It hath neither the root of it. And this produceth in them that kind of goodness. Especially will they do so when the hand of God is upon them in afflictions and dangers Psal. do usually produce this frame. Ixxviii. and amendment of their lives. that such multitudes of rational creatures.IN THE SANCTIFICATJON OF BELIEVERS. and the like. how unspeakably this comes short of that evangelical holi- which is a fruit of the sanctification of the Spirit. troubles. For they will thereon abstain from their old sins. as the earth is beneath the heavens. Certainly there need not much pains to convince any man. yea. their want of faith in Christ. in the pursuit of those designs and purposes. sense of great guilt. but at one time or another. souls. And although it is most remote from any pretence unto evangelical obeit is dience. which God says. is as far beneath that holiness which God requireth of them. nor any fruit that doth so much as resemble it. vi. that we have occasionally good purposes of leaving sin and living unto God. Afflictions. and whose neglect doth most reflect upon them. It is rare to find any that are so stubbornly profligate. all that they project and design. to have that in them whereby they may be accepted with God. 4. Now. and betake themselves unto the performance of those duties from whence they expect most relief unto their consciences. is. . fear of death. yet I could not but give a caution against it. then when something urgeth upon us more than ordinary. — ' cloud or the early dew . because that whereby the generality of men in the world do de- lude themselves into eternal ruin. namely.' things that make a fair appearance of something. and an interest in his righteousness thereby. sicknesses. but immediately vanish away. and which they think hereby to obtain. it will never be either But this a righteousness unto them or a holiness in them. is like the morning . 34 37.

that there no specifcal difference be- . These things go a great way in the world. but only a readiness for that duty which their exercise doth Wherefore. peculiarly consist in. true holiness as before explained. nor Let them be called to an account by the nature and properties of that habit and principle of grace which is in all do.' And they put men on such duties as have a great show and appearance of holiness. and not the will or affections. and maintain spiritual communication among them with whom they do conAnd as circumstances may be ordered. it is Least of all c^n.42 deceit THE POSITIVE WORK OF THE SPIRIT God only by Ijis grace can away from the minds of men. so as to transform it into the change image of God. in souls that are really gracious. For. and we have not seldom seen discoveries made thereof. not to be imposed on by is frequently rebuked it . maintain any pretence hereunto. Gifts are from the Holy Ghost in an especial manner and therefore greatly to be esteemed. they put verse. performed in the strength of them alone. and then are they apt to deceive the mind with a pretence of being and doing what they are not. nor are the duties . so they do not renew nor the mind itself. they are not holiness. . duties of evangelical obedience accepted of God in them by whom they are performed and they may be where there is nothing of holiness at all. when We have had alone. and many deceive both themselves and others by them. They are also frequently useful in and unto the church for ' the manifestation of the Spirit is given unto men to profit withal. may men pray and preach. but subservient unto it. and it will quickly appear how short they come thereof. is attempts to prove. And we may learn hence. By the help of them alone. remove and take 2. or a course of moral duties. gifts though never so useful. sundry persons on a frequent performance of these duties . they answer no one property of true holiness. is the mind only. and so keep them up to an eminency in profession. and exceeding promoters of it. But yet when all is done. as their subject where they have their residence. .morality. They are not indeed only consistent with holiness. Neither acts do they give the soul a general inclination unto all and duties of obedience. But they may be alone without grace. 'any farther but as they are influenced or restrained by light. with di ession thereplausible prof on.

and grace is morality. and. is specifically distinct from all other habits of the mind whatever. of what sort soever so that it it be. therefore. two things are considered. and to be a moral man. and nothing else. or gracious principle of holiness. without any consideration of these petty distinctions of common and saving grace. whereof any persons not really sanctified may be made is partakers. but as the will is influenced by them. tvveen 43 common and saving grace. moreover. The end for which it is done. but that they are both of the same kind. These habits do incline. that morality is To be a gragrace. of good or evil. I shall call over the most important of them. its iJut whereas there are also other renature and properties. and enable the will to act according to their nature. I shall proceed to the Fourth thing proposed and this is. connate or acquired. whether there be any difference between evangelical holiness and philosophical morality.IN THE SANCTIFICATION OF BELIEVERS. farther to prove. truth of this assertion The spects giving farther confirmation of the same truth. that every act of the will. therefore.) The duty itself we do and. First. qualifies the sub- ject wherein may be denominated from it. this habit. And in all the acts of our wills. or As Aristotle says. whether intellectual or moral. and his actions good.) all The end for our obedience (1.' Now all moral habits are seated in Intellectual habits are not immediately affective the will. differing only in degrees. Two things. do add. 1. is all one with them. The act itself. cious holy man according to the gospel. and so all external works which proceed from them. are to be con- virtue of sidered in (2. . As. And as yet it is not declared. things are respected by the habit itself. be for a certain end. that this . Wherefore. diately yet by necessary and natural. and needed no more contending about. though not imme- its acts. or the work done . secondly. A habit. 'Virtue to be of the same nature with it. is a habit which maketh him that hath it good or virtuous. as though ground were already gained. doth : . every work of a man. If any habit. which we do it. and make the actions proceeding from it to be suited unto it. after some few things have been premised. And both these it is. But some. dispose. indeed sufficiently evident from the description we have given of this spiritual habit. as also from all that common grace and the effects of it. It is.

) The next . 4. and we shall find. is farther manifested. . may incline and dispose the will unto actions and works.* God chooseth us from eternity. and But the ultimate praise. But the difference asserted. man may give alms to the poor. which constitutes its nature of another kind. and. with a design and purpose to make us so. particular or universal. that we should be holy and unblamable before him in love.) The ultimate. it is Whereas. : is electing 'He hath chosen us in Christ before the foundation of the world. to aim at. and general end of this action may be self. habits. First.44 THE POSITIVE WORK OF THE SPIRIT not incline and dispose the will unto the proper end of duty. And this is applicable unto all moral habits and duties whatever. is essential unto of every act of gospel obedience. that for the substance of them are duties. or i?. and are capable of having particular ends that are good. but a want of respect unto the general end allows them not to be any part of gospel obedience. end so far the work or duty itself is good is good. (2. compensation for sin committed. as well as unto the duty itself. the end that gives : all our duties their it special nature. that such moral habits do so incline the will unto duties of obedience with respect unto this end. or the dictates of enlightened reason. which some seem 2. and not the glory of God in Christ which vitiates the whole. which is the glory of God it. that however they may incline and dispose the will unto such acts of virtue as materially are duties of obedience. then is there no need of the grace of Jesus Christ or the gospel. acquired by endeavours answerable unto our light and convictions. . this is twofold (1. the especiol fountain and spring of holiness. reputation. his next particular end : may be to relieve and cherish them this also. that we should be holy that Resets some is. i. Eph. Now moral . For the end in Jesus Christ. to enable men to live unto God. Let us then take all the habits of moral virtue. yet they do it not with respect unto this end. it is not of that kind from whence true gospel obedience doth proceed. If it be said. than any com- From mon love. As a And these may be different in the same action. merit. grace or morality can pretend unto and this or God's purpose of election. with resolutions and perseverance. according to the tenor of the covenant of grace.

prescribes as the means of it. but those that are predestinate . it is not only reckoned as an effect and consequent of our predestination. by the sanctifying principle of holiness communicated unto us. of the Spirit of sanctification. which is and must be the ultimate end of all his purposes and decrees. as was said. in subordination unto his own glory . 45 he men will apart in his eternal purpose. the exercise and increase of those graces which are its proper effects . and makes it. of another kind than any effect of common grace whatever. This gives it its especial nature. 2 Pet. if the power and principle of it in them be not a fruit of electing love. treat. there may be in their endeavours may given of God for this certain end. which God works in men by his Spirit. or of all the free acts of his wisdom and love. i. whereby we shall be brought ui:to this salvation so designed in his eternal purpose. 'chooseth us unto salvation throus^h the sanctification of the Spirit. but is so conjoined thereunto. of bringing the elect unto salvation. And. and in our own minds. an especial work of God. Rom. For he That is holiness. differs essentially that this holiness whereof we from other habits of the mind. because therein and thereby we are sanctified. Salvation is the end that God aimeth at in his choosing of us. The means which he hath ordained.IN THE SANCTIFICATION OF BELIEVERS. and nothing else is so. as those unto whom communicate holiness. it belongeth not unto Wherefore. to use all diligence whereby we may make our calling and election sure. . are chosen. as to declare.' that is. that we may attain the salvation whereunto this holiness. that none others are partakers of it. And all this consideration is of itself sufficient to evince. because he hath chosen them. Whatever any men. giving us in we ' charge. which God hath designed as the especial way and means on their part. therefore. of virtue and piety. And his choosing of them is the cause and reason why he doth so sanctify them by his Spirit. ii. in ways of honesty and duty towards God and men. unto our souls. is the effect of that sanctification of the Spirit. It is. the apostle Peter.' Gospel holiness. as having an especial nature of its own. 13. or whatever be. is the 'sanctification of the Spirit. where our sanctification is comprised underour vocation. therefore. viii.' 2 Thess. 30. and actions proceeding from them. in the pursuit of an especial and eternal purpose.

fore. and the duties that proceed from them. is a soul-ruining security. We may discern it. xi. if we endeavour not to satisfy ourselves. If any one shall inquire. that our graces and obedience are not genuine. ix. they do constantly increase and thrive. to make his purpose of election infallibly effectual that so the * purpose of God. is the best evidence hereof. are fruits and effects of election. seeing such only are genuine and durable. have continual supplies from it. For such a decay is a very suflEicient reason why he should call the truth of all his grace showers of rain or the are dried up. which . And according to election. How we may know whether the graces of holiness. the of aside seasons prevalent temptations and desetting Waters that proceed sertions. fessions of faith and obedience utterly to fail as we do. it is a 'well of water springing up into everlasting life . no man can secure his spiritual comforts one moment under a sensible decay of grace. 1.46 5 THE POSITIVE V. This in ordinary cases. so that if they meet with no violent obstructions (as they may do sometimes for a seaAnd. 11. increase in their progress. that they are real effects of electing love. 7. because of be done three ways 1. might the election. or that which is worse. Where the Spirit of sanctification is. from a living fountain. ^Y their growth : the continual supplies which they have from their spring. and hath nothing in it of spiritual peace. and of the true heavenly race. Rom. thereson). And the obedience of it was not the . 2. 5. And it is an evidence of much spiritual sloth in us. fruit of that Spirit of sanctification. from do continually decay until they come from this eternal spring. namely. or those elected. The graces that into question. might is obtain the grace and glory designed for them .' Tit. i.'OllK OF THE SPIRIT And the reason why we see so many glorious pro7. out of a sense of that . I answer. The quiet- ness and satisfaction of professors under a decay of grace. 10. as given in pursuit of the purpose of election. it may diud iticrease.' stand Rom. when we diligent actings and exercise are much stirred up unto of grace.' John iv. 14. like. is because the faith so professed was not 'the faith of the elect of — God . which we hope are in us. which God gives to man. when those which have only occasional beginnings.

as thereby to draw us after him Those principles of duties in us in faith and obedience. And hereby we do not only cast off least all the moral virtues of the Heathens from having the concernment herein. that hath not an especial relation unto We the Lord Christ. That is. virtue. which makes us Of this sort. cause of this holiness is Secondly. or holiness. It is the nature of grace the heart and mind with a sense of the love that is therein : so the apostle says expressly. But I return.' because 'he hath loved us with everlasting love . he gives us such a sense of his everlasting love. when we do not endeavour their supplies by faith on that spring of divine love from whence they proceed. Rom. according to the tenor covenant. electing love 47 from whence all grace doth proceed. which them all on work. will carry along with it a holy quickening sense of it. those graces of holiness and predestinated to be have the most evident and legible characters of electing love upon them. awe. let men call it what they please. to forgive enemies. and his mediation. which are most effectual in working us unto a conformity to him. from a sense of the love of God. 2 5. is promised unto us on his account. aclasting and communitually impetrated for us by his intercession. Christ. 3. or godliness. Evangelical holiness is of the everpurchased for us by him. That grace which proceeds from especial love. which indeed are despised by the most. and the jealous observances of an awakened conscience. hope. to love and do good unto all. Seeing we are chosen in like unto him. the of in any thing. And we do what we can to famish and starve our graces. contempt of the world. and duly regarded but by few. readiness to pass by wrongs.' Jer. lity. xxxi. v. That grace is certainly from an eternal spring. cated unto us by his Spirit.IN THE SANCTIFICATION OF BELIEVERS. self-denial. that one grace exciteth and stirreth that is the fruit of election. humilike unto Jesus Christ. which are excited only by fear. So God is said to — 'draw us with loving-kindness. who are not really of persons professing . and thereby be excited unto its due exercise. greatly to affect sets up another. 3. but all the principles and duties and Christianity. The especial procuring this matter concerned in are not mediation Christ. are meekness. will scarce at any time evince this heavenly extract unto a spiritual understanding.

the heads whereof may be called over. and distinguisheth it essentially from all common grace. 'prayed for thee. Because he prevails for the actual sanctification of our natures. or moral virtues. He is made unto us of God sandijication. 14. And we may do so. John xvii. Eph.' gun Sanctify is it kept alive and preserved in us. is the blessed spring of our holiness. it is our duty constantly to improve the intercession of Christ for the increase of it. i. communicated unto us. 17. from our sins by his blood. His prayer. preserved in us. it may be animated much with zeal. for us. thy word is truth. And this he on several accounts. Tit.l4.' saith he to not so. we have taught before. And this we may do by especial applications to him for that purpose. IVothing belongs to this holiness.' Luke xvii. but what is so in answer unto.' and through his intercession are we saved to the uttermost. bestowed on us. who rest in a multitude of duties. is peculiar unto gospel holiness. purged. for the increase of holiness.' * actually implanted into Christ. 26. and compliance with the in' should not fail. v. and cleansed. with respect unto his sacerdotal office. Peter. for the inBut the nature of this application unto Christ. 3. And they do but deceive themselves. All that purification of our and consciences are not thus purged by the blood of Christ. 30. ix. belongs not thereunto. 1.48 THE POSITIVE WORK OF THE SPIRIT For he . 2. to ' increase their faith . that thy faith tercession of Christ. washed. in the commimication of holiness unto us by his intercession. is holiness be- by thy truth. by virtue of his We are not to pray intercession. So the apostles prayed him.ii. . it is a peculiar fruit of Christ's intercession what what men may be made partakers of upon any more : And if we really general account. because we are purified. * them. in us ' . and set off with a profession of the most rigid mortification. design holiness. or intend to be holy. in the oblation of it. as hath been at large declared. whose hearts Heb. crease of our holiness. is made unto us sanctification is it is. who of God 1 Cor. Sanctify them through thy truth.' Thence 'I have. and the application of it unto our souls. is duly to be considered. 1 Johni. 27. concerning the minds and consciences by the blood of Christ. 7. but what in the actual communication of is From his prayer saith he.' There is not any thing of this grace wrought in us.

It is the rule partly right and partly wrong. . the dictates of nature and the law written. is so. The written law requireth of us E all duties of VOL. and exact the performance of. or the ingenerating of it in us. from them. upon his intercession with God for us. with the virtue of his oblation or sacrifice. but what we do. that he would intercede for us. 3. My meaning is. the gospel. with the guidances of an awakened conscience. so he intercedes not orally in heaven at sanctified. we apply ourselves unto him under that consideration. namely. Neither are both these in conjunction. the doctrine of Christ. that it is the word and doctrine of Christ. under this consideration. formal reason of our holiness consists in conformity thereunto. in the preceptive part of it. that the word. but what the gospel requireth. requireth doth so and the . by virtue of his intercession. all.' The inbred dictates of the light and law of nature in their greatest purity. but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ. the instruments of working holiness in us. much less are these rules and maxims which men deduce. Nothing belongeth unto holiness materially. is so the rule of all our obedience and holiness. do direct unto. as that all which it and nothing else but what it requireth belongeth thereunto. He us.IN THE SANCTIFICATION OF BELIEVERS. Prijmciples of natural light. But it is the doctrine of the gospel which is the adequate rule and immediate instrument of it. which he taught the church as the great prophet of it. so. because the gospel requireth it. are not the rule or measure of this holiness. because God maketh use of it alone as an external means for the communicating of it unto us. III. because the rule and measure of holiness unto the instrument of working it in us. that we may be For as he needs not our minding for the discharge of his office. but not the adequate jule of that holiness whereunto we are restored by Christ. as he who. But whereas the Lord Christ gives out no supplies of grace unto us. And it is the instrument of it. but what he receiveth from the Father for that end. and nothing is so in us formally. Nor is the written law itself of original holiness. is his word and doctrine. hath all stores of grace to give us supplies from. 49 nnto him. and always doth so virtually by his appearance in the presence of God. 'The law was given by Moses. many material duties of obedience. of any such use.

Gal. doth unto face in water. connatural unto them. yet are they not so formally. For. godly sorrow. or their being deprived . to try whether it be genuine. : ' unto salvation. the most difficult of them. which is able to build us up. it renders commands themselves so suited unto us. 16. some duties. two ways. so as that our minds and the word should answer one another. Hence it is said to be the power of him. whereby we are begotten in Christ Jesus 1 Cor. 1 Pet. and God doth use these things variously for the preparing of our souls unto a right receiving of the gospel. and of the right kind or no. It It is that iv. And we may know whether it be so with us or no. with all that faith and love which is required in us towards For although these things may be contained in the law radically. or that whereby God puts forth the greatness of his power unto that purpose . But there are some graces. the 'word of his grace. iii.50 THE POSITIVE WORK OF THE SPIRIT original obedience. 17. being implanted in our minds and hearts. so useful. as proceeding from them. the rest and joy. which the law knows nothing of: such are the mortification of sin. i. And it is not used as the means to beget faith and holiness in us this is the effect of the gospel only. as face hearts. as it requires universal obedience unto God.' Rom. and the matter of them so desirable. belonging unto evangelical holiness. daily cleanssubing of our hearts and minds. 23 25. 15.)if it be so. And this is a proper touchstone for our holiness. Rom. yea. (l. is but that our conversation be such as becometh the gospel. and by the hearing whereof we receive the Spirit. and give us God an inheritance among them that are sanctified . none of the commands of the gospel will be grievous unto us. 17. not to mention the more God lime and spiritual acts of communion with by Christ. it is nothing but the seed of the gospel quickened in our and bearing fruit in our lives. 2. with pleasant thereby. And all that is required — . but easy and pleasant. which believers have in gospel duties.x. inclining unto them all. that obedience is made Hence is that satisfaction of mind. It is the delivery up of our souls into the mould of the doctrine of it. with that trouble and sorrow which ensues upon their neglect. If it be. 30. of us in the way of external obedience. omission. James i. A principle suited unto them all. i. is that by whose preaching faith cometh.' Acts xx.

) None of the strange unto us.' 1 Pet. until it come unto its proper measure. the precepts of the gospel. but every degree of light. as the great idea E 2 . dazzles and amazes. his the holiness end is he proposed in the purity of natures. as he is the exemplary cause of our holiness. He is so. as the eye doth every increase of light. viii. But all light from truth which tends to the filling up of that measure is pleasant. sublime. when the mind endeavours an excess as to its measure. is. because of their excellency.' Rom. scorned. But in the strictest course of duties that proceedeth from any other principle. on account of their spirituality. truths of the gospel will seem This makes up the evidence of a genuine it are The so prepared receives every truth. may be of him like him. labouring more and more to comprehend them. For want . or simplicity. ii. or at least some of them. which tends unto So is it. and mysterious truths. as those which are no less foolishness unto them.IN THE SANCTIFICATION OF BELIEVERS. the glory of his graces. And our design in the attaining of it. it are grievous to be obeyed. and natural to the sanctified mind. than the precepts of hereof. with the sanctified mind and spiritual truth there a measure of light issuing from spiritual truths. what is beyond this measure belongs to glory and the gazing after it will rather dazzle than enlighten us and such is the issue of overstrained speculations. beauty. when the commands of not grievous. in the most spiritual. unto his glory and honour . to be believed. (2. 9. naturally and pleasantly. are either esteemed grievous or despised. that are revealed in and by the word. rather than enlightens . nor the truths of it strange or uncouth. It sees wisdom. that our is it : minds are capable of. is connatural and pleasant to the eye. reproached. is. glory. that we may be conformed unto the image of his Son. principle of gospel holiness. 4. and then express or shew forth the virtues called us out of darkness into his marvel- ' who hath To this lous light. the innocency and usefulness of his conversation in the world. ' The design of God in working grace and holiness in us. that he may be the first-born among many brethren . of his person. first that we 29. 51 of opportunities for them. : we know how the truths of the gospel are by many despised. and usefulness. There is a measure of light which is mind suited unto our visive faculty what exceeds it. .

(1. but only . and what to avoid. the most perfect. he requiring of us. there is no other complete example of it. and almost unavoidably inBut when. absolute. were they absolutely our rule and example in itself. But in this our great exemplar. It is by all confessed. virtue.52 . And in the lives of the best of the saints. in a universal conformity unto him. for those examples of heroical virtue. yet do they come short of what we aim at. . seeing we are to be followers of none any farther than they were so of Jesus Christ. which selves unto. although they should have exceeded what we can attain unto. or stoical apathy. glorious pattern of all grace. j so far as therein they were conformable unto Christ. And the best of their graces. sists herein. — example of holiness that is given us in the person of Christ.THE POSITIVE WORK OF THE SPIRIT and exemplar. that from them we should learn both what to do. is an effectual means of ingenerating and increasing it in us.) He is not only in himself. which are boasted of among the Heathens. 6 at laro-e . This the apostle instructs us in 11. morally considered. is to be holy as God is holy. . their force and efficacy is increased. as would render them not only uncomely but deformed and monstrous. whether it be safe to conform unto them or no. holiness. so the proposal of his example unto us. things peculiarly designed and instituted of God be our to examples. x. as he is the image of the invisible God. obedience. For. And in all things we ought to conform ouras the nature of evangelical holiness con- namely. it were an easy matter to find such flaws and tumours in them. there is declared what we ought expressly to avoid. that examples are most effectual ways of instruction. unto this power which examcline it thereunto. and morally to instruct and affect our ples have naturally are minds. and if seasonably proposed do secretly solicit the mind unto imitation. as there was never the least show of variableness. and the j most perfect of tions their duties. to be chosen and preferred above all others. as well as what we ought to follow and in some things we are left at a loss. Now both these concur in the 1 Cor. and are therefore meet to be proposed unto which our imitation. have their spots and imperfecso that . but he As is only so . and wherein they were so neither in what they were or did. the highest of their attainments.

among others. and that it is instituted of God unto that purpose. Such an example was needful. so absolute and complete. of that return unto him from sin and apostacy. And who is it. undefiled. lst» . Neither could we have had an example that was perfect and complete in our own nature. all his duties. For. and separate from sinners. seeing their nature is quietness incapable of such things. did God send his own Son to take our nature on him. is to be found as mito holiness in Christ. therefore. (2. that he might set us an example in our own nature. This. and in him alone. [1. was. so his holy obedience as proposed unto us. It is evident. having a glorious representation of it before our eyes and this could be given us no otherwise but in our own nature. that we might never be at a loss about the will of God in his commands. are both found eminently in this of Christ. therefore. harmless. nor to propose any other pattern unto ourselves. and to converse in the world therein. of that renovation of his image in us. The angelical nature was not suited to set us an example of holiness and obedience. 'in him was light and no darkness at all'). in themselves.' yea. woidd not design the most absolute and perfect example. especially as to the exercise of such graces as we For what examprincipally stand in need of in this world.) he is appointed of God for this purpose. sin only excepted. that these two considerations of an instructive example.IN THE SANCTIFICATION OF BELIEVERS. of patience inples could angels set unto us in of afflictions. suiferings. of that holy obedience which he requireth of us. therefore. and therein to represent unto us the perfect idea of that holiness and obedience which he requireth of us. in one who was like unto us in all things. aiming at any excellency. But there is yet more in this matter: For. neither was there any guile found in him.] as God hath appointed the consideration of Christ as an especial ordinance unto the increase of holiness in us. all his actings of them. that it hath a moral aptitude to incite the mind unto imitation. ' but only in one who was holy. One end why God sent his Son to take our nature upon him. hath a peculiar efficacy unto that purpose beyond all other instituted examples. as that we ought to aim no higher. And.' To this end. from the perfection of holiness (*for he did no 53 sin. that. so were all his graces. .

' is the of the or the glory of unto us. as the great pattern and exemplar of holiness .] There is peculiarforce and efficacy by the way oi motive any in the example of Christ. Lord. from glory to That which is proglory. our beholding and looking on him in the way mentioned. But this we intend not. And the effect hereof is. Because. wherein he is evidently crucified before our eyes. 15. THE POSITIVE WORK OF THE SPIRIT are often called to behold Christ. and saved from the wrath to come. and receiving the atonement made thereby. For. This. 1. in what he was. . 2ndly. by God's appointment. therefore. 24.' 1 Pet. i. iii. and holiness.) Justification . and therein like unto him. or looking on him.' John iii. purity.' This was he on the cross. and be saved. unto me. V. so as that. Rom. * Look. that we are. even by the Spirit of the Lord.' chap. that is.54 we or 10. 1st.22. xlv. in his work. beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord. changed into . and set forth of God in the gospel. as our pattern and example. 18. promised that we shall do so : Isa. iii. are changed into the same image.' saith he. Zech.' posed 'glory all . and is by his Spirit made effectual. with open face. he is of God proposed unto us in on him by faith. and promises thereof. xii.' Gal. [2.' the veil of types and * We God in the face of Jesus Christ ' shadows being taken off and removed. (2dly.) Salvation. or made holy. the same image. and is still so in the preaching of the gospel. is an especial ordinance of God. is the him by faith unto the ends for which he is exhibited. 2 Cor. may through faith in him be justified from all our sins. iv. faith doth now clearly and distinctly view and consider Jesus Christ as he is represented unto us in the glass of the gospel that is. is a means of the increase and growth of * it in us. So our apostle declares. lifted up as 'the brazen ' serpent in the wilderness . proposed. through the operation of the Spirit of God. that we. God in himself the person of Christ. 6. or what he did. whatever is proposed unto us. that is not to be found in any other example on casion whatever. 11. and to look upon him . looking own body on the tree. or deliver' ance from sin and punishment. 14. as * bearing our sins in his the gospel. it is Now this consideration of beholding of Christ. the evidences of the presence of God in him and with him. This gloriously manifesting are we said to behold with open face . And these ends are two : (1st. to incline us unto the imitation of ochim.

delight to be talking of. which he did per19. because the virtue which they . of whose being in Christ he hath so great advantage. much to blame. and for no other end. 2ndly. ii. merely out of love unto us Heb. every thing which we are to imitate in Christ. and did what he did. And all the actings of grace in him. And certainly we are. 5 7. These things being in themselves truly honourable and excellent. and many do much admire. yea. whilst they have no thoughts of the grace that was in our Lord Jesus Christ. 1 John iii. all the duties of obedience will be performed. therefore. For who would not increaseth the efficacy of this example. And. that we do not more abound in the use of this means unto the end mentioned. . as the pattern and great example proposed unto us. And this but we form. Did we abide more constantly in is and the beholding or contemplation of the person of Christ. 55 he was it. being by the appointment of God proposed unto our imitation in the example of Jesus Christ. iii. That pure nature of his. 21. 15. — strive to obtain these things in himself. is other ways also beneficial unto us. 19. proceed all from his love unto us . ii. Rom. being only so. he took it upon him by an infinite condescension. is the Lord Christ made the cause of evangelical holiness in us. For we are in its place and way even saved thereby. 14. that into his image and likeness. to do as he did. nor do endeavour after conformity thereunto. which we ought to be labouring after a conformity unto. And the reason is. the virtuous sayings and actions of the Heathen. There have the advantage and benefit of it. 20. v. we should be more transformed But it is so fallen out. 3. Gal.IN THE SANCTIFICATION OF BELIEVEHS. all that glorious compliance with the will of God in his sufferings which he manifested. Phil. and did it. In this regard also. called are who Christians. of the glory and beauty of his holiness. is no grace nor duty of Christ. to be as he was. By his obedience we are made righteous . not for his own sake. and are ready to make them the object of their imitation. and which he will at length bring us unto. the most of us. the holiness and obedience which God requireth of us consisting in them. John xvii. but out of free and mere love unto us. Phil. merely out of love unto us. seeing he was what he was. ii. sanctification unto us. how must it needs influence and prevail on gracious souls to endeavour a conformity unto him therein.

is but one half of the duty of faith. and reconciliation for us. in considering him by faith to that end. but to decry other important mystedo place all Christianity in the imitation of Christ. as his righteousness is imputed unto us unto justification. namely. Unto these ends indeed is he firstly and principally proposed unto us in the gospel. the glory of his grace. that some. And as it is a cursed imagination. compassion to the souls of men. not out of love unto it. To believe in Christ for redemption. they regard not. than that it doth not render us comformable to Christ. until an image or idea of his perfect holiness is implanted in our minds. and labouring after conformity to him. Christ in the gospel is proposed unto us as our pattern and example of holiness. and ex- And we should always faith ercise themselves but in the one half of it. and we are made like unto him thereby. so to neglect his so being our example. Let none be guilty practically of what some are falsely charged withal as to doctrine. that whatever we seem to have of any thing that is good in us. peace with God. and to believe in him. as he made atonement for our sins. what he did. 4. how we ought to act on Christ with respect unto this end. condescensions to the weaknesses of all. And thence also it is. Wherefore. quietness in bearing reproaches. But there is no greater evidence.56 THE -POSITIVE WORK OF THE SPIRIT seek after and desire. self-denial. who. from all other natural or . It respects Christ only as he died and suffered for us. patience. with respect unto the Lord Christ. zeal for the glory of God. and not of that grace and holiness which was in Christ Jesus. is evil and pernicious. is of the same kind with that which was in the Heathen. That which principally differenceth evangelical holiness. contempt of the world. is no part of evangelical holiness. consider. how in all instances of duties and trials he carried himself. for sanctification. that this was the whole end of his life and death. is required of us. to exemplify and confirm the doctrine of holiness which he taught . do yet indeed in their practice despise those qualities and duties wherein he principally manifested His meekness. for justification. Let none divide in the work of faith. ries of the gospel thereby. let us be much in the contemplation of what he was. and with respect unto them are we exhorted to But this is not all that receive him.

it is evangelical it is either nothing. or somewhat of anograce . mainstrength and grace. Jesus Christ. and will issue. real supplies of spiritual union their of virtue by . and to return their answers unto God but to limit the mediatory work of Christ. On the stating and proof hereof. with the any other sense. 35. not directly by Christ. in. \vTp(i)TY)Q. and through. is preserved. wherein the spring or fountain of spiriI know myself to have the consent of the church of God in all ages. to declare the mind a as he was an internuntius. are constantly communicated unto them. ther nature and kind . 57 moral habits or duties. and God between middle person tion and nature of his office of mediator. a saviour or redeemer. And all that I have to prove herein. bestoweth on them or worketh in them. utterly to overthrow the and God called a mediator between people . because Moses is called . In like manner. messenger of God to them. For if that which men call morality be so derived from the Lord Christ by virtue of our union with him. and not immedior that we believe in God. that the Lord Jesus Christ is a head of influence. doth require.IN THE SANCTIFICATION OF BELIEVERS. This the very nothem. the prinand holiness in believers is derived and ciple o^ spiritual life with him. if it be not. with their confirmation. Acts vii. First. or praise with glory. is. unto or good thing. And I shall confine the proof of my assertion unto the ensuing positions. faith . any grace. that of a prophet. iox grace it is not. and to destroy the principal uses and effects of his mediation towards the church. out of Egypt mighty work of the deliverance of the people a Redeemer in Christ is Lord some will not allow. whereby their holiness tained and increased. tual life unto his church. the whole difference about grace and morality doth depend. nor holiness neither. and his interposiTo affirm tion therein between God and us. iii. is. his person as our head. that any bestowed on . any virtue. fliat from him. subverting the whole gospel. unto such an interposition only. or wrought in us by God. Whatever grace God promiseth unto any. and whereby he is made sanctification unto us. yield obeately through Christ dience unto him. in that with respect unto cally. by. is Moses indeed is his mediation. metaphorihis use and employment. Gal. it is all so bestowed and as the mediator or wrought. is to leave him but one office. is given us. 19. that the .

communicates unto tures.if any. ' With him is the fountain of life Psal. 26. The author.' and we have nothing else by natural pro: . as hath been declared them who This. what there is of this mediation of Christ. So he was as it was pure. that they are bom not of blood. Thesethings. 'He hath life in himself. God himself is preme the efficient cause. with i. For if he did so. ' That which is born of the flesh is flesh . are among those ' perfect gifts' which ' are from above. possessor. and so cause of holiness and goodness to others. nor of the will of the flesh. pagation. in his being the middle person between God and us. I suppose. as he only is good. in particular. For he might have grace and holiness from his first nativity. xxxvi. but it is our own as it is corrupt and what we have thereby. Hence he is called the God of all grace . there would be no that one who is born must be born necessity every again. in and by the making or creation of and had we continued in that state. .' his crea- James 2. nature. from his ownfulness.' coming down * from the Father of lights. we have of ourselves in contradiction to the grace of God. whom he pleaseth . For grace might be propagated unto them by those natural means. the suand holiness. may be declared in the ensuing and souls of men. 10. 17. 3. 9. But since the fall and entrance of sin. 13. God.' . needs no farther confirmation with really acknowledge any such thing as grace and holiness. or by the way of grace. or natural propagation. the same our nature image of God should have been communicated by natural propagation. but of God . before he enter into the kingdom of God as our Saviour affirmeth there is . that what we have by nature we have by grace. God no more communicates holiness unto any by way of nature. . and bestower of it. and is originally first ' quickeneth before.58 THE POSITIVE WORK OF THE SPIRIT But. us. 1.' 1 Pet. in the assertions.' John v. It was the old Pelagian figment. of all grace the absolute inhnite fountain. either by the way of nature. because God is the author of nature. nor of the will of man. v. whom is no variableness nor shadow of turning. Nor could it be said of be' lievers. For he alone and essentially holy. John iii. in In our first creation God implanted his image on up- rightness and holiness.' John i.

3. but in . which is by a new spiritual life and holiness. is his immediate work also. as that it must not be here again insisted on. ii. and no otherwise. . i. Eph. for. So the apostle disposeth of this matter the * head of every man is Christ.' 4. This is plainly asserted. yea. 15. and the head of Christ is God. 18.' This hath been so fully confirmed in the whole of what hath been discoursed. according unto the former assertions. really sanctify they may be preserved blameless to the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ. for the production of all or any created beings. and by him all things consist . 3. 17. both concerning regeneration and sanctification. that grace whereare enabled to and are made believe. spiritual strength and holiness in believers. 59 God communicates nothing in a way of grace unto in and by the person of Christ as the mediator and but any. 'the head of every man is Christ. communicated unto all the parts of it. John i. and none hath any share therein.' Col. but in the same order.' I Cor.' Heb. God doth work real. i. In the raising of the whole new creation. And so it is in the new creation. and the head of Christ is God . Col. the person of the Son. with respect unto his person as mediator. as the wisdom of God John i. As God doth not immediately govern the church. whence he is said to 'uphold all things with the word of his power . and he is before all things. sanctifying grace. the work is carried on immediately by the person of Christ the mediator. by they holy. Wherefore. which is so in respect of influence. effectual. all this grace. 18. Therein was he the * image of the invisible God. so neither doth he administer any grace or holiness unto any. In the old creation all things were made by the eternal Word. but in and by the person of Christ. and by the person of the Son. xi. the firstborn of every creature. ' . whom he hath given to be head over all things thereunto . And the supportation of all things in the course of divine providence.IN THE SANCTIFICATION OF BELIEVERS. is communicated unto us through and by Christ. 10. having the pre-eminence in all things . their wisdom and power being one and the same as acted in him. There was no immediate emanation of divine power from the person of the Father. 3. and doth them more and that more. as well as of rule. head of the church. 3. but what is received and derived from him. i. 16.

19. But it may be said. To unite us to Christ: and. b)'" virtue of that union. by a participation of his Spirit. 13. It is by the doctrine and grace of the gospel that we are united. bestows. * if we have not the Spirit of Christ. or communicates.' 1 Cor. which nothing but the extreme ignorance or imof some could render or seasonable tolerable. the 'preaching of the gospel . And this is the inquiry. may therefore be inquired. promise of the Holy Ghost. 1. or no. 1.' Rom.' 1 Cor. it is in their union to the virtue thereof. sends. if hereby we are united unto .60 THE POSITIVE WORK OF THE SPIRIT Secondly. That is.' Rom. is to gloand this he doth by receiving from Christ. the Spirit which he gives. whereunto we are united. * For by one Spirit we are all baptized into one body. Now the end why the Holy Spirit is sent. 1 Cor. 17. vi. 11.' and sheddeth him forth 33.' Gal. xiii. 9. and doth effect. and by That the Holy Spirit is the immediate effi- and holiness. And therefore. . and united unto the head. by Christ himself is in us. xii. seepudence ing formerly no Christian ever doubted of it. but it is the person of Christ. viii. — . that. For no other reason is he called so frequently the Spirit of Christ. 9.' 2 Cor. By him are we united unto Christ that is. implanted into the body. unto them to whom any thing in this kind will be sufficient. iii. Acts ii. To communicate all grace unto us from Christ. that we receive him immediately from the person of Christ. except we be It reprobates . He receives of the Father the ' * we receive him by But it is no less 2. person of Christ. for ' Jesus Christ is in us. and rify Christ communicating thereof unto others Johnxvi.' that is. nor the doctrine of the gospel 2iS others with an equal folly seem to imagine. because by that one Spirit he is joined unto him. that is. Whatever is wrought in believers by the Spirit. united unto him. 5. And herecient cause of all grace . he is in us 'by his Spirit thatdwelleth in us. viii. Whether we receive the Spirit of the gospel from the person of Christ. 'For he that is joined unto the Lord is one Spirit. And there are two works of this kind which he hath to do. vi. We are therefore his. true. and not a light within us as some think. 2. . nor is he so now who doth disbelieve it. of Christ. we are none of his.13 15. I have sufficiently proved already. It is true. and consequently of all that he doth as he is so sent. his person.

consequential hereunto. in its union. without any especial work of the Let them that can. puri- Whereas. and by the same act whereby he is so united. and we must sanctify ourselves. which . the Lord Christ doth unite impure or ungodly sinners unto himself. that ordinarily. is no especial effect of his Spirit. satisfy Spirit of God on our nature. it is evident. without any application of the blood of Christ unto our souls. so as that they should be so united. is the cause and author of all grace and evangelical holiness in us. which would be the greatest dishonour unto him imaginable. For in the same instant whereby any one is united unto Christ. It is effect of the Spirit of sanctification in us. ray part. hath been fully before declared. or obedience. that we receive it directly from Christ himself.IN THE SANCTIFICATION OF BELIEVERS. then indeed are we not beholden in the least unto the Spirit of Christ. wherein our union doth conFor certainly. in this case we must purify ourselves. : hath his Spirit. doth prepare the souls of men in some measure The the inhabitation of his Spirit. where the Spirit of God is. by the dispensation of his word. Christ. 1. and so consequently before we receive his Spirit. Christ doth not unite ungodly and im- we pure sinners unto himself. and like unto Christ. but the person and sanctified. if thereby we are united to him. I have no esteem or valuation of that holiness as holiness. It is way and manner hereof denied. and continue impure and ungodly. the Spirit of Christ communicated from him. namely. antecedent unto union with Christ. and like to Christ. for our union with him. Ans. then we must be holi/ and so receive him. is quickened. 3. he is really and habitually purified and sanctified. Whatever. 61 obe- by his Spirit. righteousness. therefore. him and he who is united to him is unto united Christ. there is liberty. are in order of nature fied. Wherefore. dient before sist. which is not the immediate 2. by light and convictions thence enfor suing. be holy. for themselves with these things. For. We must. and holiness. and none else. and purity. therefore. granted. that on this supposition. therefore. the Lord Christ. is in any man. All acts and duties of holiness. of holiness. obedient. before we can be united unto him. that we are holy and obeFor he that hath the Spirit of dient. If this be so.

we our Bibles also. therefore. 16. doth frequently express. increaseth with the increase of God. 'Not holding the head.' For as the body is one. I all desire duties of obedience. 3. and compacted. 19. by all them who acknowledge the divine person of the Son of God. head. and hath many Eph. and knit together. as books which do openly and palpably mislead us. And what he so works in us. ii. that the Lord Jesus is . whereby we are united unto Christ. 12. or a participais There is a mystical spiritual body. and when that is disproved.' Eph.' Now it hath to the effectual been always granted. 15. having nourishment ministered. given things which is his body. light. making member of it meet for the inheritance of the saints in And in those supplies of grace which he so gives. he doth in pursuit of his first communication unto us. and his church are the members of it.' ' every acted by us in ness which tion of. until all that hath been before discoursed about the work of the Holy Spirit in our regeneration and sanctification be disproved. from whom the whole body fitly joined together. like unto that between the head and members of the body of a And this the Scripture. 2. maketh increase of the body. by virtue of that union.iv. preservation. There is. and farther sanctification of the mystical body. the fulness of him that filleth all in all . a union between them in things spiritual. consists all the holiany acquaintance withal. by that which every joint supplieth. unto the edifying ofitself in love. that he is the author of all may part with it grace and holiness . because of the weight and importance of it. him all to the to be the head over church. Col. 23. unto grace take it for granted. 22. even for the edification. and all the members of that body being many are Christ is the one body so also is Christ . ' * ' .62 gives THE POSITIVE WORK OF THE SPIRIT it the difference from all other habits and acts plead- ed for. The second work of the Spirit is to communicate all I shall us from Christ. And the same apostle speaks again to the same purpose . i. from which the body by joints and bands. according which is man in things natural.' 1 Cor. working of every part. members. with its singular use unto God hath the faith of believers. whereof Christ the head. or the union of the human nature unto the divine in his person. xii.

it is impossible to congrant. here. doctrine. 19. therefore. And. without which we shall never that is. Now not only the whole body hath guidance and di- rection in the disposal of itself from the head. rules. person originally derived head of the church. from that fountain of spiritual life are given unto the church. and ruler of the church. nor discharge its place or duty in the body. not only hath the whole mystiof the church guidance and direction from him. And this is most evidently expressed For. person. it is plainly and the church as it is Christ between is that it affirmed.' ver. whereon he quickeneth' with spiritual life whom he will . the relation of believers unto Christ being stated exactly to answer the relation and union of the . They all receive from him grace for holiness and obedience. iv. 12. without which they would be but withered and dead members in the body but he hath told us. Eph. but spiritual life and motion also and so hath every member thereof. The Romanists indeed cast some disturbance on the former. for is the political head of it in a way of rule and government. : and precepts. and from thence. xii. a spiritual live eternally here- after. 6S the head of his church. 1 Gor. 26. as from whence there should be an emanation of it into all the members of the mystical body but by all other Christians this . between the head and the members of the same natural in the places before alleged. without which it can neither act nor strength * move.' saith the apostle . but every member in particular hath influences of life actually. governing head. there is but what is nothing belongs unto gospel grace or holiness. ceive. For the Father having given him ' to have life in himself. head. as he is the of the from Christ. in his own Christ yet do they not deny. ruling. 16. in cal body his laws. in the double sense of that word. and : ' ' therefore. And the latter the Socinians cannot for denying his divine person.' John xiv.' IN THE SANCTIFICATION OF BELIEVERS. because he liveth. should be such an immense fountain of grace. life we live also . immediate. body. by interposing another. hath hitherto been acknowledged and. . 23. how the human nature subsisting alone by itself. that because 'he liveth. we shall live also . but that the Lord is yet the absolute supreme king. head as unto vital influences of and he is the he grace unto all really spiritual his members.' John v. between him and the catholic church . So also is Christ.

and evidently which are made use of to this purpose.' as he speaks. John xv. and of his bones . it is . and him. 4. as Eve was out of Adam . 1. it is expressly affirmed. body there are supplies of nourishment and natural spirits communicated from the head unto the members. and ye are the branches he : that abideth in me. 30. and communication with them of that grace which is the principle and spring of all holiness and duties of evan- none have as yet undertaken to declare. ye abide in me. strength. 20. and my Father is the husbandman. which he is in his divine person as God and man. unto its increase with the And what this spiritual nourishment supunto the souls of believers for their increase and growth. growth. And if eternally. no more can ye. yet so continuing in ' we in him. ment. designed unto that purpose. of his flesh. Yea. 5. And. to the growth and increase of the whole in every part so from Christ the head of the church. as to have all our supplies from him he in us. unto ' its in- crease. John xiv. v. for we are members of his body. the whole must be supposed to die and perish. 19. but the emanation from his person. any do deny it. with the rea- . that there could be an intercision for one moment of influences of spiritual life and grace from the person of Christ unto the church . that from him the head. and nourishthat as in the natural . expressly affirmed. there is nourishthe body. ii. * I am the true vine. apart from me) ye can do nothing. made unto every member of the body. and except it I in you : as the branch cannot bear fruit itself. Col.64 THE POSITIVE WORK OF THE SPIRIT the members of body mito the head. The whole of what we in assert. for without me same bringeth forth severed from me. they do what lies in them to destroy the life and overthrow the faith of the whole church of God.' chap. 4. the (or much fruit. and I in him. The principal of them. I abide in the vine. by the subserviency of all the parts of the body. is that both laid down and declared by our Saviour himself. plied from Christ their head. can be. is plainly proposed sundry instructive allusions. being made out of him. except am the vine. there is a supply of spiritual life. is known unto all. ment ministered unto increase of God. Abide of in me. upon such a blasphemous imagination.' The natural in-being of the vine and branches in each other. and edification . and that gelical obedience.

' 'apart X(x>pig ye of this kind. That now which is expected from you is. The preparation of all . : proper kind and perfection.' saith * he. and it not only immediately looseth all its fruit-bearing power and virtue. but by the communication and bearing.' and there is a mutual in-be- ing between us. stance of it in and by the branch it is only formed into its cause of fruit-bearing. juice and nourishment. or from can do nothing me.' efiov. nothing is obedience. in believers. saith he. and voluntarily communicate of this grace unto all believers. And there this matter. 'separate.' by virtue of our union. because nothing becomes fruit in the branch that was not nourishment from the vine. but itself also withereth and dieth away. ' that you bring forth fruit that is. Nothins: is duty. F . but what is grace from Christ communicated unto them. derivation of that siiccus . yea. and the next In this juice and nourishment all fruit is virtually. And ' his disciples. I am the vine. I am in you. This being done. as the vine communicates its juice unto the branches natuand it is in the new nature of believers to derive it rally from him by faith. whatever outward profession you may make of your so being. to draw and derive their nourishment from the vine. 65 son of it and so is the way whereby the in-being of the branches in the vine. you are no true real branches in me. : . and ye are the branches . For. saith the Lord Christ unto it doth from the principle of its nature.IN THE SANCTIFICATION OF BELIEVERS. and ye are in me. i. But how shall this be effected? How shall they be able to bring forth fruit? This can be no othei'wise done. between me and you.. but by their abiding in Christ and thereby continually deriving spiritual nourishment. e. it is in them turned : VOL. is the cause and means of their fruitIt is no otherwise. fulness to it a mutual acting of the vine and branches in Unto the vine itself it is natural from its own communicate nourishment unto the branches is . that you live in holiness and obedience unto the glory of God unless you do so. fructifying grace is in Christ. Let any thing be done to in- tercept this communication from the vine unto any branch. unto the branches it is also natural. that is. And that is. III. grace and supplies of holiness from him. which alone is the preservative of vegetative life. as to the first matter and subalso. as the fruit of the branches is And the Lord Christ doth spiritually naturally in the vine. Thus is it. .

counsel. the whole mind. 19. I am sure cannot be denied without the highest impiety and blasphemy. ii.' all the grace in every kind whereof we are made partakers in this world.' the Son of God Ghost speaketh. in his hu. of Christ.66 THE POSITIVE WORK OF THE SPIRIT Thereinto particular duties of holiness and obedience. therefore. and from him is it derived unto us. it is said to consist in grace and truth that is. of it is is that there fore. . Col. Particular testimonies do so abound in this case. John iii. 19.' It is of the 'Word made flesh. and mystery. evangelical holinothing ness in any one person whatever. 7. vi. or no. wherein he received not the Spirit by measure. 5. grace is given unto the Lord Christ in an immeasurable perfection. And of his fulness have and grace for grace. Wherefore. is. And as to the nature of this fulness. 1 iv. It is not the fulness of the Deity. Eph. and grace. Eph. belongeth not unto the essential fulness of the Godhead. as inseparably united unto the divine fulness that he received by the good pleasure or voluntary : disposal of the Father. the Holy Ghost being witness. xi. every one according to his measure . by virtue of his indissolute per- sonal union with all graces in their perfection. as it dwelt in him personally. He was made flesh. John i. all we received. as I suppose. the perfection of holiness. The same is taught by our apostle. Cor. Hence. by the graciousinhabitation of his Spirit in us. 4. and knowledge of . but that which was in him as he was made flesh that is. under the simiAs litude of an olive-tree and its branches . power. of the will of God. expresseth the inconceivable human nature. 15. it derived immediately from Jesus : and union with him this so with moral virtue be be whether may inquired. i. that the Holy man an allnature. full of grace and truth. where he is affirmed to be a living stone. or the person incarnate. but what is in the virtue. by virtue of relation unto him. that is here intended. and dwelt among us. and. evident. by all Christians acknowledged. of Christ. 'He is full of grace and truth. and believers to be built on him. and it 1 Pet. also. by virtue of his personal union . Col. as that I shall only name some few of them . 9. That this fulness of his fulness in Christ. Rom. therefore. ii. Of this fulness do we ' receive grace for grace. 34. do we derive and receive all our grace. as lively stones into a spiritual house .

There was and is in Jesus Christ a fulness and perfection of all grace . iv. is received and derived unto us from the fulness of Christ. cation of vital principles. nothing of derived unto us from him. but by the communi. he doth no otherwise live in us. would not be our life. is not thus derived. 13. in virtues. of ourselves.. not only as false.IN THE SANCTIFICATION OF BELIEVERS. it is said. by blood. For the actings of it consist in the setting of our affections on heavenly things. He is. or the flesh. may be produced thereby from them. srace and holiness from himself unto us. i. or the will of man (ver. therefore. is that whereby we live to God. in us. but his only. because we have them by yieldmakes ourselves the only ing obedience unto his doctrine. but Christ liveth in us Gal. belongs not unto our sanctification is of the same nature or kind with it. blasphemous. and that as he is now with God in glory. as that he is the immediate cause and author of it. To the same purpose is he said to be ' our life. Hence earth.). but as Whatever. then for if he were. Whatnor or holiness. we have it of ourselves. spring condemned by the church of old. whatever effects. The old Pelagian fiction. what be made for the exciting application soever of means may and exercise of that ability. this life of God. and wrought by us. as the head and prinF 2 . And the life here intended. if it be not all derived from Christ. and a power for vital acts.' and * our life to be hid with him in God. and mortifying our members that are on the of. To conclude. we have all grace and holiness from Christ. unto thus conveyed us. G7 unto 30. therefore. duobserties. so efficiently. Whatever we have. Life is the principle of all power and operation. ever ability of mind or will may be supposed in us. or religious vances. If he be our life. yet so as that not of ourselves. This. that we have them from Christ. that but grace or holiness. or what is is. there is none at all. in the substance of it. all offices of humanity. or natural generation. on that account very justly and of and author them. iii. that is. which is an inexhaust ible fountain there- by reason of his personal union. 3. is contained in this testimony. or by anything that we have by nature. we have nothing that belongs thereunto. he is not so formally .' Col. and honesty. the life of grace and holiness. that we live And we live. according unto the degree of participation allotted us. that is. This life Christ is it . 20.

. with some of the semi-pelagians. is the Spirit of God. yet none have been yet so hardy. Whoever. expressly to renounce the Wherefore. and cause us to walk in his statutes. already. and the other by their own endeavours without it. distinct from whatever hath not that relation unto the same covenant. promises of the covenant. put his fear in our inward parts. This evangelical holiness is a. whereunto we . Herein consists the image of God. that he will cleanse and purify our natures. fruit and effect of the covenant of grace. that he doth not educe grace by moral applications unto the natural faculties of our minds. the least degree. insisted on. The promises of the covenant unto this purpose. unless it be by virtue and as a fruit of that covenant. upon the matter. one by the sanctification of the Spirit according to the promise of the covenant. but that he creates grace in us by an immediate efficiency of almighty power.s our holiness doth consist. we have before. we have in our foregoing discourses. is. large vindicated the manner of his operations herein. that he will write his law in our hearts. Fourthly. and : proved. hath an especial nature of its own. may on this supposition be attained without it. as openly to deny that this is indeed his work for so to do. And what is so wrought and produced. For there are not two ways whereby men may become holy. Wherefore. dreamed somewhat to that purpose. that which is thus a fruit and effect of the promise of the covenant. he doth receive it in the accomplishment of these. it is a thing of another nature than evangelical holiness. of that grace or holiness which is promised in the covenant. differeth essentially from any natural or moral habits of our minds. Thirdly. In them doth God declare. No man can ever be made partaker of any. on other occasions.68 THE POSITIVE WORK OF THE SPIRIT ciple of spiritual life unto us. then were the covenant of God of none effect for what it seems to promise in a peculiar manner. however acquired or improved. in which thino. though indeed Cassianus. which renders it an empty name. Fifthly. therefore. hath any thing of it. For if they might do so. The immediate efficient cause of all gospel holiThis we have sufficiently proved ness. at gospel. And although many cavils have been raised against the manner of his operation herein.

are to be renewed. For. will easily be discovered to be weak and . as to -despise and scoff at any thing else which is pleaded to belong thereunto. Nothing less than the entire renovation of the image of God in our souls. will ever render us lovely or holy in the sight of God. they seem to abhor. No series of obediential actings. or how constant soever we may be unto them. there are many express contests about the signification of these words. nor whereof they do affirm. we may take a prospect of that horrible mixture of ignorance and impudence wherewith some contend. From what hath been thus briefly discoursed. no observance of religious duties. notwithstanding all the swelling words of vanity wherewith it is set off and vended. consists in moral virtue. But this pretence. when declared in the words of the which one hath openly traduced as a ridiculous jargon. it be altogether uncertain or the other. though by the one any thing Scripture.IN THE SANCTIFICATION OF BELIEVERS. 1. the speaking of spiritual things. These are they what they intend who scarce think intelligible. Nor is there any sense of it agreed ture. They like not. to denote that obedience which God requireth of us. But yet this they do with so great a confidence. how exact soever they may be. in and according to the covenant of grace. Yea. unless they all proceed from the renovation of the image of spiritual life God in us. frivolous. that at least the main parts. not upon. and what it is that is intended by them. or expression itself is The name foreign to the Scrip- once used by the Holy Ghost. in the words which the Holy Ghost . 69 This I have proved before. will constitute us evangelically holy. and shall afterward have occasion to insist upon. and yet have they not endeavoured to reduce the sense they intend unto any expression used concerning the same matter in the gospel. which those who contend about them are not ignorant of. or that habitual principle of and power which renders us conformable unto him. but all men must needs submit 'unto it. that the practice of moral virtue is all the holiness which is required of us in ' the gospel neither understanding what they say. by them who so magisterially impose it on others. no attendance unto actions amongst men as morally virtuous and useful. if not the whole of religion.

the terms whereby they are declared. or are more than so. Virtuous living they tell us is is the way to heaven . whatever they may have of in them. supernatural. the only reason whereof stand not the things themselves. theological or divine. are to be tried and measured by the Scripture itself. tual things sprung But we Tiave a new way of teaching spiriup among some. it is no wonder. hath by usage obtained a double signification. and vulgar. are called graces and duties. not in ' the words which man's are taught wisdom teacheth. barren. and the declaration made of them. it is opposed unto things that are more than merely moral . and so is is opposed unto instituted. into dry. as to their propriety and significancy. spiritual. to be the wisdom and skill of men farther to explain and declare the truths that are taught in the gospel.' It is granted. of virtue. do best receive the truth and apprehend it. or required by the law of creation. hope. in all their exercise. and therefore despising it. namely. That religious worship which prescribed in the decalogue. a noise about them. or w^hat a life made such as little in the declaration of. teacheth. and do know the mind of And Christ (which profane scoffers are sufficiently remote from). being ignorant of the whole mystery of the gospel. For sometimes it is applied unto the worship of God. evangelical. Again. or however they may be morality exercised in and about moral things and duties. but what added ever this virtue is. philosophical notions and terms. as faith. That ambiguous term moral. would debase all the glorious truths of it. is commonly called moral. when declared. that ever obtained among the Heathen of old. in opposition unto all such habits of the mind and . by sound and wholesome words of their own. love. seem also so to be. they have as any persons that 2. and those the most common. with respect unto an opposition unto other things which either are not so.70 THE POSITIVE WORK OF THE SPIRIT is. obvious. But such as have received the Spirit of Christ. spiritual. theological. which yet all of them. who. So the graces of the Spirit. because they underwhilst they are foolishness unto any. but which by the Holy Ghost. sapless. divine. yet because of sundry respects wherein they exceed the sphere of morality. and that in opposition unto those rites and ordinances which are of a superadded arbitrary institution.

in their virtuous lives and actions. are merely moral. whilst the gospel is owned for a declaration of his will and our duty. and love to God through Jesus Christ. I confess. 71 duties. as. of holiness are of and acts another principle special nature. and as they are so required. namely. especially the whole of it. In neither sense can it with any tolerable congruity of speech be said. that moral virtue is our holiness. that religion before the entrance is of sin and under the gospel one and the same. And.IN THE SANCTIFICATION OF BELIEVERS. according unto the terms of the covenant of grace. which being required by the law of nature. as moral is opposed to instituted. somewhat uncertain. And I defy all the men in the world to prove. It is. or the dictates of it. and useful unto mankind but let it be supposed to be never so exact. and the course of it most diligently attended unto I defy it. that we might see more of : it amongst some that are called Christians. For. that it should be of the same extent with the light and law of nature. indeed. But because the duties of holiness. Many seem to design no more but that honesty and integrity of life which was found timong some of the Heathens. all the duties of this moral virtue are required of us. the Scripture. as moral is But that the opposed to supernatural and theological. a morality in them. Some give us such a description oi morality ^diS. It is true. 3. which belong not thereunto at all. but in the exercise of every one of them there is more required of us than belongs unto their morality. and that because it hath none of those qualifications which we have proved essentially to belong thereunto. as rectified and declared unto us in And this. and many things are required of us as necessary parts of our obedience. hath been sufficiently now declared. have. the most of them. requires of us the obedience which is due towards God by the law of our creation. that this moral virtue is the sum of our obedience to God. . some would have them have nothing also in them. as was before intimated. it were heartily to be wished. and there- . and according to the covenant of works materially and forBut what is this unto evangelical holiness and obemally. 4. what the great pleaders for moral virtue do intend by it. as to its being the holiness required of us in the gospel. many things they did were materially good. dience ? Why it is alleged. that they be done in faith.

yet.72 THE POSITIVE AVORK OF THE SPIRIT no difference between the duties of obedience fore there is required in the one and the other. as to their causes. which was. Is there no alteration made in religion by the interposition of the person of Christ to be incarnate. the covenant between God and man being that which gives the especial form and kind unto religion. as have the properties before described. the same object. therefore. and the establishment of the new . and relation unto Christ and the covenant. which was required by the law of nature in the covenant of works. so far the same with them. because as and that. and so also had the rehgion under the law. rise. and such acts thence proceeding. inclining. that by this moral virtue they intend no exclusion of Jesus Christ. assistances. as that they And it is true. are so far the same. but include a respect unto him. not educed out of the natural powers of our own or is it God written in souls which by the mere application of external means is purchased and procured for us by Jesus ? Is it that Christ. disus to live to God. that which God hath predestinated or chosen us unto before the foundation of the world that which he worketh in us in the love ? ? Is it Is it that whicTi gives us a it ? new pursuit of electing heart. If it be said. I desire only to ask. I deny for many other reasons. and his mediation? No augmentation of the object of faith? 'No change in the abolishing of the old covenant. But that thev are the same as to all the acts of our obedience. Be it so we then. as are expressly and plainly in the Scripture assigned unto evangelical holiness? Is this moral virtue. and whole nature of our obedience unto God ? if The whole mystery of godliness must be renounced. use. intend to give way unto such imaginations. enabling the gospel. the measure and denomination of it ? No alteration in the principles. according to posing. it to be our holiness or evangelical obedience . with the law of a principle of spiritual life. and the manner of their performance. the same end. so principally. produced in us by the effectual operation of the Holy Ghost. 5. whether they design by it such a habit of mind. effects. that this moral virtue and the practice of it. do contain and express all that obedience materially considered. aids. is a vain imagination. that they have the same author. and . it hath not that respect unto Jesus Christ which our sancti- fication hath.

long pear at length to be no more as to our acceptance before God. than by some new patrons of it amongst us will not in the examination of it create any great trouble.IN THE SANCTIFICATION OF BELIEVERS. being the mere doctrine of the Quakers. and justification before him. things. and destructive of. whereof those who plead for it. But this fulsome Pelagian figment of a holiness or evangelical righteousness. nor do practise so much. whether the Holy Spirit or these men be wisest. if moral virtue answer all these properties and adjuncts of holiness. by whom it is better and more intelligibly expressed. if none of them bespeak if it may and doth consist without it. and whose rule is the law of nature as explained in the Scripture. to be a revelation of the mind of God in these things. whose principle should be natural reason. is. it will apunto it. then the whole contest in this matter. being absolutely opposite unto. 73 the increase whereof in us he continueth to intercede for? Is the image of God in us. the most of them. and doth our conformity unto the Lord Christ consist therein? If it be so. and know best how to express the things of God But if the moral virtue they rationally and significantly. a mere empty name. unto such as look upon the Scripture it . . whose use and end is acceptation with God. than what one of the greatest moralists in the world complained that he found it when he was dying. in these be unconcerned of. seem to understand no more but outward acts of honesty. the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ.

in an opor the mortijication of. about duties of holiness.OF THE ACTS AND DUTIES OF HOLINESS. or as we see ' good. infusion into us. and their difference. Dependance on Providence with respect unto things natural. in positive commands for their object. vn. lesipecting positive . as also its preservation But we are not endued with such a principle or power to act it at our pleasure. worketh in us to will and to do. Such as respect divine prohibitions. And what is the unto. but God. Such as have the will of . The second part of the work of the Spirit of God in our and duties of holy obedience. are of two sorts referred unto two heads. position work of the Holy Spirit. Arguments to prove the necessity of actual grace. positive duties of holiness. compared. and that sanctification. moreover. wherein we do what God requireth. Contrary designs and expressions of the Scripture and some men. i. of his own good pleasure. Effectual operation of the Holy Spirit necessary unto every act of holiness. respects the acts both as unto its first and increase in us. or gospel obedience. External duties. chiefly concerns the principle of it as habitually resident in our souls. CHAP. work of the Holy Spirit with respect thereunto. The acts and duties of the first sort. and on grace with respect unto things supernatural. unto every duty of holiness. which they respect in duties internal and external. H. in the actings of grace or holiness. must be declared. what is the aid which he affords us God which consist in both these sorts of duties. Distribution of the Internal duties of holiness. explained. Actual TJie inlierent righteousness in duties of holiness and obedience. For what we have before treated of. Secondly.' And all these acts and duties of or may be holiness. sin. First.

2. be quickened and sanctified required thereunto. The whole ourselves. I include those which or our own persons. yet may it be the duty of evanand not in the other as it was gelical holiness in the one. consist. are of two sorts. that have no external effects. but go not light. and our various relations unto them. love. are distinguished with respect unto their objects and end. For if faith and love be not acted in either of them. and same outward manner. what they do is duty but equivocally. God life unto our these doth principally spiritual 1. the duties of holiness that are internal only. that have God and in forth. also. sometimes men may endeavour to make up what is wanting with them. all such as belong unto the sanctification (2. and yet holiness. 75 For. under a double distinction. properly it is not so. which are only so.) name of God in his worship. 2. Yea. grace. and interest in For we may abound in outward duties. but God for all sorts their end.) God himself And of and praises. is the object and end of some of them. By tend all For they are as the first acts of life. which principally evidence the strength or decays of it. they evidence a vigorous and healthy condition of soul. But when the internal actings of faith. duties — of the of the of first table . principally regard And among . these. Isa. by a multitude of outward duties. Exthey are in their own nature either ew^emo/ only . that they Two of persons may. Some respect men in their various capacities. our hearts be very much alienated from the life of God. trust. 1. and love. fall AND DUTIES OF HOLINESS. for it is part of holiness. hope. ternal also. and so have 'a name to live when they are dead. fear. abound and are constant in us. prayer this nature are all those which are commonly called. with Cain and Abel. or. 11 15. For. fear. . And from these we may take the best measure of our spiritual health. by internal actings at the in the same time. or have men for their object.' wherein the true nature of hypocrisy and superstition doth consist. with the other apostles and Judas. as of (1. But no external acts or duties are any and no more. i. There may be internal acts of holiness. therefore. or. Duties that are external. nor exert themselves in any external duties.OF THE ACTS divine commands. trust. defor their immediate object. perform the same commanded duties. whether private or more solemn. reverence. 1 inacts of faith. also.

that are required of them. do so of himself. a meetness. ii. towards God it shall be an act of holiness. act of our minds. so far as they are acts of holiness. all is of what Tit. and then confirm. so He our natural lives with respect unto God's proin our spiritual lives with respect unto his hath in the works of nature endowed us with a it is an act of the quickening soul upon the quickened thereby. that the actual aid. whether internal or external also. to do any : thing that at present I design to prove. notwithstanding the power or ability which believers have received in or by habitual grace. and hereby are they internally and habi- God. so as that virtue of any in this world intrusted with God. By virtue hereof. and afl'ections. or is body. served in them by the Holy Ghost. That it is it comes to be so. 12. power habitually inherent in him. assistance. these acts and duties. with accepted or men. whether their proper object be God.ct. we intend. gracious. unto the producing of every holy is necessary . all them that are not so. actually exert or exercise. and habitual dispo- sition unto ihe performance of all acts of obedience towards duties of piety. No one instance of any duty. charity. and unto. for. this principle. we may distinqtly observe 1. and righteousness. summarily expressed by our apostle. or power. explain. as 3. they proceed from 2i peculiar operation of the Holy Spirit in us. and affections. or other men. tually distinguished from so with them. ourselves. they still stand in need of actual grace. That there is in the minds. I say. is good That which therefore. it is vidence. or a duty He cannot. in any 2. we have before This power and disposition is wrought and predeclared. required. in As grace. in every duty ivhatever. is.76 OF THE ACTS AND DUTIES OF HOLINESS. internal or external. we are enabled unto all vital acts. And herein. and internal operation of the Spirit of God. of a spiritual life. wills. wills. to make our intention the more evident. fitness. holy act And this I shall now a little farther or duty towards God. of are accepted with : all believers. by God. in. and whence I believer can of himself a. readiness. and God. which . Concerning ox\\y. Or. and granted. We are not any such spiritual ability from without farther actual aid and assistance. that is. every single. whether natural and necesvital principle.

28. compelled by the power of con- victions. spiritually dead. who- soever thus made principle of life. according to the constitution of our into man the beings. can do as to actual duties. he must himself be absolutely the first and only cause of that action. by the grace of God through Jesus Christ. as we have at large before manifested. as it were. He may be moved unto. Hereby are We we enabled and disposed to live unto God. For. the creator of a new being. . without any mo- God to eiiert or put forth any vital act not this principle. furnished with a principle of it. and can do nothing at all that is spiritually good. are. hath on him. AND DUTIES OF HOLINESS. and. by virtue thereof. and accepted with God. readiness. tion or acting from a living soul. who is endued with this he is not able originally. And if any one could of himself per- form an action without any concourse of divine operation. 7. hath a fitness. they can no more do any thing that is spiritually good.' givliving and enabled fitted he was of him a for. unto every act thereof. principle ing For a principle of life acts of that life. as the first cause. unto. that is. and move. nor from an outward it receives but as principle of impressions But he in whom of or an inward force. a soul became he and breath of life. life. which is intellectual. than a man can naturally act . It is so as unto our spiritual life. or independently that which hath : no meetness unto or alteration. all the is proper an ability and disposition unto acts of is life. and habitual power for all viis capable either of tal actions. in the exercise of spiritually vital acts. But that which is on all considerations spiritually good. corruption. ii. ritual life. what believers themselves. who have received this principle of spiand are habitually sanctified. motion vital actions. as a dead carcass. or the performance of duties of holiAnd he who hath not this principle of spiritual life.OF THE ACTS sary. he can do nothing. is ness.' Acts xvii. to do many things that are materially so. The inquiry is. he can do nothing of. 'God breathed 77 or voluntary. principle it is. But yet. Gen. moving and acting of him. And. and have our being. in the way and for the ends before described. yet so as without the concurrence of God in his energetical providence. I say. in God ' we live. without a neAV immediate assistance and working of the Holy Spirit in them. without the particular concurrence and assistance of the grace of God.

' are the things by Jesus Christ. that which we are to prove.' workmanship of his in renovation us. and the fruits of righteousness.' John xv. sustains. by an actual incessant emanation of divine power.' seorsim a me. by virtue of ani/ strength orpoiver that we have received. proof nothing. and left them not merely to out them ducing themselves and their own powers when so created. Eph. and effectually concur to So every singular duty. their ability. created in Christ Jesus we should walk in them. do any thing that is spiritually good. First. all things would be dead and deforaied. without which none either will or can be produced or performed by us. without me.' as a branch may be from the . then. by new supplies of actual grace. it would perish and come to nothing. 5. the whole fabric of nature would dissolve And without his influence into. and not one So also is it in this work of the act of nature be exerted. and preserves therii in the prinin ciples of their beings and operations. The Scripture declares. Without his sup- portment of their beings. cannot in and by^ourselves. but he upholds. So our Saviour tells his apostles. the apostle expresseth. his power and providence. But this is not all he doth moreover act it. is. so separated from me. And this proportion between the works of God's providence and of his grace. the himself. or do any thing in an absolute independency on God. x'^P'? Ifxov. and in them all that are so ' do nothing . hath and he formed fashioned us for of God. or move. which is the second part of his work in our sanctification. so. ' . which God ship. supports. ii. that there is an actual operation of the Holy Ghost in us. 10. 'For we are his workmanunto good works. when they were sanctified without me ye can believers. which he hath appointed as the way of our living unto him. he supporteth and preserveth. this divine nature in us. so as that without his continual influential power. into confusion and nothing. acting powerfully and by them. by image Hereby are new creation of all We fitted for good works. and concurrence with.78 OF THE ACTS AND DUTIES OF HOLINESS. for operation by the same power. And there are several ways whereby this is confirmed unto us. that is. after their several kinds. This new creature. necessary unto every act and duty of holiness whatever. that zue ourselves.' God hath before ordained that at the beginning made all things by a creating power. we ' .

In and civil we can do somewhat. or by virtue of any habit we have received. with believers in respect unto him. It is a great and is of God. and openly renounceth any such power. thereof: blessed success but he had no and for the ministry. yet cannot of themselves. what we can do thereby without farther actual we can do of ourselves. kers of habitual grace. 79 If a branch be so separated from the root and body of the vine. 5. ourselves. by our or principle of grace own power. and spirican do nothing. be by any means in its growth. as that it receives not continual supplies of nourishment from them. This no man was ever more cautious against. every motion of our minds every act of faith or affections towards God. Unless they have continual uninterrupted influences of grace.' that he was acting he declareth eminent grace which in the Christ trust in God through discharge of his namely. without new actual aid and assistance of grace from him. than he seems to be jealous lest he should appear to have assumed something to himself. Therefore. because he was appointed to be the principal minister and preacher of the grace of Jesus Christ. sooner expressed it. they all the of a denial 'Without me. believers who are really sanctified. or acceptable 2 Cor. AND DUTIES OF HOLINESS. do any and thing that Our * with God. iii. is. 'You can do nothing . spiritually good. love. but our sufficiency . in this work. 4. he adds a caution against any such abiapprehensions. 'we can do no- that is. apostle is . assistance. it proceeds not fruit. to think any thing as of .' Christ. same the confirmeth truth.OF THE ACTS vine. and so unquestionably are all external works and duties of holiness and obedience. is a part of our fruit-bearing. Now nothing. it brings forth no intercepted. Wherefore. our Saviour himself being But in fruit-bearing unto God we can do and made partajudge. and in things natural things sinful too much . On supposition hereof. saith our Saviour. but is immediately under decay : it is so.' which appertains to fruit-bearing unto God. For when we have received that it. and indeed it was incumbent on him so to be. tually vital nourishment from him. we need no aid or assistance for any such purpose. if their influence into it. that And such trust have we through Christ to God-ward not we are sufiicient of ourselves.' expresseth spiritual aid that we have from thino. or the trust he had for its success. I say.

distinct open disclaimer of any interest of his own in what was spifrom grace. on purpose to obviate that Pelagian fiction. I ascribe no such thing unto any other. may abound to every good work. but we had the help of grace to perfect it. nothing of any sufficiency that needed any other thing to make it effectual. and greater duties. OF THE ACTS AND DUTIES OF by HOLINESS. that he himself had performed any holy duties. or acted any grace. sober persons. saith he. that the beginning of good was from ourselves. .' that is. as should be sufficient all with case. in the of beginning any duty by our own sufficiency. We cannot conceive. as that virtue thereof he could act so excellent a grace. and what of grace. And he doth not exclude such a sufficiency in ourselves with respect unto eminent actings of grace. or sufficiency in himself. ix. or perform so great a duty. ii. this sufficiency. chap. but with respect unto every good thought. For it is the of duties which the apostle expresseth by thinkbeginning our ing thoughts and projections being naturally the first .' we have it not of our- sufficiency. ' God is able to make abound towards you. we by actual supplies of grace.' and in this matter he hath not only in places innumerable asserted the necessity and efficacy of grace. And this he doth. and how we all he declares. with such an ritually good. that ye always having all sufgrace receive ficiency in all things.' God . xv. necessary unto every duty. seeing he had no sufficiency of himself so to do ? to obviate this cavil he confines this denial of a sufficiency unto ourselves. to what purpose should we set ing or doing of any thing that is good ? Who will ' selves. I assume no such thing to myself. But what then ! if we have no such about the thinkbe so unwise as to attempt that which he hath no strength to accomplish? And doth not the apostle hereby deny. or done any thing that was good. thing that belongs unto our actions. as it were. 8.80 lity. 21: and this place. to determine all differences in this See 1 Cor. ' Not that we are sufficient of ourselves . and how God communicates it. Gal. have it But. but in his own instance he hath made such a distinction between what was of himself. as that I or they should have in ourselves a For our apostle knew sufficiency unto any such purpose. with our impotency without it. 'four sufficiency is of God. 10. we cannot engage. or whatever may have a tendency unto any spiritual duty.

in a way of instance. in a compliance wherewith. to do things by the Spirit that dwelleth in us.' lusts of the flesh that is. but comply with them in a way of diligence and duty . Wherefore. For nothing. 18. mand. any thing that is spiTherefore. Secondly.' To walk in the consist. we shall be sin. can be intended in these expressions. to loalk after the Spirit. is to have the Spirit acting in us. 1. see ver. is to walk in obedience unto God. all good duties. 9. 15 VOL.OF THE ACTS AND DUTIES OF HOLINESS. viii. being acted by him. III. as that it is not convenient nor indeed possible to call distinctly. There are many places wherein we are said to be led^ guided. that believers themselves cannot of themselves perform any acts or duties of holiness. to the effecting of all graAnd this is given unto us in comcious acts and duties. are actually ascribed unto the operation of the Holy Ghost. in general. ' Walk not after the flesh but after the Spirit. posed unto consideration. xii. 4. may be insisted on. which he doth so as to enable us to abound in good works. is to have the principles of indwelling sin. And this is the first demonstration of the truth pro. some of them. 14. according to the Spirit. obedience and the avoidance of So . These are those supplies of grace which God gives us unto all our duties. All actings of grace. Rom. and reduced unto three heads. who is the immediate author of all divine operations. ritually good. our obedience unto God according to the gospel doth ' Walk in the Spirit. that we neglect not his motions in us. to walk after the Spirit. and not by the vicious depraved principles of our corrupted nature. 81 manifests the abounding of grace towards us. the testimonies given in the Scripture. G . namely. v. these things are effects of grace. for so it is added. acting itself in us unto the production and perpetration of actual sins. but the actings of the Holy Spirit of God upon our souls. when he works an effective sufficiency in us. as acting when we are acted by him. to livem the Spirit. The particular testimonies hereunto. Gal. are so multiplied in the Scripture. them over supplies of grace which the Holy Ghost administers unto ' us . and must be wrought in us by the Holy Ghost. or duties of holiness. acted. by the Spirit. 16. as he had promised unto him in his own case chap. that we shall not then fulfil the kept up unto holy are we said to be *led by the Spirit .' To walk after the flesh.' ver.

all of obedience. all duof holiness. is the thing hoped for thereby. act of love is love. we purify our souls in obeying the truth through the Spirit. may be reduced. i. Unto these three heads. 2. 9. long- meekness. chap. 40.' ties all actings of grace. xxxii. pressly in the promise of the covenant. and ye shall keep my judgments and do them. are from him. I will put my Spirit within you. that he trusteth So is it exfor a good issue of his obedience. 39. 3. joy. the through Holy Ghost that dwelleth without which we can his i. All the obedience and holiness that God re- quires of us in the covenant. in us by the Spirit. but all their actings. Jer. duties and actings of orace. xxxvi. Spirit. ' ' unto unfeigned love of the brethren . through the of the faith. is an especial gospel grace and duty. Gal. after we are do nothing. ' ' God \n the Spirit. v. to attend in us . and ' . 19. 22. xi. V. i. duties particular enjoined.' Phil. i.' All these things are wrought and brought forth in us by the And not only the habit of fruits. As we are said to be led and acted by him.' Col. comprehending all instances The of particular graces and their exercise Eph. and and faith is faith. 5. . gentleness. 'The fruit of the Spirit is love. v. every Every act of is of ourselves. is by the righteousness of faith. peace. 20.' love the brethren in the Spirit. are promised to be wrought assured that of ourselves we can 3. Our quiet waiting for this.' 2 Tim. 22. This we do not of ourWe worship selves. goodness. but through the Spirit.' 1 Pet. 23. temperance. parts And it is through the supplies of the Spirit. Ezek. so he is declared to be the author of all gracious actings in us . So all also.' * This is the whole that in us God requireth of us. assistance. through we do nothing. are assigned unto ' his acting and working in us. truth. and it is all wrought by his Spirit. he adds a universal affirmative. but every one them no act of consequently of them is a fruit of the Spirit of God. 14. 19. So in another place suifering. iii. that is. fruit of the Spirit is in all goodness. Gal. See Eph. 8. All that we look for or expect in this world or hereafter. Particular graces and their exercise.82 So ' OF THE ACTS are AND DUTIES OF unto HOLINESS.' for wait The righteousness by hope Spirit We hope of the righteousness of faith. Phil. 27. and cause you to walk in my statutes. them. and righteousness. for they are his their in all exercise.

' let me not be mistaken G 2 . he adds his usual epanorthosis. ii. 16. 13. Thirdly. as that of ourselves we cannot perform in it. 31. therefore. all But it is so our duty. ' I laboured abundantly. Acts xix. or for all the duties of holiness and obedience that are required of us. xiv. 7. This. but the grace of God which was with me. 15. 2. ii. is there ought else yet remaining to be done ? Yea. is to say he doth not do what the apostle affirms him to do. ' not 1 . viii. Thess. 6. this we are to look unto in ourselves it is our duty so to do. that this is wrought in us. 1 Cor.OF THE ACTS i. he doth not of our wills be ings work in us to will. But the same apostle utterly excludeth this pretence. Rom. if the gracious actso our own as not to be his. 17. For. namely. to himself. not I. 12. xv. by the Holy Ghost. To say he doth only persuade us. It is God who worketh effectually in us away those gracious acts of our wills. 5. it is v. Eph. XV. yet. there is the actual exercise of the grace we have received.' The things thus wrought. 10. But when this is done for us. is incumbent on us. any gracious holy actings in those labours. operations. and external operations in duties suitable thereunto. he 'worketh in us to will. least any one should apprehend that he ascribed any thing . 26. as of the words with ver. and the pains he had taken in * preaching of the gospel :' but yet immediately. 22. AND DUTIES of faith it is OF HOLINESS.' Hereunto two things are required 1. is the act of the Spirit of God efficiently.' or the very act of willing. it Rom. There are testimonies that are express unto the position as before laid down. worketh in you both to will and to do of his good pleasure. 1 83 i. is evident from the connexion 'Work out your salvation with fear : and trembling. 13. bestowed upon us. so far as it is gra- cious and holy. Power for such operations. hath been before abundantly confirmed. and all holy operations of duty. to stir up and exercise the grace we have received in and unto its proper . That this we are endued withal. are all things that appertain unto our obedience and salvation.' He had a necessity incumbent on him of declaring the great labour he had undergone. Phil. 17. 8. that the gift of God. How may this be exercised? All the whole work of grace consists in the internal acts of our wills. but only persuadeth us so to do. Every act of our wills. 'It is God who not of ourselves. is said expressly. or excite and stir up our wills by his grace to put forth their own acts.

to will' in us. by any thing in me. wherein the first part of our actual Jwliness and righteousness doth consist. And what hath been spoken may suffice to prove. I. and not content therewith. and obedience. in general. how contrary are the c?esigns and expressions of the Scripture.84 it OF THE ACTS AND DUTIES OF HOLINESS. it positively. that God by his grace doth no more but aid. It is easily hence discernible. There is not any thing that is good in us. as the Author of our sanctijication. worketh also in us all gracious acts of faith. but was all wrought in me by the free grace of the Spirit of God. but grace. and write. . but as plainly lets us know. that he doth not effectually work all the gracious actings of our souls in all our duties * the proposition would hold on the other hand. guidance. and excite the will in its actings. not grace. And as he worketh them. It is not more plainly affirmed in the Scrip' grace . Suppose now. it was not I. Not I. .' that is.' is the apostle's assertion. our own performance of all the duties of faith and obeand that in opdience. nothing that is done well by us in the way of obedience. it proposeth every grace. love. They are all for selves to perform . And the truth thus confirmed. It doth so. assist. indeed. and ability of our own wills the light. . power. But some men speak. The freedom.' seeing the principal relation of the effect ' is unto the next ' and immediate cause. prescribes our duty to us. and every holy duty. Not I. liberty. as to all gracious actings whatever. utterly to another purpose. are the subjects of their discourses unto what is in the ascribed position Scriptures unto the immediate operations of the Holy Ghost. but grace. distinctly affirming the Holy Ghost to be the immediate author of them. and thence hath it its denomination. but ' . effectually to perform those duties whereunto the gracious actings of our wills are required. that we have no power in or from ourit. And when it comes to make mention of us. may be farther improved unto our instruction and edification. and preach. by any power of mine. and the notions of some men among us. that the Holy Spirit. so also to do . and from all. 1. not I but Christ. without him we can do nothing :' these are all for our wills not grace but our wills do all. but the Scripture expressly and frequently assigns it unto the immediate operations of the Holy Spirit in us. and direction of our own minds or reasons.

to maintain the freedom and ability of our wills in and unto things spiritually good . in some properties of them. and to take care. of all the acts of our souls therein. 2. 85 God and preserves all created heaven and earth. It is commonly granted. and our all duties in us. To lessen the corruption and depravation of our nature by sin . to extol the integrity and power of our reasons. ornaments for these old Pelaoian figments. in opposition to the Spirit and grace of God by Jesus Christ. But this difference is supposed generally to be in the adjuncts of those duties. it is almost grown. upon rational motives and considerations . if not criminal. nature. but not in the kind. evasions invented. But evasions must be found out. be put upon plain. forced. that there is a great difference between the acts and duties that are truly gracious. acts it effectual. are the things that men are now almost wearied with the repetition of. ever shall take an impartial view of the design and constant doctrine of the Scripture in this matter. which the Scripture doth. a farther discovery is made of the nature of gospel obedience. strange. or substance of the . that all the good we do may not be assigned to the grace of God. to render holiness to be only a probity of life. but immediately he furnisheth himself with some new tinkBut wholino. uncouth senses. or honesty of conversation.OF THE ACTS ture. will not be easily carried their away with the plausible pretences of men exalting own wills and abilities. and those which are called by the same name. as renders them useless and insignificant. To this purpose distinctions are coined. makes grace in the hearts of believers preserves it. as in any duties of faith. of prayer. and the right use of their reason . that he sustains things by his power. From what hath been discoursed. working all our works for us. Scarce a person that hath confidence to commence for reputation in the world. and it. yet weak and ridiculous in the judgment of some. and such an explanation is given of all divine operations. of charity. to secure the honour of our wills. that any should assign those works and operations to the Spirit of God. than that he creates . into their natural good dispositions. and of the duties that belong thereunto. inclinations. that are not so. in the very words that the Scripture useth. that AND DUTIES OF HOLINESS. Yea. to resolve the conversion of men unto God. frequently repeated expressions.

whatever appearance it grace. ' Nay. . though that into. in their essence and substance of the acts themselves. the same with those of them who are truly regenerate and sanctified.) is not taken from the state and condition of the persons that also have an influence thereperform them only. absolutely with respect unto the persons that do perform The duties themselves are of a different kind. nal duties required in the gospel. Gen. it hath it that is supernaturally gracious. but an immediate effect of the almighty su- And. . from whatever is not so wrought or effected in us. as directed and enforced by reasons and exhortations. iv. them. But that which is wrought is suespecial grace of the Holy Ghost in the way mentioned. (as unto Abel and his offering he had respect. and do many thing^s what they so do. Those which he accepts* are supernatural effects of his own Spirit in us. 4.86 OF THE ACTS AND DUTIES OF HOLINESS. diflfer in their kind. may have nothing in of a compliance with the outward command. They may differ in their principle and end. it is commonly said. and whether minds souls. of our napernatural. but as to their substance or essence mistake herein. that whereas wicked men are said to believe. as being not educed out of the powers tural faculties. and regardeth not those which for the outward matter and manner of performance are the same with them. being educed the power of the natural faculties of men. they go acts of our minds in them. is for the subgladly in a way of obedience stance of the acts they perform. or delight. sole reason why God accepts and rewards duties of obedience in them that are sanctified. in any acting of common grace. 5. or assisted by common aids of what nature soever. whereon he rewardeth and crowneth the fruits of his own And as for what he rejects. gracious actings of our unto exterout or whether in faith. and they have no other substance or in us by the being but what is so. love. excited by convictions. and so is not of the same kind with what he doth accept. But there is no small internal only. or out of performance of any duty of obedience. but from the nature of the acts and duties themselves He never accepts and rejects duties of the same kind also. All they are the same. but he had no respect unto Cain and his offering . For whatever may be done by any one. the pernatural efficacy of the grace of God. they are natural as to their kind. therefore. being wrought in us by the immediate ef&cacy of the Spirit of grace.

be spiritual duties are to be managed. principle Spirit said to where are we commanded. ourselves tis. and is called. Holy Spirit the author and cause the operation How of the Nature of it unknown to many. constantly to mortify our sins. mortification. impairing. improved. Contrariety between sin and grace. operations. si7iis mortified. directed unto by the Holy Ghost. Frequently prescribed and enjoined as a duty. the second part of sanctification.MORTIFICATION OF THE SIN. of sin. Mortithe object of mortification. Holy ii. mortification of sin. and effects. The . sanctify every and said. because I same subject. As what we have already insisted on. Duties necessary unto the mortification of sin. Particular the mortification of sin. as applied by the Spirit. and acted unto And I shall be brief in the handling of it. with the reason The nature of the mortification thereof: as also that of crucifying siii. which consisteth in. Mortification of sin. that sin may Influence of the virtue of the death of Christ. explained. into the mortification of sin. Mistakes and errors of persons failing in this matter. How is yet another part or effect of our sanctification by Holy Ghost. a certain end. NATURE AND CAUSES OF CHAP. unto: First. ing. Directions for the right discharge of this duty. mortified. For sanctification expresseth grace communicated and received in general There the . grace as so received. . VIII. have formerly published a small discourse on the And there are two things that I shall speak itself. in its the of contrary principle of sin in its root and fruits. and destroypropose. Indtvelliny sin in its principle. arid why the subduing of it is so called. IT. actings. concerneth the improvement and practice of the principle of so what we now grace. The manner of means of Spirit in the mortification of sin. is God of and the whereas And. fication a part-tailing with the tvhole interest of grace against sin. The nature of the duty Secondly. What the name signifies. The of mortification in us. wherewithal believers are endued concerneth the weakness.

which adds efficacy unto the allusion.' 1 Cor. It is known. 15. ii. that : we are cautioned by our Let not. 11. fornication and the like. Col. as they seem to imagine who place mortification in outward afflictions and macerations of the body . even so now yield your members servants to righteousness unto holiness. These af- our depraved nature. which us. wrought in us by the Holy Ghost is which and frqueently enjoined Mortify therefore "your memprescribed unto bers that are on the earth. 6.' Which some neglecting. earthly. 8cc. avoiding. ' principally intend. And so a distinction is made between carnal affections and their fruits : ' the special sins mentioned.' which exhortation he pursues. which are the members of Christ.' that is. ' vi. which will afterward occur. vi. Because. members that are on earth. and sensual.' ' ettI rrig yrig. and make them the And many other members of an harlot. is. that is. sin reign in your mortal bodies (that is. that he intends not the parts or members of our natural bodies. carnal. and course of sinning. our natural bodies). which proceedeth from it. lusts. are instances of these carnal ' affections.' Col. the old and man.' for. ra the earth fections . it it. as though they were to be destroyed. evil concupiscence. commands there are to the same * purpose. inordinate affection.' 1. and covetousness. therefore. he adds. do take the members of Christ. . these particular lusts are here called the members of that body. ' mortify your members. obey in the lusts thereof. 12. against which ' Rom. And concerning this great duty. ver. that this duty is Mortify your idolatry.88 manner how I it MORTIFICATION OF is SIN. with respect thereunto. as the body doth its members and. useth naturally and readily. or by avoiding fornication. or the body of the sins of the flesh. may be supplied. 2.' And Rom. your carnal earthly affections. wherein there is a metonymy of the effect or. uncleanness. 19. of their own bodies.' Iv rt^ (pevjEiv. for the cause.' namely. mortify your carnal affections. we may consider three . 5. being called the ' body of sin. and to iniquity unto iniquity. by them it draws the very members of the body into a compliance with it. that ye should and the service of apostle.iii. ' they are called our members . fornication. as the whole principle of sin. vi. 'as ye have yielded your members servants unto uncleanness. that are on that is.

' The * first is used.' ravra intimating a respect unto the thing treated of.' that is. 19. name.' But yet this word is used by our apostle. By veicpouv and ^avarovv.' that is. which it is effected we render to * mortify ourselves. it is two ways expressed. ' certain ends or purposes. Heb. So he * to affect with or destroy expresseth the effects of it in the passive word. to kill. Col. 'dead. Rom. If ye do mortify.' : by death. ' as was before declared vf/cpow is eneco. iv. ov KaTev6r](Te ' TO eavTov cwjua 77817 v£V£/cpwjulvov . 5. to denote that work which must be always doing. 2. as he expresseth the same thing. but that it should be rendered useless as unto what its strength and vigour would produce. which inclines to earthly carnal things. whereinit consists. ' The flesh with its affections effect for and is lusts.' ^avarovTe. . should no more have any being. 'the deeds of the body. where- by and wrought. until it comes to be veveKpwfiivov. iii. for he intends Trjv aapKa avv ToXg rra^7]pa(n kuX raig iTri^vfiiatg. so as that which is so mortified or killed. v.' unto some ' .' he therein expresseth the the cause metonymically. And what the apostle here calls rag irpa^eig tov acoit is a ' juaroc. as we shall see it is in the mortificationofsin. of one.THE NATURE AND CAUSES OF IT. ye shall live .' whence all the corrupt deeds wherein the body instrumental. Rom. which we well render. whereby it is expressed. do arise. which is mortify. in taking away the power and force of any thing. only the and vigour of it natural force was exceedingly abated. Gal. The nature of it. For the First.' now mortified. another word to the same purpose. viii. which we have in and from Christ.3. and KOI TavTu v£viKp(i)ixivov him as good as dead . ' to put to death.' But it is used in the present tense. morte mactio. So that veKpovv to mortify. 'If ye through the Spirit do mortify the deeds of the body. 12. and both of them metaphorical. and to kill.1. He considered ' not his own body now dead. The means and way. 24.' signifies a continued act. extinguish and destroy all that force and vigour of corrupted nature. a^' hog eyevi lOwav. vEKpwcraTE. not absolutely to destroy. And so he seems to mollify this expression. it signifies as the other doth. 1.The name of it. xi. 3. 89 things: l. opposite unto that spiritual heavenly life and its actings.' The body of Abraham was not then absolutely dead. if you are always and constantly employed in that work.

as a man dies on the cross .' Gal. this duty expressed. with ' the affections and lusts. 2. vi. but they give fieth. the world is crucified unto me.i\\ the next place. They that are Christ's have crucified the flesh. * vi. and expressing is Secondly. we shall more particularly inquire into. as the meritorious. in the ensuing observations. 20. tempting.' Now as. ' Rom. MORTIFICATION OF The same duty. lets go all endeavours after And as for those who pretend unto an absolute holiness.' and the concupiscence. whence we and our sins are said to be crucified with him. For. argues undeniably the abiding in us of a principle of sin whilst we are in the flesh.' 2 Cor. it is themselves the lie. 20.' the ' members.' lust. This is not a place to dispute the truth of this ascribed. which with its fruits is that which is to be ' This the Scripture calleth the sin that dwelleth mortified.' the thereunto are the properties and actings of folly. because we and they and herein do we always are so by virtue of his death ' * the dying of our bear about in the body. and declare. ii. 1. and exemplary cause. whose nature. ' is ex- pressed by crucifying. This the command testi- which represents it as an always present duty. Lord Jesus Christ . By the Lord Jesus Christ. iv. Thus its efficacy. Mortification of sin is a duty ahcays incumbent on us. exempted from this command. in the whole course of our obedience. it is so not to mortify No man under heaven can at any time say. of the manner of mortification of sin. yet that which is principally intended. of it. the most impudent. evil deceit. and I unto the world. with him. perfection. This duty being aliuays incumbent on us. V.' chap.90 2.' tj'jv viKOMuiv.' the evil that is present with us. nor on any pretence. with SIN.' like. representing the manner . assertion. warning. 14. captivating. And he who ceaseth from this duty.' I am crucified with Christ chap. they are of all persons living nor do ever in this matter open their mouths. Our old man is crucified . rebelling. that he is sin. seducing. there may be something intimated herein. 6. perhaps. is the relation of this work and duty to the death of Christ. which is gradually carried on unto its final destruction. which camiot with any reputation of modesty be . 10. ' law of the in us. ' And ' ' flesh. efficient. When no longer a duty to grow in grace. relation unto the death of Christ.

that henceforth we should not serve sin. which are actual sins. according unto the deceitful lusts. under those expressions sin is proposed as in procinctu.' 3. that the want of a true understanding hereof. is the old man. therefore. These in the Scripture are frequently distinguished. Deceitful lusts . iv. which is called the body of sin with the members of it. operations of this principle or habit.' (3. vi. that ' he who trusteth his own heart is a fool . which is the object of this duty of under a threefold consideration. which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness. And expressed by the affections and lusts of the ' Gal. But yet through the craft of Satan. So are they mentioned together distinctly. we serve sin.THE NATURE AND CAUSES OF IT. that * every figment or imagi- . of those that are under the power or dominion of sin.' Eph. with the pride and darkness of the minds of men. is the occasion of most of those pernicious errors wherewith the church of God is at present pestered . or seeking out for relief by Jesus Christ. which by nature possesseth the faculties of the soul. xxviii. that the body of sin might be destroyed. corrupt. as the apostle speaks.' Prov. 25. is ' old man is wills of the flesh. actual disposition. For. 24. which is the first way whereby the lusts of the old man do act themselves. and as a depraved habit inclines unto all that is evil. in a readi- and ness to act this also flesh ' . hath informed us. The itself. Thus one hath not feared of late openly to profess. that he knows of no deceit or evil in his own heart. and which practically keeps men off from being seriously troubled for their sins. iv. (2. serve sin. so called in opposition unto the new man. And.) There are the effects. 91 denied by any who own the Scripture. 26.) all The root or principle of sin. as bringing forth the fruits of it. or pretend to an acquaintance with themselves.) Of its disposition and operations: (3.) Of its roo^ and principle: (2. falls ' (1.) Of its effects. Indwelling sin. and products of these things. the and the mind. that we should not henceforth And these fruits are of two sorts [1. whereby. it is so fallen out. : in the figments and imaginations of the heart.' and inclining unto all that is evil. 6. it is said. though mostly under metaphorical expressions. mortification. though a wiser than he.] Internal.) There is the inclination. Rom. fruits. Our old man is crucified with Christ. (1.

and the lusting of the flesh. And with respect hereunto. compliance committing with the principle or habit of sin prevailing in depraved untify the — and sanctified nature. the flesh but after the Spirit. walking after the Jlesh. 17. which we have before described. Rom. walking the a actual but of sins. allowing aflections. ' are debtors not to the flesh. for if ye live after the flesh ye shall die . 5. and the ciple. wills. our Saviour affirms. operations. so the old and new man are opposed and contrary. and fruits of 4. vi.92 MORTIFICATIOiSr OF SIN. but if ye by the Spirit do morthis We deeds of the flesh ye shall live. that all actual sins proceed out of the heart. 4. to be respected herein. 1. to live after the flesh . with its members.' ver. are opposed and directly contrary unto the principle. viii. Spirit lusteth against flesh. and desires of it. and there are they first formed and framed. Col. xv. v. plete object of this duty of mortification. the body of death. 5. For they have no other principle whereby they are acted.] External. (1. and the of grace between the body of sin with ' who walk not after . and walking after the Spirit. because there is their root. principally. whilst they are in this world. lustings.' Matt. which maintain such a conflict in the souls of believers. but that of sin. vii. operations. make up the comThe old man. This principle. (2. which the flesh inclines and leads unto. must be necessarily ' All these things together. or the habit. all the figments of their hearts evil. Or it is to bend that way habitually in our course and conversation. its operations and effects. It is when it men a predominancy in the hearts are disposed to act accord- ing to the inclinations. are opposed also. them intended. are all of Gal. nation of their hearts are evil continually. in actual sins. and living in the Spirit. as wrought in us by the Spirit of God.) They are opposed in their j5rmFor the ' flesh lusteth against the Spirit. [2. and the works of the flesh. and the lusting or desires of the Spirit. 19. By after I at least the understand not not. v. iii. This its is the opposition that life is members. motions.) In their actings. 19 — 21. 5. and these are contrary the one to the other. flesh. living after the flesh. holiness. such as those enumerated by our apostle .' Rom. and which is so graphically described by our apostle. therefore. These are those two adverse principles. and.' Gen. 11 13. and effects of sin. .' Gal.

the other must of necessity be weakened and decay. For. Hence all that are under the power of sin. controlled by light. the mortiJication of si7i must consist in these three things (1. unto the actual effects and fruits of the Spirit. and the like. and fruits of For the residence of these contrary principles being in.) The and of and of the holicherishing principle grace improving ness which is implanted in us by the Holy Ghost. But after the flesh are not all equally vicious and sinful. which we have spoken unto before. contending. expresseth them both metaphorically. operations. by all the ways and means which God hath appointed thereunto. 19 24. the Spirit and the flesh. or walking according to the dispositions and inclinations of the Spirit. as it is advantaged by temptations. and fruits. or hampered by convictions.) the external fruits and effects of these two principles are Spirit. Holy (3. between grace and sin. goes To ' walk after the Spirit. as love. and warfare. Ghost. opposition. . as our apostle expressly and at large declares. fornication. unless they endeavour in the first place to weaken and impair its strength by the increase of grace. This is that which alone can undermine and ruin the power of sin. powers. or subdue their sins. against the principle. and growing therein. crucify. and improved. Let men take never so much pains to mortify.TH?: NATURE AND CAUSES OF IT. but hath various degrees of its efficacy. he joy. sin. generality of its actings. V. Wherefore. strengthened. 5. acts. actings. the same faculties of the soul. in the account he gives of the — he insists on habitual graces. as adultery. 93 This principle doth not indeed equally bring forth actual sins in all. contrary also. duties of those habitual graces. without which all attempts to weaken it are vain and fruitless. peace. he reckons up actual sins. And. in their inward principles. in its principle. In the former he hath respect unto the vicious habits of those actual sins and in the latter.' consists in our being given up to rule and conduct. as the one is increased. and the the of the bent soul. There being this universal contrariety. that which is born of the namely. : . a principle of grace implanted in us by the which hath been at large insisted on before. and their actings being by. whereas in the enumeration of the works of the flesh. and outward effects the work and duty o^ mortification con. sists in a constant taking part with grace. Gal.

from that is life. or this duty performed. sin . have live. in its actings in unto all the actings of sin. so there is no particular lust of the whole unto posed whereby sin can act its power. holy obedience. is called mortification. having a constant. sin in all its actings thereby. bodily force and exercise. natural. and. (3. First and printo death. is the opposition that is made unto it for its ruin and de. on whose account sinners are dead. unto an internal. the manner how is to be carried on. powerful init is said clination. and kept in constant exercise. and working actually towards all evil Therea to or to life of its own. and actings of the fruits of Spirit in all acts. on sundry accounts. by way of opposition unto the princi- ple. by the growth and improvement of grace. But hereof we must treat more afterward under the third head concerning. It may be so called because of the violence of that contest which the soul is put unto in this . Wherefore. where this work will be consumed. which because of its power.) In a due application of the principle. wickedly opposing external. efficacy.94 MORTIFICATION OF SIN. and actings of grace. and operation. this work This duty of weakening sin. being its deprivation of that strength and efficacy. which is no way concerned therein. depraved principle.-e^?^e^/^ acfmgs of the principles of grace in all duties internal and external. and been perplexed therewith. (2. For where the inclinations. and actings of sin. to make effectual opposition unto it. duties. ascribed unto indwelling sin. the contrary motions and actings of the flesh are defeated. but there is a particular grace it is ready. whereby mortified. the soul by reason of it is a state of death. they have found power out foolish ways innumerable for its mortification. power. whereby and wherein it is said to live. struction called mortification or killing. And where men being conviction of the ignorant hereof. for their sakes life is ascribed unto sin. this corrupt principle of sin in our depraved nature. moral. motions. are the proper adjuncts or effects of life. The state of But whereas power and operations. 6. are vigorous. As the whole of grace is oppower. And in this application of grace. (Secondly). they will labour in the fire.) Iny. and the opposition which is made unto or putting cipally. have yet fallen under a of sin. consists the mystery opposition of this great duty of mortification. killing. metaphorically fore.

an especial eye is to state whilst they live. of a mortal enemy. it is 1. Every day. who being under us . there is more of warring. but rules and reigns in all that are not born of God. and recovers strength. hath a life. spare it. as whereby it not only lives. flict with all sorts Though it is our work and duty to con' of temptations. what we have discoursed concerning the nature of directive of our this duty. principal part of inward secret actings the discern see nor do neither nature. may be taken from . crying out for help ance. is to leave sin neither being. a deep sense of such a violence as is used in taking cipalities away the life are called unto. wounding. in the And this respects. and it heals its wounds. (thirdly). By the entrance of grace into the soul it loseth its dominion. which is wholly within us and from us. The utter ruin. 95 duty. that which hath a gradual progress.THE NATURE AND CAUSES OF IT. and gradual annihilation of all the remainders of this cursed life of sin. And some direclions. than in any thing else we And. captivating. destruction. And this is the reason why we have so many withering professors among lives. . but not its being its rule. but not its life. do by their negligence suffer it in some so to take head again. fruitless in their conformed to the world. the principle itself. as our manner is. The design of duty. the power of that blindness and the depravation of our a is which darkness. in every duty. that they never recover their former of sin place. own practices. in the proceed whereof we must continually be exercised. Hence many who have attained to a great degree in the mortification of instances or other sin. And. It will no otherwise die. gentle. the end aimed at in this duty is destruction. to wrestle v/ith prin- and powers. and be had unto the abolition and destruction of this principle. and plain manner.' yet in this which we have with ourselves. and that such a life. and every way indeed. yea. which is therefore called this duty wherever it is in sincerity. There are some. fightand assisting. Sin. nor life. may be performed in a more easy. as it is of all killing. nor operation. it is a work first evident from what hath been discoursed. as was said. but by being gradually and constantly weakened. All other duties that we are called unto in the course of our obedience. is our design and aim in this work and mortification. decayed in their graces. and spiritual wickednesses in high places.

in our retirements. What. sin which refers unto the perpetration of actual sins. If he have not received virtue from the death of Christ. which will secure us from its danger ? This is that mortifica. and not God. tion of it which we insist upon. in all particular instances we And are continually to watch against it. he serves ensuing verses gives us many reasons for. Christ. With respect unto its inclinations and operations. Our great design ought to be. in this root and principle of it. unless they are very and to entreated excuse. the worst service that a rational creature is capable of. let In whosoever the old man is not crucified with him think what he will of himself. which displeased with them. in many sin. This this is our enemy. with the defilement and guilt wherewith these things are accompanied who judge that God scarce takes notice of any thing but outward actions. therefore. is the only way and means whereby we may attain this end namely. that although sin will abide in us. wherein it variously exerts its power. in our duties. it- one way or other in all our duties. the end of this duty with respect unto us. and this is the war we are engaged in. yet that we may not serve it. If we expect . are of all others the most sensible of its power and and its of the necessity of applying themselves continually unto destruction. that we should no longer serve sin. Every mistake. indeed. who have received most grace and power from above against it. and will have the most doleful end. which the apostle in the thing. in the frames of our spirits. forth of the actual fruits of the flesh internal or ex- ternal also. however he may in any things. 2. SIN. in our temptations. and reform his life. concerns us in all that we are and do . If we are negligent unto any occasion we shall suffer by it. It is. so as to be foul indeed. the bring-ing. in the use of our enjoyments. he is a servant of sin. and no other. despising tification of sin. 3. in our conversation with others. whatever else he may do or attain. its and motions of sin self its deceit and restlessness. that henceforth we should not serve . in our calling. expressed by the apostle is.96 MORTIFICATION OF . in our straits. and it may be not much of them neither. who judge pass by yet he is easily and morboth the confession this duty superfluous. mixing . every neglect is perilous. But those guilt. if he be not wrought unto a conformity to him therein. And. and to subdue it. in our mercies. change his course.

And so will he who undertakes to deal with sin. if and we suppose work will sisted on. press its dominions upon us. and if it be not constantly pursued with diligence and holy violence. will not be mortified without such a violence as the whole soul shall be deeply sensible of. if we take care of our souls. and weakening fication. it will Let no man think to kill sin with few. killing. or by any composition or any other way but by being always killing or destroying of it. And. Hence it is compared to the cutting off of Lusts that right hands. or gentle strokes. with that care. no diligence. nothing. H require. and ordinary attendance. if he follow not on his blow until he be slain. sin will after a while revive. and so possessed of our faculties. that the Holy Ghost expresseth its ? But the duty of opposing sin. iqdeed. for the preservation of its life. VOL. that the nature of this duty considered. or putting to death Is there power by mortinot somewhat peculiar herein. we are to attend unto this duty. and the plycking out of right eyes. if they suppose this duty of mortification is that which they may carry on in a negligent careless course and manner. . And sundry other things might be infatal mistake. as that it is called ourselves. serve its life easy. Is there no danger in this warfare ? no watchfulness.re- quired of us? Is it so easy a thing to kill an enemy who h^. It is a great admit of any remissness or intermission. that pretend are pleasant and satisfactory to the flesh. or not sufficiently Men look upon it as an easy task. beyond any other act or duty of our lives ? Certainly there is intimated a great contest of sin. to be to and of useful the state condition men. by its own giving over to with it.THE NATURE AND CAUSES OF to IT. and that which will be carried on with a do we think it little is for diligence.th so many advantages of force and fraud ? Wherefore. escape our assaults. 9? be freed from the service of sin. Again. may repent that ever he begun the quarrel. to manifest how men deceive themselves. and earnest contention of spirit. He who hath once smitten a serpent. Every thing will do its utmost to pre- and being. we do but deceive our own souls. So will sin do also . watchfulness. It cannot be killed without a sense of pain and trouble. and the man must this die. diligence. it is to be feared. which the nature of it doth Ill. is not sufficiently understood. the principle t& be slain is in ourselves. and pursues it not constantly to death .

through the Spirit. That the power and reign . And that we go no farther for the proof of our assertion. are only to comply with light and Mortification with a design for holiness. which always proves fruitless. that the confirmation of it is the principal design of the apostle. they shall find with how little success they do it. the root and all its branches the And first will miscarry. the work is taken from our own natural power or ability.98 MORTIFICATION OF And. spects the body of sin. it for the gracious principle of spiritual life in the renovation of our nature. moreover. and that wherein we are acted by the Spirit of the gospel the first. and the latter will be successful. . it must be done in or by the Spirit. which is principally intended. as was before observed. This is the way with many. do moi'tify the deeds of the It is we that are to mortify the deeds of the flesh . no less fatal mistake where we make the object of this duty to be only some particular lusts. because they mistake their business. If y&. so that although it is our duty. That which remains farther to be demonstrated. For the first. And the tinually groan reason is. we have the truth of it asserted. Rom. and strength as also the manner how it is whereby it is performed wrought by him. that the Holy Spirit is the author of this work in us. or the fruits of them in actual sins. and they conunder the power of its victories. respects only particular sins. it may suffice to observe. is. it fesh. which on one account or other they find themselves most concerned in but if they will observe their course. sin gets : For the most herein consists the difference between that mortification which men are put upon by convictions from the law. as the context seems to require. Thirdly. is our duty. and or take resolved into the grace of the Spirit. viii. part. Contests against particular sins. 13. . as the guilt of them reflects upon conscience . Whether we take the Spirit here for the person of the Holy Ghost. it is his grace. the whole interest of sin as opposed to the renovation of the image of God in us. from the second verse of that chapter unto the end of the 13th. the lat: ter. not the Spirit himself. there is SIN. reconvictions. but of ourselves we cannot do it. but that 'which is born of the Spirit. They will make head against some sins. ground upon them.' it is all one as to our purpose .

And the second conclusion which is apt to arise from the same consideration.. For. impaired. he Holy Ghost. and finally destroyed (so as that all the pernicious consequences of it shall be avoided). as the remainders of it do still abide in believers. how shall we answer for all the sin and guilt which we have contracted thereby ? We must. that seeing the power and prevalency of sin is so great. and impetuously incline unto evil. that ' there is no condemnation unto them that are in Christ Jesus. And this he doth. by free justification in the blood of Christ ver. 2. and bring us under its dominion. therefore. Such is grants. what will become of us in the end. without an interest in Jesus Christ. from any thing by him delivered. unto the great disconsolation of believers. and that we in our- make resistance unto it. unto our everlasting ruin. 1. affirming. we shall. its interest and prevalency in the minds of believers. or removes them if laid as obhe had delivered. And whereas a twofold conclusion might be made from the description he gives of the power and actings of this sin. if it so obstruct us in our doing that which is good. But.THE NATURE AND CAUSES OF IT. and by its deceit and viotrouble them. and are h2 . that if such. thereunto. properties. but that at length it will absolutely prevail against us. made partakers thereof. and efficacy of indwelling sin. or a double question arise. For those who have an interest in him. much less cannot be. by the effected. Both these conclusions the apostle obviates in this chapter. that it makes them obnoxious unto condemnation. and that these things could no otherwise be both affirms and proves at large. from the 7th verse unto the end. The first of these is. are weakened. although sin may grieve and perplex them.' he those who are not so cannot avoid it. In the fore- going chapter. perish under the guilt of it. if this. it whomsoever it abides. be the power and prevalency of indwelling sin. 99 of sin. By a tacit concession. he declares the nature. jections against what 1. that the guilt of this sin. and such are the fruits of it in all in selves are no way able to to overcome it. is. manifesting that there was no cause for such conclusions or exceptions. and -from all liahleness . he doth in this chapter remove them both. that they will both of them be found true towards all who live and die under the law. There is a deliverance from this condemnation.

he gives a limitation of the subjects unto whom doth belong. saith he. Those defilements or pollutions which render the souls of men unmeet habitations for the Spirit of God. 1. taken from the conside- ration of the power and prevalence of this principle of sin. * of consolation provided for them. to vice it countenance themselves unto a continuance in the serof sin. in that there stable is ground no condemnation unto them that are in Christ Jesus. that he may dwell in us suitably unto his holiness. therefore. 11. who comply with its motions and inclinations. . and not that the death of our souls. all them and only them who walk As for those not after the jiesh. by a full discovery how and by what means that power of it shall be so broken. believers as in his temple. The foundation of all mortification of sin. by the law or power of the Spirit of life. he will remove and subdue. and itself destroyed. do all of them consist in sin inherent and its effects. that it is by the eifectual working of this Spirit in us alone. and holiness.' 3. ver. to declare. and so he prepares it for himself. is from the He dwells in the persons of inhabitation of the Spirit in us. 1. namely. These. as that we need not fear the consequents of it before mentioned but rather may secure ourselves. Rom. which is in Christ Jesus ver. there is a yet they need not despond. it remaineth adversary. there is nothing in Christ nor the gospel to free them from condemnation. its strength abated. that we are enabled to overcome this spiritual This being sufficiently evident. lence cause them to contract much guilt in their surprisals. And thereon he proceeds . he prevents or removes it. hut after the Spirit . this of who give up themselves unto the conduct principle of indwelling sin. ' If the Spirit of him that raised up Jesus from the dead dwell in you. viii. or be utterly cast down . that have an As interest in this privilege. that we shall be the death thereof. 2. we declare the wat/ and manner how he produceth that only this effect of his grace. j . It is they only who give up themselves to the conduct of the Spirit of sanctification 4. being acted wholly by its power. Now this is. to the other conclusion. let them neither flatter nor deceive themselves.100 MORTIFICATION OF SIN. its prevalency disappointed. That none may abuse this consolation of the gospel. he that raised up Christ from the dead shall also quicken your mortal bodies.

Know ye not that your body is it is the temple of the Holy Ghost. death and its power. i. as it is pally considered (First).THE NATURE AND CAUSES OF by IT. 16. but do yet walk after the flesh. 19. 9. 101 Our mortal bodies. Spirit . or It is the by a contrary principle of life and righteousness. Spirit . Moreover. men pretend what they please. for the temple of God is holy. And let God doth by it is they have not the Spirit of Christ dwelling in them. being freed from the principle of sin. as it is to be performed in ourselves by the way of duti/. As it * said to be wrought by the Spirit . Both these. (Secondly). which temple are ye. as ver. if Spirit . ' and that the Spirit of God dwelleth in you? if any man defile the temple of God.' our bodies as obnoxious unto death by reason of sin . 19. : grace. which you have of God?' 1 Cor. 1 Cor. But under what especial consideration doth he efwork of mortifying sin in us ? It is as he dwelleth it his Spirit as he dwelleth in us. So our apostle pressing unto it. continuing so to do. him shall God destroy. as sis. in the be that we may freeing of us from being in the flesh. in every duty two things are princiThe life and spring of it. and what he worketh in believers in their sanctification . ver. which is in you. fect this in us. The principal reason for it wrought and motive unto it. is. and because this work is wrought in us by virtue of the resurrection of Christ. so the consideration of it is the principal mounto it as it is a dutT/. 9. are his Spirit that dwelleth in you. as this is the only spring of mortification in us as tive a grace. Father and the Son. which God wrought in Christ him from the dead. therefore. Know you not that ye are the temple of God. which Spirit For he is equally the Spirit of the of Christ ver.' ver. 20. * doth it by this argument. in us by . And he is described by this periphrabetween that work. as to this matter oi mortification.' the of the called is also God. vi. Eph. of the Father. And the quickening of these mortal bodies. iii. shall die. ' said to work it through the are we our and as it is duty. is their 10.' Whereas. To which we may add that weighty caution which he gives us to the same purpose . and.' is a work of grace. both because there is a similitude to its greatness when he raised and power. And by what means is this effected ? It is that by the 'Spirit of him that raised Jesus from the dead. 13. they have not mortified any sin.

12 mind of the and soul. mortijies quickens us unto life.) it is he who and subdues our corruptions. vi. which we are to watch against under the severe commination of being destroyed for our neglect therein. how can Ghost will dicell in us. If it be said. which we have before described. (2. Where he hath effected this work. with all care and diligence as a duty. is to be considered.) is conduct principal Where sin hath the rule. This the apostle makes 14. and are so continually jmrijiedhy virtue from his sacrijice and oblation. but at the same instant he dethrones sin.102 do centre MORTIFICATION OF SIX. have continually such a sprinkling •with. is that we may thereby preserve his dwelling-place so as becometh his grace and holiness. as that they are never tations for the Holy Spirit of God. And indeed. holiness. unmeet habi- 2. viii.) The souls and minds of them who are really sanctified. and they are accompanied it be supposed. that the Holy any one that is not perfectly holy? I answer.' that he may make and prepare a habitation meet for himself. which is our mortification. The manner of the actual operation of the Spirit of God in effecting this work. as he dwelleth in us. And. and that of sin to his work. than this. He enters into no soul as his habitation. For. there the the matter in question. or how he mortijies sin. there he will dwell. * who ' ble motive to contend against all the defiling actings of sin. that by the neglect hereof the temple of the Spirit will be defiled.) the principal reason and motive which we have to attend unto it. and obedience.) That the great matter which the Spirit of God considereth in his opposition unto sin. (1. whereas (as our Saviour out of tells us) they are things which arise from and come the heart. that whereas we do acknowledge that there are still remainders of this sin in us. and brought his adversary into subjection.' that defile us. Who. and takes the rule of the soul into the commanded with their defilements. is dominion and rule. Holy Ghost will never dwell. or enables us And an acquaintance to mortify it. 7 9. herewith dependeth on the knowledge of the sin that is to be mortified. It is the vicious . (2. though sometimes his habitation be troubled by his subdued enemy. or in — — hand of his own grace. Rom. there is no greater nor more forciin this inhabitation of the Spirit. (chap. (1. the blood of Christ. spoils it of its dominion. or what shall have the evident.

but by being killed and slain: and whereas this is gradually to be done. the Spirit of God he worketh in us. and these are contrary one to the other. and actings. 17. 16 25. the soul. ver. that corrupt habit. when its its strength abated.' himself be intended. it prevails unto its dissolution. until having insen- it So is sibly improved them. doth insensibly and by degrees (for it dies not at once). Gal. a principle of spiritual life and holiness. There must be something in us that is contrary unto it. is in ' 103 us by nature. a contrary habit and principle. ' For the flesh lusteth against the Spirit. and inclination unto sin. with trariety. 24. then is this duty in its proper discharge.' When in us as to its power and efficacy. and prevalency destroyed. as also their contrary fruits and actings. the old man which this is weakened is corrupt according unto deceitful lusts.' but by virtue of that spirit which is born of him. work out its ruin and destruction. the disease continually combats and conflicts with the powers of nature. * They that are Christ's have crucified the flesh with its af- • . yet he ' lusteth not in us. that is. v. in this matter. For sin will no otherwise die. These adverse principles with their con- and conflict. it must be by warring and conflict. the issue of the whole. and the Spirit lusteth against the If by the flesh. namely. Walk in the Spirit and ye shall not fulfil the lusts of the :' flesh it not to fulfil the lusts of the flesh is to mortify it . ver. The contrary principles are the flesh and Spirit. and mortification carried on in Now First.THE NATURE AND CAUSES OF IT. the apostle describes at large in the following verses. But the issue of the whole is. the new nature or holy principle of obedience which Spirit. is or. conflicting with it. which opposing of it. By means hereof is this work effected. ver. which is the principal object of this duty . opposition. By implanting in our minds and all their faculties. And he gives a fuller account hereof. 16. by instancing in the contrary effects of the one and the other. this the Holy Ghost doth. the apostle expressly asserts and describes. and their contrary actings * — are in lusting and warring one against the other. bringing forth the fruits thereof. As in a chronical distemper. for neither will nor can be kept alive if its lusts be not fulfilled. dispositions. with contrary inclinations. And the way of their mutual opposition unto one another.

sin. And we do but deceive ourselves. Hence he shuts up his discourse with that exhortation. minds with any sin or temptation theredisquieted in their their lusts or corruptions are either influenced wherein unto. where at length it may expire. without which never any one sin was truly mortified in the world. then let us act.104 fections it MORTIFICATION OF and lusts. infirm. thriving. the more weak. and witha out it nothing else will contribute any thing thereunto. in the great way of the mortiThe more vigorous the principle of holiness fication of sin. entangled by objects. and so they find it at last unto their cost and sorrow. The reason is. strengthen it by growing in grace. the authority of its commands. This is that which will ruin sin. and dying. therefore. labouring to increase and sin. vye work and duty : that by cherishing the principle of holiness mortify and sanctification in our souls. the actings of the Spirit against it. by all the all they do is in tend is. work. not in this or that way. fastened unto that cross. and by a constancy and on all occasions. in the fruits of it. They have crucified that is. nor ever will so be. The course I inand subdue upon. the feebler and seldomer will be the actings of sin. But it. will be that of The more frequent and lively are the actings of grace. This. let us walk in the Spirit . urge him with the purity of its doctrine. that of labouring universally to improve a principle of holiness. the severity of its threatenings. or Satan. . and the fruits produced thereby. and opportuby nities. but in all instances of holy obedience. And this is the way of it.' that is. Bring man unto the law. because they neglect this course. The more we abound in the fruits of the Spirit. Men when they are galled in their consciences. and the^Vs^ way whereby the Spirit of God in a compliance with it under his this conduct do we regularly carry on is. 'if we live in the Spirit. frequency abounding in acting of it in all duties. if we are endowed with this spiritual principle of life. namely. and is in us. Growing. do set themselves oft-times in good earnest to oppose ways and means they can think vain. which is to live in the Spirit. and improve that spiritual principle unto the ruin and mortification of sin.' SIX. occasions. the less shall we be concerned in the works of the flesh. is niortifieth sin in us. and im- proving in universal holiness. if we think sin will be mortified on any other terms. it.

THE NATURE AND CAUSES OF IT. ' I thank God through Jesus Christ our Lord . as the head natural is to the body. can any one fix upon. and his complaint thereon. These things are not empty noIf Christ be a head of influence tions as some imagine. which he continually commuFor the same divine operations. as well as of rule. that in the life of 19. and we have nothing but what we do receive from him if he gives unto us supplies of his Spirit. * My grace is sufficient for thee . the positive acts supplies of grace.' 2 Cor. and And what other probable way besides increase its guilt. may die. Heb. I shall now only observe. The Holy Ghost carrieth on this work in us as a grace. and his law in may 7 — live ? The apostle assures us of the contrary. but to imitate.' Rom. . the same nicates unto us. and enableth us unto it as our duty. hereon to discharge this duty. the expectation and derivation of these supplies of grace and spiritual strength. James i. that sin in the actual motions and lustings of it may be mortified so the apostle issues his long account of the conflict between sin and the soul of a believer. The whole power unto indwelling sin. namely. if our life be in him. its this unto this end. that the Lord Christ gives that successful only answer unto the apostle. Secondly. which are necessary unto and duties of holiness are necessary also unto this end. xii. . Phil. Grace given in to help seasonably upon our cry made for it. of the neWill he be able cessity of its mortification and destruction. so as that sin soul vii. if he be our life. who supplies me with gra. by those actual supplies and assistances of grcrce. and if it be our duty by faith to look for all these things from him. provoke. Rom. faith unto us. effect of the application of the 9. vii. additional supply' as occasion requireth beyond our constant daily provision or x«P*C tig avKaipov (doi'ideiav . This is the iTrixoprjyia tov irvsvfxaro^'. 105 the dreadful consequences of its trangression. cious assistance against the power of sin. iv. 9. and increases of grace. Of the nature of these supplies.|14. An ' and dependance on Christ. 16. we have discoursed before. is. 25. with that good word. Temptation is by sin. i. And it was with respect unto an especial temptation. and that be the . Suppose him convinced hereby of the evil and danger of sin. It is the actual supply of the Spirit of Christ that doth enable us to withstand our temptations and subdue our corruptions. is one principal part of our duty.

not .' only what duties are incumbent on them. that we know them aright. as passion. meditation. 2. which are most directly opposite unto those peculiar lusts or corruptions thatwe are most exercised For sin and grace do try their withal. if we would be found in a successful discharo^e of this duty. and with respect unto what ends. 1. That we hioiv them there are) two things are required and as that in nature also their use. That we endeavour diligently in the whole course of our lives after these continual is. sin. but also how to perform them. then is this expectation and derivation of spiritual strength continually from him. and ends. If. . either as to the nature of truth God the work itself. it is required of us . distrust of God of those graces which are diametrically opposed unto them. And. or as to the means whereby it may be ef- . love of the unless he be constant in the exercise world. It js the helps us in. we have no ground to expect any great supplies to 2. therefore. this end. or through the neglect ture. of God of a due manner. they will continually suffer under the power of Thirdly. and the performance of those duties.106 MORTIFICATION OF SIN. use. For always Christ giveth them out freely and bountithe Lord though our diligence in duty will give the measure of refully. that ceiving them. Thatwe live and abound in the actual exercise of all those graces. and other ordinances of divine worship. rit unto this end : and then. means of receiving them . the way we are to take for the actual mortification of sin. that of God unto cation of sin. If we are negligent in prayer. which are appointed this eyid. And therefore. interest and prevalency in particular instances. that we wait for them in all those and means whereby they are communicated. which things are all expressly and frequently aflfirmed in the Scripture . 1. Unto the they may be means of the mortifiright use of those duties (for such : 1. in their 7iaFor want hereof.em. That vi& perform ih. Holy Spirit which directs us unto. to lead them into all he teacheth and instructs them by the word. hearing of the word. in And both these we must have from the Spi' : he is given to believers. It is required. reading. any are more than ordinarily subject unto the power of any corruption. yet supplies of grace. all sorts of men have wandered after foolish imaginations about this work. they are appointed aright. inordinate affections. of looking after it. or obnoxious unto.

is general apprehension that somewhat of this nature necessary. and was from thence variously improved by the philosophers of old. arising from the observation of the disorder of (1. made deeply dwelling sin. and doubtless are and have been. The commandment also being variously brought and applied unto their consciences.) may look into the papacy. a far clearer discovery of the nature and power of sin. they are now in prac- . by the light of the Scripture. We nor taught the duties whereby it may be brought about by the Spirit of God. sensible of the actings and tendency of inHereon ensues a terror of death and eternal judgment. they never attained unto any thing of the same kind. and the like. They have. although. and take a view of the great appearance of this duty which is therein. persons who were not nor had their consciences seared. and that by the teachings of only And it may not be amiss to give some the Spirit of God. knew nothing of the depravation of the mind itand had nothing to oppose unto what they did discover. than had the philosophers of old. could not reprofligate. and we shall find it all disappointed. For. frain from contriving ways and means how sin might be mortified and destroyed. But whereas they had lost a true of the apprehension only way whereby this might be effected. This was the spring of all the austerities. they may be. and those most of them notoriously influenced by vain glory and applause.THE NATURE AND CAUSES OF fected. instances of the darkness of men's minds. many of them. But whilst their discoveries of sin rose no higher than the actual disorder they found in the affections and passions of the mind. they betook themselves unto innumerable false ones of their own. moderating desires. self-macerations. conquering passions. disciplines. and the like. which are exercised or in use among them. and the exorbitancy of the lives of most in the world. 107 being a grace and duty of the gospel. fastings. thence truly to be learned. and their mistakes For it is it herein. Things being so stated. (2. To this purpose did they give many instructions about denying and subduing the disorderly affections of the mind. with the due mortification whilst they self. is suited even to the light of nature. but moral considerations. of sin. because they are not led unto. IT.) A our passions.

nor conscience 5 by them. These things are not spoken to condemn even external severities and austerities. indulge Yea.108 tice. But yet when . This made them betake themselves to purgatory. they being such as God never appointed unto any such end or purpose. The like may be said of the Quakers amongst ourThat which first recommended them. turned mostly to the benefit of the priests. bravery of apparel. it is high time.) selves. MORTIFICATION OF SIN. and pleasures. they will not contribute the least towards the mortification of sin. and an indulgence unto sin in the penitents. and abstinencies. and cannot be subordinate unto spiritaul ends. So Hieromo gives us an honest instance in himself. But these outward austerities of themselves. was an appear- . in fulshould retrench consent by joint ness of diet. we are apt to think that all things of that nature are utterly needless. watchings. which many are fallen into. Neither is there either virtue or efficacy in the residue of them. conform to the world. in an outward shadow and appearance of it. that professors that course of life. I say. telling us. yet they were invented and set on foot at first with a design to use them as engines and they have a great appearfor the mortification of sin ance in the flesh unto that end and purpose. Rome. but being the fruit of men's own contrivances and inventions . being not blessed of God thereunto. from whence none could come back to complain of their disappointments. expense of time in vain conidleness versation. Here they have hopes all will be set right. because we see the vanity of the Papists in placing mortification of sin. but as they are subordinated unto other spiritual duties. in that bodily exercise which profiteth not. I shall suspect their internal mortification (pretend what to their senthey will) sual appetite. his mind would be in the sports and revels at (3. But the truth is. and lodged in his cave. in fastings. they found by experience that they were insin was not destroyed. will never effect the end aimed at : for as to the most of them. let them be insisted on and pursued unto the most imaginable extremities. and lead their lives in much who always pamper the flesh. when they are gone out of this world. in pacified Our nature is apt to run into extremes . all v/as sufiicient hereunto done. their proper place. that whilst he lived in his horrid wilderness in Judea.

It is the Spirit of God they do alone it who leads us into the exercise of those duties whereby may be carried on. as that they seemed to excite and provoke themselves to exceed all others in clamours. nor by any of their austere outward appearances. railings. so they were so far from restraining or mortifying their real inclinations. and malicious treating of those who dissented from them. among all that pretend to any reverence of God. calumnies. But supposing that they is and duty of into a pleasing dream of perfection. macerated countenances. For in the height of their outward appearances. things. IT. mutually to charge one another withal. And the and that fruitlessness of their generally finding attempt. contenamong themselves. in faith. do more openly indulge themselves unto tions covetousness. they begin to give over their design. nor peculiar habits or looks. though the nature of it. than not to mention the filth and uncleanness they begin . end be 2. And so will all selfdevised ways of mortification end. watch: . sin of open made a real industrious attempt for the mortification of sin. what success have they had. nor by their resolutions. without the least discovery of a heart filled with kindness and benignity unto mankind. within. reproaches. strife. and that is all. indeed sin will not be mortified by the power of their light it. love of the world. as they came short of the sorry weeds. severe revenges against others. without the especial assistance of the Holy Spirit. Without this. evil speakings. hath been sufficiently before evinced and the duties which are appointed of God in an especial manner unto this end. that the duties to be used unto this rightly performed. unto the glory of God. It is required. For who.THE NATURE AND CAUSES OF ance of mortification. Now that we can perform no duty in this way ot manner. which in this matter are openly pharisaical. 109 which it is it may be also some of them evident they never understood really intended. and dervises among the Mahometans . a multiplication of duties is an increase of burden and bondage. begging habits. or love unto any but themselves in which frame and state of . are prayer. and severe looks of many monks in the Roman church. meditation. what have they attained unto? Some of them have very wisely slipped over the whole work as secure from mortification as in the practice lusts and debaucheries. emulation.

xviii.110 MORTIFICATION OF SIN. and with regard only unto this general end. and I did not put away his statutes from me.) with an especial All these duties are to be designed and managed It w ill not suffice that respect unto this end. when the avoidance of temptations and opportunities for sin. sometimes watchfulness and abstinence. kept the ' ways of the Lord. and I kept myself from mine iniquity. which of them in particular we ought to be most conversant in. disorderly affections. when sin takes occasion from temptations. (1. Not to go over these duties in particular. discovers itself in a peculiar manner unto us. nor to shew wherein their especial efficacy unto this end and purpose doth consist. whereby he is ready for as the He that is so. nor whither he goeth. 21 — 23. his owm iniquity. it casions and temptations. for all his judgments were before me. I shall fulness. only give some general rules concerning the exercising of our souls in them. so the circumstances of our condition will direct us. and businesses in the world. his state and condition. sometimes wisdom and circumspection. No man who wisely considereth himself. his oc- ruin of sin. nor have preserved his integrity in walking with God. can be wholly ignorant of his espe- and inclinations. David proI have bably had respect hereunto. and walks at peradventures with God. as when our danger riseth solely from ourselves. had he not known. As they are all useful and necessary. He could have done nothing of all this. concerns.' Psal. dark to himself. when he said. designing in and by them the mortification and we Especially. Sometimes prayer and meditation claim this place. not cial corruptions knowing how he walketh. when by its especial actings in us. and kept a continual watch upon. Upon this discovery are we to apply these duties in a particular manner to the weakening and ruin of the power of sin. psalmist speaks. and some directions for their right performance. wisdom or circumspection with reference unto temptations and their prevalency. or that working of sin in him which most peculiarly inclined and disposed him unto evil. are exercised in them in general. or unruly passions. and have not wickedly departed from my God. is in an . I was also upright before hi a. and our own perverse inclinations. We are to apply them unto this particular case. abstinence. lives in the halting.

Iv. its power and prevalency. Complaint. I say. and thereby to attain conformity unto Jesus Christ. namely. an account of it without great complaints. work two ways to(2. I first the is complainer to relieve himself against. but it is acceptable with God. 24. I mourn in my make a noise. crying out of its deceit and For all just and due complaint respecteth that violence. and hear me. only in one of them.] Morally. Ill be manner required of us. whence mulation unto holiness doth arise. 2. with respect unto sin. cii. and that wherein believers find ease and rest unto their souls. are to and demanaged with a peculiar design to oppose. cxlii. and by way of impetra[1.] Really. a have into which of the sin. wards the end designed. the principal matter and Yea. [1. defeat. duties work morally. powerful inthey power stroy fluence as designed of God unto that end. Of this sort there nothing to be compared with the power of sin. 1st.' So David expresseth himself. and sheweth before him the trouble it undergoes on the account thereof. of help and assistance. which is grievous.' This is work of prayer. by assiimmediate opposition unto sin and its power. the title of Psal. and by way of iman petration. and that \& prayer. ' Attend unto me.] These instance I shall tion. as to This therefore is. And Psal. shewed before him my trouble. as that apostle could not give believers. what is more acceptable unto and and for his children.) All these duties lightly improved. the very nature subject of their complaints in prayer. than will. These duties. let the world scoff" while it pleaseth. ' I poured out my comlamentation. the of the whole case is such. There are two parts of prayer with respect unto sin and its power. And this it doth in an humble acknowledgment of its guilt. 2. and which is beyond the power of the plaint before him. complaint before the Lord.' His prayer was a doleful and complaint. to . The prayer when he is overwhelmed. out of pure love unto him holiness. For. of the afflicted Psal. Complaints.THE NATURE AND CAUSES OF especial IT. Rom. This part of prayer indeed is with profligate persons derided and scorned. and ought to be. vii. out of fervent desires to comply with his mind God. Petitions. [2. The soul therein pours out its complaints unto God. For. 1st. and poureth out his So ' is 2ndly.

and to be ignorant of this duty? But we have nothing to do with such persons. as to scoflPat and deride these things? That any one should ever read the Bible. their and their spise complaints. or oppress them in their secular interests. whilst they may. wrought in us the by Holy Ghost. had not experiLuciferian pride and athe- ism should possess the minds of any who would be esteemed Christians. and him . as far as they are gracious and effectual. these complaints of sin. He owns believers as his children. for supplies of grace to conflict and sin withal. Prayer is directly petitions to this purpose. say. or once consider what he is. and concerns. therefore. bemoaning of themselves before him? will he not avenge them of that enemy. but such as oppose them. and humbly acknowledging all the evils are liable unto upon the account thereof? they Would any man have thought it ence convinced him. and prevalent with to give out aid and assistance. I need not prove this. in their repentance I to know their folly. of the distance they are kept from these things by the captivating power of sins. to make their complaints of it unto him who pities them. that they suffer : suffer 2ndly. and ought they so to be. are acceptable to God. bewailing their frail condition. and hath the bowels and compassion of a father towards them sin he knows to be their greatest enemy. poured out before the Lord. who ' therein maketh ' intercession for us. They will come either in this world (which we hope and pray for). who will relieve them and avenge them. when the mind is peculiarly engaged in the design of destroying sin. advantages. come with unto him. these cryings out of deceit and violence. 18 20. which Will he then defights directly against their souls. Especially will they be so.112 MORTIFICATION OF their complaints SIN. these petitions or requests are.' to the will And according . it consists of petitions unto God. are strangers unto these things. and — know more from it than from all the world them. no man joins in prayer with another who prays as he ought. xxxi. Men who think they have no other enemies. but these petitions are a part of his prayer. with these fond and impious imaginations. Believers look on sin as their greatest adversary. or obstruct them. that so much possible. or in another. no man conquer prays as he ought. none to complain of. but to leave them to please themselves. and with whom he hath to do. and that speedily? See Jer.

But yet in whomsoever the death of Christ is not the death of sin. without which it will not be mortified. as to inclinations and comWould such a frame always continue. Fourthly.' Gal. therefore. frame. To evidence this truth. By his cross. cient of the mortification of sin. But abiding in the duty is the best way of reachthat this duty is really effiing out after it. And this is another thing. And is a principal means to fix and conand likeness of it. This duty hath a real efficiency unto the same end. how happy pliances. he shall die in his . and duly attended unto) mightily prevail unto the weakening and destruction of sin. that is. there are some secret flaws in the prayers of men. holiness. exercised. his death on the cross. vi. which it will be their wisdom to find out and heal. This is plainly enough testified unto in the Scripture. it doth despise. * ' world. and come off from prayer above all impressions from sin. . nor is more conformed unto it. [2. That the death of Christ hath an especial iiifluence into the mortification of sin. for his prevalent requests unto grace. And where this is not so. because the world understandeth not. frequency in this duty. whereby it may us to put up such continual supplies of be constantly kept under. Our old I we are crucified unto the man is crucified with him. and inclinations of the soul unto universal holiness. VOL. and at He makes God for length destroyed. the habit. 14. morally and by way of impetration. and hence form solidate the mind continue do believers oft-times in. are increased. with a detestation of all sin. 113 And hereby doth he work carry on this it is. than it is in prayer. which. I say. cherished. and strengthened. Ill. The Holy Spirit carrieth on this work by applying in an especial manner the death of Christ unto us for that end. never raised unto a higher intension of spirit in the pursuit love unto. because therein all the graces whereby it is opposed and weakened. And this is the first way whereby this duty hath an influence into mortification. especially when it is designed unto this end. 1.' IT. It (when rightly performed. in the were we. we may observe. sins.THE NATURE AND CAUSES OF of God. or cast into the mould of it. are excited. work of the mor- tification of sin. in general. The soul of a believer For is of. and delight in.] doth itself I in and by fervent prayer. and improved unto that end as also the detestation and abhorrency of sin is increased in us. namely.

The old man is said to he crucified with Christ. and he lived again by the power of God. as hath been declared. and.114 that the is. afterward they that are Christ's at his coming. of the first-born of every creature. A likeness and conformity hereunto God will work in all believers.' Rom. For it is by an considered: (1. 3. with respect unto sin there may be is His oblation of himself. whereof our baptism is a pledge. 3. ver. or sin to be mortified by the death of Christ. O^ conformity. Particularly.' Col. 5. Hereon are we said to be buried with him. 2. By the first it is. in its power. There way our is by nature a life of sin in them.0. and that Now in a of grace and mercy. the benefits of his death. iii. for was the which meritorious sin. vi. that our sins are expiated as unto their guilt. (2.' 1 Cor. which baptism is a pledge of. Christ new creation. This . Hereof the apostle gives us an express instance in the resurrection. fied in Jesus Christ. as was in part before observed on two accounts. procuring cause thereof. as it a token of our initiation and implanting into him.' or into the likeness of of it. and a participation of.) cation thereof interest in. but from the latter it is. and to rise with him. he first exempliand we are predestinated to be conformed to the image of his Son.) is the head. vi.' Rom. we are by grace planted into the like- ness of his death. 2.) The appliunto us. which we call the application of it unto us. 10. in a death unto sin. 29. nor in our being put to death as he was . In the death of Christ. the beginning or idea. But Christ died for sin. all that is wrought in us. 6. and so to be 'dead with ' this conformity is not in our naChrist. sin might be destroyed. xv. viii. 4. sin MORTIFICATION OF body of SIN. but in a powerful participation of the virtue of the death and life of Christ. and taken up again (which were to make one sign the sign of another). That mortified in us by virtue of the death of Christ. it is in resemblance and conformity unto ' Christ. and newness is life in holy obedience. 3.' Phil. vi. not in an outward representation. 23. ' * Christ the first-fruits. being made conformable unto ]ns death. ii. So are we said to be ' baptized into his death . for it is that which we ?re made partakers of in this life. us therein. It is so in all things. the Whatever God designeth unto (1. that is. that they are actually subdued as to their power.' Rom. tural death. as some imagine of being dipped under the water. Rom.

lowship participation I jl conformable to his death . is designed to be the deal^h of sin. and we thereby become dead unto sin. fountain. but it is accompanied with a power conforming and changing us be quickened in ' into his own likeness. which wrought these things in Christ. influences of life from Christ. - It is the ordinance of God unto that It is by a felend.' which we are designed unto. virtue goeth forth from the death of Christ. we have nothing therefore that belongs thereunto what is derived from him. had never died in any sinner unto eternity. Wherefore. They cast themselves out of Ithe verge of Christianity. or the author of life unto us. sin must die in us. in the death of sin in us. On 'he is our life. It was not designed to be a dead. ' benefits thereof. that life. In this death of sin consists that mortification which we treat about. therefore. in the pursuit of his design. who suppose that the Lord Christ is no otherwise our life. Until our spiritual life doth ensue the death of sin. 10. And as he rose again so are we to . and cause of it. for the subduing and destruction of sin. This. will. for this on the other hand is peculiarly assigned unto his death in the testimonies before produced. in we are made his that or sufferings. which he therefore gives efficacy unto. and not communicate |but And that we have real strength to the whole body so to do. 115 life must be destroyed. passive example. this Kotvwvia twv an interest inthe benefit of his suffering we also are made partakers thereof. I have sufficiently proved before. let them who are dead in If Christ had not died. iii. is by virtue derived from Christ. that is.' Phil. inactive. but as he hath revealed and taught the way of life unto us . cannot be denied without a renunciation of all the waOr^lLiaTwv. This makes us conformable The death of Christ to his death. work that which answers unto them in all his members. our spiritual the one hand the Scripture tells us.THE NATURE AND CAUSES OF IT. in an especial manner from his leath. that there is a virtue and efficacy in the death of Christ unto this purpose.) In respect of efficacy . the spring. (2. and conformed unto Christ in his without which we cannot be And the same Spirit death. i2 . is . And it would be a sorry head that should only teach the feet to go. he is our life as he is our head. sin sin deride it whilst they please. and unto newness of life. as the Scripture testifies.

and virtue went forth from him to stay her bloody issue Matt.' Mark v. The means whereby we derive this virtue from him. how will sin be mortified here- by it ? I say. unto the mortification of sin. this soul is healed. for the death of sin. . For so our Saviour tells her in his answer. shall not divine virtue and power go forth unto that end? The Scripture. or her faith in him in particular for that end. thy faith hath made thee whole. is So the diseased woman in the gospel touched but the hem of his garment. It was not her touching him outwardly. faith itself as acted on the death reality thereof. I . and experience of all believers. who looked unto the brazen serpent ? was not because that was an ordinance of God. All the inquiry is. give testimony unto the truth and Besides.] 'By faith. How the death of Christ is applied nnto us. when it is looked on. A great emblem it of common profession on the one hand. we do it two death of Christ for this purpose.' But unto what end was this touching of his garment? It was only a pledge and [1. by acting faith on him in his death. though seemingly at a distance. But when any one. 22. and especial faith on the other. is by touching of him. or applied unto by faith. by touching of him. Hoiv tve apply ourselves to the And I answer. which is the same.116 MORTIFICATION OF SIN. The Scripture assures us. or. Multitudes press and throng about Christ in a profession of faith and obedience. though poor. and in the real performance of many duties . that is. that there is virtue and efScacy in the death of Christ unto that end. that derived virtue from him. how. 30. ' Daughter be of good comfort. For at the same time many thronged upon him in a * who press. but no virtue goeth forth from Christ to heal them. yet was not any of them is advantaged but the poor sick woman. but her faith which she acted then and thereby. which by his almighty power he made effectual unto that purpose ? The death of Christ being so as to the crucifying of sin. ways : The way to derive virtue from (Christ. But how will this effect it. gets but the least touch of him by espeThis is our way with respect cial faith. by what power and virtue were they healed in the wilderness. 31. so as his disciples marvelled he should ask touched his clothes . token of the particular application of the healing power of Christ unto her soul. ix.

and thereby become dead with him. like those which are raised is weak persons. will be our sueThose who are careless and remiss in the exercise of cess. iii.' In the death of Christ. but by holy actings of declared in the Scripture as to its power and efficacy. unto his death.' 2 Cor. will find that sin will keep its ground. his condescension. who are ignorant of or do blaspheme it. it is the only means whereby we actually derive from Christ the benefits of our union with him. 6 epwg Ejuoc e(TTavp(i)Tat . faith. Accordinor as we abide and abound herein. ' is crucified. or our application of ourselves to the death of Christ for the mortification of sin. for/ beholding' him. The object of it. why do I stay behind. faith. or should so be. may.] For he is therein unto object of our love. And that which we peculiarly behold. we are changed into the same image . And they by whom this means it. from thence we have all grace. not in natural or carin nal affections. Hence one of the ancients cried sinners altogether lovely. and experience the death of sin in them continually. therefore. Christ as crucified is the great [2. And moreover. by prayer and meditation. 18. not in notions and the death of Christ. most gloriously shine forth. thereof is despised or neglected. affections. And men who are much conversant with lifeless speculations. and love out. and maintain so much power in them as shall issue in their perpetual trouble. there is no such thing in the world. we have grace for the killing of sin. 3rdly. we are peculiarly transformed into the likeness of. do his love. in the way described. 2ndly. or. unto what inventions soever they turn themselves for deliverance. crucified with him.THE NATURE AND CAUSES OF IT. with respect unto what do it by love. as in the testimonies before produced. The means of the representation of that object unto our minds and in hand. will be implanted into the likeness of it. consider three things with respect We unto this love: 1st. We My his grace. must live under the power of sin. This is that which we call the application of the death of Christ unto us. hath a peculiar efficacy unto the subduing of sin. And the communication of it unto us. is in and by the actual So it being acted with respect exercise of faith principally. thereby/ as in a glass. by images and crucifixes. buried with him. The e^ec^s of it as to the case . 117 of Christ.

the grace.' Gal.for us. in his not his death absolutely. I Sam.118 1st. do it unto themselves by their own imagiThey may frame and fancy dolorous things unto themselves about it. in the reading or hearing of a feigned For there is a sympathy in natural affections with it by the things that are their proper objects. as that of Jonathan to David . and in the dispensaFor therein is tion of it according to the mind of God.) Men may nations. than what the same persons do find in may be. Wherefore. and others. as to ingenerate sincere love in any soul. the effects of it. 1. conspicuously shine forth in his death. 2ndly. the 1. (3rdly. So it produceth a firm adherence unto . But no love in sincerity will ever (1st. his ujisearch- object of it is Christ himself. by images. And there are power. and great passions accompanied with tears and vows may be so excited. with an appearance of ardent affections. Herein some have a great faculty to work upon the natural affections of their auditors. representation of this object. (2ndly. MORTIFICATION OF The liis SIN.) Adherence. be ingenerated towards Jesus Christ hereby. in crucifixes and dolorous whereunto they pay great devotion. is towards Christ crucified Jesus Christ evidently crucified before our eyes . (2ndly. the condescension. in pathetical and tragical declarations of the outward part of Christ's sufferings. love in the Scripture is frequently expressed by this effect. or was knit unto another . though represented false imaginations. are. his unspeakable sion. as of all true love. (1st. which is the way of persons under deep and devout superstitions. 3rdly. the patience. which is intended. his able grace.)this done eftectually only by the gospel. (1st. (4thly. iii.) Assimilation. faith as the So is Christ eyed by proper object of sincere love. the obedience. work. And.) It may be done by others. various ways whereby this may be represented unto our minds. in this themselves. But for the most part.) Adherence. and victorious but It is death. And this it doth by proposing unto our faith. there is no more story. ' end and design of Christ therein. But none of these are such a due among some pictures. being so stated.) It is done in the Papacy. or dying. xviii. infinite condescen- patient suffering. the love. all these graces as himself. the soul of one did cleave. in love.

the nature or effects of love. that it begets a likeness between the mind loving. believers. and I confess weakly and ob- . they shall hold good. the of holiness. and pressing on. and necessity concerns of God. But we have proved. ' tions that would divert I it whatever. way before described. Fifthly. and consideration of the perverse nature and the searching dreadful consequents of sin. consciences. and bind the soul unto this duty. that makes a soul to be in some sense And hence. of the perfect peace and future blessedness which attendeth the practice of holiness. but they assign this as one of them. reasons. it will never be prevalent also. unto the mortification of sin. and represented in the manner and changed into its fication of sin. John xvi. always present witli Christ on the cross. excellency. not that conquerable by any such reasonings or considerations conviction of sin and righteousness which is useful and is wrought in us by prevalent unto that end and purpose. usefulness. the object beloved.) ensues assimilation or conformity. 119 Christ crucified. the work will not be peculiar efficacy and power When he is pleased to make use of reasons and effectual. with the beauty. A mind filled with the love of Christ as crucified. the gospel. Christ. None treat of (2ndly. discoveries unto. that there are other causes of it A rational And now I add. yet if he give not a unto all. that if we have no consideration of these things. by the effectual mortiimage of a derivation power and grace from through thence for that purpose. 18. Although he makes use of our minds. the true nature and certain end of sin and on the other. against all objections and tempta. understandings. on the one hand. And thus have briefly. will be and likeness. and the best of our consideration in this matter. and And so I am sure it is in this matter. they will find an obstinacy and stubbornness in their hearts. but what our own reason is of itself able to unto any sincere suggest unto us. and their own souls consideration of these things. is all the therein. motives taken from the nature and end of sin and holiness. the Holy Ghost. The Holy Ghost carrieth on this work by constant . reason of mortification in the judgments of some and ground men. in ever.THE NATURE AND CAUSES OF IT. or permanent attempt in the mortification of any sin whatLet men make the best of their reason they can.

scurely. . so with all sober persons to cast out of all consideration that fulsome product oi pride and ignorance. what have been discoursed. from plain Scripture and experience. is sufficient. that all gospel holiness consists in the practice of moral virtues. but that what hath been argued pose. &C.120 MORTIFICATION OF SIN. as to direct us in the practice of true evangelical holiness. I judge suiScient to my present purAnd I doubt not. and particularly inquired into. been more enlarged. delineated the work of the Holy Ghost in the sanctiMany things might have Jication of them that do believe.

and truth. pressed with its limitation. and disadvantageously pleaded for by many . yet practised by few. with ourfuture everTrue force of that consideration vindicated . and our accesses unto God thereby. the nature and efficacy of that motive declared. frequently proposed unto our consideration for that end.from the pre-eminence of our natures and persons by this conformity to God . the foundation of effectual motive unto the same end. we grow into conformity with God . charged. and the substitution of morality in the room of gospel holiFalse accusations of the doctrine of grace. This argument cogent and unavoidable . ness.BOOK V. Not the nature of God absolutely. discarded. Though oivned hy all. The prin- cipal argumentfarther enforced. is. ness. those that are assimilating. in order unto our eternal enjoyment of him: as it also alone renders us Two sorts of graces. lasting enjoyment of him. from the freedom and efficacy of grace. answered. the true nature of it briefly expressed. CHAP. NECESSITY OF HOLINESS FROM THE CONSIDERATION OF THE NATURE OF GOD. by whose exercise useful in this world unto others. as goodAn objection against the necessity of holiness or benignity. unto all persons who make profession of the . The I. the consideration of the necessity of that holiness which we have thus far described. and those which are declarative of that assimilation. but as he is in Christ. The argument enforced. 1 HAT wherewith I shall close this discourse. and a most nion and likeness with him tvhich depend thereon . necessity of evangelical holiness owned hy all Christians: doctrinesfalsely charged ivith an inconsistency with it. from the consideration of our conformity unto God by holiness . with that commuthis necessity. lect merit rejected. and the neg- of the true means of promoting gospel obedience. First argumentfor the necessity of holiness from the nature of God. as faith and love .

But what is of that nature. that many are not yet agreed about. or what is a hinder- ance thereunto. and an influence on our minds from them. if not the only yet the notwithstanding. 3. and carried it In this in Christianity. The Socinians contend.122 gospel. pleaded for. Wherefore. and yet. and of his faithfulness in the preservation of true believers in their state of grace unto the foundations of on the other hand. this necessity/ is such. 1 Tim. and trouble. some few things must were whether men will or no. the Scripture doth so place the all true and real holiness in these things. unto the due handbe premised. To examine the pretences of others concerning the suitend : ableness of their doctrines unto the promotion of holiness. that without the faith of them. the almighty efficacy of his grace in the conversion of sinners. of it. whereby So ordinary a thing is it. as that it is by all sorts of Christians allowed. cost. as it but practice will stand them in pains. concerning the imputation The same our unto of Christ justification. First. no men can with modesty refuse the trial of their doctrines by their tendency thereunto. it will not allow of any thing to be so called. and principal moAnd for our encouragement in this part of unto it. that the doctrine of the satisfaction of Christ doth overthrow the necessity of a holy life. For. do all Christians agree . tives our work. is. 1. through all different persuasions one thing alone almost. to have men plead guments. and the thing itself pretended unto. As. aXriOeia. righteousness the of doctrine the is laid others gratuiagainst charge by tous election of God. furtherance. NECESSITY OF HOLINESS FROM THE with the reasons of that necessity. The of the Papists say the same. are who most the principal thing. vi. Conviction comes in at an easy rate.' or that which is designed and every way suited unto the attaining. truth or doctrine which is according unto godliness. whereas the gospel is eminently. and such as are not taken out of the stores of its . Tit. It is disadvantageous unto the interest of the gosfor holiness with weak incogent arpel. maintained a conviction of its necessity. for men to agree for the ruined. and live in the neglect have so done. are so called. It is well that it hath always is not my present business. * The or di^acTKoXia i) kcit Ivaijdaav. ling of this matter. and practice of it. i. the want of it. when they necessity of holiness.

but an usurper of its crown and dignity which we shall afterward inquire into. against gion.' such as foreheads was written were most of the upon. show and pretence of it. and pursue what I have proposed. neglecters of holy duties. the great doctrines of the grace of God in our free election. . express in themselves a habit and frame of mind utterly inconsistent with what the Scripture so calls. under its name and title. which some plead for not an attendance unto. scoffers at relifor a holy life. discover what is their true nature and tendency in this matter. on all occasions. and salvation by Jesus Christ. as the whole of our religion. to be proud. and the power of it. being such as are taken out of the gospel. to hear men contending for holiness. or the Scripture. pernicious to all the concerns of holiness itself. to and so And have that defended and pleaded for. or the observation of. it might the more But to see or hear men proclaiming themeasily be borne.CONSIDERATION OF THE NATURE OF GOD. But the farther consideration hereof I shall at present omit. but such as naturally flow from them. selves. which indeed is not so. That I shall at present suppose all along. grounds shall confine myself unto these two things That the reasons. and reasons of it. and arguments the with liness. a superstitious proud conceitof their being meritorious of gr&ce . whom they reflect a thing which all sober men do justly nauseate. And if some men did this only. as being at variance with themselves. is first reformed divines. what that Now this is not that outward holiness is which I do intend. pleading the doctrine and practice of those who walked unblamably before the Lord in all his ways. on sundry accounts. all respect unto God and common honesty. to unteach men all the principles of religion. Secondly. discourse In concerning the necessity of homy Thirdly. some or all moral virtues only . which I shall insist on. conversion. It is uncomely and unworthy. I : for 1. without reflections on others. There is certainly no readier way. worldly. revengeful. not a readiness for some acts ofpiety and charity. yea. and in the meantime. are not only consistent and compliant with it. sensual. their whole in course. arguments. justification. and which God abhors. and motives. it is 123 really affect not the consciences of men. . from 2. and so esteems. truth. upon whose breasts and ' Holiness unto the Lord .

The nature of God as revealed unto us. (3. the will of God (2. as that unless they are sanctified and holy. v. 4 6. First. For thou art not a God that hath pleasure in wickedness. neither shall evil dwell with thee. to the essence of holiness in our hearts and natures 2. and so to do.) A universal compliance with in all duties of obedience.) A designathe actions of life unto the glory of God by Jesus Christ. for I am holy. Lev. our minds. according to the gospel : this is holiness .' Without this. 16. 45.124 NECESSITY OF HOLINESS FROM THE But I intend that holiness which I have before deor glory. And to shew the everlasting equity and force of this reason. it. because it is written.' God lets them know. so be ye holy in all manner of conversation .' So also chap. Scripture made the fundamental your God. so to be. ye shall therefore sanctify yourselves. i. which scribed. To this purpose belongs * that description given us of his nature. Such as prove the necessity of holiness as . ye shall therefore be holy. them the that Lord will abhor the speak lying destroy a . — . Be ye holy. I. then. do require indispensably that we should be holy. 2. So he declares the sense of this enforcement of that precept to be Lev. that I should be your God and you should be my people. with the nature of our blessedness in the enjoyment of him. 1 Pet. and abstinence out of a principle o^faith and love. is to be holy. wills : and affections by grace. holiness in our lives and conversations. there can be no such intercourse between him and them as ought to be between God and his people. ' I brought you out of the land of Egypt to be your God. *As he v/hich hath called you is holy. with our dependence on him. holiness of necessity ' For I am the Lord of his command for it . xi. for I am holy.) An internal change or renovation of our souls. 15. xi. The holiness of God's nature is every where in the live principle and reason of the Himself makes it the ground in us. xix. of all into two sorts : 1. Such as prove the necessity of holiness as to the degrees of it. 44. The foolish shall not stand in thou all hatest workers of iniquity. Psal. the obligation that is upon us to unto him. xx. maybe reduced to these three heads (1. the relation designed cannot be maintained. And I shall divide my arguments from tion sin. that his nature is such. Thou shalt thy sight. 7. it is transferred over to the gospel. and ye shall be holy. . for I am holy.

that There would be no end of pursuing all places where I this reason it is of proposed shall only add in general. they could not serve the Lord. 19. that no unholy. no of old strictly required. that previous to . defiling thing should be in the camp of his people. 29. that he can take no pleasure in fools. and serve them with satisfaction. it is evident. and that it is indispensably required of us. All the service of unholy persons towards this God. Let us have grace whereby we may serve God aciniquity.' He lays his argument for the necessity of grace and holiness in the worship of God. inconsistent with it. for he is a 'holy God. will devour that which is unsuited unto it. but only God whom we serve and worship is absolutely that his holy. no unclean. which. If we had no other argument to prove the necessity of holiness. and without an exact observance hereof he declares. as that we can have no delightful intercourse with any that are unholy. And God himself lets us know. and prophet canst not look on iniquity . had best seek another God to worship and And serve. that they might freely conform unto them. in expressly in the Scripture. fancied such gods to themselves as were wick- ed and unclean. ' 125 bloody and deceitful man. from the consideration of the holiness of his nature. with our God he will never find acceptance.CONSIDERATION OF THE NATURE OF GOD. liars. being and nature is such. be- God cause of his presence among them who is himself holy. that he will depart and leave them. that men of wicked and flagitious lives. so pure. xxiv. that they might not control them in their sins and pleasures. or workers of Therefore Joshua tells the people. because it is inconsistent with his own holiness to accept of it. have some . And our apostle argues in the same manner Heb.' Hab. xii. 13. therefore the Heathen. the consideration of any free acts of his will. is utterly lost and cast away. such is his nature. ' 28. ceptably. . that is. that the abundantly sufficient unto our purpose. as a consuming fire. the necessity of holiness. so holy. For our God is a consuming fire. to stifle the notions of a divine being. He who resolveth not to be holy. with reverence and godly fear.' chap. it were this. that if they continued in their sins. He is such a God.' Answerable unto that of the Thou art of purer eyes than to behold evil. i. who gave up themselves unto all filthiness with delight and greediness.

To declare it necessary for us. which had respect unto Jesus Christ. we who are sinners can sus. but that of Joshua. or find acceptance with him. is not the immediate ground of. but they must either think of leaving him or their sins. Psal. that gives us both the necessity and motive . That unto us. in our present state and condition. But a motive and encouragement unto any holiness that is not absolutely perfect. 'He is a holy God. we can take any enmotive unto our duty herein. both In him all the glo- . They unpossible unto us. learn indeed from thence. But it is the holiness of God as he is in Christ. But we must yet farther observe some things to evidence the force of this argument. who suppose that they are absolutely and immediately suited unto one another. a jealous God. and at the same time imits interest.' This we may thing which is unholy can possibly subsist before him. is. usefully pleaded rationally which doth not contain in itself an encouraging motive unto it. And we do not. though we no that the degrees of it. no creature is couraging in holiness. and as in Christ represented unto us. make no conclusion from it. they could not avoid it.21. urge any such argument for the necessity of holiness. and motive unto. 18. merely as an infinite eternal property of the divine nature. and God. For if they had not. as he dwelt perfection of was their a?nong them. or that. God. as absolutely to capable of such a perfection answer the infinite purity of the divine nature. that nowill come short in grace of God as to the substance. as cannot be answered and complied with by the not forgive their iniquities. argument can be My meaning the for and necessity of holiness. the holiness of God as absolutely considered. without a covenant-condescension Job iv. is not to promote derstand neither the holiness of God nor man. under that notion of it. did not propose unto them to this end the absolute his own nature. 1. xv. but like themselves . but it is the holiness of God as manifested and revealed unto us in Christ JeUnder the first consideration. Nay. no creature can take from the consideration thereof. in covenant. he nor spare. As. unto ours. we ought not to. holiness. Wherefore. in dealing with his people of old in this matter. but his being holi/. First. 15. that is.126 NECESSITY OF HOLINESS FROM THE secret thoughts that he is not holy.

James ii. For. the consideration of it absolutely neither requires nor admits of any but that which is absolutely perfect. gives us the light of the knowledge of his gloryin the face of Jesus Christ. him. 14.' chap. This. are and attractive. For thus beholding the glory ' of the Lord. unto us in Christ. unless it be that which Jesus Christ. But to him. 10. saving perception and hereof knowledge of them. and which no man hath any discouragement from as is God in Christ.' 2 Cor.CONSIDERATION OF THE NATURE OF GOD. as that although it lose nothing of declaring the indispensable necessity of holiness in all that draw nigh ness. but also be encouraged it. can only perplex and torture the soul of a sinner. is a clear. know not what light into. yet love. And this is not only directive unto understanding holiness. condescension. he accepts of such a holiness in us. from glory to glory. 6. . Together with a representation of the /io/mess of God in Christ. useful. Adam had in his state of ledge innocency. clear ma- and by conduct us in that necessary unto us. but also effective of it. and where there is any one failing. iii. and will accept. He. so. As was observed before. when God had declared himself only in the works of nature. we are changed into the same image. under such a contemperation with goodmercy. 18. therefore. is insufficient to lead or life of faith and obedience. that is. courage 3. there is a revelation made of what holiness in us he doth require. In particular. The ^en/ Ao/?Viesso/'Go^. endeavouring to attain. alluring. or that life which he was to live unto of. by pressing on him at the same time the necessity and impossibility of holiness Isa. All the properties of God I absolutely considered. and know- the divine perfections. is represented 2. more as so represented unto us. sufficient no doubt it was to guide him in his love and obedience. than as conspicuous. resplendent. which is * therefore. as we are capable of. in we have The light of the nifestations of his glorious excellencies. now through his interposition and mediation. the whole of what we do is condemned. . all our knowledge of God and his properties. 1. grace. as may invite and enus to endeavour after a conformity thereunto. as we not thence only learn our duty. rious perfections of 127 may unto God are so represented unto us. xxxiii. iv. But I know that now.

that holiness of truth and sincerity which we are capable of. 29. doth equally maintain the indispensable necessity of it. 28. and a condescension thereon to accept. in and by Christ. 14. declared and administered a spiritual power of grace. can come to no other issue in their thoughts * but that which they express ' Who among in the prophet. Hence some things may be inferenced. Such different conclusions will men make from these different considerations of the holiness of God. But the holiness of God as manifested in Jesus Christ. namely. or a dis- couragement unto holiness. which shall work this holiness in us.) It follows from hence also. xii.' fiery holiness serves God's towards them unto no other end but to them with terror and despair. our adherence unto him in holy obedience. what have grace whereby we may serve him acceptably with reverence and godly fear. can have any other thoughts but those of Cain. in the latter ' way. the holiness of God himself. and encourage us unto it. and in particular his satisfaction. My sin is great it cannot be pardoned. (1. NECESSITY OF HOLINESS FROM THE There is. As.' Heb. no sinner upon a view of God's holiness as absolutely considered. From this fountain therefore we draw immediately as the reasons of the necessity. Isa.) That the mediation of Christ. who among us fill shall inhabit with everlasting burnings. including a supposition of satisfaction made unto what is required by its absolute purity.' fire.' God is a holy God. (2. when once they come to be serious and in good earnest about them. unless faith be built hereon. And we may see what contrary conclusions will be made on these different considerations of it. can have no influence upon us. us shall dwell with the devouring fire. Those who view it only in the first way. no such powerful motive unto. But other inferences are natural from the consideration of the same holiness. as some blasphemously pretend. xxxiii.128 4. ' is a consuming * follows as our duty thereon? Let us . that our holiness under saith the apostle.' what then. in him. Our God. I cannot serve him. that the great fundamental reason of it in us. without the supposition of it and faith in it. so prevalent motives unto holiness in our souls. and therefore will depart out of his presence. is so far from being a hinderance of. or that conformity unto the holiness of God which he doth require. There is no such forcible reason for.

And if there be not a way we do not so. state and that for the substance of it. and of the end of our creation. come — no purpose for any man to expect an interest in God. whereof in this world we are capable. in compliance with his the own holiness. therefore. to . 10. and relates unto sundry causes which the other had no concernment in. iv. may consider in what particular ms^awces the force of this argument is conveyed unto us. without the impress of his image and likeness upon us. respects only those ends which God hath proposed unto us. was to answer the holiness of God absolutely as expressed in the law. yet as it hath an especial spring and fountain. privilege. our holiness. is by all confessed. and honour. 129 new covenant. 22 24. which must be afterward declared. glory. or what are the especial reasons why we ought to he holy because God is so. whereon we should have been This is now done for us by Christ alone. stand in that relation unto we lost God which was designed us in our creation. as he will glorify it in Jesus Christ . Herein consisted the and blessedness of our ffrst order. for us to acquire it again. For such a man despiseth all the glory that God designed unto himself in our creation. we cannot. This by the entrance of sin. It is. Secondly. pre-eminence. which that had not. according to his measure. We were originally created pre-eminence. we do not. and all that was eminent and peculiarly bestowed upon ourselves. Now this is done in and by holiness alone. Because herein consists all that conformity unto God. III. as our apostle expressly declares . so it is not of the same especial use therewith. He. K VOL.CONSIDERATION OF THE NATURE OF GOD. and the capacity of a creature. We And 1. whose design is not to be like unto God. in the image and likeness of God. with Col. who doth not endeavour after conformity unto him. which is our privilege. The immediate end and use of that holiness in us. iii. and the justified. it was no other but . holiness which God requireth of us. if we shall always short of the glory of God. for therein consists the renovation of the image of God in us. or any thing that will prove eternally to his advantage. they are three. without this conformity unto God. therefore. Eph. Wherefore. although it have the same general nature and one principal end with that which was required in the covenant of works.

my statutes. If there be not in them a real intercourse between God and our souls. or that thou shouldest covenant in mouth. and castest my words behind thee. 45. And the like may be said of all other take . : . which consists in holiness. as children do their father. all the duties which we design or intend to perform towards him. if we are not in our measure holy according to his mind. We have fellowship with him.' Psal. * * the wicked word but imto the God saith. are everlastingly lost. they may be the children of their heavenly Father . 1. and if we say. therefore. that whereas God is holy. as unto these ends doth he exIt is a good duty to pressly reject and condemn them. then have we in them this intercourse and communion with God.' and * put not away the evil of their doings from before his eyes. that is. if we are not so. they are all but uncertain beatings of the air. For there is no intercourse nor communion between light and darkness ' God is light. What . When ye spread forth your hands I will hide mine eyes from you. so we can have no especial interest in him. unto And the truth God be once out is.' saith * God. as unto their pro- per ends. For God neither accepts of any duties from unholy persons. and when ye make many prayers I will not hear. without that likeness and conformity unto God.130 NECESSITY OF IlOLI>fESS FROM THE Our always misseth both of his end. when God is glorified by them. we are easily turned aside by the meanest temptation we meet withal. and this in all our duties of obedience we must endeavour to attain. therefore. hast thou to do to declare duties whatever.' Isa. disciples ' Matt. To pray is a good duty but unto them that are not ' washed' and made 'clean. In brief. if this necessity of conformity of our view and consideration. 16. 2. as we do under his eye bear the image of his great adversary the devil. 15. 17. Now whereas God is holy. The force of the argument ariseth from the respect it bears unto our actual intercourse and communion with God: this we are called unto. my thy seeing thou hatest instruction. representing him.' V. Seeing thou art unholy. 16. i. When we are accepted in them. nor is he glorified by them and. that as to do all have his Saviour would things so. his rule.' preach . this cannot be. like him. and in him is no darkness at all. It is certain. and his way. nor hath he any in us.

would for the love of any one ' . which if we come enjoyment short of (life itself is the greatest loss). and do not the truth but if we walk in the light as he is in the light. whereby the essence and truth of holiness is impeached. none so pernicious as this. But yet this is all men. nothing that defileth or is defiled. shall ever be brought into the glorious presence of this holy God. all they suffer. i. ' ' ' . we lie. all their compliance with convictions. a continuance in is miseries inseparable from our state and coneverlasting Now this is never attainable by any unholy person. better ten thousand times. and with his Son Christ Jesus. There is no imagination wherewith mankind is besotted. more foolish. * without which no man shall see God. For without it. 12. not sanctified. we have fellowship one with another. we had never been. and what they do therein within doors and without. Now what man that shall consider this. nor can see any thing in K 2 dition.' For it is the pure in heart only. is all lost. and truly our fellowship is with the Father. as unto the great ends of the glory of God. nor would God himself be a reward unto them. Neither can we attain it before we are thus made meet for it. There can be no thought more reproachful to his glory. 6. nor more inconsistent with For neither can such the nature of the things themselves. all the pains they take in and about religious duties. not made holy in this life. persons enjoy him. It is hereby that we are made meet for the inheritance of the saints in light . do. or utterly lose and forfeit all the benefit and fruit of all those duties wherein perhaps he hath laboured. 8. who come short in any thing that is All they essentially necessary unto universal holiness. 7. the condition of eternal blessedness. from a respect unto our future everlasting of him. been at no small charge withal. sin. . Follow holiness. This is our utmost end. They can have nothing whereby they should adhere unto him as their chiefest good.' that shall see God Matt.' 1 John i.' Col. should afterward be taken into that state of blessedness which consists in the enjoyment of God. It ariseth God is holy. or any other thing. 3. out of conformity to the world. 131 and walk in darkness. unless he be infatuated.CONSIDERATION OF THE NATURE OF GOD. that persons not purified.' saith our apostle. No unclean thing. and which he hath.' as all unholy persons do. as sure as 3. and their own it may be. v.

nor is there any . Heaven is a place where as well they would not be. from the consideration . We have seen how all our concernment and interest in God both here and hereafter. but perfectly complies with the whole doctrine of the free undeserved shew grace of God towards us by Jesus Christ . and consistent with. and turn all the pretended duties of it into fruits and effects of spiritual pride. that he shall se^ God. true holiness is ruined. indeed. if no other more effectual reason be substituted in its room. but that the acts and fruits of it were meritorious in the sight of God. and blind But we see the necessity of it with respect superstition. but the beginning of it is inviolably and unalterably confined to this world . who built it on no other bottom. therefore. . no hand shall be put unto that work unto eternity. Holiness indeed is perfected in heaven. who feed and refresh themselves with hopes of heaven and eternity.' 1 John iii. a manifold necessity of holiness impressed on us. They invented a very effectual means for the prejudicing. as they cannot be in itself it is neither He that hath this hope' desired by them. the grace and love and shall fully mercy of the gospel. who being taught that good deeds are not meritorious. nor pressed it on any other motive. and you destroy the nature of true holiness. which I am persuaded hath really taken place in many.132 him NECESSITY OF HOLINESS FROM THE that should give them rest or satisfaction . without making some especial improvement of it. cannot pass over this consideration. which I is holy. '?. hath other foundations suited unto. 3. There is. indeed a fatal engine for the ruin of true holiness in the world. unto God. therefore. All unholy persons. supposing them to continue thus unholy. yea. 'purifieth himself even as he is pure . Comply with it. do it merely on false notions of God and blessedness. For whether this be believed and complied withal or not. this fails. nor fit for them. And we in our progress^ that there is not one motive unto it.' of the nature of that God whom we serve and hope to enjoy. and there is no need of it . have concluded them useless. nor can there be any medium whereby God should communicate himself unto them. that is of any real force or efficacy. whereby and where they deceive themselves. Reject this motive. as all must do who depart out of this life in that condition. do depend on our being holy.

that is. than out of a design to . and an eternal accountableness unto him. and a conviction of its usefulness. as easily take away all difference between light and darkness. Were this principle once well fixed in the minds of men. or that should take us off from an absolute and universal dependance on Christ But yet such they are. God deliver poor sinners from this deceit. but it is as true that we have none without it. It is true. . doth contrarily think wickedly that God is like unto himself. or moral virtue I wish it be more out of love to virtue itself. the one remaining heaven and the other hell. There for is indeed amongst us a great plea for morality. For he that doth not endeavour to be like unto God. that without holiness no man shall see God. You may as easily reconcile heaven and hell. to be sanctified. makes him an unholy God. as to be justified. good and evil.CONSIDERATIOX OF THE NATURE OF GOD. Such men seem to worship an idol all their days. be universally despised by these persons . you must leave your sins. is a deplorable folly. as from ourselves. or his future disposal of them. It is no wonder if holiness. being or no. He that thinks to please God. Some live without God in the world whether they have any notion of his . or your God. and to come to the for life and enjoyment of him without holiness. and abstain from r-aay sins that their inclinations and opportunities would su-gest and prompt them unto. both name and thing. and that enforced from the consideration of the nature of God himself. without once taking God into their thoughts. it could not but influence them unto a greater diligence about it. putting the highest indignity and dishonour imaginable upon him. their design being to serve their lusts to the utmost. unto us to be necessary holy. which alone will be accepted with him. our interest in God is not built upon our holiness. as render it as salvation. 133 of them which gives the least countenance unto any thing of worth in ourselves. and immerse themselves in the pleasures of the world. as procure acceptance for unholy persons with our God. But for men who live under some constant sense of God. There is no remedy. is not material they live without any regard unto him. than the most seem to be en: gaged in. they can do no otherwise. and thereon do many things he requires. not to endeavour after that universal holiness. either as unto his present rule over them.

but this of moral virtue they understand well enough ? We ap. work. do know what they intend. substituting their own arbitrary.134 NECESSITY OF HOLINESS FROM THE cast contempt on the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ and the gospel. that their pleas for moral virtue proceed from a But where men are proud. what it is that intend they by their morality. or must reject the common received notion of it. Where we see those who so plead for moral virtues. patient. and that particularly on the account of the holiness of that God is : peal to the experience of unto the contrary. but the Scripture expressions of the causes. we are bound to believe the best of all men. doubtful. profane. and are led towards the enjoyment of him? If these are the things which they intend. furious. are suited unto the spiritual light and understanding of believers . revengeful. worldly. what is the matter with them ? why are they so afraid of the words and expressions of the Scripture ? Why will they not speak of the things of God in words that the Holy Ghost teacheth ? Men never dislike the words of God but when they dislike the things of God is it because these expressions are not intelligible. by their moral virtue. nor any else. in despising of those notices and expressions of it. uncertain sentiments and I "^ . self-denying. ambitious. they intend that holiness hereby which ^s required of us in the Scripture. charitable. nature. as it is declared by the faithful dispensers of it. do convey a clear experimental apprehension of them unto their minds whereas. useful towards all. There all that truly fear God in the world ' whom we serve. Is it the renovation of the in us by grace ? is it our conformity from of God image thence unto him in his holiness ? is it our being holy in all manner of holiness. since they do. none of them. to be in their own persons. and humble. and effects of holiness. they fall into a high contempt of the wisdom of God. therefore. because God is holy? is it the acting of virtue. we are obliged to believe. love and liking of it. which being used by the Holy Ghost. If. people do not know what they mean. However. neither themselves. according to the will of God. in their lives. covetous. I cannot so well understand their declamations about Only I would for the present inquire. sober. our souls in all duties of obedience. for honesty amongst men. from a principle of faith and love. intemperate. whereby we have comrnunion with him here. modest.

life The doctrine. yea. as though all those by whom it is believed. on the doctrine of justification through the imputation of the And it is wonderful to conrighteousness of Christ unto us. false. and ridicuThe Papists and others with them. although I deny not. nor doth any man understand more in the design than sobriety and usefulness in the world. tion doth transform believers into monsters of ingratitude and folly. that if Christ take away the guilt of sin. they will be inclined to be careBut as this supposiless about them. but that the objectors are wholly mistaken . 135 words in their room and place. to live in them. doth abundantly evince the folly and falsehood of those clamorous accusations. hohness. For the present I shall return no other answer unto those in our objections. and keep ourselves from the power. seeing there is a principle in the things ' heart of men. must consequently be negligent of holiness and good works. so it is built on no other foundation than this. there is no reason in the nature of these things. what we have already discoursed. lous. and And. why we shoiild need to be holy.' yet (as shall in due time be proved) both doctrinally and practically the great constraining principle unto holiness and fruitfulness in obedience. things singularly good in their proper place). of the satisfac- tion of Christ. or any way glorify God which is an inference weak.CONSIDERATION OF THE NATURE OF GOD. some amongst ourselves endeavour to expose this sacred truth to contempt. so with ries what virulent railing this charge is managed by what scorn and scofiing. and as repugnant unto. to substitute a deceitful and deceiving cloud or shadow in the room of it. but that such find a great strength of connexion. but as a de- sign of Satan to undermine the true holiness of the gospel. in this world and dominion of sin. nor mentioned in the Scripture. wherein the most important truths of the gospel are charged as inconsistent with. Now. sider with the Papists. between these in their own minds. ruins all care : and endeavours after a holy for when men do believe that Christ hath satisfied the justice of God for their sins. moreover. say the Socinians. lay the same charge filth. to turn the grace of God into lascivi- men may corrupt ousness truth is this sacred . with what stoand tales. then it is no otherwise to be looked on. . But if' it be something else which they intend (as indeed evidently it is.

concerning that God whom we God in Christ whom we worship. and the motives unto it. and from his own nature cannot but require. or love. herein. in the essence is a radical conformity and likeness unto God. thoughts and apprehensions. and some of them are. But though all children do partake of the nature of their parents. we are made partakers Trig ^dag (pvoswg. i. In the first communication of it unto us. is a monstrous imagination. as that we know it to be a foolish. or mercy. is our likeness unto God evidenced. as I shall shew afterward. through the promises of the gospel. should encourage those who indeed know him unto sin.136 NECESSITY OF HOLINESS FROM THE serve. and in them doth the glory of God in this world . gospel. 4. there the holiness of truth before described. and unthrifty . for in their flourishing and fruit-bearing. Such a new spiritual nature as represents that of God himself being begotten by him. that we have none of us endeavoured as we ought. for any one to think to please him. It is to be feared. And this happens two ways: (1. wicked. of this God. as hath been declared. that wherein we bear his is our holiness. we may have the image of God in our hearts. That the grace. wherein we have all failed. to come to the enjoyment of him. Wherever image. without that holiness which he requireth. And although for the main of our duty may not condemn us. yet there are no doubt sundry things that belong unto it. Moreover. our hearts there is of it. we may all charge ourselves with blame. from what hath been discoursed. to be accepted with him. other invincible reasons for it. withering. for our sloth and negligence in this matter. But the owning of this one consideration alone. is sufficient by them who believe the grace of the to secure them from the reproach of this objection. and what is necessary for us on the account thereof. 'of the divine nature . There are. or countenance them in a neglect of holy obedience to him. and blasphemous thing. we are made partakers of his nature. yet they : may little be. So is it in this matter .' 2 Pet. hath so revealed his own holiness unto us.) When our graces are weak. and bear very of their likeness. very deformed. and yet come short of that likeness unto him in its degrees and improvement which we ought to aim at. to grow up into this image and likeness of God. who is our God. Our likeness unto God.

this is is the high- est excellency that a created nature capable of. subdue it. Other things had external impressions of the greatness. was expressed only by this. why do we suffer any thing. For. that our corruptions are high and active. yet was it a necessary consequence of his image in us. that I may contribute something to the awakening of our diligence herein. The perfection.' But being not ' . 27. there is not much of his likeness upon us.' that is. this design ? Wherefore. that herein we may be found * perfecting holiness in the fear of the Lord. 137 consist. above that of all other creatures in the world. so negligent in the pursuit of our principal interest and happiness ? Why do we suffer every thing. frequently discovering themselves . This gave us a preeminence above all other creatures. and goodness of God upon them. who are not partakers of his image. render KaTaKvpiivw. He renders iz. and hence a dominion For. ought we not. In our likeness unto God. 26. there. greatly to blame ourselves ? Why are we so slow. something that hath the likeness of the old crooked serpent. in this great and fundamental duty of our faith and profession. So far as it is thus with us. Gen. which the LXX. And this is that which James respects. that iraaa (j>vcng. that we might the better understand and be thankful for our privilege . and we come short of our duty. man alone in this lower world was capable of the image of God in him.) When by the power of our corruptions or our temptations. the pre-eminence of our nature in the first creation. and of our persons above those of other men. i. we contract a deformity . by Sojua^w. power. consists the excellency and pre-eminence of out nature. where he tells us. of it ' the nature of all things in their several kinds. to divert our minds from. with reference unto other things. in this world.CONSIDERATION OF THE NATURE OF GOD. (2.i3. that our graces are low and thriftless . I shall add some few motives unto it. may we not.' Gen. and some directions for it.' which is the only way whereby we may be like unto him. i. First. the glory. that we were made in the ' image and likeness of God . though the image of God may be in us. 'is tamed. subjected to the nature of man. or retard our endeavours in. 28. although God made a distinct grant unto us. ^afiat^iTai ry ^vau Ty avOpijjmvy. Where either of these befall us. 1 . every nature/ over them ensued.

i. which gives us a pre-eminence above other creatures. he would not have continued any thing of right or title therein. xlix. we were first like God. our nature lost its pre-eminence. in our lapsed condition. more of the bestial nature in us. over the residue of the creation. 1. the restoration of this image in us by the grace of Jesus Christ. For notwithstanding some feeble relics of this image yet abiding with us.' which . Col.138 NECESSITY OF HOLINESS FROM THE ness. the head and heir of all. in holiness and righteouswe would be as God in wisdom and sovereignty and not attainino. And therefore. and the establishment of the new covenant. Wherefore.' Psal. contented to be like God. that is. Hereby there is an immade upon our natures of the authority of God. And the fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every beast of the earth. . we have really. 2. Gen.what we aimed at. 5. iii. 10. that this right was restored unto us. with respect unto our proper end. ix. and as the foundation thereof to take our nature into union with himself in the person of his Son. than of the divine. By the loss of the image of God. and upon every fowl of the air. The right whereunto we had lost. in that service . 12. 'God blessed Noah and his sons. . It was upon the promise. ii. 28. and then 'like beasts. and upon all the fishes of the sea: into your hand are they delivered . iv. but became like the beasts that perish . pend on their own personal grace or holiness but that if God had not designed to renew his image in our nature by Jesus Christ. and a rule over them yea. Being in 'honour we continued not. So it is expressed in the renovation of the covenant with Noah and his children. an express renovation of the grant made unto us at our first creation Gen. we lost what we had Gen. 12. 24.' Eph. Not that I judge that men's right and title to their portion and interests in this world. and thereby to gather up all things unto a new head in him. our loss of the imasre of God. and upon all that moveth on the earth.' 2 Pet. Be fruitful and multiply. and replenish the earth. depends on this renovation of the image of God in some of them. and we were reduced into order amongst perishing beasts. that whole dominion which mankind scrambles for with craft and violence. doth deture pression again . and to make him the first-born of the creation. is the recovery of that pre-eminence and privilege of our nawhich we had foolishly lost. and said unto them. iii. in is .

God things which perish under their hands.' and he is "iHK. 139 is continued unto mankind. 2. 21. 8- hominum. But that which is oriand from persons themselves. or power. in which state. This makes them the saints and excellent in the earth. And hence it is. from the appearances of God in holy persons. this is that which gives privilege and pre-eminence unto the persons of some above others *the righteous.do first belong properly to God. wealt\ greatness.' Psal. 2. the more honourable. for deliverance. Whatever they may pride themselves in. 'trifling and the righteous are said to be precious and valuable. as it were. is more excellent than his neighbour . . ' ' saints in the earth.' saith the wise man. ii. ' they are ascribed upon their likeness unto him in holiness. however they may sport themselves abuse of other creatures. Hence are such persons called the . 12.' sign of the glorious liberty of Rom. QuisquilicR mVr. himself in the perhaving exalted our natures by union with its us to of son of his Son. it is made and put into bondage.' Prov. but their conformity and likeness to God. And this dignity of office rea dignity of person on them who are vested in it. The more holy. Psal. must continue until God hath accomplished the whole de* his children. their parts or enin the use or joyments. is solely from the ginally renovation of the image of God in them. is and the excellent. that there hath oft-times an awe been put on the spirits of vile and outrageous sinners. And indeed at all .' Psal. it though groan. xii. the terms CD'iZ^Hp and He above viii. 20. Again. if this image of God be not renewed in them. and is heightened in and increased according to the degrees they attain in the of it.CONSIDERATION OF THE NATURE OF GOD. xvi. they have really no great pre-eminence above the 2 Pet.' that gives them a pre-eminence of office and au- unto men ' thority in flects some above others. 3. participation Hence wicked men Cznx on^ vilenesses in the Scripture are said to be vile. There is nothing can establish this general rule. viii. It is seldom that this is so upon the account of civil wisdom. which gives both it and them a real privilege and honour above others. subject and look it out. Both annp. xii. requires dignity above preserve others. and communicates a pre-eminence unto them. for their office and authority is from God. 26. wherein the creature to vanity. absolutely U^Mp or holy .

alone that is honourable. have we not prophesied in thy name. nor doth it consist in spiritual gifts many who have excelled us. Why do we weary ourselves about other things ? Why do we spend our labour in vain. Lord.' and ' * yet be vessels of wood and stone. and yet perish in their superstitions. prejudices. not many noble are called . Nor is it in profession itself. ye that work iniquity. renunciation of the unto them. and is capable of. who have had extraordinary gifts of the Spirit. Nor is it in the purity of worship. not many mighty. may oppose. and in thy name cast out devils. and persecute them.' who being not purged from sin. never world. whence they will sometimes dread them. For multitudes be made partakers thereof in the ' great house of God. Matt.' 1 Cor. I think we are satisfied. sanctified and meet for ' may . and in times. Lord. . doth not consist in worldly or secular advantages. and that because there is in it the image and representation of God. but secretly in their hearts they have an awe from the likeness of God in them.' are not vessels to honour. shall be shut out of heaven with the worst of the world. for they are very few who have them not many wise men after the flesh. Many make it in rigid austerities. ' thy fess name wrought ^vvafieig is TroXXag. 26. Many shall say unto me in that day. beyond the most of us. sometimes flatter them.140 NECESSITY OF HOLINESS FROM THE men do eminently bear a conformity to God in wicked men exasperated by their secular interests.' you unholy persons. will suddenly vanish into smoke. many miraculous works?' . and sometimes wish that they were not. which more than any of us can say I yet Christ will 'pro- knew you. even as they deal with God himself. and outward works of charity. i. where holiness. or in worldly advantages. revile. Herein lies the whole of that dignity which our nature was made for. reproach. depart from me. 22. not only in the degree of them. and our strength for that which is not bread V such will all endeavours after any other excellency at length appear. vii. and their mutual applauses of one It is hohness another. and an unconquerable adherence to their lusts. ' ' . without such mixtures of human inventions as others defile the service of God withal. that the dignity of professors above others. but in the kind also. that alone whereby we render ourselves base and conMen's self-pleasing in the ways and fruits of it. sin is the sole debasement of it. temptible.

xvii. 21. 'like. if they are from trouble regular. 15. from glory to glory . that we state. Secondly.' 2 Tim. if they are not at the same time making nearer unto it in grace. seeing not We have no to do so. But this will be our glory. when he shall appear we shall be Our like him. are our accesses and approaches towards glory. 2. is folly and intolerable negligence? likeness of in that and but other way. Now men do but deceive themselves. and they it is . According unto our groivth and improvement in this likeness unto God. highest folly for any to think that they shall love that herethat that will be their glory after. than to be like unto God.' 1 John iii. which we have in and by holiness.' Psal. God in righteousness. God And the hate every one that is so yet pretend a desire and expectation of that estate wherein they shall be so. we are most miserable. therefore. that therein we shall be [(rdyyiXoi. such sottish contradictions are the minds of men filled withal. ' shall be like unto God. and if we do not therewithal draw nearer towards our supernatural end in glory. 18. it is some representation of future glory. will be according to the capacity of creatures. thriving growing here in holiness. Where this is not. or equal unto angels. We are drawing every day towards our natural end whether we will or no. and is inseparable from it. until one great change shall issue all grace and holiness in eternal glory and in our desires for heaven. and to be satisfied with his likeness. There is nothing in this world which they more despise. 20. which now they hate which they now abhor. Hereby alone are we transformed into the image of God. Luke xx. iii. 141 It consists. with what doth attend it. ii. alone in that hkeness unto God. the master's use .CONSIDERATION OF THE NATURE OF GOD. 'to behold the face of . no other thing will exempt us from the common herd of perishing mankind. How then shall we make approaches towards this glory spiritually. which at least may answer the ap- proaches we make towards our ends naturally. From one glorious degree of grace unto an- God which we have ' other.' 2 Cor. which is a being so for ever. if they suppose that they are approaching towards glory in time. our likeness unto glory as subjectively considered. 36.' But that respects one particular only of that It is a far more excellent description of it. for we shall see him as he is. we consider not so much our freedom : .

as that which would only ease them of their troubles. therefore. even under rags. that would fain be boasting of perfection. or vain-glory. And poor persons. this is the design which we ought to purIt is to be feared.142 XECESSITY OF HOLINESS FROM THK . we would continually eternally inseparable. may be much of We have a generation amongst us. and ' worldly in their lives. But our duty it is. much of glory heaven may in present grace. any creature is made partaker of. and they only. in a due have occasion to speak more unto and shall therefore here only touch upon it. whilst in their minds they are evidently under the power of darkness. is continually transforming the soul into the likeness of God. nor how be attained in holiness on the earth. with respect unto one concernment or circumstance. that in any kind. or merit. tend towards our rest and blessedness. or may be useful in the world. and his giving out of the fruits of it to all his creatures. and a likeness unto him therein. and an experimental acquaintance with not knov/ as much as is possible of his eter- nal blessedness). as perfect holiness. on various convictions. They. will fall into a state wherein sin and trouble shall be As. Much of the glory of heaven may dwell in a simple cottage. And they who desire heaven. who are is is like unto God. there is no property of God more celebrated in the Scripture than this of his goodness. and for various is one flaw or other in all they do. or one . the sole cause and fountain of manner and order. therefore.' a due manner. that we are. Either superstition. all And good. corrupt in their affections. may be very like unto God. to be always per- This pursued in fecting holiness in the fear of the Lord. as from sin nor is our aim in the first place so much at complete happiness. as we would have foretastes of it (as who would it. there And he is so only good. much good. and not as that which will perfectly free them of sin. are useful in this world. God is the great preserver and benefactor of the whole creation: he is good and doth good. I shall this afterward. There indeed. or selfishness. that so in nothing any sense but by a participation of it. It is from 'our likeness and conformiti/ unto God alone. as we would have assured and evident pledges of it in our own souls. Thirdly. useful good ends: but there done by others. that the most of us know not how sue. or at least-there hath been.

It will. are faith and love. He that bears the likeness of God. purifies the heart. some seasons. To remit other consi- derations unto their proper place. if we intend to grow in likeness and conformity to God. If. and spoils it not by false ends of his own. iii. he alone is truly useful. therefore. In Christ are the glorious excellencies of unto us. or it may. have image . 1 . are shewed have of as we before. and brings death into the pot. glory to glory. The a large theme. and consequently the more like unto God. which consists in our holiness.' The only way whereby we behold them. and others that are declarative. it is of none unto the general good of the whole.CONSIDERATION OF THE NATURE OF GOD. and in all that he doth acts from that principle. gets into all the good that is done by unholy that although it persons. if we would make due and daily accessions towards glory and blessedness. I shall confine it unto one instance. 18. Faith is a part of our holiness. Those of the first sort. in whose constant exercise we ought to abide and abound. therefore. *in his face do they shine forth. so may in be of some use in particulars. that there are some graces of holiness that are effectually assimilating. to grow up more and more into this like- ness of God. at present I answer. whereby we have an intuition into them. our great endea- vour ought to be. and is effectual by more the is in its due and exercise. how or what we may do. represents God in what he doth. unto individual persons. if we would be of any real use in this world. 143 thing or other. thriving in the growing great mystery lathe world of which God. God. First. and by * faith do we behold them. as it is a grace of the sanctifying Spirit. holy we shall proper This were be. God represented And what is the effect hereof? we are changed into the same image and This is the from likeness.' 2 Cor. that we may thrive and grow up more and more into this likeness unto God. being ignorant of. and expressive of this likeness of God in us. which have a peculiar efficacy to promote the likeness of God in our souls. glorious properties manifested and revealed in Jesus Christ. we would keep up the privilege and pre-eminence of our nature and persons. is by faith. be justly here inquired. and in of holiness. and it is a principle of holiness as it The more faith love.

as having the best. By it we cleave unto God. is most effectual to this purpose. will be like him. carnal. and contemplate on the excellencies of God. called. and that so as to make use of.' and none ever made greater expressions of love God unto him. and sensual. the most into the . love. which occur continually in the Psalms. And let in acts and duties of obedience. that it ariseth from their want of a constant exercise of faith on God in never the more conformity to God. we have is like unto God. in his general course so like * own as David.144 boured NECESSITY OF HOLINESS FROM THE in vain. or all other endeavours to that purpose will be to love him. which do not infallibly produce this effect. by other means. I mean the He that would be like unto God must be sure love of God. safety. do. and attractive object. proper. And they are but acts of presumption under the name of a real design. and thereby derive transforming virtue from . But this is the great way and means of it. to satisfy their notions and convictions. which edness. glory. to view. according to the promise of the This is the great arcanum of growing up into the gospel. constantly by faith. ap- pointed and blessed of God unto that purpose namely. It is our adherence with delight. righteousness. So love of this world makes men earthly minded their minds and affections grow But of all kinds divine love earthly. holiness. * and grace. and apply unto ourselves and our condition. in a way of believing the revelation made . the man after God's heart. the effects and fruits of them. their All love likeness unto God will not be increased by them. as manifested in Jesus Christ . they will have . and so noble. And all professors who short in this matter. therefore. this is the way Abound in actings of faith. faith. in vain. and we shall thrive in holiness. therefore. unto God keep near him. for what he is in himself. however men may multiply likeness of God duties in a compliance with their convictions. it casts the mind men take what pains they can mould of the thing beloved. Love hath the same tendency and efficacy. And he that loves God Under the Old Testament none unto sincerely. without which. If. as manifested in Jesus Christ. behold. in general hath an assimilating efficacy. blesswe must take for its accomplishment. if they proceed not from a principle of divine love. come Christ. his goodness. 2. know. of being yet more our privilege. or may. in the gospel.

) Again.) It works by admiration also. ix. And it acts itself continually by. He did land so easy to him. But we have a greater instance our L vol. Ixiii. and we shall endeavour that our lives be conformed thereunto. and mercy. ravished with that view which it hath of the glorious excellencies of God in love ' . A heart filled with the love of God. 4. ! How Christ.) Delight in obedience. Psal. of instance common The iduties of it. this is the life of it.CONSIDERATION OF THE NATURE OF GOD. It is in the na(1. : . which he would not afterward undergo for the greatest wages. rejoicing in them. see infinite holiness.) Admiration . him. HI. Sing unto the Lord. with infinite love. purity. Psal. (2. hath no way is to express its affections but ! by admira- how great is his beauty! his goodness tion. 17. all equally glorified To in and towards the same things and persons. and. the soul being.) Con- templation . there is ' unto be changed into the image of what we contemplate. God this is not. for the love he bare to Rachel. 'also is a most effectual furtherance of our conformity unto shall labour in vain after. great And this beauty of God is that sweetness and holy symmeI may be allowed to speak so improperly) in try of glory (if of God. 'him. which without these steps we in obedience. and give thanks at the remembrance of his holiness. This the psalmist exhorts us unto.(l. love gives delight of Jacob is known. one glimpse whereof is not to be attained in the world out of Christ. is that beauty of God which attracts the love of a believing and fills it with a holy admiration of him. our minds by And this will further our likeness it will great is his goodness how great is his beauty !' Zech. lencies of in Christ. throughout. is 145 Every approach unto God by ardent love and delight transfiguring. him . that with delight. xxx. grace. and all the (3. This is the voice of (2. See to this purpose. goodness. and where no love. O ye saints of his. ture of it to be meditating and contemplating on the excel- Yea. being all in a sweet correspondall the perfections How ency exalted in Christ. years' service seemed short. as it w^re. (3.' And love will do the same with respect unto all his other properties. and righteousness.) Love acts itself by contemplation. will night and day be exercising itself in and with thoughts of God's glorious excellencies. And this jsoul. seven his that it is iwhom said. which is the proper object of our love.

and this towards a// men. is the greatest representation of the nature of God on the earth so is fierceness. kindness. 1 say. 44. envy and selfishness. there holiness will thrive. love and likeness unto God are inseparable. is not so considered as ought to be for if it were. with a frequency of holy duties. both proceeding from delight. I. . love. Matt. would we represent him in and unto the world. and relieve. Hence follows intension and frequency in all the duties of it. it must be by this frame of spirit. In brief. thence useful and helpful. A man. his nature being cured and rectified by grace. and proportionate unto one another. selfishness : rectly opposite to the grace of holiness. to forgive. envy. unto .. this also is one and the same. But his unspeakable love to God and the souls of men. all which are dimalice. on a// occasions. no duties ' . it I shall which are declarative of this and manifest our likeness unto instance only in two of them. O God. envy. it may be. bit of in the mind exerting itself in many vices. and re. And without this. venge. and almost in all they do give us a full representation of the devil. to help. would Would we then be like unto we manifest that we are so unto his glory. free from guile. thus good.' And yet we know how terrible to nature were the things he did and suffered in obedience to that law. And this I fear. wrath. our heavenly Father. rendered it all his delight. This is goodness. This our blessed Saviour instructs us in and v. at present instanced in and pleaded for. revenge. or which evidence God. There are graces assimilation. And to be considered in opposition unto an evil ha. wrath. bewith readiness to do good. 45. pride and ela- . which yet agree same general nature such are anger. and consequently we shall do so in our conformity to God. as the Scripture give many names unto doth also. it would not be so common a thing as. And where these two are. intension of mind and spirit. of that of the devil. and actings constantly suited thereunto. but the thing intended nignity. frowardness. Secondly. it is. first is And is the such.146 NECESSITY OF HOLINESS FROM THE Lord Jesus Christ says concerning all the obedience that was required of him Thy law. for men to plead highly for the imitation of God. is in my heart I delight to do thy will. For as this universal benignity it : and love to all. of obedience are any part of his image. as I shall in its description.

labour after conformity unto God. angry. readiness to iforgive. And hence it is. that in the Scripture a good man. is frequently spoken of by way of eminency and distinction. all whose force consists in a pretence of care for self. subdued by grace. The whole drove of temptations. therefore. This. Especially is this ithereunto. Strong bents and inclinations of mind to comply with innumerable provocations and exasperations that will befall us. or their diligence in religious duties. though they do no good . or have their kindness confined to their relations. a useful. since the human nature of Christ was removed from us. to help and relieve. selfish. must be corrected and discarded. be cautious. i and dealings with all men. they do very little either represent or glorify God in the world. If we. design to be holy. Many duties be constantly attended unto. liberal man. and actings suitable of us with respect unto the saints of L 2 . we are to labour after. 147 tion of mind. Many lusts. worst of them. as one whom God hath an especial regard unto. towards our re- dom lations. must be scattered or resisted. wrathful. therefore. if we design to be eminent. the children of our Father which is in heaven. in this philanthropy. required frame of heart. or otherwise are little useful but in what they are pressed unto. and to express our likeness unto him. condescension. nor can be. towards all jthe I mankind as we have opportunity. in our families. and disbelieve the necessities of men in a word. if we intend to be lives like God. and concerning whom there are When men live to themselves. And no small part of our holiness consists corruptions. goodness. peevish. in churches. are to be a merciful man. and distempered passions.CONSIDERATION OF THE NATURE OF GOD. and are peculiar promises. herein. in our conversations in the world. and sundry graces kept up to their exercise. or to manifest his glory in our persons and unto the world. are secure. that make self and its concernments the end of their lives. without which we neither are. and the greatest part of wis. is the best representation we can have of God on the earth. who esteem all lost that is done to for the relief of others. let us constantly. towards our enemies and persecutors. . benignity. and therein come off with difficulty in their own minds. satisfied that they do no hurt. whatever otherwise their profession be. so far as they are ours only.

towards them who go our or are of our party. to take . we we are obliged to the exercise of the goodness before described. But if among believers. if we esteemed ourselves (notwithstanding the provocations and exasperations which we meet withal. and therein worse than either pharisees or publicans. however differenced among themselves. ' . 10. when I see men apt to retain a sense of old provocations and differences.' There is a specialty in the exercise of his saving goodness towards believers. and delight in them who are of our company and go the same w^ay with us. ready to receive impressions of new ones. but especially unto them who are of the household of faith .148 NECESSITY OF HOLINESS FROM THE believers. and is good. 10. or ready for apprehensions of such. God. but especially ofthem that believe. And in answer hereunto. we are likewise commanded 'to do good unto all men. be open and free in all effects of genuine kindness. when perhaps none are given us. or indeed unkind or provoking unto him. it may advance us into the condition of pharisees and publicans. forbearness. for they did so also. vi. He is the Saviour of all men. are to endeavour and We conformity likeness unto God. as we have an opportunity . but as he is our heavenly Father. love them only. unto to Even God himself. not only as he is the God of nature. so are allowed. doth exercise his benignity and kindness in a peculiar manner towards them 1 Tim. or way. and do good to them that do good to us. merciful. in an especial manner.' Gal. kind. goodness. If in them that love us. unto the whole family of his children. I confess. whom we are bound and a conformity unto whom we are pressing after. or intended us) obliged to express this benignity. Although imitate. And if this were more in exercise. we are so far. where there are none . kindness. iv. we are enjoined a peculiar regard herein unto the household of faith. unto all men whatever. and is good unto all the works of his hands . yea. or suppose we do so. incredulous of the sincerity of others who profess a readiness for love and peace. love common we do that never gave us provocations really. we will take this course. delight in them only. nor in our own surmises . and loye towards all believers in an especial manner . or are kind and friendly to us. it would prevent or remove many of those scan- dalous offences and animosities that are among us. benign.

but corrupted. saith the seller. saith the buyer. depraved. No duty is more frequently pressed upon us truth the false lie not one to another. that I say not of the most. but when he goeth away he boasteth . of the same import and nature. and also because failures in truth are apt a thousand ways to insinuate themselves into the practices of such persons. or is well pleased with the advantage which he sary unto all in trading. is cast upon that course of life. And by this rule would I have examined.' in love .' Psal. 149 things in the worst sense. and frequently the doctrine of But that truth. Hereby doth it visibly and openly continue in its apostacy lieve that his from the God of truth.' and the consideration hereof is exceeding necesfore. 2. my own ways Truth is ' . apostacy from God was eminently from him as is God sought to dethrone of truth.CONSIDERATION OF THE NATURE OF GOD. or. of many.' Eph. 15. 6. it is good. It is naught. to be morose and severe towards this or that sort of believers. ' ' those who by their course of life are engaged and that both because of the disreputation which by the evil practices of some. ' hath made by his words . for that at present I must confine mvself unto. and a representation of him to the Put world. but these things have the image . and by us believed. truth ' . And sin entered into the world and with a by long train of lies and ever since the whole world and every thing in it is filled with them. things to 'speak the truth in love. in the Our only what is enjoined us by the apostle. Truth is used in the Scripture for uprightness and Thou requirest truth in the integrity inward parts . when they are not aware thereof. we would not be: word was truth. is an effect of renovation of the image of God in us. I intend all namely. yea. I can- not but look upon sion whatever else it it as a very great stain to their profesbe. Where- and sincerity in words. may be. scarce their it desiring prosperity. their safety . as of God revealed. another grace. unready to help thena. another part of holiness. it is naught. but when he hath sold it he boasteth.' speak away speaking. which represents him and his nature who is the father of lies and liars.' and it is good. by an opposition to which attribute we him from his glory . is I I could willingly stay to manifest how lies the whole world of all sorts. which iv. and sullied by must not divert thereunto. li.

150

NECESSITY OF HOLINESS FROM THE

truth.

of Satan upon them, and are most opposite to the God of Another occasion must be taken farther to press this necessary duty, only at present I do but Intimate that where truth is not universally observed, according to the

utmost watchfulness of sincerity and love, there all other marks and tokens of the image of God in any persons are not only sullied but defaced, and the representation of Satan is most prevalent. And these things I could not but add, as naturally consequential unto that first principal argument for the necessity of holiness, which we have proposed and insisted on. Having dispatched this first argument, and added unto its influit some especial improvements with respect unto it from free we that it remains our ence into only practice,
one objection which
it

seems exposed unto.

Now

this

ariseth from the consideration of the infinite grace, mercy, and love of God, as they are proposed in the dispensation

of the word
it will,

:

for

it

may be

said

unto us, and like enough

considering the frame of men's minds in the days wherein we live, do not you yourselves who thus press unto
holiness, and the necessity of
it,

from the consideration of

the nature of God, preach unto us every day the greatness of his mercy towards all sorts of sinners, his readiness to receive

them, his willingness to pardon them, and that freely in Christ, without the consideration of any worth, merit, or And do you not herein invite righteousness of their own ? all-sorts of sinners, the worst and the greatest, to come unto him by Christ, that they may be pardoned and accepted ? Whence then can arise any argument for the necessity of holiness, from the consideration of the nature of this God, whose inestimable treasures of grace, and the freedom of whose love and mercy towards sinners, no tongue, as you say, can express. Ans. 1. This objection is very natural unto carnal and unbelieving minds, and therefore we shall meet with it at There is nothing seems more reasonable unto every turn. them, than that we may live in sin because grace hath abounded. If men must yet be holy, they can see no need nor use of grace ; and they cannot see that God is gracious to any purpose, if, notwithstanding, men may perish because they are not holy. But this objection is raised, rejected, and

CONSIDERATION OF THE NATURE OF GOD^ 151
condemned by our
quiesce; Rom.
vi. 1.

apostle, in whose judgment we may acand in the same place he subjoins the

reasons, why, notwithstanding the superabounding grace of God in Christ, there is an indispensable necessity that all believers should be holy.
2. God himself hath obviated this He proobjection. claims his name, Exod. xxxiv. 6, 7. ' The Lord, the Lord

God, gracious and merciful, abundant in goodness and keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving iniquity, transgressions, and sin.' Had he stood here, and neither in
truth,

nor in any other place of Scripture, farther declared his nature and unchangeable purposes concerning sinners, some colour might have been laid on this objection. But he adds
this

immediately,
that
as

by no means clear the guilty ;' in is, explained places of Scripture innumesuch as on in their rable, sins, without regard unto obego
will
it is

'

and that

dience and holiness, springing frofti the atonement their guilty souls in the blood of Christ.
3.

made

for

we ought to declare, the rich and free love, and grace, mercy, bounty of God unto sinners, in and by Jesus Christ; and woe unto us, if we should not be found in that work all our days, and thereby encourage all sorts of sinners to come unto him for the free pardon of their sins, without money or price,' without merit or desert on their part; for this" is the gospel. But, notwithstanding all this grace and condescension, we declare, that he doth not dethrone himself, nor deny himself, nor change his nature, nor become unholy, that we may be saved. He is God still, naturally and essentially holy holy as he is in Christ, reconciling the sinful world unto himself, and therefore indispensably requires, that those whom he pardons, receives, accepts into his love and communion with himdo,
'
;

We

self,

should be holy also.

And

these things are not only

consistent but inseparable.
this grace in

Without the consideration of God, we can have no encouragement to be

holy ; and without the uecessity of holiness in us, that grace can neither be glorified nor useful.

ETERNAL ELECTION
CAUSE OF AND MOTIVE UNTO HOLINESS.

CHAP.

II.

Other arguments for the necessity of holiness, from Gocfs eternal election^ The argument from thence explained, improved, vindicated.

We

have seen, upon the whole matter, what conclusions (as unto our own duty) we ought to draw from that revelation of the nature of God in Christ, which is made unto us, and our relation unto him if we are not thereby prevailed on, always, in all instances of obedience, to endeavour to be
:

holy, universally, in all manner of holy conversation, we neither can enjoy his favour here, nor be brought unto the en-

joyment of him in glory hereafter. That consideration which usually we take of God, next after his nature and the properties of it, is of the eternal free acts of his will, or his decrees and purposes. And we shall now inquire, what respect they have unto holiness in us, what arguments and motives may be taken from them, to evince the necessity of it unto us, and to press us thereunto; especially from the decree of election, which in an especial manner is by some traduced, as no friend to this design. I say then, that. It is the eternal and immutable purpose of God, that all who
are his in a peculiar manner, all
dently thereunto be

whom

he designs to bring unto

blessedness in the everlasting enjoyment

of himself; shall anteceThis holy. purpose of his, God hath declared nmto us, that we may take no wrong measures of our estate and condition, nor build hopes or expectations of

made

future glory, on sandy foundations that will fail us. Whatever we are else, in parts, abilities, profession, moral honesty,

usefulness unto others, reputation in the church, if

we

are

not personally, spiritually, evangelically holy, we have no interest in that purpose or decree of God, whereby any per-

ETERNAL ELECTION A CAUSE OF HOLINESS.
sons are designed unto salvation and glory.
shall briefly confirm.

153

And

this

we

He hath chosen us in Christ, before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy, and unblamable before him in love.' But is this that which firstly and
Eph.
i.

4.

'

principally

we
;

namely, holiness,
love
xiii.
?

are ordained unto, and that for its own sake, arvd unblamableness in the obedience of
are firstly ordained unto
*

No

we

eternal life;'

Acts

48.

we
ii.

2 Thess.
as his to the
'

are 'chosen from the beginning unto salvation;' 13. That which God, in the first place, intends

is our eternal salvation, of the his of praise glory grace ;' Eph. i. 5, 6. 11. How then is he said to choose us that we should be holy ? in what sense is our holiness proposed as the design of God in

end in the decree of election,

election

? It is as the indispensable means for the attaining of the end of salvation and glory. I do, saith God, choose

these poor lost sinners, to be mine in an especial manner, to save them by my Son, and bring them, through his mediation, unto eternal glory; but in order hereunto, I do purpose and decree, that they shall be holy and unblamable in the obedience of love, without which, as a means, none shall ever attain that end. Wherefore, the expectation and hope of any man, for
life

and immortality and glory, without previous holiness, can be built on no other foundation but this, that God will

rescind his eternal decrees, and change his purposes, that is, cease to be God, merely to comply with them in their sins.

And who knows
the apostle,

hope and expectation
he also
called.'

not what will be the end of such a cursed ? The contrary is seconded by that of

36. 'Whom he did predestinate, them Wherever predestination unto glory goes before, concerning any person, there effectual vocation unto faith and holiness and where these never infallibly ensues So 2 Thess. ii. 13, God hath were, the other never was.

Rom. viii.

:

*

chosen you from the beginning unto salvation, through the Chosen we are unto salvation, the free of God but how may this salby sovereign grace vation be actually obtained? how may we be brought into
sanctification of the Spirit.'
:

the actual possession of it? Spirit, and no otherwise.

Through the

sanctification of the

doth not sanctify and make holy by his Spirit, he never chose unto salvation fi'om the beginning. The counsels of God, therefore, concerning

Whom God

154
US,

ETERNAL ELECTION A CAUSE OF
;

do not depend on our holiness but upon our holiness our future happiness depends in the counsels of God. Hence we may see, wherein lies the force of the argument for the necessity of holiness, from God's decree of

and it consists in these two things First, That such is the nature of the unalterable decree of God in this matter, that no person living, can ever attain the end oi glory and happiness, without the means oi grace and The same eternal purpose respecteth both. I shall holiness. afterward shew, how the infallible and indissolvable connexion of these things is established by the law of God. Our present argument is from hence, that it is fixed by God's eternal decree. He hath ordained none to salvation, but he hath ordained them antecedently to be holy. Not the least
election
:

;

infant that goes out of this world, shall come to eternal rest, unless it be sanctified, and so made habitually and radically

holy.

He

tification of the Spirit. or may seem to have,

chooseth none to salvation but through the sancAs, therefore, whatever else w'e have
it

is

that

we should come
is

to the

holy, so it cree also.

contrary to

contrary to the nature of God, enjoyment of him, if we are not his eternal and unchangeable de-

evidence of our interest in

Secondly, It ariseth from hence, that we can have no God's decree of election, whereby we are designed unto life and glory, without holiness effectually wrought in us. Wherefore, as our life depends upon it, so do all our comforts. To this purpose speaks our apostle, 2 Tim. ii. 19. 'The foundation of God standeth sure, having
this seal.

The Lord knoweth who are his.' It is the decree of election which he intends, and he proposeth it as that alone which will give security against apostacy in a time of great temptations and trials ; as our Saviour doth likewise ;
Matt. xxiv. 24.

Every thing

else will fail,

but what

is

an
is

especial fruit and effect of this decree.

What,

therefore,

incumbent on us with respect thereunto, that we may know we have an interest in this single security against final apostacy ? saith the apostle, And let every one that nameth the name of Christ, depart from inquity.' There is iio other way to come unto an evidence thereof, but by a departure from all iniquity, by universal holiness. So the apostle Peter di'

rects us, to 'give all diligence to

make our

election sure;'

AND MOTIVE UNTO

HOLINESS.
*

155

2 Pet. i. 10. Sure it is in itself, from all eternity. The foundation of God standeth sure.' But our duty it is to make it sure and certain unto ourselves. And this is a thing of the
highest importance and concernment unto us, whence we are required to give all diligence unto that end. How then may
this

be done or effected ? This he declares in the foregoingand it is only by finding in ourselves, and duly exercising that train of gospel graces and duties which he there
verses,

enumerates; ver. 5
of election, that
if

9.

It is evident, therefore,

and necessary from God's decree

either eternal glory hereafter, or or assurance here, that we must endeavour any consolation For to be * holy and unblamable before him in love.'

we intend

whomsoever God purposeth to save, he purposeth first to that we sanctify; neither have we any ground to suppose, are built on that foundation of God which standeth sure,
unless

we depart from all iniquity. What farther motives be taken from the especial nature of this decree, shall may be considered when we have removed one objection out of our way.
there are, who apprehend that these things are For they say, that a supposition of God's otherwise. quite decree of personal election is a discouragement unto all endeavours for holiness, and an effectual obstruction thereof

Some

in the lives of
*

men.

And under
it

doctrine concerning

this pretence chiefly, is the blasphemed and evil spoken of. 'For,*

men unto freely from eternity chosen there that they should be holy? They may live securely in the pursuit of their lusts, and be sure not For God's decree cannot be to fail of heaven at the last.
say they,
if

God have
is

salvation, what need

frustrated, nor his will resisted.

And

if

men be

not elected,

whatever they endeavour in the ways of holy obedience, it will be utterly lost, for eternally saved they cannot, they shall not be. This, therefore, is so far from being a conviction of the necessity of holiness, and a motive unto it, as that indeed it renders it unnecessary and useless; yea, defeats the power of all other arguments for it, and motives unto it.' and
efficacy
it

Now this*objection, if not
use of

for the sake of those

who make

as a cavil against the truth, yet of those who may feel the force of it in the way of a temptation, must be re-

moved out of our way

:

to this end, I

answer two things

:

15G
1.

ETERNAL ELECTION A CAUSE OF

lis.

In general; that this persuasion is not of him that calkth This way of arguing is not taught in the Scripture, nor can thence be learned. The doctrine of God's free electing And withal, it is love and grace is fully declared therein.
a great proposed as the fountain of all holiness, and made motive thereunto. Is it not safer now for us to adhere to the plain testimonies of Scripture, confirmed by the experience of the generality of believers, captivating our underunto such standings to the obedience of faith, than hearken a dislike of with minds perverse cavils, as would possess our

Those who hate gospel holiness, or would substitute somethins: else in the room of it, will never want

God and

his

ways

?

exceptions against all its concernments. A holiness they in. For, as I said forlay claim unto, and plead an interest in general of the necessity hereof, is ala confession merly, most the only thing wherein all that are called Christians do agree. But such a holiness they would have, as doth

not spring from eternal divine election, as is not wrought in us originally by the almighty efficacy of grace in our conversion, as is not promoted by free justification, through the imputation of the righteousness of Christ. Now, this is such a holiness as the Scripture knoweth nothing of, unless it be to reject and condemn it. Wherefore, this objection proceeding only from the craft of Satan, opposing the

ways and methods of God's grace, when he darethnot openly
oppose the thing
itself, it is safer for

a believer to rest quietly

in the clear Scripture revelation, than to attend unto such

proud, perverse, and fro ward cavillings. 2. In particular ; we are not only obliged to believe all divine revelations, but also in the way, order, and method, wherein, by the will of God, they are proposed unto us, and

which is required by the nature of the things themselves. For instance, the belief of eternal life is required in the gosbut yet no man is obliged to believe, that he shall be pel
:

in his sins, but rather the eternally saved whilst he lives is plain and evident, which On this supposition, contrary.
I shall, in the ensuing propositions, utterly cast this objection * out of consideration.. (l.)The decree of election, considered absolutely in itself, without respect unto its effects, is no part of God's revealed
loill;

that

is, it is

not revealed, that this or that man,

is.

AND MOTIVE UNTO HOLINESS.
or
is

157

not elected.

This, therefore, can be

made

neither argu-

objection, about any thing wherein faith or obedience are concerned for we know it not, we cannot know it, it is not our duty to know it, the knowledge of it is not proposed as of any use unto us, yea, it is our sin to inquire into it. It may seem to some, to be like the tree of knowledge of good and evil unto Eve good for food, pleasant to the eyes, and much to be desired to make one wise, as all But men secret [forbidden thinos seem to carnal minds. xxix. 29.Deut, See death. can oather no fruit from it but
;
;

ment nor

Whatever exceptions,
as
it is

therefore, are laid against this decree

whatever inferences are made, on supposition of this or that man's being, or not being, elected, they are all unjust and unreasonable, yea, proved contending with God, who hath appointed another way for the discovery herein itself,
of,

as

we

shall see afterward.

(2.)

God

sends the gospel to

men

in pursuit of his decree

and in order unto its effectual accomplishment. I of in its indedispute not what other end it hath or may have,
election,

But this is the first, regulating, proposal unto all. Wherefore, in the preaching of it, our principal end of it. for the elect's apostle affirms, that he endured all things is in Jesus which salvation the obtain sake, that
finite
'

Christ, with eternal glory ;' 2 Tim. ii. 10. So God beforehand commanded him to stay and preach the gospel at Corinth,

they might

in his purpose of grace xiii. 48.
(3.)

because 'he had much people in that city;' namely, Acts xviii. 10. See chap. ii. 47.
;

this gospel comes, it proposeth life and salJesus unto all that shall believe, repent, and Christ, by obedience It plainly makes known unto men unto him. yield their duty, and plainly proposeth unto them their reward. In this state of things, no man without the highest pride, and utmost effect of unbelief, can oppose the secret decree

Wherever

vation

of

God unto our known
I

duty.

Saith such an one,
I

I will

nei-

ther repent, nor believe, nor obey, unless

may

first

know

whether

elected or no, for all at last will depend thereIf this be the resolution of any man, he may go about on. his other occasions, the gospel hath nothing to say or offer unto him. If he will admit of it on no other terms, but that

am

he may set up his own

will,

and wisdom, and methods, in

158

ETERNAL ELECTION A CAUSE OF

opposition unto and exclusion of those of God, he must, for aught I know, take his own course, whereof he may repent

when

it is

too late.
sole

(4.)

The

way of God's appointment, whereby we may

to an apprehension of an interest in election, is by the us to infruits of it in our own souls : nor is it lawful for The into it or after it other obligation which quire any way.

come

the gospel puts upon us to believe any thing, respects the order of the things themselves to be believed, and the order of our obedience, as was before observed. For instance ;

when it is declared, that Christ died for sinners, no man is immediately obliged to believe, that Christ died for him in particular, but only that he died to save sinners, to procure a way of salvation for them, among whom he finds himself
Hereon the gospel requires of men faith and obedience Until this this are they obliged to comply withal. be done, no man is under an obligation to believe that Christ died for him in particular. So is it in this matter of election a man is obliged to believe the doctrine of it, upon the first promulgation of the gospel, because it is therein
to be.
:

:

But as for his own personal election, he plainly declared. cannot believe it, nor is obliged to believe it any otherwise,
but as God reveals it by its effects. No man ought, no man can justly question his own election, doubt of it, or disbelieve it, until he be in such a condition as wherein it is impossible that the effects of election should ever be wrought in him; if such a condition there be in this world. For as a man whilst he is unholy can have no evidence that he is elected, so he can have none that he is not elected, whilst it is possible that ever he may be holy. Wherefore, whether men are elected or no, is not that which God calls any immediately to be conversant about. Faith, obedience, holiness, are the inseparable fruits, effects, and consequents of election as hath been proved before. See Eph. i. 4. 2 Thess. ii. 13. Tit. i. 1. Acts xiii. 48. In whomsoever these things are wrought, he is obliged, according to the method of God and the gospel, to believe his own election and any believer may have the same assurance of it as he hath of his calling,
;
:

sanctification, or justification ble. And the exercise of

by

interest in election

;

for these things are insepara; grace, are we obliged to secure our 2 Pet. i. 11. But as for those who are

AND MOTIVE UNTO HOLINESS.
as yet unbelievers

159

and unholy, they can draw no conclusion

that they are not elected, but from this supposition, that they are in a state and condition, wherein it is impossible that ever they should have either grace or holiness ; which can-

not be supposed concerning any man but he that knows himself to have sinned against the Holy Ghost. Wherefore, all the supposed strength of the objection mentioned, lieth only in the pride of men's minds and wills, refusing to submit themselves unto the order and method of God in the dispensation of his grace, and his prescription of their duty, where we must leave it.

To
God's

return unto our designed discourse.

The doctrine of

posed

eternal election is every where in the Scripture profor the encourager?ient and consolation of believers, and

them in their course of obedience and holiness. See Eph. i. 3 10. Rom. viii. 28 33. As unto men's present concernment therein, it is infallibly assured unto them by its effects; and being so, it is filled v/ith motives unto holiness,
to further

as

we
of

shall

now

farther declare in particular.

God herein, is a have no way to express
love

and ever-to-be-adored grace and powerful motive hereunto. For we our resentment of this grace, our of our thankfulness for it, but by a holy it, acknowledgment fruitful course of obedience nor doth God on the account hereof require any thing else of us. Let us, therefore, inquire what sense and obligation this puts upon us that God from all eternity, out of his mere sovereign grace, not moved by any thing in ourselves, should first choose us unto life and
First,

The

sovereign

;

;

by Jesus Christ, decreeing immutably to save us out of the perishing multitude of mankind, from whom we neither then did in his eye or consideration, nor by any
thing in ourselves ever would differ in the least? What impression doth this make upon our souls? What conclusion as to our practice and obedience do we hence educe? Why
saith one, If God hath thus chosen me, I may then live in sin as I please, all will be well and safe in the latter end, which is
'

salvation

all I

for.' But this is the language of a devil, and not Suggestions possibly of this nature, by the craft of Satan, in conjunction with the deceitfulness of sin, may be injected into the minds of believers; as what may not so be? But he that shall foment, embrace, and act practically

need care

of a man.

as free and tive undeserved. He that doth not understand. iii. that any one who knows these things. Col. impious. that it tended to ingenerate looseness of Besides. humbleness of ' mind. Deut. will not be easily persuaded. such a monster of impiety and presumptuous ingratitude. long-suffering. in life.160 ETERNAL ELECTION A CAUSE OF is according to this inference. stirred up unto it by motives of their own (as there is a religion in the world. And those who know any thing of the nature of faith. that runs in a parallel line by that of . God himself knoweth this to be so. the Scripture it is still proposed and made use of unto other ends. forbearing one another. any thing of intercourse or communion with him by Jesus Christ. any thing of thankfulness. that it proved a snare unto them. apostle. or a contempt of God in them. that an apprehension by faith of God's electing love in Christ. I shall use some boldness in this matter. these are required of them on the account of their interest in electing love and Men may frame a holiness to themselves. and ungrateful mondevoid of all holy ingenuity. therefore. 12. never any. so God's electing love and grace.' These things. to cast poison into the spring of all their own mercies ? Many have I known complain. become the elect of God . 6 8. he maketh the consideration of his electing love. but that sters. hath a natural. is utterly unacquainted with the nature of faith. powerful influence upon the souls of believers. can be such stupid. immediate. that they could not arrive at a comfortable persuasion of the'ir own election. and. Is it possible. kindness. forgiving one another. which are so great a part of our holiness. 11. who when they had received it in a due way and manner. in many instances. his principal argument to stir up the people unto holy obedience. or holiness. obedience. as merely out of despite unto him. and filial affections towards God. and its whole work and actings towards God. And a supposition hereof lies at the bottom of that blessed exhortation of our — Put on. unholiness. bowels of mercy. who is not sensible. therefore. meekness. in the hearts of them that believe. as the elect of God. as hell itself cannot parallel. and be grace. holy and beloved. is a mighty constraining mounto the due exercise of them all. vii. that those on whom they are in sincerity and power. can suppose. unto the love of God and holy obedience. or of the love of God.

are lifted destruction. now the world is sinking glorify into ruin under the weight of its own pride. losses. this private dangers and : . that this is suited to promote. let us put on humility in all things. and to do 1. that lay pefrom him? What rishing under the guilt of our apostacy did he see in us. is acknowledged and never was it more for than it is at this day. in. an eminent part of holiness. if he wrought not in us by his effectual grace? nothing but a continuance in sin and sin How should the rebellion against him. the tongues of more God and men. call for God hath taken all preat present in an especial manner. in that this is the disposal of all our concerns in this world an excellent fruit of faith. but toucheth the which that but gospel requires. and that for ever. The spirits of men. the looks of men. I shall instance izi cipal. undone creatures. The good Lord keep in the pride of these days. on the account whereof we should be lifted up? Wherefore. This public calamities. 2. to choose us. can neither glorify him in any thing. is a necessary consequent of a due consideration of this decree of God. that there is no grace whereby at this day we may the gospel. VOL. He that cannot signally called live in an actual resignation of himself and all his concerns unto the sovereign pleasure of God. as the elect of God. some especial graces. their pride unto their professors from a share Spiritual pride in foolish self- up by exalting opinions. the lives of men. Humility in all things. nothing but and misery ? What did he foresee that we would do of ourselves more than others. Submission to the sovereign will and pleasure of God. nor will do so to eterevangelical truth. and the pride of life in the fashions of the world. And let me add. and parts of holiness. are the poison of this age.AND MOTIVE UNTO HOLINESS. 161 it not. consideration us good for ever? Poor. to move him so to choose us. nor have one hour's solid peace in his own mind. M . duties. whereof and motives by grounds this of God's free electing love and grace is among the prin- Farther to confirm this truth. is promoted on the nity). the that are peculiar unto it. thoughts hereof keep our souls in all humility and continual self-abasement. For what have we in or from ourselves. this the uncertainty of all things here below. or duty of obedience. lost. For what were we when he thus set his heart upon us.

our persons. as he hath done so concerning all sincere believers. that we should love them also ? How dare any of us entertain unkind severe thoughts? how dare we maintain animosities and enmities against any of them whom God hath eternally chosen to grace and glory ? Such things. none so rich. 12. it may be. do we not think it necessary. and made them the objects of his love and grace. for. however differenced among them- selves. are made indispensably necessary unto us. portion to be brought unto the utmost extremity of earthly calamities. doth not God require of us. how ready should we be to resign up thereunto that little portion which we to be disposed of freely have in this world among perishing things ? 3. all forbearance towards all be- the saints of God. And not. in the sovereign will of God is it not to trust all other things in the same hand. as to grace and and what a prodigious glory. And herein also doth no small part of our holiness consist. compassion. None knows how soon it may be his. if God have chosen them all from eternity. was the choosing of us from all eternity unto all This was done when we were holiness and happiness. as no believer will. impiety and absolutely? If we will not in our interest mere absolute free sovereign grace for forego ten thousand worlds. as thence to expect relief from such things ? Where then shall we in this condition cast anchor? whither shall we betake ourselves for quietness and repose ? It is no way to be obtained. There is none so old. For. when we had no contrivances of our own.iii. lievers. shall we not now put all our temporary concerns into the same hand ? Can the same fountain send out sweet and Can the same sovereign pleasure of God be bitter water ? : God and what ? this the free only cause of all our blessedness.162 ETERNAL ELECTION A CAUSE OF tences of security from the earth. were secure and blessedly provided . upon provoca- . none so young. To this purpose is the exhortation of the apostle before mentioned. by what some men feel and some men fear. Col. but in a resignation of ourselves and all our concernments into the sovereign pleasure of greater motive can we have thereunto than The first act of divine sovereign pleasure concerning us. and pressed on us from the same consideration. kindness. none so wise. and can it do that which is really evil unto us ? Our souls. Love.

and reproach in the world ? alas none of these things were in the least in the heart of God not to be named on the concerning them. best fruits and effects of his love. 3. and clashings of secular interests. speak. not for the Jews or Gentiles. 1. fallen out. against which no other thing can be laid in bar. but for the elect's ' sake. have and will fall out amongst us . that it may be known and proThus shall it be done to the man whom the claimed. The apostle's rule is. greatest. than the decree of God's election. is subject to less exceptions. that. and difficulties. This should regulate our love. will he have them to be rich. and mightily stir it all actings of kindness. and forgiveness. as unto our communion in love. Rom.' saith our apostle. and love all those. and honourable among men.AND MOTIVE UNTO HOLINESS.' up unto 4. I endure all things. weak. compassion. They deserve the least of those things with to use we as same day. as manifest' ing itself in its effects. Were there any real his unto.' which is the M 2 . he would substantial good ' I not have cast them out of the counsels of his love. embrace. will Contempt of the xcorld. selfish Christians. whom God hath chosen and loved from eternity. and all that belongs unto it. And the rule is no less certain. heaven of delighteth to honour. forbear- ance. brethren. not for the weak or strong in the faith. and glorify himself in What then will he do for them? their praises for ever? will he make them all kings or emperors in the world ? Or at least. There is no greater evidence of low. and shame. mercy. 163 tions and surprisals. to distinguish them as his from all the residue of mankind ? doth he design to give them the highest. hence also be ingenerated in us.' however. and because God hath received him. than to prescribe any other rules or bounds unto their spiritual evangelical affections. whoever they be. and trials. yea. But on ' the contrary. from poverty. not for those of this or that way. and noble. we ought to receive him whom God hath received. you see your calling. but they are all op- posite and contrary unto that influence which the consideration of God's electing love ought to have upon us. xiv. that they king should be kept from straits. Did God set his heart upon some from eternity ? did he choose them to be his own peculiar. chosen hath God which own on their them in account. that we ought to choose.

learn to be satisfied with their state and condition had God seen it to have been have been otherwise. will us. Electing love is a motive and encouragement unto for to ! . that the fountain of electing grace. serpents. cool your love towards them. Let the remembrance hereof suit your esteem and valuation of them do but think with yourselves that these are not the things that God had any regard unto. oft-times discouraged. Here utmost strength oft-times the best are foiled. Hereon our knees are ready to grow feeble. and snares. Yea. no small encouragement to continue in our progress. sometimes weary and ready to give over it re- many. that lie in the way of a constant quires a good persevering course in gospel obedience. holiness. passed by And let them that are rich not set their hearts upon uncertain riches. the world. and our hands to hang down. how that not many wise men mighty are called. but continually give out supplies of spiritual and refreshment. who . to take a prospect of the lions. Hence may we take heart and strength to rise courage. to a poor. when he prepared grace and glory for his own. * infallible fruit election. not many hath chosen the poor of the not many world. again when we have beea foiled. when he chose us unto grace and glory. he would not have good you it when he was acting eternal love towards you.' for the most part. to abide when the shock of temptation is violent. our hearts on those things that God hath so manifestly put an under valuation upon. And shall we set low. let them that are poor and despised in the world. and afHicted condition in this world. and it will abate of your cares about them. their in a course of holiness are great and Satan. because of the enabling supplies of grace may and ought thence to expect by Jesus Christ.164 ETERNAL ELECTION A CAUSE OF and consequent of after the flesh. and to persevere in those duties which are most wearisome to the flesh. the base and the contemptible. Secondly. ficulties which he The dif- we meet withal . It is no small relief herein. and sin. he hath designed the generality of his elect. in comparison of the least concernment of grace and holiness : ? Wherefore. which is your holiness. and take off your hearts from them. Alas they are things which God had no regard unto. And fail never they are unacquainted with a course of holy obedience. do put forth and try : spiritual courage. but God noble.

It is true. which uncertainties. Rom. and therefore the final perseverance and salvation of those concerned in it. It is very sad. His purpose. and despondencies.' 2 Tim. and perplexities of what will be the issue of things at last with them. 19. through infallibly and be at length safely that made are them. dread. were there no difference between faith and prethe spirit of liberty under sumption. delight in God weakened. without a per workings of faith.AND MOTIVE UNTO HOLINESS. which is 'according unto election. viii. and the prothe genius as to be able thus to argue. Those who have had experience of that spiritual slumber and sloth which unbelief will cast us under. xi. discouragements. and ' his foundation standeth sure . to make and uncertainty of the end. spiritual endeavours and and love diligence are impaired. Some think that this apprehen- sion of the immutability of God's purpose of election.' is unchangeable. are everlastingly secured. and his effectual operations in the the elect of God shall pursuit and for the execution thereof. And there is no greater encouragement to grow and persist in holiness. that notwithstanding all the we meet withal. cooled by them. This is the design of the apostle's discourse. and that to be always in only means fear. miscarry. and the infalhbility of the salvation of believers on that account. is the us watchful unto duties of holiness. that any man should so far proclaim his inexperience and unacquaintedness with the nature of gospel grace. 7. be carried even the most dreadful opall. we vshall not utterly and finally God's election will at last obtain . and that of bondage under the old . from ver. check put upon him by himself and from his own experience. Rom. fears. will be able to make a right judgment of oppositions the truth of this assertion. i. against positions landed in glory. Thirdly. no difference between the covenant of grace. do cast upon the souls of men. than what is administered by this assurance of a blessed end and issue of it. tends only to carelessness and security in sin . know not how needful this consideration is 165 unto a comfort- able continuance therein. Because of the immutability of God's eternal purpose in our predestination. doubts. of those weaknesses. It hath the same tendency and effect in the assurance we have from thence. and inclination of the new creature. 28. unto the end. how duties are discouraged.

as he hath occasion from trials or opportunities. Suppose a man that is on his journey. or civil. and doubling his speed. It is that soul alone. no filial and adherence unto. as the lead or iron. ETERNAL ELECTION A CAUSE OF no spirit in. the operations of the one and disposition of the other. that the assurance of God's unchangeable love in Christ. knoweth himself be in his right way. and upon none at all). from what hath been discoursed. that this is enough to make such a man careless and negligent. their ignorance. such persons are as dead and cold towards God. will you say. as is declared elsewhere. And this is the very design of our apostle. he shall certainly and infallibly come to his journey's end. which ran but now in a fiery stream. that they will momento turhinis. there might be something in this objection: but if the nature of faith. they will convert to God. genuine delight of adoption given unto believers. and as believers have experience of them in their own hearts men do but bewray . It appears. whilst they contend. ingenerated in them thereby. as occasion shall require . and thence of the blessed end of its own course of obedience. doth any way impeach. is a powerful constraining motive unto ho- . or doth not effectually promote the industry of believers in all duties of obedience. especially if he will a little quicken his speed. God. immutable. which hath a comfortable assurance of God's eternal. yea. and that it would be much more to his advantage to be lost and bewildered in uncertain paths and ways. flowing from the immutability of his counsel in election. and that passing on therein. nor whether he shall ever arriveat his journey's end ? Common experience declares the contrary. vi. as also how momentary and useless are those violent fits and gusts of endeavours. who goeth on and evenly in a course of holiness. are such as they are declared to be in the gospel. which proceed from fear and uncertainty. Heb. quickening his constantly course. both in things spiritual and temporal.166 covenant . is when the heat is departed from it. electing love. ordinarily. that the electing love of God. to explain and confirm. and of the new creature. from the tenth verse unto the end of the chapter. and perfect holiness in an instant but so to : soon as that impressiuu wears off (as it will do on ever occasion. Whilst men are xmder the power of actual impressions from such fears. not knowing whither he goes.

which of these conclusions is (I will not say. or are otherwise uncertain of their spiritual state and condition. if we be sincere and diligent. and effects. * That if it be supposed or granted.) may conclude. But it will be said. by attaining of them. them. but by the possession of its For. Now I ask. than . which are saving faith and holiness . with that subjection of soul and conscience which we owe to his sovereign wisdom and au- thority. Having. I doctrine of personal election be unto men. nothing can be so discouraging unto them as this doctrine of eternal election. together with the other sacred truths of preached the gospel two conclusions. And herein.AND MOTIVE UNTO liness.' The removal of this objection shall put a close unto our discourse on this And I answer subject. safety. and growth in them. that those who shall be saved are chosen thereunto before the foundation of the world. they are needless. but that. if they are not elected. principally to acquaint believers with their privilege. then it is to no purpose to go it is we must. about to believe or obey. proved its usefulness unto have discharged all that is absolutely needful to ray present purpose. Can they make any other conclusion from it. yet as for those who are unconverted. we shall not fail. that if it be so indeed. and fountain of their . I. that it hath its proper benefit and advantage towards others also.) That whereas this is a matter of great and eternal moment unto our souls. seeing all things must fall out at last according as they were fore-ordained. (2. we our duty. : comforts. in all who may make the use of it that is pleaded . (1. and most suitable to the principles of sober love of ourselves. and care of our immortal condition ? Nothing is more certain. HOLINESS. suppose the : fruits will. and there is no way to secure our interest in it. 2. to make our election sure. to use our utmost endeavours. most suited unto the mind and will of God. Others. it is possible. all care and pains in and about duties of obedience are vain if they are. therefore. but whether of them is) the most rational. That we have shewed already. may by sundry persons be made from it. the necessity of it intend the eternal enjoyment of God. But I shall shew moreover. that this doctrine is revealed and proposed in the Scripture. 167 and that which proves invincibly. and have a sense of their interest herein. that those who are actually believers.

than that he who pursues sincerely and diligently the ways of faith and obedience. as we have often said. is an invincible argument of the necessity of holiness. death condemnation are the unavoidable issues of it. it is utterly impossible. possible may be found to be the object of God's electing love. accounts. shall obtain in the end everlasting blessedness and. faith. that without holiness anj-. of their own personal election. shall have in this world a cometernal and No man giving himself up to . it is possible ? there is nothing more infallibly certain. and so be saved. and towards all sorts of persons. But why do I say. the conduct of that conclusion. shall ever come to the enjoyment of God. which are. ordinarily. on all mighty motive thereunto for it is unavoidable. and that the fruits of it are sanctification.168 ETERNAL ELECTION A CAUSE.one should see God. : . that if there be such a thing as personal election. This. that the latter resolution will be infallibly destructive (if pursued) of all the everlasting concernments of our souls . the reason of which consequence is apparent unto all. way. and obedience. and a fortable evidence therefore. the fruits 'of election. &€. But in the other it is at that a man least.

as the nature and order of these things do require.' or ho. 11. 37. have evinced the necessity of holiness from the nature and God our next argument shall be taken from his word. CHAP. : And.HOLINESS NECESSARY FROM THE COMMANDS OF GOD. you would abound more and more for you you. . so for this is know what commandment we gave liness . . The renovation of the image of iv. 12. Tit. by the Lord Jesus the will of God. stance of the law is. iv. or whence we do conclude unto a necessity of holiness from the command of God. it is needless to produce instances of God's commands. Be ye holy. Our apostle sums up the whole matter. xxii. it is the the decrees of : We concurrent voice of the law and gospel. God in us 2. This is which the commandments of Christ require. that as you have received of us how you ought to walk. 44. for I the Lord your God am holy . they are the of the gospel. what force there is in this argument. this The subis the sum of the whole commanding will of God. yea. And in this case. 1 3. Universal sum of the preceptive part 22—24. testimonies. whereas holiness . 'We exhort you. Matt.' Lev. whereunto he adds one especial instance. the from commands of God in the law and the gospel. Necessity of holiness proved. To this end. that we should be holy. therefore. actual obedience. ii. and — please God. even your sanctification. the same with what it is referred unto that ' by our Saviour. there needeth no farther confirmation by especial Our inquiry must be. or commands. Eph. xi. the nature and prothat per adjuncts of these commands are to be considered . 1 Thess. 39. III. Hereof. may be reduced unto two heads 1.

one thing must And this is. God blessed for ever then are we ness unto : when commanded us. as considered so distinctly. or service. is to make themselves their own god. or with respect unto them. and to despise obedience unto him who is over all. that God's commands iox holiness 1. then are is we we do what unto us. so for men to pretend unto I know not what freedom. and it is a respect unto a comdience to the will of God mand which makes any thing to be obedience. which put sue!} an indispensable obligation upon us unto holiness. is .xxix. of God in his commands. therefore. it belongs neither to holiness nor obedience. if the reason why he doth it be not God's command. covenant do us unto the new holiness. that is. so as to endeavour after holiness we with respect unto God's command. which is resolved only into the doctrines or precepts of men. 13. but those of oblige as to the matter of them but aud substance the old. 2. may be considered two ways: As they belong unto. anyplace in his fear. the servants of God. is after those things in the commands of God. the same things are required in them. without respect unto the commands of God without. yet be premised unto these considerations. : a great difference in the manner and ends of these there commands. if we do it not them. as given in his word. or gives it the formal nature thereof. and the same person requires them. Whatever good any man doth in any kind. or the enjoyment of him. and are parts of. as unto eternal blessedness. For whatever we may do. and so their Not only the commands of obligation is joint and equal. As they belong and are inseparably annexed unto the covenant of grace. we are not principled for by the Spirit of God administered in the promises. which seems to have the matter of holiness in it. worship.170 is. Wherefore. Isa. Our inquiry. and readiall holiness. will be of no use or advantage the disciples of Christ. as that whatever we may be or we may have without it. the covenant of works . as God rejects that from . But to make our way more clear and safe. from a principle within. it hath not the nature of For our holiness is our conformity and obeholiness in it. light. and because it is commanded And what we are not influenced unto by the authority us. HOLINESS NECESSARY FROM are to get our minds and consciences affected with on their account. also. In both respects they are materially and formally the same.

O Lord who shall stand V Psal. i i f Men may pelled to habituate themselves be subdued by the power of the law. seeing a compliance with . they allow of nothing else we do. . that is. principle of what they do be only the commands of the law. So Enter David. in all acts. but such as include encouragements in them unto what they urge. can hence be taken to press us unto it. did ever sincerely aim or endeavour after universal holiness. and degrees of them. by a sedate natural constitution. 2. ' or that we may he justified For Moses describeth thereby. But I that. And hence it is. duties. For no arguments are forcible unto this purpose. 1 the commands of God as under the old coveiiant. that although there ariseth from hence an obligation unto holiness. or superstiBut if the tion. whosoever shall keep the whole law. Now I acknowledge. I The end. self-righteousness. of. or first covenant absolutely considered. that the man which doth those things shall live by them. [ ' circumstance. is guilty of all . but determine us transgressors of' the lohole law. 10. in substance I I ! j . . may make a great appearance of holiness. 5. why these holiness of us. is. yet no argument of the nature with those which I insist upon. 171 For. For with ' respect unto them. x.THE COMMANDS OF GOD. prays not into judgment with thy servant. do so require universal holiness of us. that upon the least failure. and yet offend in one point. or degree. the righteousness which is of the law. it is ! dition absolutely impossible and for the things that are I S we can have no endeavours. this consideration of the command knoweth in our lapsed con- I nothing so. to them who are under that covenant. and comunto a strict course of duty. desire of applause. and such a necessity of it. For by the deeds of the law no man can be justified: if thou Lord shouldst mark iniquities. for in shall no thy sight on ' ' justification and eternal life this account can any such by them. and being advantaged therein. whatever in particular he might be forced or compelled unto. that they commands require all the duties of may be our righteousness before God. as that without it they must certainly perish . that we may have neither But argument be taken as those we inquire into. they never tread one true step in the paths of it.' Rom. cxxx. 3. that no man influenced only by the commands of the law. it requires of us all duties of obedience unto this end.' James ii.

which is no less than all holiness on the one hand. and mercy on the other. presseth men unto holiness. Although God in them requireth universal holiness of yet he doth not do it in that strict and rigorous way as 1. which we are to do our utmost endeavour to comply withal. as well as unto For. Rom. and what he doth condemn. And for this provision reason we are necessitated to deny a possibility of salvation do not. command. as exactly and extensively as under the law. and the goipel is not the misal holiness of us. or not preached. both on the account of the mediation of Christ. they are left unto this law. that thereon both that and with all ^. Gal. so as that if its we fail in any thing either as to the it. and accepts of what we do. command nistry of sin. iii. he sins. 2. in the substance of rejected. matter or manner of performance. who will not. 20. so as to give an allowance or indulgence unto the least.?z»zffnds of God. and for the ends of it. Yet this hindereth not. though we have a relief provided in sincerity on the one hand. by faith comply w^ith the only remedy and that God hath made in this case. in a respect unto all his commands. what argument can we take from thence to prevail with them unto obedience ? Whoever. as in this sense they cannot. For the commands of the gospel do still declare what God approves. or in the gospel. Psal. and must eternally perish for want of what the law so requires.' man ii. us. and all sin on the other. they cannot attain. clxiii. However men are indispensably obliged hereby. for holiness under the new covenant. we do besides should be But he doth it contemperation oi grace and mercy. by the law. legal perfection . so as that if there be a universal sincerity. although in it pardon be provided for a multitude i . and whose end unto all to those by whom the whom it is gospel is refused. whose precepts they cannot answer. It is otherwise on both these accounts with the co. For. and deceive their souls. doth but put them 16.172 HOLINESS NECESSARY FROM living be justified . or as to the degrees of its perfection. therefore. merely on the commands of the law. but that both pardoneth many though it come short of the law or of the gospel doth still require univerand a perfection therein. And if none can attain the end of the upon tormenting disquietments. For this the very nature of God requireth.

say. (2. if he did it still for the same end. the highest encouragement to endeavour after it. sinless holiness . instead of degrees. The obligation on us unto holiness a relief equal as unto what it was under the law.) what shall become of the honour and holiness of the gospel on this supposition? Must it not be looked on as a doctrine less holy than that of the law ? For. therefore. including in unto an indispensable necessity of holiness. whereas God now accepts from us a holiness short of that which the law required. of his essential holiness.hteousness at If he first. nothing more certain. as he did formerly ? Where then is the glory of his immutability. that thereby we might he justified in the sight of God. 2.) if God can accept of a righteousness unto justification inferior unto. together with the command. For. how great severity must it be thought in him.THE COMMANDS OF GOD. For. There is. and so much now on rigid and perfect obedience for our justification. namely. (1. with the mercy provided for our from the failings and sins . what he required by the law. Nothing. or short of. than that there is no relaxation given us as unto any duty of holiness. enabling us unto that obedience which God will of it it command accept. by the gos- nor any indulgence unto the least sin. therefore. it would reflect dishonour upon his own righteousness. that God hath that he doth not stand whereas the law required absolute. arising from the love of sin. But yet upon the supposition of the acceptance of sincerity. to bind his creatures unto such an exact obedience and rio. for coming short wherein they all perished ? Or shall we changed his mind in this matter. and a perfection of parts. and the holiness of the gospel. to the same end as the commands of the law did. but obliged mankind unto absolute perfection according to the law. can avoid or evacuate the power of this command and argument from it. there is also grace administered. The commands of the gospel do not require holiness and the duties of righteousness of us. For. of the absolute rectitude of his nature and will ? Besides. as he could and might have dispensed withal ? doth accept of sincere obedience now unto our justification. perfect. but a stubborn con- tempt of God. 173 is of sins by Jesus Christ. though be provided where unavoidably we come short of it. why did he not do so before. there is an argument to be taken pel.

both Christ and the gospel. that he hath merited that our imperfect obedience. the gospel admits of that to the same end. unspeakably inferior unto what he required before.) should be accepted unto our justification. which is also. . For in and by them. God unquestionably desigjned to declare the holiness and righteousness of his own muchmore gloriously than ever he had done any other should be the great means to darken and obscure them. most holy now this is no other : but the righteousness of Christ imputed unto us for he is the ' end of the law for ricjhteousness unto them that do believe . would not this indeed make Christ the minister of sin. all of them consistent with the nature of that obedience which he will accept of us. God must be thought (and is declared) to accept of a righteousness unto our justification. and so unto his command of it. nature. beyond whatever the law allowed. absolutely. in whom and whereby. ii. It must be granted. under the gospel. whereof the external instrument is the gospel. upon the whole matter. answers all that the law requires . 1 shall not here I shall insist upon them. which fully. attended with many and great sins (' for there is no man that liveth and ' sinneth not'. and consistent with a multitude of sins and failings ? What can be spoken more to the derogation of it? Nay. that the end of gospel commands. only add two things in general. which is every way imperfect.' Rom. and on some considerations is far more glorious than what And hereby hath he the law either did or could require.174 HOLINESS NECESSARY FROM unto our justification. therefore. But because these ends will be the subject of most of our ensuing arguments. and such as we may attain through the power of grace. But God hath now appointed other ends unto our holiness. And thus. perfectly. requiring the obedience of holiness in us. is not. . and so all of them offering new encouragements as well as enforcements unto our endeavours after it. therefore. or one that hath acquired some liberty for sin. 17. rejects with so much detestation ? Gal. therein provided another righteousness for that end. on this supposition. 4. way. God hath that thereby or thereon we should be justified.' which our apostle For to say. is plainly to make him the minister of sin. x. on this supposition. exalted more than ever the honour of his own holiness and righteousness. in- stead of perfect and sinless obedience required under the law.

which what it obligation and necessity puts upon us so to be. both comThere is one prised in that of the apostle James.' Mai. He who commands us to be holy. as a means unto its end. in us or by world or unto eternity. but holiness is necessary unto it. where there is any thing of superiority. Authority wherever it is just. is the authority wherewith it is God vince himself maketh use of this argument in general. as that God doth no less indispensably require it of us now. we are now j to inquire. 6. [2. unto obedience. 12. this purpose. jus imperandi. to conmen of the necessity of obedience. this away. there may be some secret abatement of the power of the where saith the .THE COMMANDS OF GOD. and subjects. as God command us to proposed as the end of it. and if I be a master where is my fear. masters. which hath the least parcel of (authority accompanying of it. is our sovereign lawgiver . 1. in this 175 for his own glory. First.] These present ends of it under the gospel are such. It is indispensably necessary that we should be holy. that there is no especial communion that we can have with him by Jesus Christ. of all sovereign relations in me towards you ? And there are two things that enforce the obligation from the command on this consideration. and magistrates. and you will fill the whole world with disorder. than he did when our justification was in brief. When commands come from them who have authority. on the account of the authority of God's command. and exerted in a due and equal manner. who is able to save and to lawgiver. They are such. ' . upon the account of them judgeth meet to be holy in all manner of holiness. obedience is expected and exacted is it not due to me who have all authority. and yet are themselves also under authority. i. If in all particular relations. * A son honourethiiis father. Take carrieth along with it an obligation unto obedience. iv. if I then be a father is mine honour. servants. . and a servant his master.to [ I The first thing considerable in the command of God I I I accompanied. the world could not abide one moment out of hellish confusion. If the authority of parents. and vis exequendi. destroy. Lord of hosts unto you priests who despise my name. [L] That God hath no design us. he that hath absolute power to prescribe unto us what laws he pleaseth. did not oblige children. nor any capacity for us to enjoy him.

if we watch not diligently against : every thing that is contrary unto it. that they are rebels against God. and they will defy you. who doth not follow after holiness. and irreconcilable unto it. there are few who would be willing to be found in to be constant despisers of God.' Mai. that such and such sins. 2 Sam. we are not one jot better than the persons described. withal. God having given his command unto men to be holy. This state. and rebels against his authority. to reject his sovereign authority over us. from hence if we endeavour not to thrive in it. not endeavour always and in all things so to be. 6. Being then under the command of the true nature of evangelical holiness. and less they will do to answer your exhortations.' and that in his saints God to be holy. if we are not so accordingly. But when the power immediately commanding is sovereign and absolute. convince them with evidence as clear as the light at noon-day. we found the necessity of holiness on the command of God. declared his sovereign will and pleasure therein.' Numb. propose unto men to : themselves. 1 Sam. xii. is And where it is not complied whole authority of God. and perhaps revile you. So God in many places calleth sinning * against his commands. is a charge that men are not ready to own. 10. there is no room for tergiversation. in the first place. that they have utterly broken the yoke. and do suppose that those who are so indeed. The command of God proceeds from the absolute power of a sovereign legislator. But this and no better is the state of every one who is not holy. we are therein and so P tf- . But yet these things are inseparable . and cast off his authority. i. press them to the duties wherein the exercise of it doth consist. or one way or other subduct themselves from under their power. the ' despising of his commandment. xi. and to live in defiance of him.176 HOLINESS NECESSARY FROM Men may think either to appeal from them. The authority wherewith it is accompanied makes it necessary yea. the self. despisers of him. are in a very ill condition. such and such courses wherein they live and walk. ii. Yet so it is. Tell the same persons. I suppose. the despising of him . Here then. the ' despising of his name . 20. and therein God him- despised. 30. yet for the most part it is but little they will heed you. are absolutely inconsistent with it. is to despise God. command.

of our defect in No man is making a progress in grace and holimoment. and whatever we do. and on all occasions of sin. as nothing doth more effectually render what we do. as that if in a we endeavour to answer his will ' due manner. that as able to sovereign laivgiver. closets. whose mind by any means in his dispossessed of a sense of the sovereign authority of God commands nor can any thing secure such a soul from . families. (1. so he is is. to keep our souls and consciences under the power of it. if this formal consideration do carried would we always well. perhaps. evidenceth unto the consciences of men. . his commanding authority is power. Had men shops. is in his commands is a and keep alive. Lord on their breasts The apostle tells us. This. being pierced and entered into by various temptations. many difficulties. in their ways. designing to perfect holiness in the fear of the Lord. this always.) supposing it to have respect unto things tempoGod it carries along with it the greater enforcement. it may cost us our lives multitudes have made profession of it at no cheaper rate. is is the oreat reason of our loose and careless walksafe a ing. and consequently of N VOL. as that whereby he to reward the obedient. they 2. Forgetfulness hereof. studies. he who commands us to be holy is the only sovereign Lord of life and death. to be obedience proso called. trades.' we shall meet with much opposition. ral also. in all opportunities of duties. And it that the obligation unto holiness is indispensable. affairs. commands us to be holy things are in that state and condi: tion in the world. therefore. and his name. although I would not exclude other considerations. But. yet I think this of eternal rewards and punishments to be principally here intended. . But let us not mistake in this matter. written on their to the hearts. would have holiness and foreheads also.THE COMMANDS OF GOD. or not heeding it as perly we ouoht. therefore. of the commandment in our minds . For. nothing is more preva- lent with us unto watchfulness in holiness. as in the places before cited. 111. This. and at length. that hath alone the disposal of them both. are we to carry about with us wherever we go. ness. That accompanied with such a able absolutely and eternally kill God and to return unto the disobedient a meet recompense of punishment. far despisers 177 of God.

' him who is able And this keeping ' to destroy alive. either by sudden surprisals. without fear or dauntedness of spirit. and death itself . who can kill the body. who hath required it of you. Now whereas the fear of man is one principal cause or means of our failing in holiness and obedience. will bear you out in nothing that is truly evil or finally disadvantageous shall you on that account. as that he is able to carry us through all difficulties and dangers which we may incur upon the account of our being so. relating unto things in this world. and he alone can keep alive in a way of merciful preThis power of our lawgiver. deliver us from them.178 all thino's HOLINESS NECESSARY FROM that are subservient It is and conducino. therefore. nions of Daniel committed themselves unto. is also to be considered . Be of good courage all ye that trust in the Lord you may. The killing here.' he alone can kill' and make alive. which Every com- .' There is. 17.' This. 28. esteemed good or evil in this world the faith and sense hereof will bear us up above them.' namely. the holy compaservation. Matt. that is principally here intended. no small enforcement unto holiness. but is rather fear in hell. our Lord Jesus Christ tells us. (2. For (let the world rage whilst it pleaseth. but are not able to kill the soul . : manded it. and threaten to fill all things with blood and confusion) to God the Lord belong the issues from death. iii. from the consideration of the command.) I suppose it is Q. v/ith respect unto the power of the commander. when with the terror of death they were commanded to forsake the way of holiness .poiver of eternal retvards and punishments. that mentioned by our Saviour. mito the one he alone who can kill in a way of punishment. x. a sinful neglect of the command. is the consideration of other things. therefore. and preserved themselves by the consideration of. And with respect unto it. it. and the next hereunto. that he who 'would save his life. and carry us through them. you ought. . And gives an unavoidable efficacy to the command. befall ' ' ' But. or violent temptations. by or the other. the power of him who com' mands us to be holy is such. 18. to engage into the pursuit of universal holiness he who hath com.' is both soul and body this is that a deliverance from the wrath to come in everlasting life. shall lose it. Dan. and opposed to all tem' Fear not them poral evil.

And. the commands of God. in the transgression of the laws. doth tacitly include a reward and punishto be intended. of eternal blessedness on the one hand. more to their ignorance. jor any other pretence. when they are greedily set on the satisfaction of their lusts. are such as men think they do justly prefer their own satisfaction. ignorance. It is so with all good men. part. with trifling pemay nalties and evil men will do so. [L] The first men who is. though they would. without the highest folly and Nor can there be any reserve on the villany unto ourselves. [2. that they cannot punish nor reward. . their human laws beyond But things men little influenced own honest inclinations and in- terest. ening. they do are inclined unto that the rewards andp^- mishments declared. neither will. care to see the sanction of their laws executed. law and commands of are quite otherwise with respect unto the God that we should be holy. in the highest capacities of blessedness or misery. evacuates all t\\e force of them. The re- wards and punishments. account of mutability.THE COMMANDS OF GOD. that they will not take laws . that they shall not be Wherefore. And for these reasons. nor are able.] a secret apprehension that the commanders or makers of the laws. with respect unto the highjest temporal punishments. indiflferency. for the most 'but little iiijiuence the minds of their transgression. Much they ascribe to their negligence. with respect unto made contrary to the laws of God and wise men also do so with respect unto useless laws. Hence I say it is. or of misery on ' n2 . which we are in the consideration of. For a declaration is made of what is pleasing and what is displeasing unto him that gives the command and therein is there a virtual promise and threat. before them. ithat the minds of men are so little influenced with those rewards and punishments. called by the apostle ' killing' and 'keeping alive. to execute those penalties incase of their transgression. are the minds of |by and somewhat in sundry cases to their power. But there two reasons why. in the first place. that they shall not be able to find out their transgressions . ment j 179 raand of a superior. But unto are are expressly all solemn laws. cannot be balanced by any consideration of this present world. are accompanied with promises and threatenings. impotency. rewards and punishments annexed.' being eternal. that are annexed unto human laws. executed.

who on any account are great. The prophet distributes incorrigible sinners into two sorts. we may apply this unto persons is and occasions. This is that which. but what if we are not so? Why. the necessity of holiness. [1. authority of the the command. if we accompanied. because of that authority from it is doth proceed. God it whence It is. that commandment. All the properties of the nature of God are immutably engaged in this matter and hence ensues au indispensable necessity of our being holy. in particular.] Astopersons. nally perish. perhaps. walk before me.' The way dience. in the world. God commands that we should be so. and it is their folly. stupidity. xvii. with respect unto rewards and punishments. to be sincere or perfect in obe- always to consider. depend on the command of God. the bondage of our own spirits may make every thing we do But a due I'espect unto God's promises and threatAnd thus doth enings. that he who requires it of us is God Almighty. or high. and become holy Upon same ground of assurance. Some. to yield holy obedience unto God. and sensual lusts . in the first place. The first are the poor. And. and gives the different grounds of their impenitency respectively. which we are engaged in the demonstration of. and be thou perfect. certainly intends in that great injunction of obedience. and becomes not the free spirit But these are vain imaginations: of the children of God. for with the threatening of that condition. 1. assure as God is holy and powerful we shall eter- And we shall be . is a principal part of our liberty. and wherewith our duty. What if we do comply with the lasting felicity. HOLINESS NECESSARY FROM these will certainly befall us. would be found walking in a course of obedience. servile. according as found holy or unholy. to keep a sense hereof constantly fixed on our minds. or 7iob(e. to walk uprightly. is his command accotnpanied in case of disobedience. Gen. and under whose eye we are continually. is servile. * I am God Almighty.180 the other. we shall be brought unto ever? And this is greatly to be considered in the will say. therefore. Let them in an especial manner have a continual regard hereunto. and that because their especial temptation is to be lifted up unto a forgetfulness or regardlessness of this authority of God. and the practice of holiness. accompanied with all the authority and power before mentioned.

for they know not the way is ment of sinn rs. 4.' beasts of the They are like a company of rude cords. When you height of your greatness. instruction. when they have broken the yoke of the Lord. And such do we abound withal. This is the course of men in field. . especial temp- 'tation of that sort of persons. saith the prophet. Surely these are poor.' There they are sotof the Lord. and trampling on all before them. who will admit of no means of. corn. and would be esteemed to excel therein. which they please themselves in. merely from No. blindness. and discovers the ground of their incorrigible is I will get me to the great men. 3. have refused to receive correction. and will impenitency also unto for them. nor the judga sort of poor incorrigible whose irapenitency ariseth much out of their ignorance. who will take no pains for. and speak Great men. they stupid ignorance and folly.' is the I of God in the neglecting and despising of the authority is that this the command. But there another sort of sinners to whom the prophet makes his application.THE COMMANDS OF GOD.' v. although they differ but little from the beasts that perish. therefore I said. the mighty. they have refused to them V. their education and other advantages. that keep ' 181 . breaking up the fences. they have known the way of the Lord. treading down the iespecial able in the world. I the pursuit of their lusts. the rich. off from attending to the command Jer. Seeing. the honour' Now this ' breaking of the yoke. and burst the bonds. and things innumerable there are of all sorts. They. as they love and value their souls. that concur to render that temptation preva' lent : and upon them. therefore. to keep always. therefore. ' have take another course . and in all thino-s. pushing with the hoin. by reason of the judgment of their God . a due sense of the authority of God in his commands are in the upon their minds and consciences. or at least may be thought so to ' .' And this the prophet declares to be the evil of great men. do attain unto a knowledge of the will of God. let all those who are of that condition. tish. their God. return . and folly. are not likely to be obstinate in sin. in the fulness of your enjoyments. have the least sincere desire after holiness. they altogether broken the yoke. they have They made their faces harder than a rock. watch diligently. have done. who having broken their yokes and do run up and down the fields. 5.

and authority over you. businesses. Remember that it is your especial temptation to do otherwise and if you do yet abhor those who by this means are come to be sons of Belial. and on all occasions. its attainment. [2. in all things to be holy. you enter into your occasions. make your retreat into of him who hath commanded you Upon every entrance of a surprisal. when the variety of public appearances and attendencies are about you. saying. or such as have altogether broken the yoke.182 in the HOLINESS NECESSARY FROM most urgent of your avocations by the things or soand those who belong to it. And I may reduce this instruction. many things occur which are apt to divert them from the rule of holiness. equally with the poorest creature on the earth.nd societies. remember him who is over that you are subject and obnoxious unto all. where you are uppermost in the words of others. cieties of the world. or point it unto three heads or occasions 1st. 2ndly. do habituate themselves unto the ways of And whilst they are so engaged. call to mind the greatness. societies. power. wherein you may suppose that temptations will arise. apt to be intent on present occasions. will equally secure us in all places. let us all endeavour to carry a constant regard unto the authority of God in his commands. such thoughts which will prove your relief. and run up and down the world in the pursuit of Our lips are our own. men think themselves secure. and it may be in your own thoughts. Q. are very . occasions. this along with you into your secret retirements and enjoyments. For many have . which hath proved the beginning of a total apostacy. and the exercise of our trades or callings. Most men in these things. secrecy. Hereby have many been surprised into folly. Let us carry it into our businesses. wherein we are apt to be surprised in any sin. and consider his authority. therefore. When no eye sees but the eye of God. An awe from the authority of God in the command upon the heart. 3rdly. Carry it with you into your companies and societies. : ' over us/ be you watchful against the least beginnings or entrances of it in yourselves. and having a certain end before them. into all those seasons. Cany namely. or a neglect of duty. places.] In general. Whenever. Neglect hereof is the next cause of those secret actual provoking sins which the world swarms with. and who is Lord their lusts.

their ov/n consciences are defiled. Now. before. it is which declares it equal unto us. as a fruit of wisdom and goodness. and. as to some particular temporary ceremonial institutions. love. that all his commands are just and equal in themselves. may be considered either as it is covenant. every way unbecoming rational creatures. that this is so. so because the obedience in /?o//»ess which it requires. it may be. will. Secondly. and corrupt communication. and so is a part of. is equal and advantageous unto ourselves. they are looked on as the good of them that command. as a law prescribed unto us. 183 frequent occasions of engaging in such societies. Where nothing can be discerned in commands.. the principle of obedience. and goodness. such things as wherewith the Holy Spirit of God is grieved. ungrateful. and an effect of infinite wisdom and goodness in God. And this introduceth a peculiar of holiness. because his dominion over us is sovereign and absolute. will betray them unto profuseness in vanity. the . as well as it will be our future. and hear with pleasure. yet he doth not. nor ever did so. and the honour of profession is cast to the ground. which it is our highest advantage and comply withal. from the consideration of what is necessity equal. as wherein the least forgetfuhiess of the sovereign authority of God.or as it belonged unto the old annexed unto. proportioned unto the strength and power which we have to First.ss. though God. until they do with delight. The command of God that we should be holy. perverse. The command. is not to be considered only as an effect o^ power and aiitliority which we must submit unto. ingenuous. reasonable. and is Look upon it formally. which disheartens and weakens but mere authority. did so deal with the church of old. but as a fruit of injinite wisdom and goodness also. so he declares and pleads. and not merely respecting at all theirs who are to obey. the contrary whereunto is interest to foolish. happine. good and useful unto us. wisdom.THE COMMANDS OF GOD. appears from all the considerations of it. that the command of God requiring that vv^e should be holy. and that our compliance with them is our And present. as to the main of their obediBut as he proposeth his law as an effect of infinite ence. and pleasure . as we shewed obey. might have justly left unto us no other reason or motive of our obedience.

if they should exceed all the strength which we either have. In the HOLINESS NECESSARY FROM first way. in the caresedulous use of those means appointed. and whereby they may so fulfil them. 'according to his divine life power gives unto us all things that pertain unto and godliness.184 new.' 1 John v.' that is. and his holy apostle. diligent. comes short or fails of the performance of that obedience which is required and accepted in that covenant. this grace or strength. i. where Christ himself tells us. xi. a yoke which we could not bear. before laid No man who is instated in the covenant of grace. and cfst all into disorder. For God therein. and not from any impotency or weakness in us. enabling them to answer the commands for holiness. was from wilful rebellion. none who belong to the covenant of grace. down. This the Scripture is plain in.' 1 Pet. as infallibly to be accepted. They would . they would be Jewish ceremonies. * that he could do all things. was sufficient to enable us unto all that holy obedience which was required therein and our not doing so. and so may we. 3. which if administered unto they attend not ful. through the knowledge of him that hath called us to glory and virtue. that his ' yoke is easy. there is by virtue of that covenant a supply of spiritual strength given in by the promise. but by the neglect of the . and his burden light . God made us upright. And in the latter way. but we sought out many inventions. as it belongs to the covenant of grace. in the way and manner. is them by certain ways and means. come short of it. unto all them who are taken into it. the strength of grace which we had originally from God under the law of creation. that 'his commands are not grievous. through Christ that strengthened him. our apos-tle expressly affirms. and a law not only grievous but unprofitable. But. shall ever fail of that power and ability which shall render the commands of the unto. We fell not from our first estate for want of power to obey.' INIatt. But on the contrary. they will gospel easy and not grievous unto them. exercise of that power which we had. For. as it belonged unto the old covenant. and unto the end * for which they are required in the gospel.' Some would confound these things. according to the rule of the acceptance of their obedience. 3. merely for want of power and spiritual strength. 30. or he like the is pleased to give unto us. this I say. It is true.

we must thank ourselves if we have not to answer its commands. if they had so. interest. but under grace. as we did all that of our orio-inal creation. And there is no more required to prove them to be just and equal. as hath elsewhere been demonstrated. the covenant of works. and by virtue of. This is that which I do intend. both for matter and manner.' And the formal transition of men from one of these states unto another. and that that performance of them shall be accepted which they have power for. yet to have a power of their own to fulfil the command of the one or the other. and are not initiated in the new covenant. God giveth us no command of holiness and obedience. it speaks unto ' the what gospel speaks. And the performance nant. nor is obliged to the command is equal give. the first covenant. and which indeed is contrary to the whole design of his grace. 13. they commands of the new covenant in the way and manner which are required therein. to have a power and spiritual strength to fulfil the commands of the new. it speaks unto them who are not under the law. it would not avail them. with. ingly (were For. lYor doth it belong unto the power equity of the command of the new covenant."that those who are not yet made partakers of it by grace. See Col. Herein he gave them commands for holy obedience. God at first made a covenant with mankind.' and speaks. and should do so accordany such thing possible). which God neither giveth. nor is it necessary to prove that and holy. and privilege. should have power to fulfil them. and forfeited all their strength and ability which they had by it for obedience. would not avail them who are under the rule and law of the old. 185 have men that are under the old covenant. being supposed not as yet to belong unto the new covemust belong unto the old. as was observed. But what the 'law them that are under the law. but in. which God hath never spoken of nor declared. is by an act of God's grace. i. who having broken the old covenant. For. which admits of of the really nothing short of absolute perfection. but they are easy unto them who walk with God in that covenant whereunto they do belong. If any will sinfully cast away their covenant. wherein themselves are merely passive. They would have men. Nay.THE COMMANDS OF GOD. some covenant. by virtue of that strength and power . These commands were not only possible unto them.

that by virtue thereof. we lost therewith all power and ability to comply with its commands in holy obedience. every way suited unto their good and satisfaction in that This rendered their obedience equal. that The argument w-e whereby we prove the ne- cessity of holiness with respect unto God's command requir- because it is a fruit of infinite wisdom and goodness. And so 'the commandment which was ordained to Towards all. seeing there was no require more or harder things And here it is. And therefore. Let them but grant. and good.' as our apostle speaks. we say. this covenant was broken. that remain in that state. and the possibility of God's command. therefore. is have under consideration. and yield the obedience required in it. 10. but it is neither easy nor possible. that men trouble themselves and others about the power. unto the contempt of God's authority. the commandment is still just and holy. yea. we find to be unto death . ability. for we had lost the strength by which alone we were enabled to observe it. holy. For what should make in it sin. and we shall contend with them or against them. and pleasant. and the impotence that ensued on the transgression of it to fulfil the condition of the new covenant. life. And this we make an ar- commands gument for the necessity of holiness. as was before declared. and free-will that men have as yet under the first covenant. just.' Rom. they have that spiritual strength and grace administered unto them. reasonable. the 'law continued holy. ing It is so in an especial manner as it belongs unto the new covenant. state and condition. Hereupon.186 HOLINESS NECESSARY FROM which was concreated with them. by our disobedience or living in sin. it. vii. Hereon God brings in the covenant of grace by Christ. and renews therein the commands for holy obedience. but easy and pleasant. When by the fall horrible the most folly and ingratitude. w^e add that of his . it by change of us than before? But to us it became impossible. every way suited unto the principle of a holy life wherewith they are endued. and the commandment 12. that it is the mere work of God's sovereign and almighty grace efiectually to instate men in the new covenant. For this is the place where men make their great contests about the power of free-will. and aggravated their sin with the guilt of just. nor did God otherwise. vii. Rom. as render all the of it to be not only possible but easy also.

and pleasant unto And this fully all believers who sincerely attend unto it. than in testifying . We can have no power from Christ. be said then. nor from ourselves. Hence obedience in holiness becomes equal. covenant brought down his command to the power of man. evinceth the necessity of it. the latter is the exaltation of his own grace. It is not men's strength in and of themselves. or from himself. is a renunciation without which we can do nothing. Phil. which God abhors. we are. which he aimeth at. not at all to belong unto it. you conclude that we have no power of our own to that 5. easy. from hence. but the grace which For men is administered in the covenant. And if when we are in covenant. . as remote from it as ever. that any one hath this poiver and God hath not in the new ability in himself. that we intend. Neither doth the Scripture abound in any thing more. wisdom and goodness also. ii. dependance on Christ for what we have not This is that which ruins the attempt of of ourselves. We do not say. that it is proportioned unto the strength and ability which we have to obey. as to any ability of our own to fulfil the command of God. HereI answer the first work of grace is merely upon us. 187 Now that it is so a fruit of them. that the power and ability we have to of God as given in the new covenant. fulfil is the commands not our own. thing of themselves. where lies the difference ? Because it is the mere work of grace to instate us in the covenant. as though they could do any of all the aids of grace. 13. from the folly and ingratitude of the contrary. what we do in our own strength. is still . is no part of holiness as is evident from the preceding description of it. 2 Cor. 5. all our strength and power : from grace. to trust unto themselves herein. 1.THE COMMANDS OF GOD. and in them the force of the present argument may the better be apprehended. That these things. but by his grace he raiseth the power of man unto his command: the former were only a compliance with the sin of our nature. It will purpose. a life of that is. iii. and renders what they do (though it be like unto the acts and duties of it). but merely from the grace of God administered in that covenant as John xv. I shall appears in the first place dispose them into the ensuing observations. . unless we live in a persuasion that we have none Our whole spiritual life is a life of faith and of our own. For. the power of nature. many for holiness.

that God creating in us a and therewithal giving unto us 'all things appertaining unto life and godliness. or the least neglect of the diligent use of all those means which God hath appointed for the communication thereof unto us. and a principle of spiritual life is bestowed on us. i. or on other grounds to discover unto us our own that frailty and impotency. in a different There is — proved elsewhere. This administration oi grace and spiritual strength is not grace. and so have we ours. enabling him to comply with the command of God for holiness. There are seasons. But this latter work of grace is in us. . pleased to withhold the powerful influences of his grace. 3 11. with our effectual vocation. declared by the apostle Peter. whereon we shall obtain an assured joyful entrance into the kingdom of glory. with the presei'vation and increase of it. ability for the duties of a holy. but especially is the whole method of God's grace and our duty herein. way. that we are obliged unto our utmost diligence for the participation of them. 3. and unto their due exercise when received. wherein to cor- rect our negligences in giving place to our corruptions and temptations. and by us. For he his immediately from God. spiritual life.188 HOLINESS NECESSARY FROM is by the image of God renewed. 7. And the strength or ability was had which we have thereby. 2 Epist. though his.' or a gracious spiritual nature. which we are so ob- noxious unto. as to countenance him in the least carnal security. ecjually effectual at all times. The sum is. See Psal. is as truly our own as Adam's which he had in the state of innocency. This innumerable commands and injunctions give testimony unto. we are obliged to use all means in the continual exercise of all new which will ascertain unto us our eternal election. God who hath determined graciously to give us supplies thereof. hath also declared. no such provision of spiritual strength for any man. But I speak of ordinary cases. xxx. In such instances we shall assuredly come short of the command is God for universal holiness. answering one way or other. and to prevent that slothfulness and tergiversation unto this duty of complying with all the commands of God for holiness. godly. which discourse I have opened and im2. with other holy ends of his own. ix. and to leave us unto ourselves. 6. our hearts are changed.

whereby they are constantly inclined and disposed unto a\\ fruits of holiness. And to say. that there is in the covenant of -race 4. without which we are dead and sins where this is not. there is grace administered by the promises of the gospel. whatever arguments you constrain and press men withal to be holy. But this alone we say. By them all you do but set up a dam against a stream of waters. And herein there are various degrees. which will not be permanent. nor is it to be raised out of its ruins. and disposing of us unto duties of holiness. or to render We any one duty so absoluteli/ perfect. you in trespasses . but offer violence unto them. If any suc'i there are. spiritual strength administered. so as that by virtue thereof we should yield sin/ess and absolutely perfect obedience unto God.THE COMMANDS OF GOD. that we have such supplies of internal strength. There is a twofold gracious power necessary to render the command for holiness and obedience thereunto easy and pleasant. we have not in nor of ourselves by nature . do. as it were. But such a disposition and inclination. (1. is to overthrow the grace of the gospel. Unto such the command for holiness must needs be g-rievous and difficult. whereof we ought constantly to aim at the most complete. it is principally from our neglect of those supplies of grace which are tendered in the promises. a new principle of life. and the new covenant itself. This the Scripture calls our life.) That which is habitually resident in the hearts and souls of believers. or ever were. and so to be perfecting holiness in the fear of the Lord. as to render the imputation of the righteousness of Christ unto our justification unnecessary.' which carrieth in is ' required of us in a . in that way and manner as God will accept. or a principle so inclining. as should render our own personal obedience unnecessary. endeavouring to force them against the fixed bent and inclination of their minds. And where we signally come short of the best rules and examples. who maintain such an imputation of the righteousness of Christ unto us. enabling us to perform the obedience of it. nor turn the course of the stream contrary to its natural inclination. they do overthrow the truth and holiness of the gospel. 5. ' (which is in us all) is it an aversation unto every thing that For the carnal mind' enmity against God. 189 do not say.

and at length either violently or insensibly cast off its yoke. So unto many on the same ground. enabling them unto a compliance with the commands of God. all they do. spiritual there the command is equal not only in itself. but unto us. for the most part. the worship of God is very burdensome. without actual divine assistance. suited unto the holy obedience it requires. And yet without this habitual principle. uneasy and wearisome. by external additions and ornaments. or bribe their consciences into a compliance with \^hat is contrary unto it.190 HOLINESS NECESSARY FROM way of obedience. We are not put into that condition by the coveas that we should be able to do any thing of oui selves. unless it be borne for them. And. Wherein they can by any pretences countenance themselves in a neglect of any part of it. as hath been proved at large. is. Light and conviction have compelled them to take it on themselves. the inward and The reaspiritual part of obedience they utterly renounce. This were to set us free from our dependance on God. we can never in a due manner comply with any one command of God that we should be holy. they find it difficult. The root still bears us. so or if they continue any. or by some great temptations. before they leave the world. But having no principle enabling or inclining them unto it. they utterly leave all the ways of holiness. and the springs of our life are in another. and continue long therein. 6. they fail not to deliver themselves from their burden. son hereof. And both these sorts of grace are administered in the new covenant. it is that which God so frequently. though they do much.) There is an actual assistance of effectual grace required hereunto. either insensibly by multiplied instances of the neglect of duties of obedience.) For the ^Vs?. unto external acts of morality which pass with approbation in the world. they grow grievous and intolerable unto them. They endure it for a season. is against the grain with them. nant. (1. because having no principle within. Want hereof is that which renders obedience so grievous and burdensome unto many. and obedience unto it as easy as just. And where both these are. and respect unto the commands of God . and to attend unto the performance of those duties which they dare not omit. (2. it is . with delight and satisfaction. and to make us gods unto ourselves. I say.

and the nature of the grace contained in them. and warning of their consciences. they must crucify and offer violence unto the inclinations of the new creature in them. which is too fre- . v. so unto them who cannot neglect it. by the power of corruptions and temp- may and doth seem Wherefore. that he will take away the heart of stone. where he says. And by this consideration we may take in the power of it upon our souls. the command for it becomes equal and just. and give us a heart of flesh that he will .' Gal. and a constant inclination unto. but that therein. when it is evident in our own minds and consciences. which are their own. to confirm our principal Upon the supply of this grace. For in all tations. holy obedience. I have before at large explained. although the command for holiness grievous and burdensome unto unregenerate persons. we may stay a little. for our power followeth our love and ' ' ' : inclinations. .' and never depart from him .' that we shall fear him. as we have observed. write his laws in our hearts. but their so doing is contrary unto that disposition and inclination of the new nature which God hath implanted in themselves. the spirit lusteth against the flesh.' that he will circumcise our hearts' to know' and love' him which promises. that it requires nothing of us but what we do or may find an inclination or disposition in our own hearts unto. meet and easy to be complied withal. but it is also unto that which is their own inclination and disposition. For none can refuse a compliance with it in any instance. because it is against the habitual bent and inclination of their whole souls yet neither is it. And here assertion. we are made partakers of the divine nature. also. that in and by these promises. to the light of their minds. 17. is not only contrary to the law without them. which gives both strength for. things. as impotency is a consequent of their defect. So that in them to sin. nor can it be. and put his fear in our inward ' ' parts . 191 * expressly promiseth.THE COMMANDS OF GOD. ' ing power unto the command. and the disposition of the new creature is habitually against And this gives a mighty constrainsin. and are therein endowed with a constant habitual disposition and inclination unto all acts and duties of holiness . or act any thing against it. and for holiness. which hath sensibly in such cases a force and violence put upon it. It is sufficient unto our present purpose.

but the latter consideration. was sufficient for him. I delight in it. corruptions. delight: eth in. the first respects principally the or disobedience. ii. vii. or prejudices. with the duties themwhich are natural. This good I would do. what answer they return. for it doth with the only give in its suftrage unto the sanction of the command. and urging obedience thereunto. which genders unto bondage. it is best for most suited unto me. and suited thereunto. Not conscience answer. selves required. the good or evil of obedience consequent that will ensue upon them Rom. And so it joins all the strength See to interest it hath in the soul. at any time. and greatly facilitates obedience. 20 22. For. with the command.) Grace of the latter sort also. And Ave may distinguish between that compliance with the command which is from the natural lio. and it hath no more to say respects the command itself. gives liberty and For.ht of conscience.192 HOLINESS NECESSARY FROM quently disregarded. which doth not make it easy to us. there is a natural light in conscience. that any believer can be so captivated. is quite of another nature. for if he doth evil will ensue good proposed. Let us but upon the proposal of it unto us. is administered unto us according to the So God told Paul. purpose arguing will me. but that (if he will but take counsel with his own soul. 14. consider what our minds and hearts say to it. and that which being from a renewed principle of grace. and we shall quickly discern how equal and just the command is. and his mind and spirit say. upon the consideration of the command for obedience and holiness. but where it is alone. but the new nature. that he ruust not do the evil whereunto temptation leadeth. increaseth its burden and our bondage . and adds to the severity wherewith it is attended. and ask himself what he would have) he will have a plain and sincere answer. under the power of temptations. apostle. ease in obedience. and judgeth good and holy. That indeed I would do and have the this holiness. But that compliance with the command which is from a principle of grace. this duty of obedience. which it embraceth.' And he worketh in us both to will ' * . actual grace for every holy act and duty. that his grace promise of the gospel. (2. 15. Set aside this . complying command in its proposal. the of our Rom. only will thereon . I cannot persuade myself. and this It — is true.

unto the whole of that obedience which is required of him.' and of 'good report/ and what evil is there nothino. so as through him that enables us. own good all things. VOL. and therefore how highly reasonable is it that we should comply with it. gracious ingenuous souls.THE COMMANDS OF GOD. holy properties of his nature. or evil .' and 'pure. and as it will be accepted from him. is to neglect or despise God.' pleasure. but that it shall be effectual in him.' and 'honest. not only the authority of God in giving a command. the apostle mentions in his exhortation unto them Phil. and useful to all others concerned in him. which may give it force And among and efficacy upon our souls and consciences. that where it is sought in a due manner by faith and prayer. Micah vi. although this actual working of grace be not in the power of the wills of men. are that are neither great nor grievous. neglect or despise this command. to make use of or refuse as they see good. the nature of which grace also hath been before discoursed of. of his 193 ii. and so to be esteemed it. in that way which he hath chosen to manifest all the Secondli/. equal. What they are.' and in any of 'lovely. III. and that to do. or the things that it doth require. iv. but its administration depends merely on the grace and faithfulness of God. these other considerations of it. than this of the contemperation of the duties commanded.' Phil. it is never so restrained from any believer. unto spiritual aids of strength promised unto us. from the matter of — which the command requires. how just and equal must it needs be confessed to be.' and 'just. but he not only allows us to take in.in the holiness . yet this I must say. If then this be the condition of the command of holiness. we are absolutely obliged unto obeneglected dience by the mere authority of God who commands . 6 8. and gentle. o . but what is good to him in whom it is. The command is equal. to oblige us to holy obedience. Now. so just. but directs us to seek after. towards efficacious none is more these. much Things they There is less perverse. and how great is their sin and folly by whom it is It is true. useless. For what cloak or pretence of dislike or neglect is here left unto any ? Wherefore. They are 'things true. 13. 8. or what he doth. but the infinite wisdom and goodness of God in giving such a command. we ' may do ! fall To upon us therein.

194 HOLINESS NECESSARY FROM we should decline the command that reThe more we abound in them. to it is incumbent on endeavour after holiness. Nay. and the authority of the command upon us. in the first place. and good to those towards whom Godliness they ness unto unto are done. to testify not only his own infinite care of us. He doth not give out unto us a single command that we should be holy (which yet were sufficient to oblige us for As. is whole nation. was before observed. must be spoken distinctly afterward. And that it may be effectual towards us. How God hath multiplied his commands unto this purpose. with respect unto the command of God that we should be holy. it us. that a respect unto the command would vitiate our obedience. with that reverence and those affections which become him to whom God speaks immediately. there is nothing of holiness in us. we may consider 1. mal nature of obedience unto what we do. but to obey merely from the power and guidance of an inward principle. and love unto us. And without a due regard unto it. the ourselves. must always mind the command of God. * These things are good and profitable unto men . Some would make the light of nature to be their rule. rendering it legal and servile. iii. transmitted their proper place. and the world. Good to them that do them. look no farther for their measure than what carries the reputation of common honesty among men. some have supposed. 8. the better it all for these things. and are. that quires them will ? be for our relations. He that would be holy indeed. the useful- of holiness unto ourselves and others. therefore. our neighbours.' Tit. namely. and because of it. our families. but best of * profitable unto all things . that they have no need of respect unto the command. : I . but also our eternal concernment in what he requires. I know not what vain imaginations have seemed to possess the minds of some. therefore. But both these things. and that especially under the consideration of it which we have insisted on. iv. is much taken away from all sincere profesIt is a respect unto the command which gives the forsors. and the improvement of it. that darkness which hindered men from discerning the harmony and compliance which is between the principle of grace in us. 8. nor to the promises and threatenings of it. But I hope. some in what they do.' 1 Tim.

And they are and care of God towards us. en- treaties. threatenings. and see almost every page of it filled with commands. that are unsuited to the inward holiness God requires. but he hath given us especial commands for that also. that the mind and will of God is very much in this matter. or directions. whatever we have to do or avoid in followinoafter holiness. line upon line. or instructions for holiness .THE COMMANDS OF GOD. abide with us in our closets. Nor doth God content himself to multiply should be holy. We may do well to consider what various enforcements God pleased to give unto those mukiplted commands. and therefore applies these engines to fix the power of the command upon us. reasonings. precept upon precept. but upon all occasions. o 2 I shall. No man caa instance in the duty that belongs directly unto it. but it falls under some command of God. Hence are they accompanied with exhortations. and that our concernment therein is inexpressible. in an awful reverence whereof we ought to walk. We are not only then under the command of God in general. line upon line. that we we have regard unto him they is may never be out of our remembrance. and our hearts them. and all our occasions for our good. so as that if commands in general. precept upon precept. but there not any particular duty or instance of holiness. to influence them unto an inward constant watch against the first disorto O ders of our souls. 2. to consider ihese all of them a fruit of the love Is it to commands. not then our duty always bind them unto our hearts. that nothing may separate them ? that they might always dwell in our minds. all made use of to fasten the command upon our minds and. consciences. and that often reiterated unto us. ever). He doth not remit us merely to their authority. expostulations. Were these things to be treated of severally. cannot but conclude. God knows how slow and backward we . . it is manifest how ties are great a part of the Scripture were to be transcribed. are to receive due impressions from his authority and he knows by what ways and means the principles of our internal facul- apt to be wrought upon. promises. but he applieth all other ways and means whereby they may be made effecis tual. is represented unto us in especial commands to least especial that purpose. ' 195 but he gives his commands unto that purpose.' He that shall but look over the Bible.

only take a little notice of the reinforcement of the command for holiness. ' If ye . 'are the pure in heart. saith the is a he blessed Whence doth that blessedman. 1 3. tjie text which our Saviour preached given unto it. and thou wilt not deliver him into the hand of his enemies the Lord will strengthen him upon the bed of languishing.' he appropriates the promise of the eternal enjoyment of God.' 1 Tim. by those especial promises which are pel in general. they shall see God . Many especial promises in the most important concerns of ver . He that doth this. whose exercise he presenteth unto us. For all the blessings which he pronounceth consist in giving particular instances of some parts of holiness. There is in all the promises an especial respect unto it. ness arise. 8. This is. So the apostle Peter having repeated along chain of graces. iv.196 HOLINESS NECESSARY FROM therefore.' saith he. and of that which is to come .' Psal. In things temporal we may take out from amongst many that especial blessed ' . so as to relieve them according to our ability. that godliness hatli the promise of the life that now is. and thou wilt make all his bed in his sickness . and wherein doth it consist? It doth so in a participation of those especial promises which God hath annexed unto this duty. It is not for nothing that it is said. It is so also with respect unto things spiritual. psalmist. I do not intend now the promises of the goswherein in its own way and place we are interested by holiness. and why are such persons why. adds for an encouragement. And other instances might be multiplied unto the same purpose. even in this life . saith he. xli.' Wisely to consider the poor in their distress. So also it hath the promises of this life. 'Blessed.' heart purity is the spring and life of all holiness . The Lord will preserve him and keep him alive. annexing an especial promise unto each of them. as it were. For godliness hath the promise of this life. ' Blessed is he that considereth the poor. ' the Lord will deli- him in the time of trouble. instance given us by the psalmist . and he shall be blessed on the earth. * his first sermon upon. and it gives them in whom it is an especial interest in all the promises. are given unto the right discharge of this one duty. and that in things temporal and spiritual. unto this qualification of purity of heart. — this life. but of such peculiar promises as God enforceththe command by. is a great act and duty of holiness.

. that if they have faith. And the Holy Ghost is careful to obviate a deceit in this matter. profession. we should consider the promises wherewith it is accompanied (among other things) as an encouragement unto the cheerful performance of that obedience. his will. And who knows not how the Scripture abounds in instances of this nature? That which we conclude from hence that together with the command of God requiring us to be holy. or is possible that it should be so. places. with an absolute preservation from all such fallings into sin as are inconsistent with the covenant of grace. own us. mand itself makes necessary. and exposed unto all. and apt to impose on the minds of men. nor have any thing to do with Be our gifts.THE COMMANDS OF GOD. . parts. which the comis. useful- ness in the world. For. we cannot. Therefore. and he hath therewithal given us redoubled assurance (as in a case wherein we are very apt to deceive ourselves). but equivocally so called. 197 do these things ye shall never fall . be accepted with God. it will be well enough with them although they are not holy.' 2 Pet. which he foresaw would be apt to put itself on the minds of men. God hath in this matter positively declared utmost displeasure. without works. The promise of permanency in obedience. interposing his sovereign authority and that on the penalty of his to be holy commanding us that be we else what we will. who would willingly retain their lusts with a hope and expectation of heaven. we are plainly told in the Scripture. which can be so. Wherefore. i. without sincere ho- liness he will neither us. whom it is. . 10. is affixed unto our diligence in holiness. dignities. whereas the foundation of our salvation in ourselves. and yet be eminent in all these things. without fruits. we shall not. is our faith men might be apt to think. because this plea and pretence of faith is great. or can be. unless we are sincerely holy. is vain not that faith which will save our souls. outward duties what they will. abilities. that that faith which is without holiness. we are not. which we may not be. and the hinge whereon the whole weight of it doth turn. the force of this argument is evident. that may perish for ever with those in .

which we had the Son of God manifested. which was the effect of his temptation. no one end of the mediation of And whereas his great and ulChrist fully accomplished. timate design was to bring us unto the enjoyment of God. 1 Tim.' 1 John iii. of holiness proved from the design of God in sending Jesus Christ. before by grace and holiness we are made meet for that inheritance of the saints in light. is confined unto for the the limits of his threefold Whatever he doth . this cannot be.NECESSITY OF HOLINESS FROM GOD'S SENDING JESUS CHRIST. Unless this be done. The image of God in us was defaced by sin. no restoration of all things. The manifestation of the Son of God was his incarnation.' But we shall consider this matter a little more For this ' * distinctly. the principal was. there is no new world. was to recover us into a lost. i. was one principal design of Christ in his coming. We have yet other considerations and arguments to plead unto the same purpose with them foregoing for one principal end of the design of God in sending his Son into the : world. 8. The renovation or restoration hereof. no new creatures. And this is not done but by the introduction of a principle of holiness and obedience. 16. in order to the work which he had to accomplish in our nature. the infecting of our natures and persons with a principle of sin and enmity against God. The exercise of the mediation of Christ. ' state of holiness. with the ends of his mediation. And this was in general the destruction of the works of the devil. office. was purpose that he might destroy the works of the devil. The necessity IV.' And among these. unto his eternal glory. CHAP.

is For as priest taken from to the nature of the office. as a king and prophet. as atonement. and ordained for men in things pertaining unto God. The mediate effects of Christ's sacerdotal acting respect us. He offered himself unto God.) Real. satisfaction. wherefore. by virtue of the oblation and intercession of Jesus Christ. and are also of two sorts. such as respect God himIn these conself. For their acts.NECESSITY OF HOLINESS. in the behalf of them for A whom he executes his the acts of the priestly office of Christ are two. all the proper acts do immediately respect God himself. al- . Without a supposition of these. so they differ in their acts and immediate objects. And for their objects. or the church. 2. the proper immediate object of the priestly office is God himself. oblation and intercession. v. so he effecteth holiness in all believers. (1.nd pardon of sin. 199 church. as its is evident both from the nature of the office and proper acts. sacerdotal. office. all other things are rendered are of 1. But they are not of our present consideration. as the offices themselves are unto which they appertain. This being premised. (2. 1. that is. 'every among men.) We can neither be be first expiated Moral. Immediate. or as a king. it is plain. we may consider how each of these offices of Christ hath an influence into holiness. that he and may offer both gifts sacrifices for sins. Now as these offices agree in all the general ends of his mediation. of it effects of these priestly acts. he acts towards us name and authority of God. reconciliation.' Heb. of both which God is the immediate object. he doth not by any sacerdotal act immediately and efficiently work holiness in us. or as a prophet. As a priest. his oblation and intercession. and makes it necessary unto us. priest is one who is appointed to deal with God. he doth it as a priest. But the immediate object of Christ's kingly and prophetical offices are men. unand God atoned. as God doth design them. two sorts: useless. are of different natures. therefore. regal. And. But the First. as hath been declared. sist th. And hereunto. And and with him he makes intercession. For the priestly office of Christ. as our justification a. and prophetical acts and duties. in our sanctification and holiness.e first and fundamental end of the mediation of Christ. he acts with God in our name in the and on our behalf. less sin sanctified nor saved by him.

yet the virtue and efficacy of them extend themselves unto our sanctification and holiness. Christ never died or offered himself for them. though the immediate actings of that himself for us. to affirm that the most of them for whom Christ died as a priest. 5. that they may be redeemed from all iniquity and purified to be his peculiar . therefore. But the purging of a sinthat he might ' our sins.' Heb. His blood. but the purification of is filth intended. which are regarded in redemption. . that he might reand iniquity.' or offered himself unto God for us. ' purgeth our consciences from dead works. 2.' people. in making atonement Heb. without a participation thereof. and incomparably the most of them without any especial fault of their own. shall have no benefit thereb)^ as to grace or glory.200 NECESSITY OF HOLINESS FROM office respect God alone as their proper object. I shall only observe. ' He gave deem us from all is the to common expression God as a priest Eph. it is impossible that we should have the least evidence of an interest in his oblation as to any other end of it. as never hearing of him. and shall not. . And this he did not only redeem us from iniquity. purify unto himself a peculiar zealous of His giving himself for us. that holiness being one especial end for which Christ ' gave himself for us. or zealous of good works. which consists in the legal expiation of it. ix. or offered himself an oblation to God. 14.' from the guilt of and punishment due unto them. in sanctificawhich is to be one end of the oblation of declared tion. . There is a purging of sin. sanctify us. good Tit. or make us holy and fruitfhl. to serve the living God . Rev. And as for those who are never made holy. as through the eternal Spirit he offered himself unto God.' namely. holiness The way and manner how communicated unto us by virtue of the death and oblation of Christ. of his offering himself a sacrifice v. 3. I cannot understand what advantage it is unto religion. So where he is said to wash us from our sins in his own blood. works. here again insist upon it. 14. ner. or of the conscience. by real efficiency. I have shewed before at large. ii. i. in giving himself for mankind towards some. i. as shed and offered for us. Neither can I find in the Scripture a double design of Christ. is ' it is not only the expiation of that is guilt. Christ. but also that he might purify us to himself.

201 towards others. that they may yet be left under the and guilt power of their sins. exposition. that we may believe in him. (2. 2. the minister of the circumcision for the truth of the promises of unto the fathers lohole church . For the first. 2. The intercession of Christ. wherein indeed his prophetical office was principally exercised.' Rom. the beginning. relating lation of God in his name. God for the pardon of sin by virtue of his oblation whence he is said to be our advocate with God. that we may obey him. the church are its immediate object. See John Secondly. (1.) first. see John i. I say. hath also the same end.god's sending JESUS CHRIST. . duties of office of Christ. and in especial which had been given before. that xvii. which it is is his second saceris dotal act. his apostle a prophet. As to the prophetical or men alone it.) With respect unto the of all ages. God had from manner at the promulgation . to comfort us in case of 1 John i. and •vindication. any certain evidence that he hath an interest in the oblation of Christ. 15. and messenger unto us.) As he vj^?. seeing he gave himself to purify them for whom made he was offered. and effectual to the same purpose : true. he doth God. The reveand love. 18. and of all the acts and He is therein God's legate and ambassador. 8. The revelation of God in his will and com- mands. in the mystery of his grace and goodness and truth by his promises. he intercedes also for grace and supplies of we may be made and kept holy. peculiarly sent to the house of Israel. But this is not all he desurprisals by sin . ' ^1. which took up much of his personal ministry in the flesh. 17. consisted in the declarations. he doth intercede with . xv. ones . no unholy person can have holy. The revelation of the preceptive will of God made by God Jesus Christ. 1. may be considered two ways. where men are taught that Christ offered himself a sacrifice for them who are never Wherefore. 2. signeth therein the Spirit. 6. xvii. And it evacuates the force of the motive unto the necessity of holiness from the consideration of the oblation of Christ. that he gave unto the church of all divine precepts The for obedience. iii. Whatever he doth as it with us and towards us in the name of And there are two parts or works of Christ in this office. only to the doctrine he taught: 1.

excluding the primary intent of the precept. but the precepts also of the law. 27. . Besides. Matt. 7. trine he took off these corruptions. Thus he restored the law to its pristine crown.'. restraining all means and man' ' . restrained the sixth commandment. ners of worship.] he declares the true sense of its commands. yet in expositions of God's many instances from an obligation unto obedience to them. [1. signification. therefore. given excellent precepts for holiness and obedience .unto actual uncleanness some now would restrain the second commandment. unto both these. Our blessed Saviour applies himself in the discharge of his prophetical office with respect unto the end of the command. The full revela- . and vindicated. greatly veiled under the Old Testament. were then but obscurely apprehended. Thou shalt not kill/ unto actual murder and the seventh. which is our holy obedience. whereby there was an abatement made of their efficacy. or to exempt men. our passions and affections. And then. and an indulgence granted unto the lusts of men. which was. Thou as shalt not commit adultery. the preceptive part of the will of God before revealed. Herein did the Lord Christ place the beginning of his prophetical office and ministry. we 21. How may in his doc- see Matt. 22. and the ensuing expositions of by the prophets. but the people unto whom they were given. with the least disorder or irregularity of ration of its And. unto the making of images and worshipping them. unveiled. v. 6. if not totally. the church being grown corrupted.202 NECESSITY OF HOLINESS FROM it of the law on Sinai. in the decla- excellency and efficacy. whose sole design was to accommodate them unto the lusts and sins of men. 28. explained. He opened. unto divine institution. being carnal. they were solemn commands received amongst them. v.] he declares the inward spiritual nature of the law. [2. vindicating them from all the corrupt and false glosses which then passed current in the church. Not only the promises. Thus they had by their traditional interpretation. to the end that by a compliance therewith we should be holy. and extent. with its respect unto the most secret frames of our hearts and minds. they were not able to bear the spiritual light and sense of them. as the Jews have a tradition that it shall be done in the days of the Messiah. their nature.

as to the declaration of the will of God in his commands. and that in the The practice of most goes no farther but unto first place. is known. wherein he acts towards us from God. This I say. doing: and how a great part of evangelical holiness consists in these things. quires the renovation of our whole souls.] It is extensive. Besides. with all its inmost and secret actings. in the_^Vs^ place. denial of ourselves in taking up good for evil. and in his name. he also teacheth us all those ordinances of worship. the teachings of many go no farther. into the image of God . There is nothing in any kind pleasing to God. in all their faculties. but by his teachings yet could they never have been incumbent on us and instructions. and the equity of them was and therein established . 203 tion of the mind and will of God. known Hence to be duties in their especial nature. And he gave it unto us. Tit. ot perverse. But he. iv. in the perfection and spirituality of the command. This. consisted in the revelation of those duties of Ao/mess. 1. is the nature and end of the prophetical office of . And it is our holiness which is his only end and design therein. (2. in dis- are they called old and tinct senses . or compliant with his will. Christ. with some others of the same kind himself.) The second part of this office or of the discharge of with it. outward acts. such are faith in new commandments God through therly love. There are three things considerable in ih^ doctrine of obe[1. and actings. conformable to his mind. Eph. which takes in the ministry of the apostles as divinely inspired by him. was the immediate end of this work. 10—12. brothe cross. [2. we reject that great which God hath sent. So it is summarily represented. or at best unto the moderation of affections. nothing crooked. which although they had a general foundation in the law. that we might have a perfect and complete rule of holiness. respect unto the church of all ages. or duty of the office of Christ. but he requires it . And where we answer it not. 1 John iii. motions. 23 — 25.] That it reacheth the heart itself. necessary unto us. to which excision is so seprophet verely threatened. redience that Christ teacheth. was reserved for Christ in the discharge of his office. ii. therefore.GODS SENDING JESUS CHRIST. wherein our obedience unto him belongs unto our holiness also whereby it is enlarged and promoted. or dis- .

he manifested the dread of his own presence among them. than those of the gospel. and influencing our affections. or Seneca. that is. in the writing of philosophers. and evidence of divine truth and authority in all. than the commands and instructions of Christ. a pleasing to God. and some add the additional documents of the philosophers they think a saying of Epictetus. [3. general or particular. who being mere creatures. hear him room of all those terrible appearances. guiding our understandings. about moral duties. that pretending to design obedience (at least in moral duties) unto God. I say. perfect. and the use of right reason. are not comprehended in their beauty and excellency. every way dience. to have more life and power in it than any precepts : The reason why these things are more pleasof the gospel.204 NECESSITY OF HOLINESS FROM It is. without a principle of the same light in us. and in the doctrine of the gospel. eternal spiritual light. proceeding from the spring of natural light. Some go to the light of nature. to give authority unto their ministrations. Hence take any precept. but it is forbidde)i by him. [1. and dreadful preparations which God made use of in the giving of the law. their own. as either more plain. proceeding from the fountain of . perfect rule of holiness and obedience. become to be absolute. they are suited to the workings of natural fancy and understanding but those of Christ. perspicuity. as their guide. or efficacious. that is materially the same. Hereby.] Clearness.] complete ^nd. because. not a few prefer Such a it as delivered in the first way. or Arrianus. the doctrine of Christ for universal obein all the duties of it. When he en' upon his office. as the great prophet and apostle sent of God. Christ of Jesus the wisdom men risen have unto.' and who was intrusted himself with all divine the . before the latter. it being to be done by him in 'whom dwelt the fulness of the Godhead bodily. This :' this succeeded into is my beloved Son. contempt tered of God. being wittily suited to their fancies and affections. is. to instruct us in our duty. ing unto them. they betake themselves unto other rules and directions. and the great prophet of the church. But when he came to reveal his will under the gospel. the voice came from the excellent glory. For he gave the law by the ministry of angels. which are the teachings of Christ himself. istical pride And it is a notable effect of the athe- of men. or full. therefore.

to whom at the last day they must give their account. nor with the consideration of the endowments and faithfulness of Jesus Christ the Son of God. in hearing the voice of Christ. if you please. In all these respects we may say of Christ. For. however improved by the wits and reasons of . obedience unto God. ' contemplative men. nor goodness of God. . at present. whatever precepts are given about the moderation of affections and duties of mo- . as Job said of God. or Seneca. which is the opinion of (as one well calls them) our modern Heathens from whence or whom shall we learn it. for the sake of them who would have it so. 22. when we are taught by him. there we ought to apply ourselves to learn and be guided. full. the renovation of our lapsed natures into the image and likeness of God. Let us suppose. and not Epic- tetus. perfect. nor from the remembrance that it is he. namely. is the foundation of all holiness and A gospel obedience. in giving us this command and direction for our good.god's sending JESUS CHRIST. And this he did with respect unto what he had fixed before ' as a fundamental ordinance of heaven. and duty among themselves they when it is too late. with this command. namely. never reached unto that wherein the life and soul of holiness doth consist. Then probably shall we be taught of God. in their choice. The utmost imaginations of men. and give us a command in general to hear him. that all our obedience consists in morality or the duties of it. are many ways defective. that when he should raise up and send the great prophet of the church/ whosoever would not hear him should be cutoff from the people. that they have been mistaken . or to whom shall we go for teaching and instruction about it ? Certainly where the instruction or system of precepts is most plain. so as to take him alone for their guide in all will find. And if men will be moved neither with the wisdom. in the discharge of his prophetical office. The commands and precepts of duties themselves which are given us by the light of nature. compliance. Without this. 205 power. and where the authority of the teacher is greatest and most unquestionable. therefore. he did no more but indigitate on declare which was the person. Who teacheth like him V Job xxxvi. or Plato. 1st. nor authority. and free from mistakes where the manner of teaching is most powerful and efficacious.

whether it be our duty or no. setting aside those that are purely proved light 3rdly. There are some general commands. that others are not to be : injured. or that every one's right is to rendered unto him. is no room for the least hesitation whether it be an infallible rule for us to attend unto or no. whereunto proposal. that he hath taught us any thing as the prophet of the church. about the offices and duties of it. hence it that quired in the doctrine of obedience taught by Jesus Christ as the great prophet of the church. In these disputes did most of them consume their lives. there thing. that our present moralists seems to care for nothing but the name. Every precept of his about the meanest duty. rule of duties given by the most imof nature. The whole . I acknowledge. the nature of no one individual perby philosophers son was ever renewed. and their sentiments not at all to be regarded. so clear in the light of nature. lect.206 ral holiness. and will prove useless. about the rule and measures of their practice. there is no doubt remains with us. and you will find all the seem great moralists at endless uncertain disputes about the nature of virtue in general. by all those documents which were given of old. And from the same reason. that God is to be loved. what change soever was wrought on But that this is plainly and directly retheir conversation. is equally certain and infallibly declarative of the nature and necessity of that duty. And is. we may 2ndly. NECESSITY OF HOLINESS FROM they are lifeless. as that no question can be made. their degeneracy into bestiality is open. as those of the greatest. but that what is required in them is our duty to perform such are they. Very few of the precepts of it are certain. of them. I have sufficiently proved in this whole discourse. all reasonable creatures do assent at their first And where any are found to live in an open neg- to be ignorant. and that have most evidence from the light If once it appears that Christ requires any thing of nature of us by his word. I suppose. without any great endeavours to express their own notions in their conversations. virtue itself is grown to be a strange and uncouth But what is commanded us by Jesus Christ. in part it is. so as that take them for an undoubted and infallible rule. But go a little farther.

a divine power and Yet this glory. and it is sufficient to discharge the most specious pleas and pretences of any thing to be a duty towards God or man. . accompanying his ministerial instructions. 46. so that there is no duty of it but what he hath commanded. or pretend. plead. 29. is commensurate unto universal obedience. 22. confirmed by the rules and directions of the highest and most contemplative moralist. by shewing that it is not required by him so his commands and directions are plain and evidently perspicuous. by them. 38 40. and not as the scribes . vii. vii. and pressed on us by far more It effectual motives than any they are acquainted withal. There are sundry moral duties which I instanced in before. that is more plainly and clearly required by the Lord Christ in the gospel. teacheth like him all men with admiration. that I will not shew and evince. It is true.god's sending JESUS CHRIST. the highest folly ao well as wickedness. I dare challenge the greatest and most learned moralists in the world. which the light of nature. is. 207 evangelical. are about its precepts and directions. And the very officers that as filled ' were sent to apprehend him for preaching. to give an instance of any one duty of morality. wliich some despise. that multitudes of that hardened generation should be converted by his personal ministry John xii. it was not the design of God. and upon them yet it is evident from the gospel.' Matt. is not that which I intend.' Luke iv. is also considerable unto this end. as having another to fulfil in them. And concerning ? this also. as it remains in the lapsed depraved condition of it. never extended itself to the discovery And this obscurity is evident from the differences that of.' John nished. came away astoNever man spake like this man . that 'he taught with authority. and his commands therein. the learning duties of obe- dience from others rather than from Christ the prophet of the church. for to design. velation . that there was duov ri. But now as the re- made by Christ. and another while they wondered at the gracious words which he uttered . but his continued and present ' . Who There was that emihis personal ministry whilst he was on the earth. saying. Hence it is said. is obscure and partial. [2. men therefore. we may nency in say. — .] The manner of teaching as to power and efficacy. and gives bounds unto it.

Whereas. This the experiences. ornament. modern Heathens. who really betake themselves to the light of nature and or in pretence. bear witness unto continually. that must be left without farther plea to all men. as spirit and [3. that commonly they are delighted in by the most profligate and obstinate sinners. and life of the way or manner of their teaching. pride. is him who to ther than designed of God to be the great atheism. They do and will to eternity attest what power his word hath had to enlighten their minds. evanid satisfaction. so they will ingenuously acknowledge what they do. in his personal ministry. whether they have the highest esteem of the authority of Christ the Son of God. or of those others whom they do admire and let them freely take their choice. He gives power and efficacy unto it. are the grace. with the like effects of grace and power. and delight unto the fancy. composed into snares for the affections. as that by its effects every it demonstrates itself to be from God. to relieve and comfort them in their temptations and distresses. and what are the effects of it? Enticing words. it may be. What is in the manner of teaching by the greatest moralist. therefore. being accompaday nied with the evidence and demonstration of a spiritual power put forth in it. consciences. is our holiness and obedience unto God. raphilosophical maxims. in the dispensation of his word and Spirit continued in the church. to subdue their lusts. is authority. And so easy and gentle is their operation on the minds of men. some few perishing endeavours after some change of life. And hereof. in the revelation he made of the will of God in the Scriptures. with.208 NECESSITY OF HOLINESS FROM that teaching of the church by his word and Spirit. andfollyof those . to change and renew their hearts. the great end of the prophetical office of Christ. are the best effects of all such discourses. I could not but remark upon the the consciences of . and lives of multitudes. is the preaching of them who act in the same from the same principles. temporary resolutions for a kind of compliance with the things spoken. smoothness and elegancy of speech. for their guidance and direction.] instructions their Whereas the last thing considerable in those whose we should choose to give up ourselves unto.

In giving them prosperity. In eternally reiuarding their obedience. . 6. that salvation. than benefit or profit them as to the true ends of morality that as their sayings truth which is or virtue. and preserve our souls from ruin. I shall not. all principles of holy Thirdly. our sins. I 209 moralists there are found . the work of Christ as a king may be reduced unto these heads. The gospel life and salvation by Jesus Christ. quickening and strengthening in us by his aids and supplies of grace. 1. there- fore. which fight against our spiritual condition and safety such principally are our lusts. they will sooner delight the minds and fancies of men. 5. among themselves. 2. more conversant in their writings than most of those who pretend so highly unto their veneration. This is enemy of the common of mankind who profess the great deceit whereby Satan. To make his suhiectsfree. is in making and preserving of us holy. obedience. I suppose none question but that the principal work of Christ towards us as our head and king. deny not. In giving them interest love In establishing assured peace for them.si^. In brief. 4. to imagine. that they have any interest in Christ. it may be. III. This also Christ. and our temptations. as might be easily demonstrated. is one gresit etid of the kuigl^ power of For as such doth he subdue our enemies. cessity it is. It remains that we improve these considerations. or shall have any benefit by him.god's sending JESUS CHRIST. it is hence evident how vaiii and fond a thing for any persons continuing in an unholy condition. . so take them alone. To preserve them in safety. These doth our Lord Christ subdue by his kingly power. farther insist thereon. I fear not to affirm. wherewith they are accompanied. having been. teacher of the church. but that in the ancient many excellent documents con- cerning virtue and vice but yet. P openly declares a way of VOL. may be of use for illustration of the infallibly learned another way. In placing the and welfare of his kingdom in all their affections.^r. hath ruined the generality the Christian religion. and increasing their wealth. 3. And. And all these he doth principally by working grace and holiness in them. delivering their souls from deceit and violence. unto the confirmation of our present argument concerning the neof holiness. 7. And those are our adversaries.

we can have no eternal benefit by any thing that Christ hath done or continueth to do as the mediator of the church. sensuality. is to : make us holy and if these be not effected in us. and a king but one of the principal ends of what he doth in all these. competition with . . Hence the miserable condition of the generality of those who are called Christians. They deny the Lord that bought them.210 This is NECESSITY OF HOLINESS FROM thus far admitted by it. and the gospel as a fable. ambition. and to attain immorAnd this they do at least profess to do tality and glory. and yet to hope for salvation by the gospel. that any persons are capable of casting on them. a prophet. unto way For I speak not of them who beingprofligate and hardened in sins. For. is the most infallible way to hasten and secure their own eternal ruin. and the gospel. as supposing that the things to this purpose mentioned in the gospel. they cast the greatest dishonour on Christ. peace. when sudden destruction lies at the door. 1. because they also are Christians. as a priest. they wofully deceive and ruin their own souls. do not more (I may say. all who are called Christians. are conveyed to the souls of men. whereby they are made partakers of them. pride. Without these we have no concernment in what Christ hath done or declared in the If we gospel. Peace. for the that they will allow of no other same end. by Jesus Christ. but in their works they deny him whom in words they own. it must be by what he doth and hath done for us. They contract to themselves the guilt of the two greatest evils that any reasonable creatures are liable unto in this world. expect to be saved by Christ. who live in sin. is greatly to be bewailed. Those by whom the Lord Christ is rejected as a seducer. and yet hope to be saved by the gospel. not so much) disho- . 'whose damnation sleepeth not.' For men to live in covetousness. And. do belong unto them as well as unto others. 2. pleasures. hatred of the power of godliness. whereby the virtue and benefit of all that the Lord Christ hath done for us. and bring upon themselves swift destruction. They are brought and vindicated into the knowledge and profession of the truth. Their whole profession of the gospel is but a crying. are regardless of all future concernments but I intend only siich as in general have a desire to escape the damnation of hell. But they consider not that there are certain ways and means.

and put a stop unto its progress in the world.' How many that are called ChrisWhatever this character suit in these days ? ' they think of themselves. and sanctified.god's sending JESUS CHRIST. from the immutable pur' pose of God. who professing to own them both. iii. you often. and the gospel such a law and rule. profess an interest in him. yet continue to live and walk in an unholy condition. Let more serious professors be most serious in The apostle having given assurance of the cer- tain salvation of all true believers. we cannot have the least evidence that we are interested in that assured condition. Secondly. presently adds. as to the open enemies of Christ. Phil. : . and living in sin. as one who hath procured indulgence unto men to live in their lusts and rebellion against God and the gospel as a doctrine of licentiousness and wickedness. 19. may be saved by them. and made holy thereby ? Are you conver[redeemed out of the world by it. and now tell you even weeping. they endeavour to represent the Lord Christ as a minister of sin. of whom 1 have told plaint. that without holiness. who mind tians doth earthly things.' this matter. without a universal departure from iniquity. and from your vain p 2 . 19. that they are the enemies of the cross of Christ. as that men loving sin. and whose glory is in their shame. This is that which hath reflected all kind of dishonour on Christian religion. as those do. plainly intimating.' 2 Tim. What else can any one learn from them concerning the one or the other ? The whole language of their profession is. You name the name of Christ. and expect salvation by him which way will you apply yourselves unto him ? from . whose end is destruction. they are and condemned already. that you should serve the living God ? Are you Hath cleansed. which of his sacerdotal ? offices do you expect advantage ? Is it from his dead his blood purged your consciences from works. 18. they are enemies of the cross of Christ. and none have occasion to judged think the worse of him or the gospel for their opposition unto them but for those others who profess to own them. ii. 211 nour the one and the other. Let every one that nameth the name of Christ depart from iniquity . whose god is their belly. These are they of whom our apostle makes his bitter com' Many walk.' and do trample under their feet the 'blood of the covenant. For. that Christ is such a Saviour.

peace. to subdue fruits in righteousness. and soberly. to hate the 'garment spotted with the flesh!' Hath he instructed you unto sincerity in all your w^ays. after the customs and traditions of it Are you by dedicated unto God. and are your hearts and minds cast into the mould of it? If it be so. and salvation. your inward spiritual and fleshly lusts. those enemies of his kingdom. so as that you can discourse of it. to be patient. and have you expectations on him by virtue thereof? You may do well to examine. shall never have the least interest in its you effectually learned of him 'to deny all ungodliness and worldly lusts. assisted you by his grace. but cannot say. in vain will you expect those other of atonement. and to intrust all . Is it from his actings as the great thatyou expect help and relief? Have prophet of the church. to be meek. The all priestly office of Christ hath its w'hole it towards on whom hath any effects. unto all holy obedi-H ence ? And have you given up yourselves to be ruled by his word and Spirit. and whole conversations among men ? Above all. justification. which . is secured unto you. Despisers of its fruits in holiness. yea. to endeavour after a universal conformity unto his image and likeness? Do you find his doctrine effectual unto these ends. hath he taught you. have you learned of him. and godly in this present world? Hath he taught you to be humble. or any advantage thereby. aided. and made his peculiar ones? If you find not these effects of the blood-shedding of Christ in and upon your souls and consciences. and reconciliation with God of mercy.' to live righteously. how he ruleth in you and over you. your interest in him by his prophetical office. and that you do many things or perBut if form many duties according unto it. to purify and cleanse your hearts by faith. Hath he subdued your lusts. and have attained much light or knowledge thereby. that the effects before inquired after are wrought in you by his word and Spirit. to obey him in all things. pardon. you look effect for. Will you betake yourselves to the kingly office of Christ. dealings. supported. that you have learned many mysteries.212 NECESSITY OF HOLINESS FROM men ? sation therein. which fight against your souls ? Hath he strengthened. you lose the second expectation of an interest in Christ as mediator. at least you know the substance of the doctrine he hath taught. you say. you hear his voice in his word read and preached.

or his disciples. have neither ground nor reason to promise themselves an inFor terest in Christ. to avow an expectation of mercy. Christ will be of no advantage unto you. In these things lie the sum of our present argument. if you continue to fulfil the lusts of the mind. : . you have cause to rejoice. and king and if the immediate effect of the grace of Christ acting in all these offices towards us.god's sending JESUS CHRIST. prophet.' to profess themselves Christians. 213 your temporal and eternal concernments unto his care. faithand power ? If it be so. » and unavoidably destructive own souls. . is a scandal and shame unto Christian to their religion. But if your proud rebellious lusts do yet bear sway in you. men name of Christ. haters of good men. and not as obedient subjects of that kingdom of his which is not of this world deceive not yourselves any longer. and of the flesh if you walk after the fashions of this world. life. revengeful. or any advantage by his mediation. envious. covetous. living in divers lusts and pleasures. be our holiness and sanctification. and in the mean time to be to ' name the in themselves worldly. ambitious. those in whom that effect is not wrought and produced. pardon. . but in and by his blessed offices of priest. and salvation by him. If the Lord Christ act no otherwise for our good. if sin have dominion over you. fulness. proud. as those who have an assured concern in the blessed things of his kingdom.

When Solomon set himself to search out the causes of all the vanity and vexation that is in the world. is lequired of us with respect unto our giving glory Another argument for the necessity of holiness. and so out of its way.' 21. It is not unlike that description which Job gives of the grave. vanity. vii. cast themselves into endless entanglements and con- . folly. . and our present state and condition. unless it be cured. I have before declared and sufficiently confirmed. 'A land of darkness and of the shadow of death. and where the light is as darkness chap. of all the troubles that the life of man is filled withal . the whole soul being hurried off from God. he affirms that this was the sum of his discovery. and instability the will under the power of spiritual death. butthey have found out many inventions.NECESSITY OF HOLINESS FROM OUR CONDITION IN THIS WORLD. or enmity unto him which is come upon us thereby. that is. nor yet as to the future punishment which it renders us obnoxious unto but it is the present misery that is upon us by it. Necessity of holiness farther argued. and selfish. x. And I do not nov^f consider it as to the disability of living unto God. sensual. which I intend. may be taken from the consideration of ourselves. stubborn and obstinate. ' God made men upright. our own state and condition in from world. and all the aifections carnal. this to V. For it is hereby alone that the vicious distemper of our natures is or can be cured. For the mind of man being possessed with darkness. with what Jesus Christ. is perpetually filled with confusion and perplexing disorder. CHAP. That our nature is fearfully and universally depraved by the entrance of sin. 29. without any order. 22. : .' Eccles.

For as they all proceed from thence. folly. are like a *trou- . this he doth. not so common as what is signified by it . 28. All evils proceed from the impetuous lusts of the minds of men. No sooner doth the mind begin to act any thing suitably unto the small re- mainders of light in it. under the power and disorder of depraved nature. 2 Thess. the filled with darkness. 18. but to give them in this world a recompense of their folly in themselves. and cannot obtain ye fight and war. as our Saviour declares. For there is no than to be nor under the greater misery slavery. Matt. violence. confusion. act continually in our depraved natures. Rom.' James iv. 11. captivating the mind and will unto their interests. Video meliora proboque. xv. and the like dreadful miseries ? Alas they are but a ! weak and imperfect representation of the evils that are in the minds of men by nature. 1. — disorder. 26. rapine. 2. utmost. that wicked men. uncleanness. How full is the world of Hence the whole soul conflicts. come they not hence. the greatest that men are liable unto in this world.NECESSITY OF HOLINESS. acted. Deteriora sequor- is filled with fierce contradictions and Vanity. Rom. count hereof. power of sin. i. yet you have not . sensual irrational appetites. 19. Hence God for the guilt of some sins. ye kill and desire to have. penally gives many up to the power of others. ii. but it is immediately controlled by impetuous lusts and affections. which darken its directions. fusions. are as unsatisfied as they were at their out. so the thousandth part of what is conceived therein. 10 18. which when they are acted unto the . yea. is punishment power. not only to secure and aggravate their condemnation at the last day. 215 in its What is sin in its guilt. Hence is the common saying. is never brought forth and ' From whence come wars and fightings among you. being brought under the power of various lusts and passions. even of your lusts that war in your members ? ye lust and have not. instability. oppression. iii. and silence its commands. self-disquieting and torturing pasSee the acsions. 24. inordinate desires. disorder. first setting Hence the prophet tells us. and confusion. And whole soul This proves the original depravation of our nature. in the vilest drudgeries of servitude and bondage.

especially in whom they abound and reign. True peace. pleasures.^ And those who seem to have the greatest advantages above others in power and opportunity to give satisfaction unto their lusts. vi. these things are evil in themselves. It is true. some temper and and affections as the most are possessed withal. life of man full of vanity. do but increase For as their own disquietness and miseries . which those who were wise among the Heathens. We have. if they are not cured and healed. so they are woful and calamitous at present. and treasures up provision for future vexation. rest. and attempted in vain reliefs against. And as. it would appear. They fall not into quiet disposition such outrages and" excesses of outward sins as others do . their minds are not capable of such turbident passions 1. as the waters of the sea when it is stormy and troubled. are naturally of a more sedate and than others are. and a stop put to this fountain of all abominations. 20. and the disorder that is come upon us by sin. But yet their minds and hearts are full of dark- . disand endless self-dissatisfactions. What we intend. Herein doth it cast up 'mire and dirt. than to inquire how this disorder may be cured. and tranquillity of mind are strangers unto such souls.. complained of. Ixix.' Gen. saw. and ' they are all evil. will be cleared in the ensuino. These comparatively are peaceable. vexations. 21. only evil continually.obthat servations. trouble. so they are penal unto those in whom they are. they will assuredly issue in everlasting misery. and become to have no relish can afford? How and peace in them suffocate in their in their varieties.' Isa. 5. Psal. All these Hence is the things proceed from the depravation of our natures. and ! satisfactions by them. by the confusion and horror they live in. Alas what are the perishing profits. and useful to their relations and others. no greater interest in the world. and unto others. And if their breasts were opened. Ivii. The heart is in continual motion is restless in its figments and imaginations. nay. which only heightens present vanity. and ' . that they are on the very confines of hell. whose waves cast up mire and dirt j^ have no peace . 14. appointments. which this world unable is the mind of man to find out rest or from them? They quickly satiate and enjoyment.216 NECESSITY OF HOLINESS FROM bled sea that cannot rest. therefore.

And without this. yea. Our deliverance from the power of corrupt and deceitful lusts. and how far. 4. attempts for inward peace. Education. and affections. By this are and our souls in some measure restored unto their primitive order rectitude. Whilst we continued in due order towards God. unto all with their persons not in lave . with other means of the like kind. Hence proceeded all that order and peace which was in all their faculties and their actings. maybe much changed by them lioiv. harmony. illuminations. hope of a righteousness of their own. iv. is not our present business to declare. consisted in the powers and inclinations of our minds. or any other of like nature. resolutions for secular ends. which are the spring and cause of all the confusion mentioned. unto regular actings towards God as our end and reward. and rectitude. 22 24. holiness. is by For it must be and can be no otherwise but by the renovation of the image of God in us. and no . The only cure and remedy of this evil condition. will be in vain attempted. real tranquillity of mind. love of reputation. wills. having lost our conformity but being by sin fallen off and likeness unto him. 3. 2. For so proved). and the wherein. And hence. — otherwise. we fell into all the confusion and disorder before described. convictions. Wherefore. engagements into the society of good men. the soul continues still in its disorder. with due order in our affections. afflictions. what we are directed unto by our apostle Eph.OUR CONDITION IN THIS WORLD. do often put great restraints upon the actings and ebullitions affections of the minds of men of the evil imaginations and turbulent . that is composed into an orderly tendency towards the enjoyment of God. for from the loss hereof doth all the evil mentioned spring and arise. the frame of the mind . it was impossible that we course of the life should be otherwise in ourselves : from God. For our original order. That which we aim at is. the disease is nncured. ness and disorder. the sanctified mind alone. Notwithstanding all that may be effected by these means. is by the renovation of the image of God in us. it is 217 with all they have on the surface. And the less troublesome waves by nature (as we have cure wrought bottom. and in all inward confusions. the more mire and dirt oft-times they have at the who have not an almighty effectual upon them. It is the holy soul.

For that^eace and orc?f. men supposed as yet under the power of sin. he may find as much in hell when he comes there. ariseth a cogent argument and motive unto holiness. which is an opposition unto God and all that Such a peace and order there may be in an unis good. that Herein they suffer so far. First. without any opposition or contradiction. that in all sancti. their lusts Yea. On the other side.' that is until a his Satan. ' The flesh lusteth complain. liness doth so heal. * peace in such minds which the strong man armed. bind him. sin. seem to have more peace and quietness in their minds. are truly sanctified. But yet they continually cast up mire and dirt. nor is there such a confusion and disorder in his kingdom as to destroy it but it hath a consistency from the common end of all that is in it. . deJied persons there are yet certain remainders of our original si)i still abideth in believers . against any thing that Ans. it works poxoerfitUy and effectually against the spirit.which is pretended to be in the minds of men under the power of sin. leading them ensue Hence laio of sin. God and that which is spiritually good. or for self. 2.218 lusts NECESSITY OF HOLINESS FROM and ruin.' Wherefore. There is only that ness. that this hoare contrary. occasioneth their trouble. relieving themselves by them fied. 1. that yea. That we do admit and maintain. And if any one think that peace and order to be sufficient for him. they find satisfaction in and pleasures. it and these doth not appear. and cure the sinful distempers of our minds. who have not that grace and holiness in the renovation of the image of God which is pleaded for. wherein his mind in all its faculties acts uniformly against God. There being no active principle in it for sanctified mind. nor those o-roans for deliverance. and the spirit against the flesh. keeps stronger than he comes to goods in. the unto great and mighty captive wars and conflicts in the souls of regenerate persons. all works one way. There is a difference between a confusion and a re- . and cry out for deliverance. But sundry things may be objected hereunto as. They have not that inward conflict which others complain of. and the world. pravation that in them. and not sanctiit is like that which is in hell. disorder and . and all its troubled streams have the same course. as to groan. and the kingdom of dark- Satan is not divided against himself..

and every thing evil. 219 Where a confusion is in a state. keeps the rule is in the mind and heart firm and stable.OUR CONDITION IN THIS WORLD. and is never Such a person knows sin to be his quite overthroicn by it. in 3. with fervent outcries for deliverance. and rule. So is it in the condition of a may sanctified soul may there on account of the remainders of sin there be rebellion in it. of unsanctified persons. bellion. subordinating all to God in Christ. and order. graces of the Spirit of God being acted in them. godly sorrow. is from them all. Grace . but yet the whole state is not disordered thereby. be it never so vigorous or prevalent. which fied its design. The divine order. though there be no rebellion. with respect unto our last and chiefest end. yet is there nothing but confusion. therefore. and they re- . although these things seem to have that which is grievous and dolorous prevailing in them. self-abasement. is all rule or govern- ment is dissolved. humiliation. because it is a continual opposition to God. the severe reflections of their consciences only. but there is no confusion. do but put him to the exercise of those graces and duties wherein he receiveth great spiritual satis- Such are repentance. Yea. and considering the nature and end of this contest. and however men may be pleased with it for a season. It is a tyranny that overthrows all law. is satis- enemy. of the soul consisting in the rule of grace. Now. knows with it. Sin hath the rule and dominion them . though lusts and corruptions will be rebelling and it. is never overthrown by the rebellion of sin at any warring against But in the state time. there But where the firm and be rebellions that may give some parts and places disturbances and damage. yet is it nothing but perfect disorder. The soul of a believer hath that satisfaction in this con- as that its peace is not ordinarily disturbed. that faction in their it finds secret satis- But the trouble others meet withal in own hearts and minds on the account of sin. the greatest hardships that sin can reduce a believer unto. and so belong unto the spiritual order of the soul. they are so suited unto the nature of the new creature. so that and assurance unto the whole state of the perpeace son. flict. and abhorrency. yet the faction. let loose unto the rule is utmost disorder and stable. with the aids and assistances are prepared for him against its deceit and violence .

and that in conjunc?i\XY particular tion with some powerful temptation. that should render holiness so indispensably necessary unto us? Ans. But it will be farther objected.220 ceive NECESSITY OF HOLINESS FROM them no otherwise but as certain presages and pre- dictions of future and eternal misery. there is peace and order preserved by the power of holiness in a sanctified mind and soul.) sufficient assurance of success. If there are any such. or are carried on by them. we shall not so fail of actual success. w'hich is its end and tendency. much outward vanity and disorder (which you make tokens of the internal confusion of the minds of men. morose. namely. in In the whole cause. These things are dia. There is a twofold success against the rehelliou insta)ices (1.) unto wai/s blessed assurance that abiding in the diligent use of the and yneans assigned unto us. vi. and the power of sin) do either proceed from them. are yet peevish.) In particular actings of the remainders oi indwelling sin. A sanctified person is secured of success in this conflict. and whom you judge to be partakers of them. notwithstanding this opposition and all that is ascribed unto it. 4. the more shame for them. our security Rom. will not fail we have us) for the covenant faithfulness of God (which Wherefore. andflnish sin . 12.) As lutely or finally ruin our souls. that sin shall not utterly deface the image of God in us. it is no wonder if we are sometimes cast into disorder. we have sufficient and (1. bring forth. metrically opposite to the work of holiness. among their relations. unquiet in their minds. . if we be not wanting unto ourselves. negligent in our known duties and principal concerns. and the improvement of the assistance provided in the covenant o^ grace. And both these have we : (2. and foiled by the powers of sin. and the * fruits . But. nor abso(2. But if we be wanting unto ourselves. froward. For suppose the contest be considered wdth respect lust and corruption. Secondly. as that * lust should conceive. 12. and in the world yea.' 2 Cor. and they must bear their own judgment. ii. That many professors who pretend highly unto sanctification and holiness. which keeps blessed peace and order in his soul during its continuance. to the general success in the whole cause. And where then is the advantage pretended.

peevishness. 2. I find there is no end of arguments that oflier their service to the purpose in hand I shall. have to do. may be accomplished which is as when a wandering juggling recorded. and of Hannah. not only of the corrupt lusts of the flesh. use unto and disorderly ends. attended with an unavoidable . pronounced him from his countenance a person of a flagitious sensual life. and . who pretended to judge of men's lives and manners by their physiognomy. I say. and renew the image of God in us. but sented. by envy and hatred of profession. hand. ^21 1. that he hath yet I had rather pass this judgment on any man. therefore. moroseness. wave many. Many who are really holy. affirming that such he had been. And I am pressing the of holiness. had not their souls been rectified and cured by the power of grace and holiness. 7. 6—9. and then to have them greatened and heightened in the apprehension of them with whom they . grace our natures. which was actually the case of David all his I would be far from days. who knew his sober virtuous conversation. to be under such circumstances as will frequently draw out their natural infirmities. and that so through the power of the grace of the gospel. IN THIS WORLD. impostor. 1 Sam. not change doth other on the no grace. that this work may be carried on to perfection. than that. And. but Socrates excused him. Though I will jvidge no man in particular. Wherever there is the seed of grace holiness. beholding Socrates. which lust is apt to possess. that evil great promise Isa. . 22. i. had he not bridled his nature by philosophy. v. that are absolutely evil and vicious in their whole nature but even of those natural infirmities and distempers of to anger and passion. That in- many. of the increase and growth necessity of it. may have the double disadvantage first. inclination unsteadiness in resolution. xi.' Gal. that is. 3. there an entrance is made on the cure of all these sinful distempers yea. are esteemed holy and sanctified. are infirmities of that the repremany yet I doubt not. . the people derided his folly. unto an undeserved and disadvantage. how much more truly may it be said of multitudes. but giving countenance unto the sinful distempers of any. and those of great importance. it may be. who deed are not so. that they had been eminent in nothing but untoward distempers of mind. 6. And.OUR CONDITION of the Spirit. therefore.

from and expecteth requireth That he doth require this indispensably of us. Where these things are. zealous of good works . particular occasions. How we may do so. wrought and accomplished a mighty work amongst us. where this revenue of unto him. amongst many others.' Psal. purchase. To deny that we ii. glorify him in soul and body. The Lord Christ coming into the world as the mediator between God and man. and we are not our own. and shame. for us yea. 20. 2. whereby we glorify the Lord Christ by our holy obedience. xvi. which is his lot. for us. The life which he led. out of question amongst us. That we should And in these things alone is he glofor him. us. 6. we shall consider but one way. although the most who are called Christians. He died for us. and purify unto himself a peculiar people. I suppose. I have a me fallen to are The lines says. goodly heritage . 2. nor of the invaluable price he hath paid in pleasant places. But.' Tit.' which are the words of Christ concerning ' the church. is to reought to glorify and honour Christ in the world. but unto ' He gave himself for xiv. and the portion of his inherit. and what he requireth of us to that purpose? Now the sum of all that the Lord Christ expects from us in this world. is. The sole inquiry is. suffer pat ientli/ he first The us. if we are indeed his disciples. rified by expecteth at all times. 14. 19. because they are his. reproach. and shut up this discourse the principal part consists holiness not be omitted. 7—9. The doctrine which he heads. whose death we live. he hath bought to that and but his. he repents not of his glory is paid in and returned : . 1 Cor. Rom. that he might redeem us from all iniquity. And what he did may be referred to three 1. . But we need not to insist hereon. and in all on the latter. and whence also it will appear how much we dishonour and reproach him when we come short ance. we should not live unto ourthat vi. nounce him and the gospel. with a price. and by virtue of died so that him selves. In our the Lord Christ which honour and of of that revenue glory his disciples in this world. as we are called by things him thereunto. thereof.222 NECESSITY OF HOLINESS FROM with one which must cogency. may be reduced unto these two heads L That we should live holily to him. on him and his docus trine. ' Now. live as if they had no other design but to cast all obloquies.

and the apostate Judaical church of old. with the power of his w hole mediation to renew the image of God in us. 1. in the first place. superstitious worshippers among there is risen up amongst us a ge- that is spoken concerning him to In opposition hereunto. is that he makes the life of Christ his pat- tern. that the life of Christ is our example. they are of no virtue. and all Christians. 223 taught: and. there ever was a great contest in the world. the Lord Christ his true disciples. which is the way of carnal gos- many at this day. 3. deny any such power and efficacy in them as is pretended. neration. his death most precious and efficacious. and every Christian doth virtually make that profession. as it is of Others allow them to pass with some approbation. This. but by obedience unto him in holiness as it is visible and fruitful. that he was sent of God unto his great work. . and without which. for some openly have traduced his life as unholy. Concerning all these. who And he which it is his duty to express in his own. The death which he vnderwent. and his death as justly deserved. his docmost heavenly and pure. takes up Christianity on any other terms. This he calls all his disciples to avow unto and express in the world. his doctrine as foolish. but the first thing he signifies thereby.OUR CONDITION IN THIS WORLD. the wisdom and purity of his doctrine. pretending to own what is taught in the gospel concerning them. doth wofully deceive his own soul. pellers. to make atonement and peace with God. A testimony is to be given unto trine and against the world. naged under a double appearance. and was accepted_of him therein. are we called unto. and consequently. the efficacy of his death to expiate sin. and it is And on the part of the world. For. it is mayet continued. that his life was most holy. and by their so doing is he glorified (and no otherwise) in a peculiar manner. No man takes that holy name upon him. against the blasphemies of the world. now all this is no otherwise done. but. be a mere fable. to bear witness and testimony unto the holiness of his life. How is it then that we may yield a revenue of glory herein? How may we bear testimony unto the holiness of his life. We are obliged to profess. to restore us into his favour. which was the sense of the Pagan world. and to bring us unto the enjoyment of him. calls all And of late who esteem all idolatrous. in fact and practice.

or in- structed in. unless we bear testimony unto his doctrine. we are directed unto. in its being. We can "give him no glory. 12. that the men thereof neither see. the holy obedience of believers. that indeed his life was unholy? Surely it is high time for such persons to leave the name of fess. The power and efficacy of the death of Christ. And there is no this may be done. as for other ends. It is spiritual. although the life of evangelical holiness. alone in con- him in the holiness we are pressing after. and power . 11. and faith in Christ Jesus. by conformity to God in our souls. principles and actings of the heavenly. heavenly. but by holy obedithe ence. by the holy. or the life of sin. as hath been declared at large before. as all unholy and Christians do ? Is not this to bear witness professors with the world against him. Now. the be in spiritual life of a believer. and living unto God in fruitful obedience ? Can men devise a more effectual expedient to cast reproach upon him. which is the doctrine of Christ alone. as we make it our ride. nor know. as a thing quite of another kind than any thing in the world which by the rules. 2. indeed. that the rule of it. other way whereby principles. yet there are always such evident appearing fruits of it. And multitudes in all ages have been won over unto the obedience of the gospel. and light of nature. nor discern. useful conversation of such as have expressed the and purity of his doctrine in this kind. who have no regard thereunto? Can this be any otherwise done but by holiness of heart and life. and chief actings. so 'to purify us from all iniquity. to prefer the world and present things before eternity. secret and hidin hid Christ with God from the eves of the world. and heavenly. filled with divine wisdom and grace. ii. so den. and in the meantime to pro- of Christ is their example. that we can give him any glory on the account of his life being formity to our example. form.. its principle. than to live in sin. And. end. wise. to follow divers lusts and pleasures. Tit. that the life Christians.224 NFXESSITY OF HOLINESS FROM and the unbelief of the most. and usefulness of it . form. It is. is holy. therefore. that it is holy. as are sufficient for their conviction. mysterious. filled with same kind with those whereby our communion with God in glory unto eternity shall be maintained.' and to 'purge . fruitful. expressing nature. power 3.

against him and all that he hath done for us. And let no man think this is done in wordy expressions.' Nay. he is satisfied with it. and gives in his testimony on the side of the world. there is more in it also if any one profess himself to be a ChrisI . ing times riseth unto that height of pride and contemptuous atheism. : ' . shall when the rejecting of this testimony be an aggravation of condemnation unto the unbe- lieving world. And it is indeed the flagitious lives of professed Christians that VOL. it is no otherwise effected. However. life. but cannot prevent their ruin. in the blood of Christ. we give nothing of that glory unto Jesus Christ which he indispensably requireth. somerequired. be despised by the world. suppose the evidence of this last argument is plain. III. to express the efficacy ple of his death. quireth iniquity. to follow the examhis of li-fe. as knowing that the day is coming wherein he will call ' over these things again.OUR CONDITION IN THIS WORLD. and exposed unto all it is briefly this without the holiness prescribed in the gospel. to obey his doctrine. if we are not thereby purified from God/ is we are an abomination unto God. If their testimony herein unto the efficacy of his death be not received. but by the power of a holy conversation. whilst they neglect and refuse to give him any revenue of glory for all he hath done for them . he is a false tian. pardon of sin. if we are not cleansed from our sins rity. Q . that we 225 may serve the livherein also The world. and shall be obof his wrath for ever. that is. indeed. He saves us freely by his grace. but he requires that we should express a sense of it in ascribing unto him the glory that is his due. the Lord Christ rejects no more of his disciples in this matter unto his glory.namely. traitor to him. salvation. and continue in an unholy life . we may bewail their folly. shewing forth the praises of him who hath called us out of darkness into his marvellous light. and so at present no apparent glory redound unto him thereby. and immortality. our consciences from dead works. as to despise all appearance and profession of puBut the truth is.' and evidence the truth of it by such ways and means as the gospel hath appointed unto that end. And if men will be so sottishly foolish as to expect the greatest benefits and advantages by the mediation of Christ. a disciple of Jesus Christ. but that they profess that his blood cleanseth them from their sins.

who is the firstborn and image oif the invisible God. If. and contempt of purity. by reason of whom the name of Christ is dishonoured and blasphemed continually. let us labour to be ' holy in all manner of conversation. ambition. doctrine. with the eternal fruits of them. or advantage by him. diligently and carefully to study the gospel. by Christ? Who infatuation sufficiently bewail the dreadful effects of such a horrid God teach us all duly to consider. here or hereafter. that all the ! glory and honour of Jesus Christ in the world. depends on our holiness. glory. or desire of. express his virtues and praises. for he that should consider the conversation of men for his guide. if we would not be found the most hateful traitors at the last day unto his crown. any spark of gratitude therefore. any care about.226 NECESSITY OF HOLINESS. immortality. &C. truth. or may do. that they may receive thence an evidence of the power. revenge. with respect unto us. and dignity. And I advise all that read or hear of these things. and beauty of Christ and his ways. whether to be a Pagan. will be hardly able to determine which he should choose. . his glory and honour in the world. sufferings. and not on any other thing either that we are. condescension. we for his un- speakable love. have any love unto him. And shall such persons. have. honour. or a Christian. good men. have brought the life. and person of our Lord Jesus Christ into contempt in the world.' that we may thereby adorn his doctrine. expect advantage by him or mercy from him ? Will men yet think to live in sensuality. grace. a Mahometan. covetousness. and grow up into conformity and likeness unto him. pride. malice. if we have any expectation of grace from him. hatred of all and can to enjoy life. and glory.

THE REASON OF FAITH: OR AN ANSWER UNTO THAT INQUIRY. 31. rose from the dead. WHEREFORE WE BELIEVE THE SCRIPTURE TO BE THE WORD OF GOD: WITH THE CAUSES AND NATURE OF THAT FAITH WHEREWITH WE DO WHEREIN SO: IS THE GROUNDS WHEREON THE HOLY SCRIPTURE BELIEVED TO BE THE WORD OF GOD. WITH FAITH DIVINE AND SUPERNATURAL. neither will they be persuaded though one Jf they hear not Moses and the prophets. —Luke xvi. ARE DECLARED AND VINDICATED. q2 .

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yet it will not be denied. may be spoken to evidence that the reader is not imposed on by that. it had been altogether useless to renew an endeavour unto the same purpose. a continuation of the defence of the one and the other canvelation. whereas so highest concernment unto them. therefore. but that the determination of it. which may absolutely Had the end racters. whereas an opposition unto the Scripture. in an Appendix at the close of it. whether it be the truth we contend for. fall under either of those cha- and by these discourses been effectually accomplished. much hath been written of late by others on this subject.TO THE READER. which I Yet some few things re- judge it he who he will. main. added a brief account of the design. Something. and method of the ensuing discourse. the weight of the argument in hand for. sure we shall not differ about . or otherwise. is still not reasonably be judged either needless or unseasonable. and the grounds whereon we believe it to be a Divine Re- openly continued amongst us . order. Having I shall not here detain the reader with the proposal of them. in But. Besides. any farther debate of it may seem either needless or unseasonable. and the settling of the minds of men about it. I am Be necessary to mind him of. are of the But. most of the discourses published .

that we have sufficient grounds to believe the Scrip- ture. with those atheistical objections against the divine original and authority of the Scripture. But as neither of these are utterly neglected in the ensuing discourse. whereby our assent unto the divine original of it. is fortified and confirmed against the exceptions and of such whose love of sin. so as to what resolved divine and acceptable duty? do respect the consciences of men immediately. namely. the which authoritative proposal of the church of Rome . therefore. whereby we do into. and what so ? is it the nature of that faith. it is evident. which they frequently meet withal . and resolutions to objections tempts them to seek for shelter in an atheistical contempt of the authority of God. that they are often attacked withal about them . not for want of a due assent unto them. evidencing itself therein. what is the naged therein. TO THE READER. and the become a way whereby they may come to rest and assurance in believing. Others have pleaded and vindicated those rational considerations. that many are often shaken in their minds. For some of them do principally aim to prove. rests on. wherein that here tendered is not expressly engaged. obligation upon us to believe the Scripture to be the live therein. but of a right understanding what is the true and . have had their peculiar de- signs. they have sufficiently evinced beyond any possibility of rational contradiction from their adversaries. on this subject. that many know not how to extricate themselves from the insnaring questions. Whereas. without any recourse unto.CCXXX of late. word of God ? what and is are the causes. or reliance upon. so the peculiar deFor the inquiries masign of it is of another nature.

that this small discourse may have its use. formal reason of that assent . and force . pretending to gra- sobriety. and the arguments wherewith they are confirmed. Such kind of writings same consideration with me. or reflections on the persons of any And. from all fear of any reply from me. to prove the divine authority of the Scripture. I do hereby free the perof the authors of them. cavilling at the expressions. where I differ in the their proper place explication of any thing belonging unto this subject from the conceptions of other men. right reason. are not sensible how their credulity and inclinations are abused in the hearing and repe- . be the word of God ? I rections herein. sons of such humours and inclinations. that as I Moreover. therefore. foundation that it rests upon is the firm basis and what answer they may directly and peremptorily give unto Wherefore do you believe the Scripture that to inquiry. whereas. as I can- not but wonder vity persons. as those multiwhich some have raised concerning plied false reports me. without straining the words. and their own am not. I have candidly examined such opinions. the most of them so ridiculous and foolish. or the shall be pleased to write or are of the least notice of what they say. how any and and course of life. have allowed all the arguments pleaded by others. and know not how soon I may be so again. I think it necessary to acquaint the reader. practice. that have endeavoured to give them those diupon a due examination they will experience.TO THE READER. and be given out in its proper season. so alien from my principles. so. alto- gether without hopes. CCXXXl what . I have myself been otherwise dealt withal by many. I find compliant with the Scripture itself.

The consideration of the work of the Spirit. upon the earnest re- quests of some acquainted with the nature and substance of it. That book was one part only of what I designed on that subject. and more easily May 11. shall acquaint the reader About three years since I published a book about the Dispensation and Operations of the Spirit of God. withal. that it might be of the more common use. TO THE READER. I have suffered to come out by itself. consolation. Hereof this is designed unto the second part of it. of supplicaof tion. and as the immediate author of all Holy spiritual offices. . as the Spirit of illumination. in the last place. obtained. ensuing discourse is concerning one part of his work. The occasion of I this discourse is that which. extraordinary and ordinary.CCXXXll tition of them. 1677. gifts and as a Spirit of illumination. which.

reserving the latter unto a distinct discourse by itself also. 47. II. Luke ii. And this. or by what means. of the mind God. or the revelations that are made unto us of his mind and will therein. as it denotes an effect wrought in the minds of men. sideration. so far for the law of his faith. 45. Acts xiii.(-: r THE REASON OF FAITH. Eph. 2 Cor. For by illumination in general. OR THE GROUNDS WHEREON THE SCRIPTURE TO BE THE WORD OF GOD. Heb. or may have. 4. Supernatural revelation and . 18. vi. Unto the former some things is may be premised. whereof the ensuing treatise is a part. or the eflScacy of the grace of God by him dispensed. as it is comprised in the first of these inquiries. or for what reason. withfaith divine and supernatural. as it is required of us in a way of duty. 9. 1 Pet. 4. we do believe the Scripture to be the %vord of God. I understand that supernatu0)1 ral knowledge that and any man hath. and obedience. is to declare the work in the illumitiation of the minds of men. 17. life. as revealed unto him by supernatural means. WITH IS BELIEVED FAITH DIVINE AND SUPERNATURAL. xxiv. whose will of declaration we at present design. I. are the subjects at present designed unto conAnd it will issue in these two inquiries what grounds. the only objective cause First. 18. xxvi. ii. we may come to understand aright the mind of God in the Scripture. The objective cause and outward : means of it. 32. How. iv. of the Holy Ghost For this work is particularly and eminently ascribed unto him . i. X HE principal design of that discourse. is that.

with a revealed. both that its object be things only supernaturally revealed. And there may be a supernatural knowledge of natural things. 1. And to Abraham. iii. or the immediate 19. So was it granted unto Enoch. As. merely respect the doctrine of the law withThis the apostle fully declares. by supernatural. 2 Cor. unto . v. There is a natural knowledge of supernatural Rom. 15. These things are commensurate. revelations. occasional. xviii. i. preacher of righteousness who thereon commanded his children and household to keep the way of the Lord . 2 Cor. Secondly. And other instances of the like kind may be given . Gen. or uncovered face. For so long a season did God en- lighten the minds of men. the seventh from Adam. And . xxxi.' or a sin the Syriac Nn»^Ji KDN3. 17 . 3 6. 15. Exod. . But unto this supernatural illumination. Sundry things may be observed of this divine dispensation.' bring light and spiritual understanding into my ' ' mind. was originally by various ways (which we have elsewhere declared) given unto sundry persons immediately. 10. 2. And to Noah. ii. "Vj reveal. 6. partly for their own instruction and guidance. 31 34. it is required. who thereon prophesied to the warning and instruction of others Jude 14. 1 8. from first to last. i. with * open face. and practical ]9. ii. that I may behold' {avaKeKaX\vfifxlv(i) Trpocrojirc^. before any revelations were committed to writing. — — — ' This David prays for Psal. to be communicated unto the church. iv. >3>j. 14. in the knowledge of God and his will. adequate object of supernatural illumination.234 THE REASON OF FAITH. are the sole and for within. 5. 19. and partly by their ministry. 1 Kings iv. for the space of two thousand four hundred and sixty years. 9. things. Eph. Heb. efficacy of the Spirit of God . this course did God continue a long time. 28. ' wondrous things out of thy law. external. cxix. and that both theoretical. means of supernatural illumination. did out.' or 'uncover mine eyes.) . 26. This divine external revelation. The various supernatural revelations that God hath made of himself. i.' The light he prayed 18. ii. and that it be wrought in us by a supernatural efficiency. or as supernaturally revealed. 1 Cor. his mind and will. 1. iv. who became thereby a 2 Pet. Gen.' the vail being taken away . That it did sujficientli/ evidence itself to be from God. even from the first promise to the giving of the law. immediate.

that men do Yet is it required use and exercise the best of their rai. Psal. Of what nature that evidence was. itself by its light. these immediate revelations had not been a sufficient means to secure the faith and obedience of the church.THE REASON OF FAITH. given to Abraham for the sacrificing his son Gen. obedience. ascertaining and infallibly assuring the minds of men of their being from God. a divine power and efficacy attending all divine revelations. as the wheat doth from the chaff. But yet it is our duty to try and sift the wheat from the chaff. men had never been able to secure themselves. especially in such revelations as seemed as in the . Where this is neglected. God they gave full assurance of their proceeding from him. and reason of them unto whom they were made. So he tells us that his word differeth from all other pretended revelations. that they were not imposed on by the crafty deceits of Satan. tional abilities in the consideration them. For during this season Satan used his utmost endeavours to possess the minds of men with his delusions. 19 — 21. men degenerate into so gave out these revelations of himself. command to contain things contrary to their reason. for sense is irresistibly affected with it. xix. Rom. Jer. therefore. and theirs also unto whom these revelations were by them communicated. as to require the exercise of the faith. that it was an evidence unto as is that also which we have now faith and not to sense It is not like that which the sim gives of by the Scripture. Wherefore. For hereunto belongs the original of all his oracles and enthusiasms among the nations of the world. hereunto. xxiii. For if it had not been so. conscience. to assure us of. or we may not evidently discern the one from the other. which there needs no exercise of reason . But it is like the evidence which the heavens and the earth give of their being made and created of God. For the present I shall only say. There was. and therein and visible evidence atheism. . we shall afterward inquire. 2. the minds of those unto 235 whom it was granted. 1. 2. and thereby of This they do undeniably and infalhis being and power. notwithstanding their and contemplation of open unto the contrary. under the pretence of divine supernatural inspirations. 28. xxii. libly . if they had not carried along with them their own evidence that they were from God.

' yet so that every troXvfispwg. in the whole age of them. that God granted unto them. had They knowledge enough to enable them to offer sacrifices in faith. they were a sufficient guide unto duties of faith and obedience. which God made of himself and his will. And they had the extraordinary miGod such as of intrusted new revelations withal. who were obliged to instruct their children and families in the knowledge of the truth which they had received. 3. If we look now on the revelations granted unto them of old. as did Enoch and to teach their families the fear of the Lord. in them in a way of faith or obedience.' Set up but a candle in a dark room. For. for men to attend their necessary occasions therein. And whereas this began in Adam. a sufficient ministry. that it seems strange that any could have advantage thereby. by sundry parts had and season light enough to guide them. The things so revealed were sufficient to guide and diknowledge of their duty to God. Indeed. as did Abraham. the beginning gave out the ' rect all persons in the all that was required of knowledge of his will and degrees . THE REASON OF FAITH. the light of the candle grows so dim and useless. But when the sun is risen and shineth in at all the windows. There was the natural ministry of parents. But they were unto them as a light shining in a dark place. and immortality is brought to light by the gospel. who first received the promise. when we go to consider those divine instructions which are upon . we are scarce able to discern how they were sufficiently enlightened.236 2. in all that was necessary for them to believe and do. . But unto them who ' all lived before this sun arose. . and it will sufficiently enlighten it. for nistry the confirmation and enlargement of those before received. for the declaration of the revelations. which yields us little more advantage than the light of a candle in the sun. we may yet see there was light in them. and unto their edification thereobediencerequired in. as did Abel to walk with God. There was. and therewithal whatsoever was necessary unto faith and the knowledge of it could not be lost without the wilful neglect of parents in teaching. The world perished not for want of sufiicient revelation of the mind of God at any time. The Sun of righteousness is now risen upon us. God from record. obedience . or of children and families in learning. during this season.

I have discoursed elsewhere''.THE REASON OF FAITH. 12. 2 Thess. 4. Mahometism. 12. that from the the first promise. before the call of Moses. to the mankind. 16. this hath : and ingratitude of the world not come to pass through any defect in the way and means of illumination. Rom. And although this fell not out without the horrible wickedness . all things went into darkness and For oral tradition alone would not preserve the confusion. 3. as is evident in many nations of the world. * ' Psal.' as it is expressed. If it was otherwise at any time. which sometimes professed the gospel. means. there was always alive one or other. i. so through the weakness. who receiving divine revelations immediately. Yet. men have apostatized from the knowledge of God. before any divine revelations were recorded by writing. who were rest of all 237 of them preachers of righteousness unto the And it may be manifested. they had a sufficient outward means for was their illumination. tions were received. after the death of the patriarchs. during which time. garded own ways . lib. . or the communication of the truth unto them . they brake off the easier from God through the imperfection of this dispensation. negligence. but God hath given them up to be destroyed for their wickedness and ingratitude. to . apostacy and service of the devil of the ways. Ixxxi. and idolatry I say. it proved insufficient to For under this retain the knowledge of God in the world. giving them up to their own hearts' walk in their own counsels . This way of instruction. writing of the law. we shall all likewise perish . lusts. and degrees Hereon God also rewhereof. and unless we repent. 18. when divine external revelations of giving began to be the rule of faith and life unto the church. but are now overrun with Heathenism. of mankind their great fell into the generality dispensation betook themselves unto the from and conduct God. beins: they might repair. ' » De Natura Theologise. yet there of no standard divine certain whereunto then truth. and liable to many disadvantages.' Acts xiv. If it shall be said. Otherwise. as it was in itself imperfect. were a kind of infallible it guides unto others. 11. But by whom these instructruth of former revelations. ii. suffered all nations to walk in their but them not. that since the revelation of the will of God hath been committed unto writing. and wickedness of men.

2. For all other divine revelations. first committed the law to writing. under the Old Testament. for its use. there is a constant means of preserving divine revelations. which were given out to the church. all that was any way needful unto the faith and obedience of the church. xii. in general. so he gathered in all the old from the unfaithful repository of tradition. which they can never prove concerning any one. the revelations of God. Deut. 32. but also expressly forbids them.238 THE REASON OF FAITH. nor was this (that . annexing all sorts of promises unto when God their so doing. 2. who would be mind of God. was committed Jesus Christ. where the standard of the word is once fixed. that was certainly of a divine original. whereunto nothing ever to be added. as was said. which he would not have done. 1. and directed in all that worship of him. i. 1. and obedience unto him. by any person pretending to sobriety glad of any pretence and of the the Scripture. that it may be thoroughly instructed in the rohole mind and will of God. For. and to bring us unto the eternal enjoyment of him hereafter. that were any way necessary unto the use of the church. The full revelation of the whole though some. he obliged the church unto the things use of it alone. person. that is. As he added many new ones. which are of general use unto the church . they are all comprised in the following books thereof. 7. the Books of Moses. Wherefore. God hath gathered up into the Scripture all divine revelations given out by himself from the beginning of the world. That made by him. 2. given by divine inspiration. or to conjoin any thing therewith Deut. and all that ever shall be so to the end thereof. iv. 3. Thirdly. vi. which is necessary to give us acceptance with him here. Heb. had he omitted other divine revelations. had he not expressed therein. 6. I know of) ever questioned . or by his Spirit unto his apostles. to add any thing thereunto. whether in his own pretending thereunto is unto. Now this he would not have done. without additions of any kind. were also by divine inspiration committed . as it was then written for their instruction and direction in faith and obedience. with all those which accompanied it. For he did not only command them to attend with all diligence unto his word. before given. have perfection against integrity fruitlessly wrangled about the loss of some books. and fixed them in a writing. and perfected by.

viii. Hence. 8. 6. which is the staff of life. is expressly affirmed concerning what he delivered in his own personal ministry. — Fourthly. as unto all its own proper ends. as a collateral means of preserving and communicating supernatural revelation. 18. 18. the only. and on the meditating Scripture. . So the writings of the New Testament are closed with a curse on any that shall presume to add any thing more thereunto . us. I do it not exclusively unto those institutions of it. 7. cxix. so . iii. 1. from its nor benefit unto the faith of believers. I knowledged. God which are subordinate unto and appointed as means to make it effectual unto our As. Rev. 7. . because it is the only repository of all divine supernatural revelation. 20. is Our own It is known to all. 16. frequently this duty to the i. Fifthly. with threatening of a curse unto the contrary Mai. hath brought no advantage unto the church. and what promises are annexed iii. 4 6. that I shall not — Besides. that we may come unto a right of the things contained in it. 4. 239 to writing. perfection. as the Scriptures of the Old Testament were shut up with a caution and admonition unto the church. Acts i. Psal. Col. . 19. have been so often evicted of farther press their impeachment.THE REASON OF FAITH. and feed upon it no more would manna. how pressed upon performance of it. Isa. will yet nourish no man who doth not provide it. personal endeavours in reading. 2 Tim. Psal. that the Bible offered intend those in this discourse by whom it is acis. see Deut. . The Scripture is now become the only external means of divine supernatural illumination. xxii. studying. to adhere unto the law and testimony. 17. and may be proved by uncontrollable arguments concern- ing the rest of them. 2. and sufficiency. Luke i. John xx. But yet. 31. therefore. iii. And. we may see multitudes living and walking in extreme darkness. Wherefore. 15. treasury of divine revelations and what hath been by any to weaken or impair its esteem. 15 tradition. souls. The pretences of xix. falsity. 1 . as a sufficient and perfect. Josh. by taking off credibility. xi. i. when yet the word is every where nigh unto them bread. are required unto apprehension this purpose. iv. In asserting the Scripture to be the only external means of divine revelation. vi. 8. Without this it is in vain to expect illumination by the word. 2 Tim.

3. and when thou liest down. I include therein all our own personal endeavours to come to the knowledge of the mind of God this evident. we are men. do take an effectual course to keep them in and under the power of darkness. drive. great that the very mention of it. men from reading and meditating on the Scripture. in and by the rational faculties of our souls. The ministry of the word in the church is i that which is The Scripture is the principally included in this assertion. he bearing unto them the person of a private man. is a matter of scorn and reproach. or the least attempt to perform it. And those. and when thou risest up. 27. our neighbours. which shall be aftenvard spoken unto. and when thou walkest by the way. The mutual instruction of one another in the mind of For God out of the Scripture. and all with whom we have conversation. is one cause of that great ignorance and darkness which yet abounds among us. and shalt talk of them when thou sittest in thy house. And this is the principal good. that we can in the all communicate unto others. as therein. of means but it becometh so principally illumination. that the Scripture is the only external means of our illumination. when I say. and what is necessary for the application of the one to the other. only . 7. But the nakedness of this folly. but what is so received. instructed them in the sense of the Scripture Luke xxiv. is we are obliged by the law of also required hereunto. which is so . absolutely considered. namely. as our children. who under any pretences do keep. Thou shalt teach my words diligently unto thy children. vi. Thus. to instruct them knowledge of the mind of God. 32. And the neglect of this duty in the world. and the nature of divine revelations considered. nature to endeavour the good of others in various degrees. This whole duty in ' the degrees of it is represented in that command. 26.240 THE REASON OF FAITH. makes For God will instruct us in his mind and will. our families. Wherefore. Nor is an external revelation capable of making' any other impression on us. when our Saviour found his disciples talking of the things of God by the way-side.' Deut. whereby men would be esteemed Christians in the open contempt of all duties of Christianity. Our own natures. will in due time be laid open. 2. unless it was gathered and prepared. or persuade.

9. That we understand tlie things declared in it. 2 Tim. 11. 15. Prov. 9. — . either because it is sealed. xii. iii. that is. : . 2 Tim. it is duty alone. 27. . but as it comes immediately from God not as the word of man. Isa. immediately proceeding from him or that it is of a pure divine original. may be a sufficient external cause of illumination unto us. xxix. Matt. which we cannot read. 14.' 1 Thess. two things are required 1. until he expounded them unto them Luke xxiv. 18—20. 34. whereof this is not the first principal design and work. which thus contains the whole of divine revelation. That the Scripture. and the ministry of — God unto this end. illumination we Hos. viii. 8. 2 Pet. 1.THE REASON OF FAITH. 19 21. they were not enlightened by them. iv. So the disciples * I 'i understood not the testimonies of the Scripture concerning the Lord Christ. the entrance of thy word giveth light. Sixthly. i. 20. that his mind will as revealed in the word. inquire after . 20. 12. The church. that will be comfort and reward Dan. proceeding neither from the folly or deceit. iii. whatever visions or means of light it hath in it. As we have VOL. cxix. 45. Psal. is neither appointed of God. or it will not enlighten. Ill. we shall have no advantage thereby. And whatever any one may learn from or by the Scriptures under any other consideration. 6. but our understanding them that gives us light. xxviii. 13. but as * it is indeed the word of the living God . ii. 1 Tim. Eph. are the ordinances of and church and ministry. see Matt. it belongeth not unto the . i. Heb. the word of God. It tenders no light or instruction under any other notion. whereby they are enlightened. That we believe it to he a divine revelation. 16. 1 2. For if it be given unto us a sealed book. ii. v. xiv. Nehem. may be made known to the children of men. of men so is it stated. xv. i. 130. 3. John v. 15. . E . It is not the words themselves of the Scripture only. TN* "]>-in tins. nor approved by him. by the application of it 241 in the minis- unto the minds of men try of the word. Isa. his mind and will.' It must be opened. nor from the skill or honesty. Isa. Psal. viii. 7. v. or because we are ignorant and cannot read. And that it. 2 Cor. cxix. 11 15. or a declaration of himself. or the mind of God as revealed and expressed therein. 16. Men will one day find themselves deceived in trusting to empty names. the opening the door.

Whereas we see by experience. or they could never embrace such foolish opinions. or deluding pretences thereof. that we resolve all faith into private suggestions of the Spirit. and some of them do. And the same is fallen out among many that are called Christians. and that we understand savingly the mind of God therein. And what is the work of the Spirit of God herein. God in is. and formal reason of faith or believing. way of duty. how we may therein revealed come to understand the word of God aright. upon a mistake of this proposition. whereunto singly designed. I suppose will not be denied. 36. the way how. namely. or come to a useful saving knowledge of the mind and will of God our other inquiry shall be. it may be. 3L To this very day the nation of the Jews have the 35. Secondly. or the supernatural immediate revelation of his mind unto us. eth us unto that purpose. namely.242 THE REASON OF FAITH. do not yet understand it. Scriptures of the Old Testament. and some. and the outward letter of them in such esteem and veneration. Acts viii. and it is to shew that both these are from the Holy Ghost . will be ready to apprehend that we confound the effi- cient cause. that we truly believe the Scripture to be the word of God . and it shall be afterward proved. that they even adore and worship them. both which belong unto our illumination. and what is the work of the Spirit of God in the assistance which he afFord. will be our first inquiry. yet are they not enlightened by it. That which of' the ground whereon. With respect unto the the present discourse is first of these inquiries. do seem to suppose. Some. And this brings me to my design. that we should believe the Scripture to be the word of God with faith divine and supernatural. render- . the same instance in the eunuch and Philip . and we come to believe the Scripture to be the word a due manner. which we have been thus far making way unto . and infallibly to evidence it unto our minds. who practise such idolatries in worship as y€t enjoy the letter of the gospel. For that this is required of us in a I shall first inquire into. that all who have or enjoy the Scripture. so as that we may spiritually and savingly acquiesce therein. I affirm that it is the work of' the Holy Spirit to enable us to believe the Scripture to be the word of God.

and infal- Evidence the grounds and reasons whereon believe. and external testimonies useless. be sufficiently satisfied in the divine authority of the But I have tasted of their new wine and desire it Scripture. in general. and I shall so do shewing. as shall be fully evidenced in our progress. to believe the Scripture infallibly word of God. What it is. as we are required to believe it so to be in a way of duty. which And our first inquiry are generally known and granted. I know some have found out other ways whereby the minds of men. 243 ing all rational arguments.) What it is that we do believe . as they suppose. For these things are the equal concernment of the learned and unlearned. 2. to be the . that we believe be his word withya^VA divim. there neither is nor shall be any occasion administered unto these fears or imaginations. For we shall plead nothing in this matter but what is consonant to the faith and judgment of the ancient and present church of God. moreover. supernatural. two things are to be considered (1. 3. and the principles whereon we do proceed that what we design to prove may be the better understood by all sorts of persons. But. to be the word of God with the to believe it is What is. because I know the old to be better. Wherefore.THE REASON OF FAITH. to That yet. unto as narrow bounds as possible. indeed. And in our believing. what it is to believe the Scripture to be the word of God. and what is the ground and reason of our so doing or. Scripture . though what they plead is of use in its proper place. which are effectual motives to persuade us to give an unfeigned assent thereunto. That there are external arguments of the divine original of the Scripture. according as it is our duty so to do. It is meet that we should clear the foundation whereon we build. (2. some things must be insisted on. or ourfaith.) Whereof fore we do so believe it ? The firs is the materi al object : R 2 . 4. not. we do so Unto these heads most of what ensues this discourse in the first part of may be reduced. design requires that I should confine my discourse may My 1. them lible. faith divine and supernatural. . God requires of us. and ought so to do. and. whose edification we intend.

because they are pro. which And they did so believe what before they understood not. 4. the formal object of it. Thus. our faith. or the things that we do believe reason why we do believe them. namely. But the reason why we believe them. what we believe ? giving an account of the hope that is in us. xv. whether it be made by others or The proper answer unto this question contains ourselves. But if.' or the things delivered in the Scripture. or we cannot believe them. 3. the Scriptures themselves as such. or why we believe the things we do profess.244 THE REASON OF FAITH. 28 30. as the apostle doth. Sometimes. and these things are distinct. the latter. are the in the revealed of our faith. or the cause and reason why we do The material believe them . and farther declared by Christ. by a metonymy. which were senseless. the formal reason and object of our faith. is. is. They believed the Scripture and the word which Jesus said. object declared unto us in propositions of truth. 23.' under various considerations. answer unto that inquiry. Jesus Christ to be the Son of God ? we do not answer. 27. indeed. 1 Cor. are the things proposed unto us to be believed. ' .' Christ's death. how that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures and that he was buried. and that he rose again the third day according to the Scriptures. and so the . both are intended in the same expression. because so it is. 22. object of our faith. this expression of believing the Scriptures. and the like propositions of truth are the material oband the ject of our faith. because they are declared in the Scriptures see Acts viii. . that which it rests — . and resurrection. denotes both the formal and material objects of our faith. 'they believed the Scripture. so John ii. the things which we do believe . are the articles of our creed. by whose enumeration we answer unto that question. 22. burial. For things must be so proposed unto us. That God is one in three persons that Jesus Christ is the Son of God. as God to be one in three persons. for this is that which we beBut we must give some other lieve. Acts xxvi. 'I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received. posed in the Scripture. The material object of our faith. the apostle expresseth the whole of what we intend. and the things contained in them. we are asked a reason of our faith or hope. things Scripture. therefore. was declared in the Scriptures. so Acts xxvi. because it was so declared in them. moreover.

we do not intend an inherent quality in the subject. And this is that do not in this inquiry intend any kind of persua2. as shall be afterthat of the Samaritans . both which formal reason or objective cause. or ariseth from. as being resolved into . sion or faith but that which is divhie and infallible. or an opinion on probable arguments no : faith can be of any other kind. it but that which for that the things which they profess to believe are true. whereby it is differenced from all other kinds of assent whatever. human testimony only. say. or believing infallibly. it is We from its able to give it may be. much less do we speak oi infalli- a property of God. Men maybe some kind of reasons. can neither deceive nor be deBut it is that property or adjunct of the assent of ceived. yet if is not divine faith whereby they do believe. whatever persuasion these reasons may beget in the minds of men. it is so where they are alone for I doubt not but that some who have never farther considered the reason of their believing than the teaching of their instructors. And this it hath from its formal object. inquire after faith that is infallible. why they believe what they profess so to do. Now. but that have been so instructed by them whom they have suffithey or that they have so recient reason to give credit unto ceived them by tradition from their fathers. which is . When we himself also be infallible absolutely. which. Some. For the nature of every assent is given unto it by the nature of the evidence which it proceedeth from. as though he that believes with faith infallible must 3. or relieth on. that will not suffice or abide the trial in this case. — ward declared. . who alone. This in divine faith is di- . is merely human. can give no other account hereof. that The with respect thereunto their faith is divine and supernatural.THE REASON OF FAITH. is 245 which we look resolved into. than is the evidence it I reflects on. 40 42. or the evidence whereon we give this assent. as we shall shew hereafter. have yet that evidence in their own souls of the truth and authority of God in what they believe. our minds unto divine truths or supernatural revelations. is necessary in this case. from bility the perfection of his nature. upon and after. although they themselves may rest in them. faith of most hath a beginning and progress not unlike John iv. they are alone.

is the formal object and reason of our faith. for it is and no other he may believe it to .' ' and supernatural . the believing whereof ? makes our faith divine. may be fallible. is the only object of it. who is the God of truth. and whose word is truth. Wherefore. inbuilt upon. who cannot lie. So it was with them who received divine revelations immediately from God it was not enough that the things revealed unto them were infallibly true. for that which renders it divine. and is resolved into it. and therefore it is infallible . : ' the inquiry in this case is. and yet his faith not is be infallible . it is not required that the person in whom it is. fallibly s . vine revelation. or is infallible. although the things he assents unto be infalWherefore. because God's veracity. That is. but. infallible also. or the testimony of the church of Rome his only. . infallible. unto this faith divine and infallible. renders the faith that No man rests on it. that the evidence whereon he doth believe it be infallible also. 2 Chron. is. What is the reason why we believe any thing with this faith divine or supernatural? or what it is. moreover. and the reason is.' or that faith which is in you God and his word is fixed on truth. or what it is our duty to believe. so to be. is the divine truth and infallibility of the ground and evidence which it is But a man may believe that which is true. because that God who is truth.246 THE REASON OF FAITH. With this faith then a man can believe nothing but what is divinely true. 4.' Tit. all which being fallible. established be and shall God. with divine faith. can believe that which is false. that God is one single essence subsisting in three persons. or on outward arguments. or which may be false. Hence . i. that the Scripyet the faith whereby a man believes such as his evidence is. but they were to have infallible evidence of the revelation itself. hence saith the prophet. nino 13*DNn Believe in the Lord your 130xni CDD'n'PN. The authority and veraciti/ of God revealing the inaterial objects of our faith. libly true. xx. 4. be so on tradition. the only reason why we do believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God. from whence it ariseth and whereinto it is ultimately resolved. faith is so also. the ' ' xxxii. 20. 2. ture is the word of God it infallibly true. though their persons were fallible. which being infallible. then was their faith infallible.' Deut. be infallible nor is it enough that the thing itself believed be infallibly true. God of truth.

THE REASON OF FAITH.
John xvii. 1 John V.
17.

247

Spirit' which gave it out 'is truth/ hath revealed these things to be so and our believing these things on that ground renders our faith divine and supernatural. Supposing, also, a respect unto the subjective efficiency of the Holy Ghost, inspiring it into our
6.
;

and the

'

minds, whereof afterward. For, to speak distinctly, our faith is supernatural, with respect unto the production of it in our

minds by the Holy Ghost and infallible, with respect unto the formal reason of it, which is divine revelation and is divine, in opposition unto what is merely human, on both ac;

;

counts.

As things are proposed unto us to be believed as true, faith in its assent respects only the truth or veracity of God; but whereas this faith is required of us in away of obedience,
considered not only physically in its nature, but moalso as our duty, it respects also the rally authority of God, which I, therefore, join with the truth of God, as the formal
is

and

see 2 Sam. vii. 28. And these things the ; Scripture pleads and argues, when faith is required of us in the way of obedience. 'Thus saith the Lord,' is that which

reason of our faith

is

is

proposed unto us as the reason why we should believe what spoken, whereunto oftentimes other divine names and ti'
;

tles are

lieve

added, signifying his authority who requires us to beThus saith the Lord God, the Holy One of Israel ;' Isa.
' '

XXX. 15. Thus saith the High and Lofty One, who inhabiteth eternity, whose name is Holy ;' Isa. Ivii. 15. Believe * the Lord your God ;' 2 Chron. xx. 20. The word of the Lord' precedeth most revelations in the prophets, and other
reason

why we should believe, the Scripture proposeth none Heb. i. 1,2. yea, the interposition of any other authority between the things to be believed and our souls and consciences,
;

besides the authority of God, overthrows the nature of divine faith ; I do not say, the interposition of any other means

whereby we should believe, of which sort God hath appointed many, but the interposition of any other authority, upon which we should believe, as that pretended in and by the church of Rome. No men can be lords of our faith, though they may be helpers of our joy. 5. The authority and truth of God, considered in themselves absolutely, are not the immQAASiie formal object of our faith, though they are the ultimate whereinto it is resolved.

248

THE REASON OF FAITH.

For we can believe nothing on their account unless it be evidenced unto us and this evidence of them is in that revelation which God is pleased to make of himself; for that is the only means whereby our consciences and minds are affected with his truth and authority. We do, therefore, no otherwise rest on the truth and veracity of God in any thing than we rest on the revelation which he makes unto us, for that is the only way whereby we are affected with them not the Lord is true' absolutely, but thus saith the Lord,' and the Lord hath spoken,' is that which we have immediate regard unto. Hereby alone are our minds affected with the authority and veracity of God, and by what way soever it is made unto us, it is sufficient and able so to affect us. At first, as hath been shewed, it was given immediately to some persons, and preserved for the use of others, in an oral ministry but now all revelation, as hath also been declared, is
;
;

'

'

'

;

contained in the Scriptures only. 6. It follows, that our faith, whereby

we

believe any divine

supernatural truth, is resolved into the Scripture, as the only means of divine revelation, affecting our minds and consciences with the authority and truth of God ; or the Scripture, as the only immediate, divine, infallible revelation of

the

mind and

will of

God,

is

the

first

immediate ^br/^zo/

object

of our faith, the sole reason why, and ground whereon, we do believe the things that are revealed, with faith divine, supernal,
It is

and

infallible.

Son of God.

Why

We do believe Jesus Christ to be the do we so do, on what ground or reason?

because of the authority of God commanding us so to But how or do, and the truth of God testifying thereunto. by what means are our minds and consciences affected with the authority and truth of God, so as to believe with respect unto them, which makes our faith divine and supernatural?
It is

alone the divine, supernatural, infallible revelation that

he hath made of this sacred truth, and of his will, that we should believe it. But what is this revelation, or where is it to be found ? It is the Scripture alone which contains the entire revelation that God hath made of himself in all thinsrs which he will have us to believe or do. Hence,
what

what ground, for do we believe the Scripture to be a divine revelation proceeding immediately from God ; or to be that word
7.

The

last inquiry ariseth, hoiv, or on

yeasons,

THE llEASON OF FAITH.
of

249
Whereunto we

God which
it is

is

truth divine and infallible

?

on the evidence that the Spirit of God, in and hy the Scripture itself, gives unto us, that it was given by immediate inspiration from God. Or the ground and reason whereon we believe the Scripture to be the word of God, are the authority and truth of God, evidencing themselves in and it unto the minds and consciences of men. Hereon, as by whatever we assent unto as proposed in the Scripture, our faith rests on, and is resolved into, the veracity and faithfulanswer,
solely

ness of God, so is it also in this of believing the Scripture be the infallible word of God, seeing we do it on no other grounds but its ovm evidence that so it is. This is that which is principally to be proved, and thereitself to

to be

fore to prepare for it, and to spoken to prepare the

remove prejudices, something is

way thereunto.

1. There are sundry cogent arguments which are taken from external considerations of the Scripture, that evince it on rational grounds to be from God. All these are motives of or effectual to account and esteem it credibility, persuasives to be the word of God. And although they neither are, nor is it possible they ever should be, the ground and reason whereon we believe it so to be vf\i\\ faith divine and supernatural; yet are they necessary unto the confirmation of our

faith herein against temptations, oppositions,

and objections. These arguments have been pleaded by many, and that usefully, and therefore it is not needful for me to insist upon them. And they are the same for the substance of them in ancient and modern writers, however managed by some with more learning, dexterity, and force of reasoning than by others. It may not be expected, therefore, that in this short discourse, designed unto another purpose, I should give them much improvement. However, I shall a little touch on those which seem to be most cogent, and that in them wherein, in my apprehension, their strength doth lie. And I shall do this ta manifest, that although we plead that no man can believe the Scriptures to be the word of God with faith divine, supernatural, and infallible, but upon its own internal, divine evidence and efficacy, yet we allow and make use of all those external arguments of its sacred truth and divine original which are pleaded by others, ascribing unto them as much weight and cogency as they can do, acknowledging the persuasion which

250

THE REASO:^ OF FAITH.

they beget and effect to be as firm as they can pretend it Only we do not judge them to contain the lohole of the evidence which we have for faith to rest in, or to be resolved into yea, not that at all, which renders it divine, suto be.
;

pernatural, and

infallible.

which

are, or

may

The rational arguments, we say, in this matter, with the human used be,
;

testimonies whereby they are corroborated, may and ought and it is but vainly preto be made use of and insisted on tended that their use is superseded by our other assertions; as though, where faith is required, all the subservient use of

reason were absolutely discarded, and our faith thereby rendered 2VTa^io«a/; and the assent unto the divine original and

upon them, we grant

authority of the Scriptures, which the mind ought to give to be of as high a nature as is pretended

to be, namely, a moral certainty. Moreover, the conclusion which unprejudiced reason will make upon these arguments,

more firm, better grounded, and more pleadable, than that which is built merely on the sole authoriti/ of any church whatever. But this we assert, that there is an assent of another unto the divine original and authority of the Scriptures kind, of us namely, that of faith divine and supernaturequired ral. Of this none will say that it can be effected by, or resolved into, the best and most cogent of rational arguments and external testimonies which are absolutely human and fallible. For it doth imply a contradiction to believe infalis
;

Wherefore, I shall prove, that libly upon fallible evidence. beyond all these arguments and their effects upon our minds, there is an assent unto the Scripture as the word of God required of us with faith divine, supernatural, and infallible ; and, therefore, there must be a divine evidence which is the formal object and reason of it, which alone it rests on, and is resolved into, which shall also be declared and proved.

But
is

yet, as was said in the first place, because their property to level the ground, and to remove the rubbish of objecI

tions out of the way, that

foundation,

shall

we may build the safer on the sure mention some of those which I esteem

And, justly pleadable in this cause. 1. The antiquiti/ of these writings, and of the divine revelation contained in them, is pleaded in evidence of their And it may be so deservedly. For where divine original.
it is

absolute,

it is

unquestionable

:

that

which

is

most an-

THE REASON OF FAITH.
cient in any kind
is

251

most true
:

;

God

Ye are 12. this plea against idols, Isa. xliii. 10 witam the saith the Lord even I, Lord, and besides me I, nesses,
'

himself makes use of

my

there

I have declared and have saved, and I is no Saviour have shewed when there was no strange god amongst you
;
:

therefore ye are

God.'

my witnesses, saith the Lord, that I am That which he asserts is, that he alone is God, and
known

no other.

This he calls the people to testify by this argument, that he was among them as God, that is, in the church,
before any strange god was
or named.

And

so

it is

justly pleaded in the behalf of this revelation of the mind of God in the Scripture ; it was in the world long before any

other thing or writing pretended to be given unto the same end. Whatever, therefore, ensued with the like design, must either be set up in competition with it, or opposition unto
it,

above which

it

hath

its

advantage merely from
this writing in the first

its anti-

quity.
it, is

Whereas, therefore,

books of
is

acknowledged
:

to be ancienter than

any other that

extant in the world, or indeed that ever was so, and may be proved so to be it is beyond all reasonable apprehension

should be of human original. For we know how low, weak, and imperfect, all human inventions were at the first, how rude and unpolished in every kind, until time, observation, following additions and diminutions, had shaped, formthat
it

this writing coming forth in the in its kind, first the world, absolutely directing us in the and was at first and at once so of God ourselves, knowledge

ed,

and improved them. But

absolutely complete and perfect, that no art, industry, or wisdom of man, could ever yet find any just defect in it, or was able to add any thing unto it, whereby it might be betNeither from the beginning would it tered or improved. ever admit of any additions unto it, but what came from the same fountain of divine revelation and inspiration, clearing itself in all ages from all addition and superfetation of men

whatever. This, at least, puts a singular character upon this book, and represents it with that reverend awe and majesty,
that
it is the highest petulancy not to pay it a sacred respect. This argument is pursued by many, at large, as that which aflPordeth great variety of historical and chronological obser-

vations.

And

it

nothing but the giving of

hath been so scanned and improved, that it a new dress remains for present

252

THE SEASON OF FAITH.

or future diligence. But the real force of it lies in the consideration of the people, by and amongst whom this revelation first commenced in the world, and the time wherein it did so. When some nations had so improved and cultivated

the light of nature as greatly to excel others in wisdom and knowledge, they generally looked upon the people of the

Jews as ignorant and barbarous. And the more wise any of them conceived themselves, the more they despised them. And, indeed, they were utter strangers unto all those arts and sciences, whereby the faculties of men's minds are naturally enlightened and enlarged. Nor did they pretend unto any
wisdom, whereby to stand in competition with other nations, but only what they received by divine revelations. This alone God himself had taught them to look upon and esteem as their only wisdom before all the world; Deut.iv.6 8. Now, we shall not need to consider what were the first attempts of

other nations, in expressing their conceptions concerning things divine, the duty and happiness of man. The Egyptians

and Grecians were those who vied for reputation in the improvement of this wisdom. But it is known and confessed that the utmost production of their endeavours, were things foolish, irrational, and absurd, contrary to the being and providence of God, to the light of nature, leading mankind into a maze of folly and wickedness. But we may consider what
they attained unto in the fulness of time by their utmost improvement of science, wisdom, mutual intelligence, experience, communication, laborious study and observation.

When

they had added and subducted to and from the invenfrom time immemorial, when they had used and improved the reason, wisdom, invention, and conjectures of all that went before them in the study of this wisdom, and had discarded whatever they had found by experience unsuited to natural light and the common reason of mankind, yet it must be acknowledged that the apostle passeth a just censure on the utmost of their attainments, namely,
tions of all former ages

that they
tion,

waxed vain in their imaginations, and the world in wisdom knew not God. Whence then was it that in one na-

esteemed barbarous, and really so with respect unto that wisdom, those arts and sciences, which ennobled other nations, from that antiquity wherein it is not pretended that
reason and wisdom had received any considerable improve-

THE REASON OF FAITH.
ment
without

253

; converse, communication, learning, or experience, there should at once proceed such a law, doctrine, and instructions, concerning God and man, so stable, certain,

uniform, as should not only incomparably excel all products of human wisdom unto that purpose, however advantaged by time and experience, but also abide invariable throughout all generations, so as that whatever hath been advanced in opposition unto it, or but differing from it, hath quickly sunk under the weight of its own unreasonableness and
folly?

a mind to be contentious, gives sufficient satisfaction, that this book could have no other original, but what it pleads for itself, namely,

This one consideration, unless

men have

an immediate emanation from God.
2.

It is

regard unto
tion.

apparent that God in all ages hath had a great it, and acted his power and care in its preservaWere not the Bible what it pretends to be, there had

been nothing more suitable to the nature of God, and more becoming divine providence, then long since to have blotted it out of the world. For to suffer a book to be in the world, from the beginning of times, falsely pretending his name and
authority, seducing so great a portion of

mankind

into a

pernicious and ruinous apostacy from him, as it must do, and doth, if it be not of a divine original, and exposing inconceivable multitudes of the best, wisest, and soberest

amongst them, unto all sorts of bloody miseries which they have undergone in the behalf of it, seems not consonant unto that infinite goodness, wisdom, and care, wherewith this world is governed from above. But, on the contrary, whereas the malicious craft of Satan, and the prevalent power and of hath combined and been set at work to the mankind, rage ruin and utter suppression of this book, proceeding sometimes so far as that there was no appearing way for its escape yet through the watchful care and providence of God, sometimes putting itself forth in miraculous instances, it hath been preserved unto this day, and shall be so to the consummation of all things. The event of that which was spoken by our Saviour, Matt. v. 18. doth invincibly prove the divine appro;

bation of this book, as that doth its divine original ' Till heaven and earth pass away, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law.' God's perpetual care over the
;

Scriptures for so

many

ages, that not a letter of

it

should be

254

THE REASON OF FAITH.

utterly lost, nothing that hath the least tendency towards its end should perish, is evidence sufficient of his regard unto
it.

it be so, if we should consider with remarkable what judgments and severe reflections of venits opposers, this care hath been managed, inon geance stances whereof might be easily multiplied. And if any will not ascribe this preservation of the books of the Bible, not only in their being, but in their purity and integrity free from

Especially would

the least just suspicion of corruption, or the intermixture of any thing human or heterogeneous, unto the care of God ;
it is

incumbent on him

to assign

some other cause propor-

tionate to siich an effect, whilst it was the interest of heaven, and the endeavour of the earth and hell to have it corrupted

and destroyed. For my part, I cannot but judge that he that seeth not a hand of divine Providence stretched out in the preservation of this book, and all that is in it, its words and
syllables, for thousands of years,

through all the overthrows and deluges of calamities that have befallen the world, with the weakness of the means whereby it hath been preserved, and the interest, in some ages, of all those in whose power it was to have it corrupted, as it was of the apostate churches of the Jews and Christians, with the open opposition that hath been made unto it, doth not believe there is any such thing as divine Providence at all. It was first written in the
very infancy of the Babylonian empire, with which it afterward contemporized about nine hundred years. By this monarchy that people which alone had these 'oracles of God committed unto them,' were oppressed, destroyed, and carBut this book was then preserved ried into captivity. whilst them they were absolutely under the power amongst of their enemies, although it condemned them and all their gods and religious worship, wherewith we know how horribly mankind is enraged. Satan had enthroned himself as the object of their worship, and the author of all ways of divine veneration amongst them. These they adhered unto as

teem

their principal interest, as all people do unto that they esIn the whole world there was their religion.

nothing

that judged, condemned, opposed

him

or them, but this

which was now absolutely in their power. If that could have been destroyed, then when it was means by any but of a few, and those, for the most part, flagihands in the

book

only,

THE REASON OF FAITH.

255

tious in their lives, hating the things contained in it, and wholly under the power of their adversaries, the interest of

Satan, and the whole world in idolatry, had been secured. But through the mere provision of divine care it outlived that monarchy, and saw the ruin of its greatest adversaries.

So it did, also, during the continuance of the Persian monarchy which succeeded, whilst the people was still under the power of idolators, against whom this was the only testimony in the world. By some branches of the Grecian a most fierce and diligent attempt was made to monarchy have utterly destroyed it; but still it was snatched by divine power out of the furnace, not one hair of it being singed, or the least detriment brought unto its perfection. The Romans destroyed both the people and place designed until then for its preservation, carrying the ancient copy of the law in triumph to Rome on the conquest of Jerusalem and whilst all absolute power and dominion in the whole world, where this book was known or heard of, was in their hands, they exercised a rage against it for sundry ages, with the same success that former enemies had. From the very first all the endeavours of mankind that professed an open enmity against it have been utterly frustrate. And whereas also those unto whom it was outwardly committed, as the Jews first, and the antichristian church of apostatized Christians afterward, not only fell into opinions and practices absolutely inconsistent with it, but also built all their present and future interests on those opinions and practices yet none of them durst ever attempt the corrupting of one line in it, but were forced
;
;

attempt their own security, by a pretence of additional traditions, and keeping the book itself, as much as they durst, out of the hands and knowledge of all not engaged in
to

j

same interest with themselves. Whence could all this proceed but from the watchful care and power of divine Providence ? And it is brutish folly not to believe, that what God doth so protect did originally proceed from himself, for every wise man seeing it pleads and pretends so to do will take more care of a stranger, than a bastard falsely imthe
:

I

posed on him unto his dishonour.
3.

The

design of the lohole,
it

and

all

the parts of

it,

hath

an impress on

of divine wisdom and authority. And hereof there are two parts, first. To reveal God unto men; and, se-

256

THE REASON OF FAITH.

condly. To direct men to come unto the enjoyment of God. That these are the only two great concerns of our nature, of any rational being, were easy to prove, but that it is acknow-

ledged by

all

those with

whom

I treat.

Now, never

did any

book

or writing in the world, any single or joint endeavours of mankind, or invisible spirits, in the way of authority, give
rule, guide,

out a law,

and
if

light, for all

mankind universally

in both these, namely, the

knowledge of
any
other,
it

but

this

book only

;

and

God and ourselves, may be, like the Al-

coran, did pretend in the least thereunto,

it quickly discovered its own folly, and exposed itself to the contempt of all wise and considerate men. The only question is, how it hath discharged itself in this design, for if it hath com-

pletely and perfectly accomplished it, it is not only evident that it must be from God, but also that it is the greatest be-

and kindness, that divine benignity and goodness ever granted unto mankind for without it all men universally must necessarily wander in an endless maze of uncertainties, without ever attaining light, rest, or blessedness, here or
nefit
;

Wherefore, takes on itself to speak in the name and authoand delivers nothing, commands nothing, but God, rity of what becomes his infinite holiness, wisdom, and goodness so it makes that declaration of him in his nature, being, and subsistence, with the necessary properties and acts thereof, his will, with all his voluntary actings or works, wherein we may be or are concerned, so as that we may know him aright, and entertain true notions and apprehensions of hira, according to the utmost capacity of our finite limited understandNeither do we urge his authority in this case, but here ing. and elsewhere resort unto the evidence of his reasoning-s compared with the event or matter of fact, What horrible darkness, ignorance, and blindness, was upon the whole world, with respect unto the knowledge of God What confusion and debasement of our nature ensued thereon whilst God ' suffered all nations to walk in their own ways, and winked
(1.)

hereafter.

As

it

;

!

;

at the times of their ignorance,' the apostle declares at large, Rom. i. from the 19th verse to the end of the chapter. The sum is, that the only true God being become unknown
to them, as the wisest of

them acknowledged Acts xvii. 21. and as our apostle proved against them ; the devil, that ' mur;

:

and hatred of. It is acknowledged that some few speculative men among the Heathen did seek after God in that horrid darkness wherewith they were encompassed. unto gives steady. uniform declaration of God . and was become the god of this world. what misery and confusion the world lived in for many ages. no more required to free mankind >> De <^ Natura Theologias. a light shining in a dark place . . I : . his being. the Scripture is well called by the apostle * It Peter. properties. 20. subsistence. au- which evidenceth itself unto the thority. and laboured to reduce their conceptions and notions of his being. 'for the the of of ship generality which the Gentiles sacrificed. i. the head of God nor in the least influence the . VOL. indeed. ii. lib. cap. slavish superstitions and idolatries it had cast itself into. There is. and . so they could none of them either ever free themselves from the grossest practical their apostacy from idolatry in worshipping the devil. confirming them in an enmity unto. as he is called. 11.innino-. 19.' and enemy of mankind.s may easily he evinced and I have abundantly manifested it elsewhere''. idolatriae.' 2 Pet. have in another discourse particularly declared*^. unto what reason could apprehend of infinite perfections. had und^r various pretences substituted himself in his room. x a. God himself. as in the manner of them who seek after them in the dark. With re- spect hereunto. 4. and actings. they sacrificed unto things all and had appropriated and not unto God. Ubi supra de origine et progressu S 1. suggest unto them. iv. clear. i. minds of the generality of mankind with any due apprehenthis is the subject and substance sions of the divine nature of the apostle's disputation against them Rom. proceeding but a little beyond conjecture. III. rule. minds and consciences of all whom the god of this world hath not absolutely blinded by the power of prejudices and lusts. and what the works of creation and providence could devils. 2 Cor. In this state of things. sect. the religious devotion and wormankind unto himself. much less with one another. to propose any thing unto the world for the use of mankind in these things by common consent.THE REASOy OF FAITH. 1 Cor. all men. 257 derer from the beo. what an endless labyrinth of foolish. but as they never could come unto any certainty or consistency of notions in their own minds.' as our apostle affirms. at once a perfect.

there may be found in those ! . 19. yet 'waxed vain in their imaginations' and conjectures. the world. be questioned. that in the wisdom of God.' Isa. and who could do this but God? If any one shall judge. Seek and unto wizards that peep and mutter. the We may say. or is among the Indians at this day. and the exercise of reason above those.' 1 Cor. For if this declaration of God. plainly manifests the Scripture to be of a divine original. could attain unto themselves. And whereas those who attempted any such things. And this. the world by wisdom knew not God. he dwells out of my present way upon the confines . so that I shall not divert unto any converse I concerning shall only add. more needful for. this horrible darkness. although they had all advantages of wisdom. is incomparably the greatest and most excellent benefit that our nature is capable of in this world. which all the world could not do. mankind than the sun in the firmament. should not a people seek unto their God? for the living to the dead ? To the law. viii. at the least the most of them. of atheism with him : . i. whether they were not given by inspiration from God. ' rable a matter as free we make it or that there is any way to but by an emanation of light from the Scripture. and more useful unto. which was among the Heathens of old. and without the doing whereof all the world must have been eternally miserable. as to the proper end of their lives and beings and if none of the wisest men in the world. and enormous conceptions about the nature of God. with our prophet. with any pretence of reason. or make known unto others. and to the testimony if they speak not according to this word. it is because there is no light'in them. that that ignorance of God. this knowledge of God.2I. neither severally nor jointly. so that no one person in the world dares own the regulation of his mind and understanding by their notions and conceptions absolutely. is not so mise: . There is that done in them as they pretend and plead. they say unto you. also. that whatever notions of truth God and his essence. 20. and the worship of idols. them from it. who wrote and published the books of the Scripture . but a sedate unprejudiced consideration of the revelation of these things in book of the Scripture. so that we may say with our apostle. to all * When unto them who have familiar spirits. it cannot.258 from THE REASON OF FAITH. this revelation of himself and his will. therefore.

to direct which in their whole course unto their end.' are deeds their because light. and attaining that rest and blessedness whereof are and which they capable. seeing all that is really good unto us consists in our tendency Now as these things thereunto. whilst always to wander. above those of the more ancient Pagans. they never rose up so much as to a surmise of or about the most important matters of religion. for it better to have no being in the world. so that without them it were better not to be . and put an end unto all the confusions. loving all the confusion For evil. of the philosophers about the chief end of man. they cannot but desire. lost and wandering condition of mankind the Scripture presenteth itself as a light. with rising doth the shades of the night. and our attainment of it. proper end . or other false worshippers in the world. (2. than.THE REASON OF FAITH. and to bring them unto the enjoyment of God and this it doth with that clearness and evidence as to dispel all the darkness. it is demonstrable by reason. No account could they ever give of our apostacy from God. 259 philosophers who lived after the preaching of the gospel in the world. and were thence by various means traduced. or the blessedness whereof we are capable. of the minds of men to extricate themselves from. but that they lived in perpetual confusion so the inquiries . and guide unto all. without . the nature of felicity or blessedness. rule. or necessary cure of it. of the minds of men. were never stated in the minds of the community of mankind. wherein not any one truth is asserted nor any one duty prescribed. of the depravation In this of our nature. that is not spoiled and vitiated by its circumstances and ends besides. unless they wil' darkness rather than fully shut their eyes against it. and never to act towards its is we have it. the ways of attaining it. whence in endless questions they found out and immixed themselves to no purpose. These things are necessary to our nature. of the cause.) The second end of this doctrine is to direct mankind in their proper course of living unto God. that it is impossible we should ever attain the end for which we are made. arose from their ignorance of what we were s 2 . or are at this day to be found among the Mahometans. they all derive from the fountain of the Scripture. are nothing but so many uncertain and fierce digladiations. as the sun them .

which is required of us. that the bounds and differences of good and evil should be unfixed and confounded. whose desire or interest it is. which things have an inconceivable power over the minds. that falls not under its prohibition. prejudices ground : mould whereof the mind is cast. in the Scripture. which shuts up the way unto all farther inquiry. "to leave mankind no . . what they are. or course of obedience unto God. . how we fell from it. in order unto that obedience it gives unto the lives of which they owe to God. and how we came so to be. grace. and yet unless they are all infallibly determined. nor of any thing which is contrary unto it. and that reward which they expect from him. and made partakers of it what is that system of duties. Scripture in these things is like that of the sun at noon-day. and affections of men and the light of the . or conjecture set aside inveterate from false notions into the tradition. what we now are. and wherein our eternal feliare all of them so plainly and clearly recity doth consist vealed in the Scripture. how we may be interested in it. what is the nature. in that direction which men. for doubt. and what the consequences and effects. and the conduct of lust. in general. and bounty what that help is. and efficaAnd. souls. particular. inquiry. wdio are afraid to know what they were. of our present depravation and apostacy from God how help and relief is provided for us herein by infinite wisdom. there is no in-. Those. who care to know nei- - . Whatwas the condition of our nature in its first creation and constitution. as. or what is required of us in order to our living: to God as our chiefest end. we are not capable of the least rest or happiness above the But now all these things are so clearly beasts that perish. and wherein the blessedness of ournature doth consist: all the world was naver ab to give an answer tolerably satisfactory unto any one of these inquiries. or what they shall come unto. which is not prescribed therein. with the blessedness and advantage of that condition. and what was the cause. of THE REASON OF FAITH. that it comes with an and stated declared evidence like a light from heaven on the minds and consciences of unprejudiced persons. in ciously necessitates unto an acquiescency in it. what are the duties of life.260 originally. stance conceivable of any thing conducing thereunto. by what way or means we may be delivered or relieved. the love of sin. . education. therefore.

who teacheth self for this is directly contrary to the same apostle. : 4. in an so called. 261 ther God nor themselves. that it needs no more to be insisted on. Wherefore.THE REASON OF FAITH. to give rity of the Scripture dation ' . honesty. 1. Which said to he the gtvund and pillar of truth . and partly to evince the vanity of the old pre: we also. of it. as of the offspring of God. that on the same ground and reason we ought to receive whatever else it proposeth tence. The testimony of the chnrch may in like manner be pleaded unto the same purpose and 1 shall also insist upon it. honour. In receiving any thing from a church. as that which gives its authority to our faith. to depend on the of the church. is a nice towards us. their duty nor their reward. that the truth should be. or its ministry. that the church itself is built upon the foundation of the prophets and apostles. and deny its divine original others will retain a sacred veneration. built and rest upon it as its founbriety. or all authority. Jesus Christ himbeing the chief corner-stone . is Tim. partly to manifest wherein its true nature and efficacy doth consist. in that it holds up and deand the things contained therein. 20. 15. it cannot be so the ground and pillar of truth. ii. and For to supreputation of them by whom they are given. that even of unto us. in the same sense or kind. do receive the Scripture upon the authority thereof. as testimonies do vary according to the worth. we may consider the authority of it. In short. who are departed from the church Rome. But the weakness of a plea to authority that purpose from hence hath been so fully manifested by many already.' Eph. By the authority of the church in this matter we intend no more but the weight and importance that is in its testimony. whereon our reception of the Scripture should depend. with any so- countenance unto the assertion of the authowith respect unto us. 1 The church iii. gravity. whence it is farther pretended. so 2. to be. and a sufficient warranty imagination : for the authority and truth of God stand not . as it were. is the only text pleaded. us. the church is clares the Scriptures. The church cannot be the ground of truth. pose any church. the ground and pillar of truth. properly the churches of the world. may despise this book. and truth the ground of the church.

we must be careful unto whom or what church we grant or allow it. For let men assume what names or titles to themselves they please. we did de facto receive the Scriptures by the ministry of the church of Rome also. in need. which they highly prize and studiously improve. whereas it is manifest sion of . and successive communication. or ever on the authority of the church of Rome in any sense did. whatever. unless they could more advantage themselves in the world another way. whereby it proposeth and declareth the Scripture to be the word of God. being strengthened by all sorts of circumstances. or what you please. Wherefore. as denoting the weight and importance of a testimony. may be considered either formally. that. And it will be said. And this ministry also. seeing they also. But it may be granted. their testimony therein is of very little value . and the reasons of it. be they called church.262 THE REASON OF FAITH. as an actual tution. and many other providential means of their preservation. yet if the generality of them be corrupt or flagitious in their lives. which. though the grounds whereon it is done. were in the possession of them but this ministry we allow only in : We the latter sense. and the manner of doing it. together with the ministry of other churches in the world. as it is appointed of God unto this end. nor are capable of. from what they suppose and profess the Scripture to supply them withal. and have great secular advantages. that if such persons did know the whole Bible to be a fable (as one pope expressed himself to that purpose) they would not forego the profesit. that they do humbly submit unto them. for all men may see that they have an earthly vvordly interest of their sense wherein own therein. may be said to have great authority in it. and blessed by him or materially. without respect unto any especial And for the authority of the it is church in this case. testify their so doing with The ministry of the church in this matter is that duty of the church. wholly deny that we receive the Scripture. only as the thing is done. any such attestation from men . namely. . all they will admit of from the children of men is. for the reasons that shall be mentioned immediately. means in subserviency unto insti- God's providence. and that as it hath occasion to all the world. in that allowed. be not divinely approved.

that those who have the conduct of the Roman church have made. . that as they have certain knowledge of : — ' : . 3. they gave this testimony unto. in honour. by testimony may rationally be supposed be of therefore. when we made known unto you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ. their profession of the Scripture. which either common reason or common usage among mankind can put in unto any witness whatever. until the day dawn. 1. For he received from God the Father honour and glory. when there came such a voice to him from the excellent glory. by And in the first place. as unto a light that shineth in a dark place. or what means. when we were with him in the holy mount. in this consideration. For we have not followed cunningly devised fables. is to be considered they all of them severally and jointly witnessed. power. the testimony of those by whom the several books of the Scripture were written. Knowing this first. time by the will of man but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost. a more sure word of prophecy. that no prophecy of the Scripture is of any For the prophecy came not in old private interpretation. wealth. 1 shall briefly represent. i.THE REASON OF FAITH. and reputation in the world. Who they were that gave and do give this testimony. they did so. And to evidence the force that is which I intend. their to be so far influenced little validity. How.' This is the concurrent testimony of the writers both of the Old Testament and the New namely. by self-interest. What pecial instances. And this voice which came from heaven we heard. free from all possibility of impeachment as unto any evil or themselves The testimony. in whom I am well pleased. and who having not the least secular advantage by what they testified unto. were absolutely secured against all exceptions. in some es2. and do make to themselves. 16 21. This is my beloved Son. as to designed conspiracy among with respect unto any corrupt end. and the day-star arise in your hearts. whereunto ye do well that ye take heed. This is pleaded by the apostle Peter in the name of them all i 2 Pet. that what they wrote was received by inspiration from God. We have also. but were eye-witnesses of his majesty. great earthly temporal advantages. is that of multitudes of persons of unspotted reputation on all other accounts in the world. 263 unto all.

declared. The things pleaded they gave. 9. they were absolutely removed from The possible suspicion of deceiving or being deceived. their unconcernment with all secular interests. the times and places wherein the things reported by them were done and acted. and so many as would require a large discourse by itself to proBut supposing the testipose.) Of their persons. whereof we shall that his testimony . chap.) Of the matmer of their mony writing.) all on any one thing. wit of all the atheistical spirits in the world is notable to fix (1.264 THE REASOX OF FAITH. As to their persons. own design reduce the evidences of its truth unto these two considerations: (1. And surmises in things of this nature which had no pleadable ground for them. (2. and wrote these things. their unacquaintance with one another. xix. so their writing was by inspiration from God. or atheistical dreams. but from the evidence they had of his divine inspiration. to give force unto this testimony in all that such a are particular. and. if what they wrote in matter of fact. xxii. the facility of convincing them of falsehood. 'These are the true and faithful sayings of is God. in case it were not true. that so it was indeed? He was not absolutely auroTrtoroc. 6. 'This is that disciple which testifieth of these things.' And what weight is to be laid hereon. . 24. and confirm them. could such a testimony be given in any other case. or one that was to be believed in merely on his own account yet here it is in the name of the church with the spoken highest assurance 'and we know that his testimony is true. in particular. and we know is true. John beareth witness unto his revelations . or at best the false imaginations of weak and distempered minds. testimony is capable of. : treat afterward. the evident certainty that this .' I answer this assurance of theirs did not arise merely from his moral or natural endowments or holy counsels. the things they wrote. I shall in compliance with my. but how was it known to the church there intended (' we know that his testimony is true'). John xxi. discuss. So. The nature and design of their work.' He testified the truth of what he wrote. which is the fountain of what else they taught. are to be looked on as diabolical suggestions. that would be a tolerable ground of any such suspicion concerning the integrity of witnesses.

Their style consideration. also in the same place shewed. 1.THE REASON OF FAITH. do all concur to prove that they did not follow cunningly devised fables. ence and uproar that was in the world about their doctrine their harmony among themselves vvithout conspiracy or antecedent agreement. incapable of any rational countenance or confirmation. (2. Notwithstanding the distance of the ages and seasons wherein they lived. but from the manner of their writing. most of them without hope of relief or recompense in this world. are forced and manner of writing deserves a peculiar For there are impressed on it all those characters of a divine original. with all other circumstances innumerable. to retreat unto for shelter. and all the parts of their writing. and autho- mixed with plainness of speech. Exercitat. and absolute freedom from all appearance of affectation of esteem or applause. as the apocryphal books under the Old Testament. not only from their matter. yet there is upon the whole. But I have at And have large elsewhere insisted on this consideration"^. upon the sole account of the doctrine taught by themselves. to the therein. Hcb. with the great variety of their parts. will. in what they declared concerning To the mind and will of God as immediately from himself. ability. the difference of the languages wherein they wrote. arising from the known desire. is only to manifest what brutish impudence. steps of human "1 artifice oil and weakness the Epist. sufficient for Exer. gaged. the miseries which they underwent. that ever pretended unto a divine original. had it been this would have secured them possible to be effected. and interest. of their adversaries so to do. or any things else that derive from human frailty. that there is no other writing extant in the world. education. abilities. and some fragments of spurious pieces pretended to be written in the days of the apostles but they are. confront this evidence with bare surmises. seeing the victory in the conflicts wherein they were violently enand have put an immediate issue unto all that differ. as must excite an admiration in all that seriously consider them. that can be communicated unto such an outward adjunct of divine revelation. and the plain foot. and atheism.) infidelity. and' other circumstances. that are pleadable to evince the sincerity and integrity of any witnesses whatever. 265 would have been done. majesty. that gravity. . rity.

And to reduce these things unto a natural consideration. any real or pretended church whatever. that is. and for the word of God . these pretensions. is the church. believes there is a God. Unto the testimony of the divine add. gave testimony unto the truth of the word of God. that we know this witness is With these I had rather venture my faith and eternal true. who were known And who is there that generally to be of the worst of men. * — suspect all those persons of folly. but he must comply with their adversaries against them. and an eternal future state. xxiii. which beareth witness to the divine original of the Scripture. those who wrote the Scripture .being merely human. to know the certainty of sundry matters of fact which the And we are directed verity of our religion depends upon. between real and painted fire .266 their THE REASON OF FAITH. And among these there is an especial consideration to be had of those innumerable multitudes who condition. who can have the least occasion to world over. 20. through their word. and those who believe in Christ. that had . 28. and other ways of violence. 29. and do openly discover their own vain So must every thing necessarily do. which the description which . which such a diffused multitude was absolutely incapable of? Neither can any man undervalue their testimony. vi. that of those writers themselves. Rev. than with any society. unto an especial regard of their testimony. in the primitive times witnessed this confession all the For they had many advantages above us. When men have done all they can. and it may be added. weakness. or conspiracy among themselves.' Rev. through This all ages. 4. the Lord Jesus Christ giveth of his church John xvii. And there is at present an especial regard unto them in heaven. things will have as evident a difference between them. These were they who with the loss of their lives by the sword. 2. xx. which . upon the account of their witness and testimony. which is signalized by Christ himself In the great judgment that is to be passed on the world. we must who in all ages is have believed in Christ through their word. own conviction. pretends unto an immediate derivation from God. wickedness. Jer. the first appearance is of the souls of them that were beheaded for the witness of Jesus Christ. 9 11. credulity. as there is between wheat and chaff.

are said to belie the Lord. and true. and made conspicuously glorious in the primitive times of Christianity. holy. holy. his true . but as the word . and such as had that knowledge of God and his will as is necessary unto such an undertaking. . It is not he . but that the whole and every part of it was given by divine inspiration. 21. must needs be written and composed by persons. ceive and make use of this book. v. did they themselves receive the Scripture. that it was his word. if the whole world would. Neither would they admit that their testimony was received. as their faith in this matter is expressed 2 Pet. as also believe and yield obedience unto the things contained in it. in all the contents of it only. this suffrage and testimony. What it was they gave testimony unto is duly to be considered. On this account. 12. i. Yea. and no other. at least unto a due and sedate consideration of what they bare witness unto. and sufficient to scatter all such prejudices as atheism or profaneness may raise or suggest. therefore.THE REASON OF FAITH. wise. . . with the holy martyrs than their bestial persecutors? Wherefore. be content to allow of. they who * refuse to give credit thereunto. And this was not that the book of the Scripture was good. and assurance of the knowledge of God and themselves as the safest guide to eternal blessedness and. was not lawful for them. the Scripture on any other. and carried on by the best of men in all ages. to make God a liar . Secondly. 10. which is immediately spoken by himself. useful. must needs be with all wise men unavoidably cogent.' Jer. begun from the first writing of the Scripture. Hence. satisfaction. 20.' If all mankind should agree together to re1 John v. 267 not rather have his soul with Paul than Nero. so to compound That the whole Scripture was this matter with the world. given by inspiration from God. as that which taught nothing but what is good. ' and say. or obey. and honest. above all comparison. Nor Vvill God himself allow of an assent unto the Scripture under any other conception. and profitable to human society as that which is a complete directory unto men in all that they need to believe or do towards God the best means under heaven to bring them to settlement. it is not for us. yet all this answers not the testimony given by It the church of believers in all ages unto the Scriptures. . or lower terms.

1 many of them. fore the wTiting of those of the New so that they could not be wrought in the immediate confirmation of the one or the Neither have we any infallible testimony other. unto. and bewritten. nor any other reason of their faith and obedience. whereby God gave immediate testimony unto the divine mission of their persons. they were always esteemed no less traitors to Christianity. or they might have been and their doctrine recorded in books not given by Besides. therefore. and with sundry miraculous ope- This our apostle pleadeth as a corroboration of the witness given by the first preachers of the gospel unto the truths of it. Heb. that those who gave testimony to the . His presence with them. than those who gave up their Bibles who denied Jesus Christ. in the first place. that apostles together . before we can believe on . Acts v. secutors. . as the same was done by all the rations. especially in some seasons. But the end of miracles is to be an immediate wit- ness from heaven. concerning these miracles. or was his word. and most of those of the apostles. And. but the Scripture itself. and approbation of their doctrine. adds to the importance of it. It must be granted. gave it in. they Christ himself. wherein they are recorded whence it is necessary that we should believe the Scripture to be infallibly true. the miracles therein recorded to be so. to per- Thirdly. these miracles were not wrought immediately to confirm this single truth. 4. was that which. I grant that the whole force of this consideration lieth in this alone. Wherefore.268 and THE REASON OF FAITH. The manner icherein this testimony was given. For. that the Scripture was given by inspiration of God. were publicly deBut the miracles wrought by the Lord clared by them. : grounds infallible. they and we also are obliged so to do. gave testimony never pretended unto any other assurance of the They things they professed. ministry by Christ and his apostles. as to the miracles wrought inspiration from God. ii. might either not have been written as most of them were not. and infallible truth of their doctrine. but that the Scripture wherein all these things are contained was given immediately from God. by were wrought among them by whom the books of the Old Testament were acknowledged as the oracles of God. 32. or God's attestation to their persons and whom they were wrought. faithful sayings.

to the end. and holy persons. Rev. So far were they from any worldly advantage by the profession they made. that is. 13. in all that thev thought.THE REASON OF FAITH. whereinto alone it is resolved ment thereunto. cruelties. 20. and the testimony they gave. divine revelation and in an especial manner the promises therein contained. in their whole course. suffered. such an assent unto. or by some one solemn act. 1. Scripture to be the 269 word of God. and establishment therein. 7.' chap. and several ' which they underwent. or destructive to human nature in all its temporary concerns. and confidence of. unquestionable that they had the highest assvirance of the truth in these thinos which the mind of man is capable of. grounded on the Scripture . and the evidence of things not seen. 2. especially from ver. as he there declares. miseries. certainly what was thus testified unto by so many great. It is. 1. things capable of no dethe * monstration from sense or reason. invisible things. as respects divine revelafor our encouragetion only. spake. being not only liar church notion of that witnesses but martyrs in the pecuword. That is. as encouragement And any thing of that nature is capable of in this world. therefore. giving testimony unto what we do believe. in the same duty. namely. or on some extraordinary occasion only. he produceth a long catalogue of those who did. hath as great an outward evidence of its truth. wise. but they gave their testimony in this cause. as that in the confirmation of them they willingly and cheerfully underwent whatever is evil. . They gave not their testimony casually. or in some one certain way. concerning which we have good collateral security also. as other testimonies are given. Acts xxii. 35. For having declared the nature of it is faith in general. 3. These he calleth a cloud of witnesses. and obtained great things thereby. That which he principally insists upon : is the hardships. nor can be given otherwise. that subsistence of things hoped for. xvii.' ver. ii. Many of them confirmed their testimony with their sufferuigs. and that in such a way and manner. xii. dreadful. The management of this argument is the principal design of the apostle in the whole 11th chapter of the Epistle to the Hebrews. unto our . tortures.' wheresorts of deaths with 'we are compassed about. had an attestation given unto their ministry by these miraculous operations .

in their souls and consciences. not one excepted. that it is highly arrogant for any one to question the truth of it. or did. and. without evident convictions of its imposture. which no person of any tolerable sobriety did ever yet pretend unto. by all this sort of persons. ately unto our consideration: 1. ordering in the mean time the whole course of his conthis day. living. There is to me a thousand times more force and weight in the testimony to this purpose of some holy persons. in the world. shall add. as every true believer continueth to do at For a man when he is occasionally called out to a verbal testimony/ unto the divine original of the Scripgive ture. and resolved thereinto. over their souls and consciences. in the last place. as evidences of that divine power which the word was really accompanied withal. . and ends. The persons by whom this doctrine was successfully carried on in the world. and express to others. nor can have any influence on the minds of sober and But when men do manifest and evince. and actions.270 THE REASON OF FAITH. that the declaration of the mind of God in the Scripture. lives. 1 mean the apostles and first evangelists. hath a sovereign divine authority. assurance of consolation thereon. words. For the persons unto whom this work was committed. I success. especially upon the Jirst preaching of the And two things offer themselves hereon immedigospel. Both which the Scripture takes notice of in particular. who universally. that force in the real testimony. absolutely and in all things. do really experiment in themselves. who evidence not such an inward sense of its power and efficacy. aims. designs. which hath been given in all ages. unto the divine authority of the Scripture. versation. and in all things with respect unto this world. the power and authority of this word of God. considerate men. and their future eternal condition. hath had in the world upon the minds and lives of men. therefore. and in peace. than in the verbal declara- and dying tion of the most splendid numerous church in the world. doing. actions. his hopes. then is their witness cogent and efficacious. 2. and ways. and in the whole disposal of their ways. There is. mind. his testimony is of no value. the consideration of that which the doctrine derived solely from the Scripture. suffering. in all their thoughts. without any eminent respect or regard unto it. The wai/ and manner of the propagation of it.

must either he force and arms. iv. 13. and men illiterate. low. And mighty works have been wrought by the one and the other of them. whose powers. This the Jews marked in them with contempt Acts iv. Acts xvii. And the Gentiles also them on the same account. who before were under the 2. is under the power of the unrelievable prejudices intimated by our apostle in this case . . clouded and hidden from them. 5. there had been such persons employed. as to their outward condition in the world. and the superstition of Mahomet . there would have been no observation of the divine power or glory of God. 2 Cor. unto whom the dispensation of the gospel was committed 2 Cor. iv. As they generally despised afforded our apostle no better title than that of a babbler. by means so disproportionate thereunto.' The reason God would make use of such instruments only in so why great a work was. therepernatural power. ' have this treasure in earthen vessels. 18. as instruments in this work. 271 were. or eloquence. that Christianity was the religion of But God had another design in ideots. fore. that through their meanness his own glorious power might be more conspicuous. There is nothing We more common among men. in plausible persuasive reasonings. But he who is not able to discern them in the bringing about of so mighty a work. qualifications. which might give them either reputation or probability of success in such an undertaking. nor more natural unto them. So for a long time they kept up the public vogue in the world.THE REASON OF FAITH. this order of things. 7. and every way despised. abilities. so erecting the spiritual kingdom of Christ in the minds of men. By the former have empires been set up and established in the world. than to admire the excellencies of those of their own race and kind. subduing of the ivorld unto the faith and obedience of the gospel. 4. and a willingness to have all evidences of a divine suIf. the namely. . and endowments. and not of us. The power and dominion of his adversary. which our apostle declares upon an admission of the inconsiderable meanness of them. rneans which were to be used unto this end. and as unto the endowments of their minds. destitute of all those abilities and advantages. poor. that the excellenof the cy power may be of God. 7. might have been probably pretended as sufficient. and the immediate causes of such an effect.

whose withal. or oratory. foolish. they w^ent up and down preaching to Jews and Gentiles. Wherefore. And this they did by virtue of those spiritual gifts. were all of them studiprejudicial to the success thereof. matter. 'that Jesus Christ died for our sins. by all those who had got This our apostle at large discourseth. sooner did the rulers and governors of the world begin to take notice of them. they taught observances of religious worship in meetings. nature. together with the doctrine of the gospel that they any reputation of learning or cunning amongst men. These things enraged the generality of mankind . In this state of things. and that commotions would ensue thereon. which were the hidden powers of the w orld to come. xvi. they had none. this preaching of the cross. assemblies. of enticing words. For as outward force. every thing was under as many improbabilities of success. and what they did. virtue. But even both these ways were abandoned by them. it might have been expected. ously declined by them in this work. 4. which was new and uncouth unto the world. 5. for the subject. which all the laws in the world did prohibit Acts xviii. And the latter also hath had great effects on the minds of many. XV. or conventicles. others were utterly unacquainted This preaching of theirs. 1 Cor. as can be conceived. no . preached. with the like effects' of human wisdom and skill. was looked on as a marvellous. . 13. imposed on many nations. and authority. without art. and they declared against the use of either of them. ii 4. but what may be reduced unto one of these two seeing neither upon the principles of nature.' 1 Cor.272 THE REASOM OF FAITH. to that end. of all carnal weapons being utterly inconsistent with this work and design. can any other be imagined. that those who had engaged themselves in so great a design and work as that mentioned. both and manner of it. and rose again according to the Scriptures . thing. of alluring arts and eloquence. so the other way of persuasive orations. 3. and power. a sweaty kind of babbling. Hereupon. But this alone they betook themselves unto. i. 21. nor on the rules of human wisdom or policy. Besides. eloquence. but they that judged it all tended to sedition. should betake themselves nnto the one or other of these means and ways for the wit of man cannot contrive any way unto such an end. unto all rational conjectures. the use . as things extremely 1 Cor. power.

it being at that tmie their great business to gain proselytes unto whereon also their honour and advantage did depend. The Greeks. as the prophet speaks of the ChalMai. . doth constantly assign all their good and evil unto their gods. boasted that their et Pietate religione gion was the cause of their prosperity T VOL. in especial. the Romans. As. their doctrine prevailed to subdue the world to the obedience thereof. indeed. received a religion. one or two considerations. ofas their privilege. which they had variously cultivated and dressed with mysteries and ceremonies. bearing up themselves with the thoughts and reputation of it every where and on all occasions . ing part of the Gentiles. possessed of all the true religion that was in the world and this they boasted . and the whole raising of their stupendous empire. which we render Gentiles. from the state of things at that time in the world. exploits of the nations of the world. And he who first undertook to record the . unto their own comBesides. all people did solemnly impute all their achievements and deans successes unto their gods. to their gods. and against all these oppositions. against 273 made havoc them and their converts. as they were pleased or reliprovoked. III. the other nations of the world coming under that denomination. As. who were the rulplete satisfaction. into Jews and Greeks. negligent in the religion they received. and manifest it to have been of God. sciences. 1. That in the New Testament the writers of it do constantly distribute all those with whom they had to do in this world. because of their pre-eminence on various accounts. by long tradition of their fathers from time immemorial. as the . 11. did ascribe all their prosperity. who therefore of them with incredible And yet notwithstanding all fury. and the religious worship they gave unto them so that it was a fundamental maxim in their policy and rule. ' . according as they observed or were arts. And there may be added unto all these things. literature. these disadvantages.THE REASON OF FAITH. Now the Jews at that time were in solidum. j I and all that which the world calls Jews of religion and they had also a were wisdom. i. The Romans. that they should prosper or decay. not only those who owned the true God and his providence. but before idolatry and superstition had given place unto atheism. were in as full a possession of it. . which signalize the quality of this work. on the other side.

And Dionysius of Halicarnassus. omnes gentes natioOrat. decry. they fiercely avowed In answer unto which to be the cause of all their calamities. their present worship and devotion. moreover. whereon they thought they had It were easy to declare how all those raised their empire. the relinquishment of their old religion. in all their wars. honour. qu5d omnia regi gubernarique prospeximus. were occasionally found. and the principal maxim of polity from the Romans. after the prevathose who were obstinate Christian the of religion. that he doth it unto this end. lib. condemn.ere were able to fill a the gospel. took his oath that they were contrary to And this was that. what can whole city with tumult and uproar against it would was done in all the world. that he who was the head of it was newly crucified by the present of the earth. and the wisdom from the Greeks. reputation. The consideration hereof.' Antiq. affirms.274 THl REASON OF FAITH.Resp. made them so obstinate in their adherence unto their present religion. such a doctrine powers as was expressly to take away the religion from the Jews. and reject this new doctrine. also. instead of paying them any respect. they ordered them to be burnt. and. and principal establisher of their commonwealth. nesque superamus/ says their great oracle. some books of Numa their second king. De Civitate Dei. should cease to wonder at their prosperity and successes. and not only bring a new doctrine. of the religion of the Romans. In this state of things the preachers of the gospel come among them. for a malefactor. reflected severely upon the Christians . 'that those who have been ignorant of the Roman piety. under all the disadvantages before mentioned. Rom. principally. And if a company of sorry craftsmen sects v.de Har. to oppose. which upon the declension of their empire. calumny. they had the gods always propitious and succom'able unto them. by all those we think who were engaged . that when after many ages and hundreds of years. a great and wise historian. engaged in worldly interest. but. 2. Acts xix. seeing by reason of their religion. deorum immortalium numine atque h^c una sapientia. as they did when they apprehended bring in a decay of their trade . Austin wrote his excellent discourse. principles of safety. and the ceo-iving an account remonies of their worship. because one who had perused them. lency in their Paganism.

all their pride. as corrupt lusts are known to have . the world seemed very sufficiently sion of this it fortified against the admis- new and strange was proposed. revenge. and the honour they esteemed to accrue to themselves thereby. wisdom. declaring that knowledge and worship of God which they never heard of before. Wherefore.' to part with all that was dear and useful unto them. prosperity. should obtain any considerable progress but we know that things fell out quite otherwise religion. cure the fundamental maxim of their state. a renunciation of all those worldly lusts. way to its power and efficacy. and enraged by higher provocations? It 275 was as death to the Jews to part with their religion. malice. must all be mortified and rooted up. If men designed any compliance with it. And for the Greeks to have all that wisdom. which before had been the salt of their lives. or interest in it. and plenty. Had it only been a new doctrine and religion. that for its sake they should pull out their right eyes. on the terms whereon There can be no danger sure that ever it . and that indispensably. but when withal it re' quired at the first instant. reputation. with honour. and power. ambition. and which had such a prevalent interest in their minds and affections. senpersons could carry them forth to lust after. The world was at that time in things are usually thereof. covetousness. and cut off their right hands. and it is known how from all these 2. that ever it attained from the entrance of sin . were forced all to : doctrine. give the highest enjoyment of peace. which they and their forefathers had been labouring in for so many generations.THE REASON OF FAITH. But yet this also was forced to T 2 . made j9rouw?o« /or thejiesh to fulfil the lusts Whatever the suality of any the world was pride. profit. requiring at once. it raised them unto the highest And the Romans were wise enough to seindignation. both on the account of the conviction they had of its truth. now to be all rejected as an impertinent foolery by the sorry preachments of a few illiterate persons . full of satisfactions for. this could not but invincibly fortify them against its admittance. interest. covetousness. And most men lived what they did require. sensuality. I I as in the eager pursuit of their lusts. they could not but be Itixury. so in a full supply of In this condition the gospel is preached unto them. ambition. very wary in giving it entertainment.

5. therefore. and was not by an emanation of power from itself. that hath a mind to make himself an instance of conceited folly and pride. and prevalency of the gospel in former days. though unseen. doctrine. Where he gives an account by the gospel. And whatever various apprehensions men may have. But the force of the whole argument is liable unto one ex- ception of no small moment. suspend the of this from what was done by the gospleading argument pel formerly. and all the fortifications of Satan therein was by the power of the word cast to the ground. in comparison of what it formerly extended itself unto neither do we find that it gets ground any where in the world. necessarily be taken notice of. first either the prevalency that is asserted vxnto it. concurrence. and removed. but the characters of it are so legible unto every modest and sedate prospect. but is rather . whereby the world was subdued to Christ Now a man. did indeed proceed from some other accidental causes. 4. or power over. give place. yet are they in themselves absolutely the same that ever they were.276 THE REASON OF FAITH. concerning the things taught therein. of that warfare. seasons. as our apostle expresseth it. or the gospel is not at present what it was formerly. it will be inquired^ Whence it is. containing another ginning. as that had of fess at present. which must. as a demonstration of its divine original. For we see the profession of it is now confined to narrow limits. 2 Cor. nor doth produce the same effects. and that without the loss or change of a material word or syllable in the manner . through their weakness or prejudices. that they leave no room for doubt all this or hesitation. crept into the world instead of that once delivered unto the saints. therefore. in an efficacious. and the doctrine contained in it. seeing it hath not the same effect upon. Ans. whereas we plead the power. Whatever different events is may fall it out in different yet the gospel the same as ever was from the be- There is not another book. Wherefore. that it is not still accompanied with the same power. 1 . lest it reflect disadvantage upon what we pro men. the minds of old. and argued as an evidence of its divinity. more and more straitened every day. We may. efficacy. x. For. may talk as though there was in no evidence of divine power giving testimony to the Scriptui'e.

its former prevalency may be pleaded in justification of its divine original. he put forth that effectual divine power in its administration. Wherefore.THE REASON OF FAITH. or in the use of this instrument. yet is not that divine power included or shut up in the letter of it. and he hath and exerted in dispensations of and he puts forth his power in it. Wherefore. and the gospel itself which he had revealed. And if he doth at any time so put forth his divine power in the administration of it. And although he doth not in these latter ages cause it to run and prosper among the nations of the world. For of although the Scripture be his be by his power. and it is a thing capable of the most evident demonstration. at the first preaching of the word. This I have proved elsewhere. to fulfil the promises made unto the fathers from the foundation of the . And the time will come when he will revive the same work of power and grace to retrieve the world into a subjection to Jesus Christ. as that the great worth and excellency of it shall manifest itself to be from him. to glorify his Son Jesus Christ. as it were naturally and physically to produce the effects mentioned. the times and seasons of the prevalency of the gospel in the world. is an uncontrollable approbation of it. whilst under an open claim of a divine original. 2. are in the hand and at the sovereign disposal of God. so that it must have the same effect wherever it comes. We plead not that there is absolutely in itself. its doctrine. and by it. Thus. put forth unto men. as it seems good unto him. the preservation of it in that small remnant by whom it is obeyed . And as he is not his own. world. yet considering the state of things at present among the generality of mankind. as he did formerly. he giveth a sufficient attestation of it. at any time. 277 of their delivery. whereby the world was subdued unto the obedience of it. whatever entertainment this gospel meets withal at present in the world. such a power. who have not as yet received it. or who hath been his counsellor ?') to accompany it with the same power at all times and seasons so the evidence of his own power going along with it. But it is an instrument in the hand of God unto that work which is testified it so to it word. the preaching or preachers thereof. The cause of this event lieth principally in the sovereign will and pleasure God. obliged (' for who hath known the mind of the Lord.

to believe lies. to wink at. How far he may proceed in the same way of righteous vengeance towards other nations also. Wherefore.' But now. and so many left obstinate in its refusal. nothing can be more pernicious . the present state of things doth no way weaken or prejudice of the evidence given unto the Scripture by that mighty power of God. When God first granted the gospel unto the world. they. and hath.278 THE REASON OF FAITH. with the obedience that it requires.' though they retain the Scriptures and outward profession of Christianity. and had re- jected all had been made unto them the gospel itself. and pass over. which accompanied the administration of it in the . For. sons will ever be advantaged by an outward profession of . that time of their ignorance. those supernatural revelations that at any time yet had they not sinned against . is a with in it. that so many nations are deprived it. whilst they live in a contradiction and disobedience to its precepts yea. 3. although the generality of mankind had greatly sinned against the light of nature. than wq. It pleased God. whereby them to repentance. the gospel.s its eminent propagation rishteousness of in sincerity. and given up others unto strong delusions. nor the grace thereof. things are quite otherwise stated. or as unto its power. either as unto its profession. It is from the righteous judgment of God.' revenging the sins of the world he ' called ' agamst the gospel itself. This impiety God is at this day reof the world. through their horrible ingratitude and wickedness. ' to tremble in the consideration of it. but ought to the souls of men. The God is in like manner to be con- sidered in these things. so as that his justice should not be provoked by any of their former sins. detained the truth in unrighteousness so that the continuance of the gospel among them was no way to the glory of God. no less glorious evidence of his presence and care over it. days of old. therefore. after that the goshath been pel sufficiently tendered unto all nations. having utterly cast oflf on the nations venging of them from the many knowledge of the truth. been rejected by the most of them . whereas he had granted the inestimable privilege of his word unto many nations. to withhold the efficacy of his divine power in the administration of the gospel from them. we know not. no nor For neither nations nor peryet unto their own advantage.

demned eternal condition inquiry. Where persons are with invincible prepossessed prejudices contracted by a course of education. that the Scripture doth proceed from God. or inBut our inquiry is fluence on the practical understanding. they talk of these things after without any impression on their minds and affections. that their they ought. who out of love unto. which these and the like arguments do every way answer. or what their lusts. and the defeating of objections to the contrary. rational Some think fit here to stay. intelligent. It is so with respect unto them. and delight in. that is. humble. those w ays of vice. Such persons may talk and discourse of them. i and unprejudiced persons. sober. it must be with a sedate judgment. For what hath since ftillen out. it may be. 279 world. and some of the Indians . for evidence the conviction of is a sufficient what after. in these or the like external arguments. wherein they have imbibed principles opposite and contrary thereunto. but only to give some instance of those external arguments whereby the divine authority of the Scripture may be confirmed. and unprejudiced. or rational motives of faith. who will not take these arguments into due consideration. Now to beget in the these arguments are such as are able of themselves minds of men. sin. the divinity of the Scripture. and wickedness. but they never weigh them seriously according as the importance of For if men will examine them as the cause doth require. whereunto it is to be assigned . and open causes in divine justice. and not as though this kind that may be pleaded. seriously to consider what it is like to be . there are secret reasons of sovereign wisdom.THE REASON OF FAITH. and persuasion. such as render . without the least hope of a dispensation unto them that continue under the power of them. it is no wonder if the manner of these days. which are absolutely and severely conin the Scripture. and have increased and fortified them by some fixed and hereditary enmity against all those as whom they know to own it is with Mahometans. These things they were all of I have briefly called over. will not prevail immediately to work nor effect their assent. service and is But for those depends upon a right determination of this who can scarce get liberty from the power of their condition. also. judgment. a firm opinion. these arguments.

that it is required that we believe the Scriptures to be the ivord of God with faith divine arid superyiatural. is . and endeavour to yield obedience unto God accordingly. as they say. that the Scriptures word of God or all the faith whereby we believe them so to be. give assent be of what kind they will. the things believed are divine and supernatural. and some amass all that they can think on. who were really so affected -with these arguments and motives. every one chooseth out what seems to him most cogent. Two things are replied hereunto. That ichere so is the faith them. is not faith in the sense of the Scripture . in brief. we come unto a judgment and persuasion. the tained on these arguments highest which our minds are capable of mth respect unto this object. when practically bear the whole sway in this matter. or give our assent unto Let the motives and arguments whereon we our . it will be said. I intend not them ahiie which I have insisted on. called a moral assurance of the truth of the Scripture. the conclusion we make from them is so also. by others with great diligence. tradition and education but a mere natural work. for in the variety of such arguments as offer themselves in this cause. and. the Scriptures so credible. but that according proposed unto us. includes all the assent which is required of us unto this proposition. And no more is to the motives that are required of us. and the things believed be divine and supernatural. all this is done. therefore. That certainty which may be atand motives. that an assent grounded and resolved into such rational arguments only. though strong. as that it is an unreasonable thing not to assent unto them. which cannot be deceived. so that the assent be true and real. Now these arguments. and the arguments used to that purpose. but the natural exercise and acting of our own reason and understanding that the arguments and motives used. For the truth is. When I speak of these arguments. that all this But yet human and fallible. therefore. And it were to be wished that there were more than it is feared there are. as nothing but perverse prejudice can detain men from giving a firm assent unto. with the evidence tendered in them are such. but all others also of the same kind. tchereby ive believe them. some whereof have been urged and improved are the . is. and wherein we may be deceived are . whereunto no more is required. 1 . and.280 THE REASON OF FAITH.

whereby learned and rational men have proved or may yet farther prove the Scripture to be a divine revelation given of God. And swer unto the question. fallible. as hath been shewed before . Why do you ? If this be human authority. human or divine. as also for the conviction of gainsay ers yet to say. or by which they are specified. it is the formal reason of our faith. our sight is green when we see that which is so. a man should say. where the ject matter will bear. be natural or supernatural.THE REASON OF FAITH. and the doctrine contained in it to be a do so. arguments highly probable. motives cogent. whatever we do believe thereon. which . by relieving the mind against temptations and objections that will arise to the contrary. our faith is human. and on whose account we wherewith we answer unto that question. That this assent is sufficient. but absolutely fallible. though they leave it beneath science or knowledge. nor are they changed thereby from what their nature is in themselves. nor capable of a scientifical demonstration. if the specification of acts were from their material objects. heavenly truth. and blue when we see that is blue. 281 this is all we believe is so also. For no farther evidence nor assurance is in any case to be inquired after than the subAnd so is it in this case. 2. but must be received upon such reasons and arguments. or believing. and contains in it all the assurance which our minds are capable of in this matter. Wherefore it is said. And this would be so in things moral. all that is required of us. that they contain the formal reason of that assent. but it IS certain that they are not of the same nature always which with the things they are conversant about. but only to beget a moral persuasion. But yet I must needs say. as carry it above the highest probability. truth is not exposed to sense. But one in things natural. is that which prevails with us to believe. Now. and by an enumeration of them do we anit What is it that you do believe ? But the formal object or reason of all our acts from whence they are denominated. assent. the faith whereby as if. things divine are only the material object of our faith. and a moral assurance only. believe . that although those external arguments. or infallible assurance if such a persuasion of mind there be. . are of singular use for the strengthening of the faith of them that do believe.

such is is the proper object of divine faith. . So. when he of our lives. whether immediately given and declared. in the receiving of divine revelations. every where proposed unto us and we are required to believe.' Believe the Lord and his prophets. which it rests upon and is resolved into. For this propoture as the W'Ord of sition. saith the Lord. first to believe it so to be. destructive of the nature of divine faith. I shall do these two things before : I proceed to our principal argument designed 1. In the first I shall be very brief. and what so can be received no otherwise by us. I shall give some few reasons. and exclusive of the work of the Holy Ghost in this whole matter.' Thus ' .' * This is my Son. With believe nothing but what is so. and then to believe the things contained in it. and not to weaken the opinions of any. that the Scripture is the God velation. that is. whereby we do or ought to believe the Scripture to be the word of God what is the work of the Holy Spirit about it. the eternal and unchangethe law us unto gave able rule of our obedience unto him in the ten command- which he requires us . is a divine reBut God no where requires.e formal reason of so also. with divine we believe it not at all. for my design is to strengthen the faith of all.' 'All Scripture is given by inspiration from God. lieving. because \h. upon external arguments and motives of credibility .' This alone is that to resolve our faith into. and what is the proper object of it. proving that the faith whereby we believe the Scrip- ture to be the built word of God is not a mere firm moral persuasion. I shall shew what is the nature of that faith. that we should believe any divine revelation upon such grounds. hear him. much less on such grounds and motives They are left unto us as consequential unto our beonly. that our faith is the effect and product of them. But that which he requires our faith and obedience unto. is his own authority and veracity ' I am the Lord. but it is is divine and supernatural. 2. required of us unto the Scripture as the word of God. Such is the Scrip. and for the justification of it unto the world. word of God. the high and lofty one. is both contrary to the Scripture. to plead with others inbehalf of whatwe profess. nor ever did.282 is THE REASON OF FAITH. Wherefore. If we believe it not Divine revelation faith we can faith.' ' ' To the law and to the testimony. and so to be believed. or as recorded in the Scripture.

' they appealed unto Moses and the prophets. and those that were before recorded. But divine revelation formally considered. iv. the root and principal part of it therefore. materially considered. No such method is prescribed. and of the doctrine which they taught. in a way of preparation subservient unto the receiving the Scripture as the word of God. The sum is. 13. . or the revelation which he makes of his mind and will. abundantly confirmed by them. Their doctrine. to make use of these arguments and motives for the conversion of the souls of men unto God. to the revelations they had themselves reIt is true they ceived. But the miracles of our Saviour were all of them wrouoht amono-st those who believed the whole Scripture then given to be the word of God and those of the apostles were before the writings of the books of the New Testament. and as written. But when they were accused to have followed cunningly devised fables. yea. 283 he gives no other reason to oblige us thereunto. no such example is proposed unto us in the Scripture. Yea. Neither did our Lord Jesus Christ nor his apostles ever make use of such arguments or motives for the ingenerating of faith in the minds of men . their use hath been granted and proved. 4. and the sole authority of God. merits. ii. ' wrought miracles in confirmation of their own divine mission. God who gave it.' The sole formal reason of all our obedience is taken from his own nature and our relation unto him. 1 Cor. but what is built thereon and resolved thereinto. and the ingenerating of faith in them. But yet. Nor doth he propose any other reason why we should believe him. xiv. nor have they given directions for the use of any such arguments to this end and purpose. and for the defence of it against gainsayers and their objections. 7. And our faith is part of our obedience. but * I am the Lord thy God. was sufficiently. 5. putting forth his power in and by his word. 27. . the authority and truth of God are constantly and uniformly proposed as the immediate ground and reason of believing his revelations nor can it be proved that he doth accept or approve of any kind of faith or assent. this only. But from first to last in the Old and New Testament. and their warranty to teach it.THE REASON OF FAITH. 2 Cor. was left upon . therefore. the old foundation of the authority of . the reason of both is the same. is appealed unto. in some cases the use of such means is decryed as unprofitable.26.

God's truth and authority. to believe the Scriptures to we are obliged in be a divine revelation. it is to believing that are proposed unto us. but by xii. we do not. is divine and supernatural. in particular. if we believe not with faith divine and supernatural. But this assent on external arguments and motives is of ourselves. 8. For failh is the gift of ' Godj and is not of ourselves. nor can we be said in the Scripture sense to believe thereby. because the formal reason of it is so. unto all. or with a moral persuasion and assurance built upon arguments For if this be the forabsolutely fallible. but that we urge herein is. away of duty. Wherefore. Matt. nor ought to. xiii. namely. whereon we are to receive them is the authority and veracity of God speaking in them we believe them because they are the word of God. on^this supposition. or to work faith in us . when they are ministerially or proviThe ground dentially proposed unto us. i. There is. or a firm opinion. namely. or the persuasion which is begotten in our minds by them. 'It is given unto some on the behalf of Christ. but concerning the reasons I answer. not the Scriptures to be the word of God. Now this is not faith.' and according to his duty.' Phil. whereby we so believe. and such as requires no especial work of the Holy Ghost in us for the effecting of it. the veracity and authority of God. aright. xi. 11. mal reason of faith. doth necessarily ensue. no need The moral is son. whence an inferior kind of knowledge. of reacertainty treated of. for no more is required herein but what If it necessarily ariseth from a naked exercise of reason. granted . Now this faith. is purely natural. we believe not at 2. ' No man 1 the Holy Ghost Cor. ii.284 THE REASON OF FAITH. and so. . 3. or some kind of persuasion which hath not yet gotten an intelligible name. therefore. be such as the mind judgeth to be convincing and prevalent. is a mere effect no more required unto it. 29.' Eph. whereof afterward. and not unto others. but that the reasons proposed for the assent required. But he who believeth the . that the inquiry is not about what is the work of the and motives Spirit of God in us . to enable us to believe. all. be said. 29. doth say Scripture truly. that the act which is exerted on such motives. . equally common and exposed can say that Jesus is the Lord. and human only. believe the Scripture as highly probable. There of any work of the Holy Ghost.

professeth that he Demand the reason why he lie. this is required of us in a way of duty. Our assent can be of no other nature than the argu- be not that which it. sumque Si quis sicut augmentum ita etiam initium fidei. to be believed. to beget such an assent unto the truth as they are capable of efl'ecting. or object. John vi. apostolicis dogmatibus ad' Si quis per versarius approbatur. Now these arguments are all human and fallible . id est. and will endure a strict examination. per inspirationem Spiritus Sancti. they produce an and opinion only. aut eligere.' And plainly. sed naturaliter nobis inesse dicit. For instance . qui dat omnibus suavitatem consentiendo et credendo veritati. yet because they are not demonstrations. asthe utmost For we allow will firm objections. so 5. 7. Because God who hath revealed and declared him so to be. ' 285 No man cometh to Christ. non per gratiae donum. proceed . 7. there were no room left for faith or our obedience therein). evangelicae praedicationi consentire posse affirmat absque illuminatione et inspiratione Spiritus Sancti.' but he that hath heard and learned of the Father to the Scripture. nor do necessarily beget a certain knowledge in us (which indeed if they did. And as this is contrary expressly condemned by the ancient the second Arausican council. . ipcredulitatis affectum. 3. Can. id est. sive salutari. though in the highest kind of probability. corrigentem voluntatem nostram ab infidelitate ad fidem. or by which it is wrought in us. all them which are true indeed. Can.THE REASON OF FAITH. thing. For although of . inferior to ments and motives whereon it is built. matter. particularly by 45. cannot doth so. a man believes Jesus Christ to be the Son of God. haeretico fallitur spiritu. SO. exalt them unto the greatest esteem possible. for some are frequently made use of in this cause which will not endure a trial) are of good use in their place and unto their proper end that is.' It is still granted that the arguments intended (that is. against surance that can be claimed upon them. But this is exclusive of all divine faith as to any article. ab impietate ad pietatem. naturae vigorem bonum aliquod quod ad salutem pertinet vitas eternae cogitare ut expedit. as in degree it cannot exceed their evidence. ' it is church. and he will say. but yet the mind is prepared and disposed by them unto the receiving of the truth in its proper evidence.

Yea. that we must believe the revelation. such as it is possible they may be for every thing may be so that is not immediately false from the first essential verity. which he believes this Scripture to be the Wherefore necessary. word of God. in. and declared this so to be ture. is. or faith. thus at length we come to higher believe Jesus Christ to be the Son of God.' contrary to the apostle . unto . all faith properly so called. Thess. 13. that he hath many cogent arguments that render it highly probable so to be. such as have prevailed with him to judge it so to be. which removes the moral And the reason of this certainty treated of out of our way. word of God. ultimately rest quiries. And our assent unto the things revealed. and therefore fallible. and may be deceived. as 1 it is in truth the ii. is or how God hath revealed and he will answer. If I believe the Scripture to be the word of God with a faith only. with a faith human and fallible. Where ? yet farther. but it will be replied.286 THE REASON OF FAITH. and which at last may deceive us which is to 'receive the word of God as the word of men. and the things revealed with the same kind of faith. I cannot but by the same contained in which overthrows is And if I believe whatever faith believe the Scripture itself. and so doth firmly believe them to be the word of Gorl. This assent. fallible. wherewith he believes the Scripture. or an immediate revelation given out from him? for hereunto we must come and have somewhat that we may which is . . and whereon he is fully persuaded. and ask him. excluding in its own nature all farther in- we can have On neither certainty. contained in the Scripture with faith divine and supernatural. all these arguments are in their kind or nature human. No man living can distinguish in his experience between that faith. or we bring confusion on the whole work of believing. and not . I do no otherwise believe whatever is it. nor stability in our this supposition his answer must be. therefore. in the Scrip- his word inquire now farther of him. human 4. such as wherein we the Scriptures as the word of God is human. Wherefore. and that wherewith he believes the . as having the highest assurance whereof that the matter will bear. give unto the revelation itself. can be of no other kind than that we For thereinto it is resolved. and thereunto it must be reduced these waters will rise no than And their fountain.

that the Scriptures are the word of God. as eviit But God therein. For if it were possible that a thousand arguments of a like cogency with them were offered to confirm any truth or doctrine. But none of these things are my present especial design. or the things contained in it any such distinction or difference intimated in the Scripture itself. is on all occasions absolutely melted down into that whereby we believe the Scriptures to be the word of God. may be farther . For there is such a majesty. For let the aro-uments which it is resolved into be never so evident and cosfent. doctrine of . and therein is inferior unto that which is divine and supernatural. And yet on this supposition that which is of a superior kind and nature is wholly resolved into that which is of an inferior. it is the truth itself. in the doctrine of the gospel. the sole ground and reason of our believing. For the faith whereby we believe Jesus Christ to be the Son of God. but all our believing is absolutely resolved into the authority of God revealing. which they testify unto. that animates them and gives them their efficacy. moreover. or doctrine contained in the Scripture. I am not inquiring what grounds men may have to build an opinion. and. holiness. should be of a kind and nature superior unto that which we yield unto the revelation itself. Spirit of said. and excellency. Nor can it be rationally apprehended that our assent unto the things revealed. let the assent itself be as firm and certain as can be imagined. that these external arguments and motives are not of themselves. Wherefore. 287 nor is there it. such a suitableness in them unto unprejudiced reason. yet is it human still and natural. they could give the mind no assurance of it. or any kind of human persuasion upon. and what is the work of the . and such an answerableness unto all the rational desires and expectations of the soul. and considered separately from the doctrine which they testify unto. and must betake itself on all occasions thereunto for relief and confirmation. if it had not a divine worth and excellency in itself. no nor yet how we may prove but what is reor maintain them so to be unto gainsayers them hereunto that believe to be so with we may quired faith divine and supernatural.THE REASON OF FAITH. and therefore I have insisted long enough upon them.

or all that obedience which God expecteth from us. heavenly mysteries. as on other shall be briefly examined. therefore. . in the illumination of our minds. or it doth not. out of a conviction of the excellency of the doctrine. there is no other faith required of us but what is sufficient to oblige us can apprehend. dence their procedure from the fountain of infinite wisdom and goodness. as I suppose. I unto that obedience. If it doth. the necessity of an internal effectual work of the Holy Spirit. it And I say here. with a desire of that blessedness which his nature is capable of. whereas our belief of the Scripture is in order believe only to the right performance of our duty. as will prevail with him to it to be a divine revelation. rejoice to see more of such a faith in the world. namely. of such use and benefit unto all industry. to be coincident with what we shall afterward assert. mankind. and prove to be the formal reason of However.288 THE REASOX OF FAITH. Such notions of truth when most diligently inquired into. for the substance of it. that the mind is established in its assent unto the truth. as would effectually oblige men unto obedience. our minds being guided by the precepts and directions. and duly influenced by the promises and threatenings of it thereunto. But the truth itself is also to be inquired after diligently. are but as sacrifice compared with obedience. And this persuasion is such. so far as and the truth of the promises and threatenings of the word. the substance of what is by some learned men proposed and adhered unto. his state and con- dition. or in the things contained in it. attested by the arguments insisted on. such an evidence of the majesty and authority of God. This being. I cannot believing. it will be found. And. so as to yield obedience unto all that is required of us. either supposeth what we shall immediately declare. as it is usually proposed. that I should occasions. should be the product of any created Let but a man know himself. and which he cannot but dein the sign. in any measure. It cannot but be conceived impossible that such excellent. there will appear unto him in the truths and doctrines of it. This opinion. though learned men should never agree about the formal reason of faith. so enabling us to believe with faith divine and supernatural. when the Scripture is proposed unto him ministry of the church.

absolutely comply with others. it.THE REASON OF FAITH. But the doctrines contained in the Scripture. therefore. nor is it meet it should be otherwise conceived. On this supposition. not formal objects of faith. say some. as and experience. or the subject matter of the truth to be believed. on the part of the object. but requires no more unto our satisfaction in the truth of the Scripture and as- sent thereon. on other reasons and it causes. do manifest themGod. but on a supposition of that antecedent spiritual sense assent of the mind unto them. as that in rity of God . 2. to resolve our faith into. to be most remote from the truth. selves primarily in the revelation itself. This is that which it from other distinguishetli any conception. III. which. And if this testimony be divine. and that suppose other reasons. then the object of it must be things so evident in themselves and their own VOL. before they do so in the things revealed. but the due exercise of reason. Neither can any man have a due apprehension of such a goodness suitable unto our constitution and condition. which must always differ. for these that ensue. which is believing . the whole work of believing would be a work of reason. as to their present condition and eternal end. or the natural minds about them when proposed unto us. But if so. as their goodness and suitableness unto the souls of men. so is that faith whereby we give assent unto it. have not in them the nature of a testimony. But if this opinion proceed not upon the aforesaid supposition (immediately to be proved). that it be built on and resolved into testimony. 289 for these two reasons among 1. which is that we plead for. and so his veracity. or things revealed in the Scriptures. It belongs unto the nature of faith. Be it so. of what sort soever be. The excellency of the doctrine. cannot be the reason why we do believe. If it be said that these truths or doctrines do so evidence themselves to be from and by them we have the witness and authohimself proposed unto us. Now things under that consideration respect not so much faith. that the authority of God. knowledge. with absolute usefulness in the truth of the Scripture. but are the material. U faculties of our I then it . I will not farther contend about it but only say. amongst many 1. or assent of our minds. respects not so much the truth of them in speculation.

themthere be such a light and evidence in the things selves with respect unto our reason in the right use and exercise of it. that the doctrines of the gospel.' nor do any learn these things aright. or the subsistence of one singular essence in three distinct persons. but depraved and corrupted.290 THE KEASOX OF FAITH. the truth is. then is the mind thereby necessitated unto its assent. which are purely and absolutely so. nor of suitThere is required unto such an apprehension. as it were. and sundry other that are the most proper subjects of divine revelation. There is a heavenly glory in some of these things. and those of the most importance that are so revealed. which both overthrows the nature of faith. with all the aids and asFlesh and blood reveals not sistance before mentioned. but he unto whom it is given . substituting an assent upon natural evidence in the room thereof. nature. and a divine assent unto the authority of the revelation thereon. And the carnal mind cannot subject itself unto the authority of God in any suture. Such are ihose concerning the Holy Trinity. both the spiritual elevation of ableness unto our constitution and end. Nor doth any man know these mysteries of the kingdom of God. 2. these things unto our minds. the resurrection of the dead. it ' Wherefore. the incarnation of the Son of God. and it is not only weak and limited. are so far from having a convincing evidence in . There are some doctrines revealed in the Scripture. Take our reason singly. w^hich as reason can never thoroughly apprehend. which concern and contain things so above our reason. as that the mind is. which sober Christians will scarcely comply wdthal. without the consideration of divine grace and illumination. so as it is in us by na- can neither receive them. compelled by that If evidence unto an assent. before reason can be so much as satisfied in the truth and excellency of such doctrines. as doctrinally proposed unto us. that without some previous supernatural dispositions of mind. and is absolutely exclusive of the necessity or use of any work of the Holy Ghost in our believing. they carry in them no evidence of truth unto mere reason. 3. but our Father which is in heaven. pernatural revelation whatever. nor delight in them. and cannot do otherwise. the mind by supernatural illumination. but those that are taught of God. because it is finite and limited.

it may be. or according to our duty. before insisted on. excellency.THE REASON OF FAITH. therefore. as God requireth it of and saving manner. Wherefore. with the true reason why we do believe the Scripture with faith divine and supernatural. whatever reasons. or all men. as I have elsewhere proved at large. or the formal reason moving us to believe it. and must be us. corrupt. so in order of nature it is antecedent unto. For whereas the mind of man. proceed. as that they are foolishness and most undesirable unto it. unto the reason of men as unrenewed by the Holy Ghost. the other the object to be believed. and goodness. are proposed unto us. carnal. our unto and impertinent present purpose. as that without which. suppose these things cnrpoaSiovvcra. wherefore. 291 themselves of their divine truth. consisting in the rational conclusion and judgment which we make upon their truth and evidence. power of the Holy Ghost. we shall never believe in a due manner. wrought and divine. all divine objective evidence of the Scriptures being the word of God. are by nature depraved. in a useful. and as it is in duty required of us. do so. For while we are u 2 Some. with all others of the like kind. profitable. We shall. we cannot believe the Scriptures to be the word of God in a due manner. there is. will . The first of these must of necessity fall under our consideration herein. the minds of Wherefore. they cannot of themselves. or by virtue of any innate ability of their own. or rather whereby whereby we This work of the Spirit of God. without it. that we may believe the Scriptures to be the word of God according to our duty. how it is enabled thereunto. understand or assent unto spiritual things in a spiritual manner. is not that faith wherewith we ought to believe the word of God. above and beyond that natural human Jaith and assent which is the effect of the arguments and motives of credibility. or the mind of man. as it is distinct from. in us by the whatever arguments or motives are proposed unto us. and enmity against God. faith supernatural we are enabled so to do. that assent which is wrought in us by mere external arguments. or motives. which we have sufficiently proved and confirmed before. The first respects the subject. evidences. There are two things considerable with respect unto our believing the Scriptures to be the word of God in a due manner.

at present we in- That the faith whereby we believe the Scripture to be word of God. 8. ^nd formal reason of that faith to be. to Spirit say it is divine and supernatural. principal motive. generally. and shall be farther evicted afthe terward j and. cap. who would resolve our faith in this matter objectively into the authority of their And church. Sed necessaria est insuper causa interior. work of the Holy Spirit. is to say that it is not of ourselves. assert any such divine formal reason of believing.' saith Canus. as that the . or will it. because some not duly consider. it may be. and that work to be necessary to our believing the Scripture in a due manner. wrought in us by his divine and supernatural power. nor of the truth of do not understand. We do not. et oculi Dei beneficio ad videndum dati. quantumcunque ab hominibus competenter ea quse sunt fidei proponantur. but only we have other moral assurance thereof. * Externae oranes et humanse persuasiones non sunt satis ad credendum. which quire after. we seem to Jij/ to the work of the Holy Ghost in our own minds. (2. but the power whereby we are enabled so to do. But we must not be ashamed of the gospel. inquiring on what grounds we believe the Scripture to be the word of God.) That it is not faith divine and supernatural whereby we believe them so to be. and is not wrought in us by the Holy Ghost. For. not with peculiar respect unto the Scriptures that are to be believed. hoc est divinum quoddam lumen quidam interni incitans ad credendum. yet subjectively acknowledge the work of the Holy Spirit ingenerating faith in us.292 THE REASON OF FAITH. Spirit of God. but that it is the grace and gift of the as to the second. but unto our own minds and that faith wherewith they are to be believed. whatever men suppose the prime object. lib. which is irrational. Theol. And those of the church of Rome. they are very few who are of that judgment. can be denied only on two principles or suppositions. 2. therefore. (1.) That this faith divine a7id supernatural is of ourselves. For it is not the reason why we believe the Scriptures. that we should return unto the posed. is wrought in us hy the Holy Ghost. Loc. The first of these hath been already disproved. 1. what is proIt is necessary. what is so. it is of the operation of the of For God. Nor is there any of the divines of that church which dissent herein. yet that it is divine and supernatural they all acknowledge.

THE REASON OF FAITH.
mind should not stand
enabling
it

293

in

to assent thereunto.

need of supernatural assistance Nay we affirm, that without

no man any true faith at all, let the arguments and motives whereon he believes be as forcible and pregnant with evidence as can be imagined. It is in this
this there is in

case as in things natural

;

neither the light of the sun, nor

any persuasive arguments unto men to look up unto it, will enable them to discern it, unless they are endued with a due
visive faculty.
this the Scripture is express in beyond all possiof contradiction. Neither is it that I know of, by any bility as yet in express terms denied. For, indeed, that all which

And

and

properly called faith, with respect unto divine revelation, is accepted with God as such, is the work of the Spirit of God in us, or is bestowed on us by him, cannot be quesis

tioned by any who own the gospel. elsewhere so fully and largely as that

I

have also proved

it

I shall give it at pre-

sent no other confirmation, but what will necessarily fall in with the description of the nature of that faith whereby we do
believe,

and the way or manner of its being wrought in us. the Holy Ghost unto this purpose consists in the saving illumination of the mind, and the effect of it is a supernatural light, whereby the mind is renewed see Rom.

The work of

;

xii. 1.

Eph.

i.

18, 19.

iii.

16—19.

It is called

a 'heart to

understand, eyes to see, ears to hear ;' Deut. xxix. 4. The opening of the eyes of our understanding ;' Eph. i. 18. The 20. Hereby we are '•giving of an understanding ;' 1 John v. enabled to discern the evidences of the divine original and as well as assent authority of the Scripture that are in itself, unto the truth contained it; and without it we cannot do so.
'

For the natural man receives not the things of the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness unto him, neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned;' 1 Cor. ii. 14. And unto this end it is written in the prophets, that we shall be all taught of God ;' John vi. 45. That there is a divine and heavenly excellency in the Scripture, cannot be denied by any, who on any grounds or motives whatever do own its divine original. For all the works of God do set forth his praise, and it is impossible that any thing should proceed immediately from him, but that there will be express characters of divine excellencies upon it; and as toth« com'

'

294

THE REASON OF FAITH.
'

munication of these characters of himself, he hath magnidisfied his word above all his name.' But these we cannot the cern, be they in themselves never so illustrious, without our unto effectual communication of the light mentioned

minds; that is, without divine supernatural illumination. Herein he who commanded light to shine out of dark'

of ness, shineth into our hearts the knowledge of the glory irradiates He 6. iv. 2 Cor. Jesus in face of the Christ;' God, it is enabled to disthe mind with a
spiritual light,

whereby
:

in this they cannot do cern the glory of spiritual things whom the god of this world hath blinded the eyes of thera_ that believe not, lest the light of the glorious gospel of Christ, who is the image of God, should shine into them ;' ver. 6. Those who are under the power of their natural

'

upon

Scripture, Such persons may believe it aright to be the word of God. assent unto the truth of the Scripture and its divine original, and rational motives, but believe it external

darkness and blindness, especially where there are in them also superadded prejudices begotten and increased by the craft of Satan, as there are in the whole world of unbelievers, cannot see nor discern that divine excellency in the without an apprehension whereof no man can

arguments

with faith divine and supernatural on those arguments and motives only, they cannot. There are two things which hinder or disenable men

from believing with
divine revelation
is

faith divine

and supernatural, when any
First,.

objectively proposed unto them.

The natural blmdness and darkness of their minds, which are come
and the depravation of our nature that Secondly, The prejudices that through the crafts of Satan, the god of this world, their minds are possessed with, by traditions, educations, a)id converse in the world. This last obstruction or hinderance may be so far removed by external arguments and motives of credibility, as that men may upon them attain unto a moral persuasion concerning But these arguments the divine original of the Scripture. cannot remove or take away the native blindness of the mind, which is removed by their renovation and divine illumination alone. Wherefore none, I think, will positively affirm that we can believe the Scripture to be the word of God, in the way and manner which God requireth, without

upon

all

by the

fall,

ensued thereon.

The REASON" OF FAITH.

295

a supernatural work of the Holy Spirit upon our minds in the illumination of them ; so David prays that * God would

open his eyes, that he might behold wondrous things out of That he would make him under;' Psal. cxix. 10. stand the way of his precepts;' ver. 27. That 'he would give him understanding and he should keep the laAv :' ver. 34. So the Lord Christ also opened the understandings of his disciples, that they might understand the Scriptures;' Luke xxiv. 45. As he had affirmed before that it was given unto some to know the mysteries of the kingdom of God,' and not unto
the law
'
'

'

others

;

Matt.

xi. 25. xiii. 11.

And

neither are these things

spoken in vain, nor is the grace intended in them needless. The communication of this light unto us the Scripture calleth revealing and revelation; Matt. xi. 25. 'Thou hast hid

them unto babes
mysteries of the

these things from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them to understand the ;' that is, giving
'

ed unto them.

kingdom of heaven when they were preachAnd no man knoweth the Father but he to whom the Son revealeth him ;' ver. 27. So the apostle prayeth for the Ephesians, that God would give them the Spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of Christ,
'

that the eyes of their understandings being enlightened, they might know,' &.c. chap. i. 17 19. It is true, these Ephe-

sians were already believers, or considered by the apostle as such ; but if he judged it necessary to pray for them, that

they might have

'

the Spirit of wisdom and revelation to en-

with respect unto lighten the eyes of their understanding,' or, as he speaks in farther degrees of faith and knowledge another place, 'that they might come unto the full assurance of understanding, to the acknowledgment of the mystery of
;

God

;'

Col.

ii.

2.

Then

it is

much more

necessary to

make

them

believers,
faith.

who

before were not so, but utter strangers

unto the

as a pretence hereof hath been abused, as we shall see afterward, so the pleading of it is liable to be mistaken. For some are ready to apprehend, that this retreat unto a

But

mio their room. Now arguments, and to introduce enthusiasm it is groundalthough the charge be grievous, yet because the less, we must not forego what Scripture plainly affirms and instructs us in, thereby to avoid it. Scripture testimo-

Spirit

of revelation,

is

but a pretence to discard

all rational

296
nies

THE REASON OF FAITH.

may be expounded according to the analogy of faith, but denied or despised, seem they never so contrary unto our apprehension of things, they must not be. Some, I confess, seem to disregard both the objective work of the Holy

and Spirit in this matter, M^hereof we shall treat afterward, his subjective work also in our minds, that all things may be reduced unto sense and reason. But we must grant that
revelation' to open the eyes of our to enable us to believe the Scripneedful imderstanding, ture to be the word of God in a due manner, or forego the

a

*

Spirit of

wisdom and
is

gospel.
rit, if

And

our duty

it is

to pray continually for that Spi-

we intend to be established in the faith thereof. But yet we plead not for external immediate revelations,
the Scripture.
in
its

such as were granted unto the prophets, apostles, and other

penmen of

The

revelation

we

intend differs
reason,

from them, both

especial subject

and formal

or nature, that is, in the whole kind. For, (1.) the subject matter of divine prophetical revelation, by a ^eottveuaria, or immediate divine inspiration, are things not made

known

before. Things they were, 'hid in God,' or the counsels of his will, * and revealed unto the apostles and prophets by the Spirit;' Eph. ii. 5. 9, 10. Whether they were doctrines or things, they were at least, as unto their present circumstances, made known from the counsels of God by their revelation. But the matter and subject of the
of, is nothing but what is already rean internal revelation of that which is outwardly and antecedent unto it, beyond the bounds thereof it is not to be extended. And if any pretend unto immediate revelations of things not before revealed, we have no concern-

revelation

we

trea,t

vealed.

It is

ment

in their pretences. (2.) They differ likewise in their nature or kind. For immediate, divine, prophetical revelation

consisted in an immediate inspiration, or afflatus, or in visions and voices from heaven, with a power of the Holy Ghost

minds, guiding their tongues and hands to whom they were granted, whereby they received and represented divine impressions, as an instrument of music doth the skill of the hand whereby it is moved the nature of which revelation I have more fully discoursed
transiently affecting their
;

elsewhere.

But

this revelation of the Spirit consists in his

effectual operation, freeing our

minds from darkness, igno-

THE REASON OF FAITH.
ranee,

297

and prejudice, enabling them to discern spiritual And such a Spirit of revelation is things, in a due manner. them unto who would believe aright the Scripture, necessary or any thing else that is divine and supernatural contained

And if men, who through the power of temptations and prejudices are in the dark, or at a loss as to the great and fundamental principle of all religion, namely, the divine original and authority of the Scripture, will absolutely lean unto their own understandings, and have the whole difference determined by the natural power and faculties of their own souls, without seeking after divine aid and assistance^ or earnest prayer for the Spirit of wisdom and revelation to open the eyes of their understandings, they must be content to abide in their uncertainties, or to come off from them without any advantage to their souls. Not that I would deny unto men, or take them off from the use of their reason in this matter for what is their reason given unto them for, unless it be to use it in those things which are of the greattherein.
;

importance unto them ? Only I must crave leave to say, it is not sufficient of itself to enable us to the performance of this duty, without the immediate aid and assistance
est

that

of the
If

Holy

Spirit of

God.

any one, upon these principles, shall now ask us. Wherefore we believe the Scripture to be the rcord of God ? We do not answer. It is because the Holy Ghost hath enlightened our minds, wroughtfaith in us, a)2d enabled us to believe it. Without this
in us,

we say

indeed, did not the Spirit of

God

so

work

and upon us, we neither should nor could believe with If God had not opened the faith divine and supernatural. heart of Lydia, she would not have attended unto the things preached by Paul so as to have received them and without it the light oftentimes shines into darkness, but the darkness comprehends it not. But this neither is, nor can be, the
;

formal

of our faith, or the reason why we believe the be of God, or any thing else ; neither do we, nor canwe, rationally answer by it unto this question, IVhj/ we do believe. This reason must be something external and
object

Scripture to

For whatever ability of spirievidently proposed unto us. tual assent there be in the understanding which is thus wrought in it by tlie Holy Ghost, yet the understanding cannot assent unto any thing with any kind of assent natural

298

THE REASON OF FAITH,

or supernatural, but what is outwardly proposed unto it as That true, and that with sufficient evidence that] it is so.

which proposeth any thing unto us as true, with evidence of that truth, is the formal object of our faith, or And what is so proposed the reason why we do believe. must be evidenced to be true, or we cannot believe it and according to the nature of that evidence such is our faith human if that be human, and divine if that be so. Now nothing of this is done by that saving light which is infused
therefore,
; ;

into our minds,
lieve

and is/therefore, not the reason why we bewhat we do so. Whereas, therefore, some, who seem to conceive that the only general ground of believing the Saiptwe to be the vsord of God doth consist in rational argnments and motives of cre-

do grant that private persons may have their assurance hereof from the illumination of the Holy Ghost, though it be not pleadable to others they grant what is not, that I know of, desired and which in itself is not true. by any, For this work consisting solely in enabling the mind unto that kind of assent which is faith divine and supernatural, on supposition of an external formal reason of it duly proposed, is not the reason why any do believe, nor the ground whereunto their faith is resolved. It remains only that we inquire whether our faith in this matter be not resolved into an immediate internal testimony of the Holy Ghost, assuring us of the divine original and authority of the Scripture, distinct from the work o{ sphntiial illuFor it is the common opinion mination, before described.
dibility,
;

of Protestant divines, that the testimony of the Holy Ghost is the ground whereon we believe the Scriptures to be the word of God, and in what sense it is so shall be immediately declared.

But hereon

the church of

Rome and

are they generally charged by those of others, that they resolve all the

ground and assurance of
rits,

And

faith into their own particular spior the spirit of every one that will pretend thereunto. this is looked upon as a sufficient warranty to reproach

them with giving countenance unto enthusiasms, and exposing the minds of men to endless delusions. Wherefore, this matter must be a little farther inquired into. And,

By
o-fjUatus,

an internal testimony of the Spirit, an extraordinary ornew immediate revelation may be intended. Men

THE REASON OF
may suppose

FAITH,.

299

they have, or ought to have, an internal parti-^ that the Scripture is the word of God, and whereby, whereby alone, they may be infallibly assured that so it is. And this is supposed to be of the same nature with the revelation made unto the prophets and penmen of
cuJar testimony

the Scripture; for

it is

neither an external proposition oi irviih ,

nor an internal

ability to assent
is

besides these there

unto such a proposition. And no divine operation in this kind, but

an immediate prophetical inspiration or revelation. Wherefore, as such a revelation or immediate testimony of the Spirit is the only reason why we do believe, so it is that alone which our faith rests on and is resolved into. This is that which is commonly imputed unto those who
either the authority of the church, or any other external arguments or motives of credibility, to be the formal reasoii of

deny

our faith. Howbeit there

is

no one of them, that

I

know

of,

And I do, therefore, ever asserted any such thing. deny that our faith is resolved into any such private testimony, immediate revelation or inspiration of the Holy Ghost. And
who
that for the ensuing reasons. 1. Since the finishing of the canon of the Scripture, the church is not under that conduct, as to stand in need of such

new extraordinary revelations.

It doth indeed live upon the mternal gracious operations of the Spirit, enabling us to understand, believe, and obey, the perfect complete revelation of the will of God already made, but new revelations it hath And to suppose them, or a necesneither need nor use of. the perfection of the Scripsity of them, not only overthrows ture, but also leaveth us uncertain whether we know all that is to be believed in order unto salvation, or our whole For it would be our duty to duty, or when we may do so.

live all

our days in expectation of new revelations, wherewith neither peace, assurance, nor consolation, are consistent.
2.

Those who are

to believe, will not

be able on this sup-

position to secure themselves from delusion, and from being For this new revelahaaposed on by the deceits of Satan.

by the Scripture, or it is not. If it be to and examined by the Scripture, then doth it acknowledge a superior rule, judgment, and testimony, and so cannot be that which our faith is ultimately resolved into.
tion
is

to be tried

be

tried

300
If
it

THE REASON OF FAITH.

be exempted from that rule of trying the spirits, then, must produce the grant of this exemption, seeing the extended generally unto all things and doctrines that relate unto faith or obedience. (2.) It must declare what are the grounds and evidences of its o\vn avTOTriarla, or selfcredibility, and how it may be infallibly or assuredly distinguished from all delusions, which can never be done. And if any tolerable countenance could be given unto these things, yet we shall shew immediately that no such private testimony, though real, can be the formal object of faith, or
(1.) It rule is

reason of believing. 3. It hath so fallen out in the providence of God, that generally all who have given up themselves, in any things concerning faith or obedience, unto the pretended conduct of immediate revelations, although they have pleaded a respect unto
the Scripture also, have been seduced into opinions and practices directly repugnant unto it. And this, with all per-

sons of sobriety,

is

sufficient to discard this pretence.

this internal testimony of the Spirit, is by others exFor they say, that besides plained quite in another way. the work of the Holy Ghost before insisted on, whereby he

But

takes away our natural blindness, and enlightening our minds, enables us to discern the divine excellencies that are in the Scripture ; there is another internal efficiency of his, where-

by we

are

moved, persuaded, and enabled

to believe

:

hereby

are taught of God, so as that finding the glory and majesty of God in the word, our hearts do by an ineffable power

we

assent unto the truth without any hesitation. And this work of the Spirit carrieth its own evidence in itself, producing

an assurance above
in need of
rests

all human judgment, and such as stands no farther arguments or testimonies this faith on and is resolved into. And this some learned men
;

seem

evidence

to embrace, because they suppose that the objective which is given in the Scripture itself, is moral,

only

or such as can give only a moral assurance. Whereas, therefore, faith ought to be divine and supernatural, so must that
it is so alone from the forthey can apprehend nothing in this work, that is immediately divine, but only this internal testimony of the Spirit, wherein God himself speaks unto our

be whereinto
reason of

it is

resolved, yea,

mal

it.

And

hearts.

THE REASON OF FAITH.
But yet
quiesce.
1.

301

neither, as

it is

be the formal object of
For,
It

faith,

so explained, can we allow it to nor that wherein it doth ac-

hath not the proper nature of a divine testimony. A divine work it may be, but a divine testimony it is not but it is of the nature of faith, to be built on an external testimony. However, therefore, our minds may be established,
;

and enabled
internal

to believe firmly and stedfastly, by an ineffable work of the Holy Ghost, whereof also we may have a certain experience yet neither that work nor the effect of it, can be the reason why we do believe, nor whereby we are moved to believe, but only that whereby we do believe. 2. That which is the formal object of faith, or reason whereon we believe, is the same, and common unto all that do For our inquiry is not how, or by what means, this believe. or that man came to believe, but why any one or every one ought so to do, unto whom the Scripture is proposed. The
;

object proposed unto all to be believed is the same ; and the faith required of all in a way of duty is the same, or of the

same kind and nature, and therefore the reason why we believe, must be the same also. But on this supposition, there must be as many distinct reasons of believing, as there are
believers.
3.

On this

supposition,

it

cannot be the duty of any one

to believe the Scripture to be the word of God, who hath not received this internal testimony of the Spirit. For where the true formal reason of believing is not proposed unto us,

there

the Scripture be proposed as the word of God, yet our duty to believe it so to be, until we have this

Wherefore, although is it not work of the Spirit in our hearts, in case that be the formal reason of But not to press any farther, how it is possible believing. men may be deceived and deluded in their apprehensions of such an internal testimony of the Spirit, especially if it be not to be tried by the Scripture which, if it be, it loseth its
it is
;

not our duty to believe.

avTOTTLaTia or self-credibility, or if
cle,

it

be,

it

casteth us into a cir;

it cannot be admitted as the formal object of our faith, because it would divert us from that which is public, proper, every way certain

which the Papists charge us withal

and

infallible.

However, that work of the

Spirit,

which may be called an

302

THE REASON OF FAITH.

be granted, as that which belongs unto the stability and assurance of faith. For if he did no otherwise work in us, or upon us, but by the communication of spiritual light unto our minds, enabling us to discern the evidences that are in the Scripture of its own divine and original, we should often be shaken in our assent, moved from our stability. For whereas our spiritual darkness is removed but in part, and at best whilst we are here
internal real testimony is to

see things but darkly, as in a glass, all things believed having some sort of inevidence or obscurity attending them; and whereas temptations will frequently shake and disturb the due respect of the faculty unto the object, or interpose mists and clouds between them, we can have no assurance in believing, unless our minds are farther established by the Holy Ghost. He doth, therefore, three ways assist us in believing, and ascertain our minds of the things believed, so as that we may hold fast the beginning of our confidence, firm and steadfast unto the end. For, 1. He gives unto believers a spiritual sense of the power and reality of the things believed, whereby their faith is greatly And although the divine witness, whereunto established. our faith is ultimately resolved, doth not consist herein, yet, it is the greatest corroborating testimony, whereof we are caThis is that which brings us unto the 'riches of the pable. full assurance of understanding ;' Col. ii. 2. as also, 1 Thess. i. 5, And on the account of this spiritual experience, is our perception of spiritual things so often expressed by acts of
sense, as tasting, seeing, feeling, and the like means of assurance in things natural. And when believers have at-

we

tained hereunto, they do find the divine wisdom, goodness, and authority of God so present unto them, as that they need neither argument, nor motive, nor any thing else, to

persuade them unto, or confirm them in, believing. And whereas this spiritual experience, which believers obtain through the Holy Ghost, is such as cannot rationally be contended about, seeing those who have received it, cannot fully express it, and those who have not, cannot understand it, nor the efficacy which it hath to secure and establish the mind it is left to be determined on by them alone, who have their
;

*

senses exercised to discern good and evil.' And this belongs unto the internal subjective testimony of the Holy Ghost.

that all men were liars. and relieves us. that although his faith failed not. against temptations Our contrary. ao-ainst the force And sufficient against the bufFetings of herein the truth of Christ's inter- whereby he establisheth and assureth our minds. with the grace of God. and God's grace is these temptations. And we all know what fears from within. and its efficiency. whereby faith is established. this is no place to declare in particular. and prevalency of objections and temp- tations against the divine authority of the Scripture. by whom they are deAnd these also have the nature of an internal real nied. there is no greater controversy. cession. will not secure us future against objections and temptations unto the contrary. from all manner of causes and occasions. how they are communicated unto us. nor their faith totally fail. fiery darts. It is in vain for any to pretend unto the name of Christians. give in such a continual supply of spiritual strength and assistance unto believers. Lord God what wilt thou And Peter was give me. as that he said in his haste. what fiohtino-s from withAnd of this sort out. doth the Holy Ghost. helps. that our faith fail not.THE REASON OF FAITH. we are exposed unto in this matter. and word of God or not. 2. assent. Having lopped off now lay their axe to the root of faith. seeing I go childless ?' Gen. which the devil useth as . its He unto the divine authority of the Scripture. as that they In such shall at no time prevail. Against all these temptations. are all which these days abound withal those atheistical objections against the Scripture. than whether the Scriptures are the in at this day. and to destroy their faith . cases the Lord Christ intercedes for us. testimony. And because it is somewhat strange. And Abraham himself. was reduced unto that anxious inquiry. so as that they shall not be prevalent. and received by us. 2. that after a long . which the powers of hell are principally engaged manybranches. are communicated unto us by the Holy Ghost. prime ' so winnowed by Satan. What are those internal aids. after he had received the promise. David's faith was so assaulted by them. upon proper grounds and reasons. yet he greatly failed and fainted in its exercise. they thence in the midst of the profession of Christian religion. and indeed this is that work. xv. to inflame the souls of men. that in his seed all nations should be blessed. to the first 303 assists.

word of God bespeaks a divine majesty. or otherwise declare that they have no sense of the immediate authority of God therein we shall find them to set . hath prevailed with many to cast off its authority. whereunto the Scripture doth unavoidably annex eternal ruin. hetmys men at length to question the truth itself. or may. And all such persons. and custom. after men. The owning of the Scriptures to be the. who either openly opit or neglect it at their plea- up other guides in competition with it or above it. A long continued outward profession of the truth of the Scripture. at least not to regard it as divine. will either reject it. such an open opposition unto the divine auof the thority Scriptures. as we find there is by experience . as justly we pose it and reject it. Wherefore. they are so great in number and force above their rulers and other inhabitants. under a concurrence of temptations and outward occasions. and power to be present in it and with it. and assent of the generahty of the minds of men theremito. with confidence. it may not be amiss in our passage. education. and some distinct interests. authority. The power of' lust rising up unto a resolution of living in those sins. an assent unto it on the account of truth will not long abide. who have for a long time so professed. that it is only want of communication. they were on their minds from tradition. And when once its a reverence unto the word of God authority is lost. in some countries or plantations. without an inward experience oj" its power. 1. or who use sure. to name the principal causes or occasions thereof for if we should bring them all arise among : into one reckoning. quiet possession of the professed faith. to allow a divine truth and power in the Scripture. they do for the future rather not oppose it than in any way any effects upon their own minds. When have worn off the impressions that thoughts. that keep them from casting off their yoke and restraint. or prefer other guides before it. who be like the Moors or slaves. is to cast themselves under a present torment. it gardless of or to allow a very believe it. For whilst they are resolved to live in an outrage of sin. 1 shall name three causes only of this surprising and perilous event.304 THE REASOX OF FAITH. do find that they never had any real experience of such a divine presence in it by they grow insensibly recommon place in their it. as well as to on the account of . there should now us. 2.

and a resolution to live in an excess of known sin multitudes suffer their minds to be bribed by their corrupt affections to a relinquishment of any regard unto it.THE REASON OF FAITH. as that which comes to torment them before their time. the be by all believe. and consists essentially in the relation and respect which it hath means questioned and impaired. X . they will allow it. as that which. is not [that it hath an authority it hath any authority at all.' without an acknowledgment of these things they would have it. and disputations of those of Home against the Scripture and its authority. 3..' They as- the crown and robe of divine authority in itself. scandalous quarrels. apostle * unless these stay in the ship we cannot be saved . . as the in another case continually. if they |l?ut Icribe unto VOL. They on his head. Wherefore. it saying. authority of the Scripture must A divine authobut with respect unto us it hath none but what it obtains by the suffrage and testimony of their church.' they keep it at the greatest distance from their thoughts and minds. nor be saved hereafter. and infallibility of their church. III. of the maraiers. therefore. and a crown did with Christ. it may be. Ihim. until they have habituated themselves unto a contempt of it. So. they put jsoldiers clothed him with a purple robe and bowing the knee before ' . mocked him. There being. rity in itself unto others. Hail. and will assuredly take vengeance of him. king of the Jews. but also to reto that only deny deal with it as the iproach it with an empty name. yet looking upon it as the de' vils did on Jesus Christ. have contributed much unto the ruin of the faith of many. that men can neither at present To secure this interest. which is the constant language of the Scripture con- tion cerning such persons. not towards any one person in the world. The the church of Their great design is by all means to secure the power. : 305 for no other can be his condiascertain their future misery who is perpetually sensible that God always condemns him in all that he doth. although they will not immediately fall into an open atheistical opposition unto it. But whereas authoriti/ is tic rwv irpoQ ti. to say in itself. or those that are to be subject unto it. is not consistent with their interest and reputation in the world. auOf these they say thority. but none toivards us. an utter impossibility of giving any pretence of reconciliation between the owning of the Scriptures to be the word of God.

or the room of it. I say. as. as experience doth . or reliance objections against it from on it. and opposition unto. so their respect unto the Scripture. It is. they will inAnd this is as bold sensibly take off from her due esteem. and all sense of its divine authority doth decay. by urging them vehemently with this question. God shall be God. seeming off the minds of men from a firm assent unto it. as there can be no greater nor more dishonourable reflection made on Christian religion. by such as advance a light within. imperfectio7is . than that it hath no other evidence or testimony of its truth. to weaken the reputation of a chaste and sober matron . cannot deprive her of her virtue an attempt as can well be made in any case. And the like disservice is done unto faith and the souls of men. Nor is that all but on all occasions they insinuate such . parallel. yet unless the world were wiser than. but the authority and witness of those by whom it is at present professed. it may be. the belief of the Scripture. relinquishment of. difficulties. For the first tendency of these courses is to make men atheists. for the most part. that there is at present among us such a decay in. after which success it is left at uncertain hazard whether they will be Papists or no. to think it no way necessary to beor at least are lieve the Scripture to be the word of God shaken off from the grounds whereon they have professed it so to be. and his word be of some credit among men. How do you know the Scripture to he the %vord of God? and have in continual readiness a number of sophistical artifices to weaken all evidences that shall be pleaded in its behalf. ivant of orin it. openly manifest. .306 please. the . from an unusual concurrence of these and the like causes and occasions. or immediate inspiration into competition with it. Wherefore. its obscurity. For as such imaginations take place. THE REASON OF FAITH. it appears to be. Herein they seek continually to entangle those of the weaker sort. former ages could not But against all these objections and temptations. although they . and prevail in the minds of men. and who have notable worldly advantages thereby so the minds of multitudes are secretly influenced by the poison of these disputes. As if a company of men should conspire by crafty multiplied insinuations. as are suited to take contradictions der. divulged on all advantages.

307 spiritual There are several other especial gracious actings of the Spirit on the minds of believers. Maneat ergo. And with respect unto this work of the Holy Ghost it is. ' iklliat. his ivitnessing with them. although no internal work of the Spirit can be the formal reason of our faith. nor be established in believing against temptations and objections. non secus ac humanum judicium certo certius si ipsius Dei numen iilic intue- emur hominum sse. 3. qui- us judicium nostrum incumbat. sed supra constituimus. ministerio. For they arise from all the indu- we have of God or ourselves. whereby their faith is established. minds of true believers are secured by supplies of light. which belong also unto this internal real testimony. quos Spiritus intus docuit solide acqui€scere in Scriptura. and whose fountain is inexhaustible. Holy are his anointing and sealing of them. ab ipsissimo Dei ore ad nos fluxnon veri similitudines quserimus. et banc quidem esse avTOTTiarov neque demonstrationi et rationibus subjici eam fas esse . homines captivam ffon qualiter superstitionibus solent miseri X 2 . Non argumenta. quum per Spiritum Istius ergo veritate illurainostris. and his being an earnest in them. Much less did they exclude that evidence thereof which the Holy Ghost gives unto it in and by itself. •i-lobsignata est cordibus oilnati. that divines at the first refortnation did generally resolve our faith of the divine authority of the Scripture into the testimony of the Holy Spirit. enim reverentiam sua sibi ultro majestate concitunc tamen demum serio nos afficit. all which must be Such elsewhere spoken unto. etsi esse Scripturam. sed ut rei extra estimandi kleam positse judicium ingeniumque nostrum subjicimus. and grace from the Holy Ghost. jam non aut nostro. whose store indeed is great. Their judgment is well ex' pressed in the excellent words of one of them. wisdom. as . aut aliorum judicio credimus a Deo ("isequi. in reference unto our present duty or future happiness. Hereby is our faith every day more and more increased and established.' bitable notions that hoc fixum.THE REASON OF FAITH. without it we can never sincerely believe as we ought. But this they did not do exclusively unto the proper use of external arguments and motives of credibility. or that which it is resolved into yet is it such. Wherefore. quam taS'fijnen mereturapud nos certitudinem Spiritus testimonio consaith he.

quor quam quod apud se experitur fidelium unusquisque nisi quod longe infra justam rei explicationem verba subsidunt.) What kind of persuasion is the efiect of them. mentem addicere sed quia non dubiam vim Numinis illic sentimus vigere et spirare.) What objective evi-. . what is the force and use thereof. is the Scripture. lib. is.) What is the na- whereby we believe the Scripture to be the word of God. Holy Ghost we come it question. and whereinto it is resolved . quam in uliis rationibus . qui nisi ex ceelesti revelatione nequeat. For. Talis ergo est persuasio quse rationes non requirat. talis notitia cui optima ratio constet. (3. which. ture of that faith (5.308 THE REASON OF FAITH. The principal part of our work doth yet remain.) we have shewed. (1. in general. Why we it what that is and to give a direct answer unto that of God? that our faith rests upon herein? and what it is to inquire believe the Scripture to be the ivord makes the duty of every ? man to believe it so to be. and divine illiimiw^e iialion. because it is And I the reason why I shall be have long since in another discourse cleared this argument. in qua securius constanti usque mens quiescat. And with their mutual respect unto one another. and I shall not here again call over any thing that was delivered therein. 7 — 9. is and which of is the ivork the unto the objective evidence ivhich ive have the that it is the word of God. may here briefly call over what we have attained or passed through.' Calv. What for. (4. and how it is wrought in us by the Holy Ghost. (2. unto v/hom proposed the briefer herein is.) What is that internal testimony which is given unto the divine authority of the Scriptures by the Holy Spirit. cap. whereby the Scripture may be proved to be of a What divine original. is unto reason in the doctrine of the Scriptures to induce the mind to assent unto them. or what is the assent which we give unto the truth deuce there of the Scriptures on their account. both what is the nature of divine revelation. 2. vividius tamen et efficacius quam pro humaua aut voluntate aut scieiitia trahimur et accendimur.) are the principal external arguments or motives of credibility. (6. quam ad parendum scientes ac volentes. nempe. Instit. That which we have thus far made way now our only remaining inquiry. talis denique senNon aliud losus. concerning formal reason of our faith. that ivith respect is. because what .

or that God is one in nature. We believe the Scripture to be the its word of God with is divine faith for oivn sake only . 2. 30D it. or think demonstration. because a such demonstration. I do not know it demonstrativelj/. or whereby. Or. xi. upon rational scientifical such a divine revelation is not capable of principles. unto us in the Scripture. say. God hath revealed and declared lie. Unto this I great inquiry. wherein. is and no otherwise. it to be so. God it because himself. how I know this Scripture to be a divine revelation. as revealing himself unto And this authority and veracity of God do faith. the first truth. ii. I do not assent unto onlij. ivith and resolved faith divine and supernatural. Thm saith the the reason whj/ we ought to believe. Son. requireth us so to believe. God only. with divine faith. 1 Cor. It is the Scripture. evident that this considered for so thino. This is the sole reason why we believe any And it is . or the Father. his mind and will. 1.'' I sisting in three persons. is not God himself absolutely he is only the material object of our faith. 9. or what is that revelation which God hath made hereof? 1 answer. to be the word of God? I answer. how. inquired. Nor is it the truth of God absolutely. who hath revealed and declared these things so to be. and why we believe any thing in particular. And this we call the forinal object or reason of our faith. * He that cometh unto God must believe that he is 5' Heb. answer. so . wherefore we do believe Jesus Christ to be the Son of God. upon arguments and motives highly proor bable. or excepted against hath been of httle weight or consideration. for that we believe as we do other essential properties of his nature: but it is the truth of God revealing himself'. as I am assuredly persuaded of many other things whereof I can have no certain But I believe it so to be 1 Thess. and that be asked. and he If it be asked is our cdl. or our faith resolved into the authority and truth of us therein and thereby. these things so to be. or infallibly manifest or evince themselves unto our our minds in the exercise of it. by the revelation itself in the Scripture. therefore. and Holy Spirit. morally uncontrollable only. subIt is. why v/e believe at all in general. who cannot is. ii. resting on. may be. and why we do Lord. 6. . And if it it. hath been unto this day gainsaid unto it. 15.THE REASON OF FAITH.

protected against objections and tempThey have all of them their use. after I have made way to it by one or two previous observations. And I do believe that they will grant. all mentioned. those. therefore. into. And will not allow it hereunto. that wherewith it may be tations to the contrary. Unless v. arising from the love and practice of those lusts and sins which are severely condemned therein. we must come to something wherein we may rest for its own sake. the authority and veracity of God himself.310 THE REASON OF FAITH. though they make a fair appearance God upon of a ready and easy way for the exercise of faith. when things they do so confound all sorts of things. proposing it unto us. and my conscience. but with divine faith. I shall. I have done it elsewhere. my soul. tences. tried. but themselves unto . who persuasion from external arguments and considerations. that if the Scripture be so to be believed.'e intend so to wander. which assureth us of its divine authority. evidencing my mind. to all the motives of credibility before the arguments ab extra. and 1. as the church by the Scripture. Here we rest. and not otherwise. For those who would have us to believe the Scripture to be the word of the authority of the church. and that not with a strong and firm opinion. And if we rest not here. Especially ought be pleaded when the Scripture is attacked by an atheism. and the Scripture by the church. and may they to proper place be insisted on. which vehemently persuade the Scripture to be the word of God. the truth of manifesting itself in the Scripture. come be sifted and We suppose herein is. is the object of divine faith directly. it must be for its own sake. prove and establish the assertion laid down. And nothing can rationally pretend unto this privilege. which shakes the foundation of all divine faith or fall into the gulf and labyrinth of an endless circle. wisely deny that the Scriptures being the word of God. yet. that they know not where to stand or But it is not now my business to examine their preabide. and deny that we believe the Scripture to be the word of God formally/ for any other reason but itself. and threatened in their . in proving two things mutualli/ by one another. we must run on the rock of a moral certainty only. and witnessing so to be. some of them. in an everlasting rotation. but only of a moral God therefore. do. by this revelation itself'.

' word and hearing by hearing. but not by of God word be the to Scripture The ministry of the word is the means which itself alone. In the first vs^ay. way. therefore. or concomitant means of strengthening faith in them that do beheve. as it ministri/ of the church. and the authority of the Scripture. that those them on no other grounds have indeed no true divine faith at all. the most that do sincerely believe the divine original. to the best of my observation of tilings past and present. for itself alone. on the contrary. nor yet to apprehend much of their force and efficacy. that are not able to inquire much into them. aright. it is the ground and pillar ' in an ordinary way of truth. For. And there are many who. oppositions. and virtually all that is And God ture before they have ever once considered them. we affirm. but those who are able to apprehend and manage the subtile arguments of learned men produced in their confirmation. forbid we should think that none believe the Scripit. do it without any great consideration of them. For assuredly. Hence they were not of old insisted on for the ingenerating of faith in them to whom the word was who believe preached. previously necessary of We believe the the God. they may be pleaded to good use and purAnd they may do well to be furnished with thsni. are so to this day by any who unBut in the second derstand what is their work and duty. who are unavoidably exposed unto trials of that nature.THE REASON OF FAITH. it The are sufficiently manifest. to be disputing about the Scriptures. holding For faith cometh by unto believing. Yea. and not suhtilitate disputandi. are effectually converted to God. and the conse. nor ordinarily. quents of 2. as for that course which some take in all places and at all times. up and declaring it. with the utmost vengeance. their use is not great. as Austin speaks. is God hath appointed for the declaration and making known . 311 With others. nor ever hath been in the church of God. or being much influenced by them. and have saving faith when they whereby they contained in believe the Scripture. they may be considered as previous inducements unto believing. I confess. and their auit is a practice giving countenance unto atheism. are saved simplicitate credendi. thority and is to be abhorred of all that fear God. wherever there is occasion from objections. Most persons. pose. are proposed unto them. or temptations.

ing. as manifesting themselves in the supernatural revelation made in the Scripture. that our faith ariseth from and is resolved into. are brought to believe the Scripture to be the The church in its ministry. manifesting themselves therein. the Scripture doth evi~ . or by what means. ov/ning. 3. We do also here suppose the iniernal effectual ivork of was before declared. reach not the cause in hand. the testimony which the Holy Spirit gives in the Scripture unto its divine original. without which. the writing. witnessit and avowing out of it. of God himself.312 TH£ REASON OF FAlTM. to be divine. because the Spirit is truth. or authoritative testimony of men whatever. ttjv jpa({)rjv. and not for the sake of any thing else. And this revealer. I shall do these things. the truth and power of the things taught and revealed in faith in itself as the word of God ingenerated in them. either external arguments. this fully. not about believing the truths revealed. and evidencing themselves in its power and efficacy. and not into any thing else. Prove that our faith is so resolved into the Scripture as a divine revelation. instructing all sorts of persons together with a sense and apprehension of it. respects the revelation itself. 2. And let it be observed.' The Holy Ghost being the immediate author of the whole Scripture. we do affirm. To manifest believe the Scripture to be the word of God for its own sake. by the characters of divine authority and veracity impressed on it. not for want of evidence in them. The arguments produced by some to prove the truth of the doctrines of the For our inquiry is Scripture. but about believing the revelation itself. we can believe neither the Scripture nor any thing else with faith divine. that it is the authorifi/ and truth of God. that what we assert. we do only because of the authority and veracity of the that is. doth therein and thereby give testimony unto the divine truth and original of it. but the Spirit begetting faith in us as of faith in ourselves. there is. And this is the ordinary w^ay whereby men word of God. so to be. And herein consists that testimony which the Spirit gives unto the word of God that it is so. the Scripture. for it is the Spirit that beareth witness. that is. and not merely ' the things written or contained in it. These things being supposed. Shew how. the Scripture itself. we 1.

thou shalt read this law before all Israel in their hearing. To this purpose do testimonies abound in revelation from attestation v. Now this is to itself as it is the word of God. and thereon requires faith and obedience. or a divine him . will ask. when any other writing may say the same ? But we are not now giving arguments to prove unto others the Scripture to be the word of God. Some of them we must mention. men. they are to be believed. and is resolved into. and the stranger that is within thy gates. that they may hear. which we are to acquiesce and the truth of God. That is the forr/iuf reason whereon we do believe. dence its 313 own in it denced Vfe divine original. God Some. How it God we evidenceth itself unto our faith to be the word of It is sufficient unto our shall afterward declare.'hich is given particular. may hear and learn to fear — . present purpose. 11 before the Lord thy God in the place which he shall choose. and children. women. Whether this prove the Scripture word of God. ' When all Israel is come to appear 13. And as to the first of these. xxxi. Deut.' and therefore. or at least ought so to be. and fear the Lord your God. Gather the people together. besides that general unto it in that sole preface of divine revelations. or on any other arguments that it gives us to prove that it is from God. because it says so of itself'. which our faith is in. that God requires us to believe the Scripture for no other reason but because it is his word. 1. why it is our duty to do so. and observe to do all the words of this law. and if so. in itself. and because it is so. and whereunto it requireth our assent. it may be. but only proving and shewing what our own faith to be the resteth on. 'Thus saith the Lord . his authority and truth are the formal reason Vvhy we believe the Scripture or any thingcontained in it. to rest on. or the authority of God Is so eviand by it. and that alone. whatever motives or means of believing may make use of. and that they may learn. and is resolved into.THE REASON OF FAITH. Or it proposeth the authority of and that alone. It doth not require us to believe it upon the testimony of any church. as that we need no other formal cause or reason ofourfoith. but speaks unto us immediately in his name. and that their children which have not known any thing. which the Scripture proposeth as the only reason ivhy we should so do.

it is the law itself. by the miracles which they beheld in this law. if they speak not according to this word. 29. and unto wizards. by what satisfaction in their minds and con- of truth shining on him. the Lord your God.' It is plain that God here requireth faith and obedience of the whole people. Thou shalt read this law unto them who have known nothing.) The icritten word of God. . unto children of future generations. will be said. or what their faith and trust is in. that peep and mutter should not a people seek unto their God? for the living to the dead ? To the law. wdiich was to be read unto them out of the book. xxix. that is unto them the formal reason of their believing. ' And when they shall say unto you. viii. see also chap. where revealed things are said to belong unto us and our children that we might do them. (2. to this But moreover it is ordered to be proposed the giving of it.' &c. and that upon the account of its own authority alone. the law and the testimony. Immediate diabolical revelations. that generation was sufficiently convinced that the law was from God. timony . because he hath no mornings or light The inquiry is. men. in opposition unto all other pretences of assurance or security. women. who knew nothing. Seek unto them that have familiar spirits. But this is the written word. that is. is. there may be of other motives or testimocommend the law unto us. is it is be- cause there no light in them.' means men may come to Two things are sciences. he proposeth nothing but itself.314 THE REASON OF FAITH. To evidence But it that law to be his.) real or pretended. unto this end. Hereunto are we sent. that they may hear and learn. and children. of the ministry of the church especially. The inquiry is. is the object of our faith. 19. at the hearing of which they were obliged to believe and obey. And the sole reason why any one doth not acquiesce by faith in the written word. and which we believe for its which ov/n sake . or the written word. Isa. receive them on the account of their divine revelation. what he requireth it unto ? It is to law written in the books of Moses. 20. and to the tes. therefore. That which by the appointment of God is to he proposed unto them that know nothing that they may believe. that may hear and learn to fear the Lord. Whatthey ' nies to ever use. which is here required unto the proposal of the word unto men. proposed (1.

which. I pray that thou wouldst send him (Lazarus who was dead). is it of this authority and efficacy in itself? See * Luke Then said thee. therefore. Nay. power. let them hear them. that we know the law and testimony. that there are two persons in reputation for divine revelations esteemed prophets . But how tinguish is not so shall 315 this written word. 28. word of God. but how shall we know the one from the other ? Even as men know wheat from chaff. And he said. For as false pretended revelations are but as chaff which every wind will scatter so the true word of God is like a fire. father Abraham. • . and declares the dreams of his own fancy. or the divinations of his own mind. xxiii. for I have five that he may testify unto them. is accompanied with that and that it manifests itself unto the light. or the like marvellous ope. 27 —31. as the word of God. by their different natures and effects. faithfully from him. unto my father's house. let and he that hath my word. saith the Lord ? Is not my word like as fire. lest they also come brethren. saith the Lord ? and like a hammer that breaketh the rock in pieces V It is supposed. one of them only pretends so to be. What is the chaff to the wheat. consciences of men so to be. but if one went unto them from the dead they would repent and he said unto him. The other hath the word of God and declares it Yea. Hereon doth God call us to our faith on it in opposition unto all other pretences whatever.THE REASON OF FAITH. to be the it ? be. He who was in hell apprehended that nothing would make them believe but a miracle. and believe it so to is This declared. Jer. Abraham saith unto him. rest But xvi. and disfrom every other pretended divine revelation. efficacy.' The question here between Abraham and the rich man in this parable. father. 29. let him speak my word faithfully. They have Moses and the prophets. . tell him a dream . into this place of torment. indeed between the wisdom of God and the superstitious contrivances of men. one rising from the dead and speaking unto them . and like a hammer. he (the rich man in hell). ' The prophet that hath a dream. is about the way and means of bringing those who are unbelievers and impenitent unto faith and repentance. neither will they be persuaded though one rose from the dead. If they hear not Moses and the prophets.

so that they doubt so far about them as that they are not really . he determines to be in the written word. 31. He who was in heaven thought otherwise. Moses and the prophets. which faith divine and supernatural its own men ' rests upon that is. and come and lives. as of the soul. which are not written in this book. This. saith our Lord Jesus Christ himself. dead.' The signs which Christ >vTought did evidence him to be the Son of God. should they this would convince them of the imconverse with them. THE REASOX OF FAITH. 1 say. then that written word contains and this ' in itself the entire formal reason of faith. and that believing you might have life through his name. . believe Moses and the prophets. sake. many at this day think would have mighty power and to settle their minds and change their see one rise from the dead. was the opinion and judgment of him who was represented in hell. so that they would but as things are assuredly repent and change their lives stated they have no sufficient evidence of these things.316 rations.' If he that will not believe on the single evidence of the written word to be from God. nor any other motives. John XX. ficacy to cause us to believe things divine and supernatural . as it is of many who are posting thither apace. And this is directly affirmed. the Scripture did not contain in itself the whole entire formal reason of believing for if it have not this. But how come we to know and believe these signs ? what is the way . that you might believe that Jesus is the Christ the Son of God. a greater miracle than desire. 30. of future rewards and punishments. give shall have of Jesus Christ given in this matter. or a divine revelation of his will. somethingnecessary unto believing would be wanting. wherein we have the immediate judgment influenced by them. if will not hear. But these are w'ritten.' and if neither will they be persuaded though one rose from the come and preach unto them. determining this con- The question is about sufficient evidence and eftroversy. which they could not Now this could not be spoken. though that . them but one real miracle and you them for ever. will never believe upon the evidence of miracles. 'And many other signs truly did Jesus in the presence of his disciples. or all that evidence of the authority and truth of God in it. that is. it is to be believed for But. mortality influence upon them giving them sufficient evidence thereof. were enjoyed.

24. when we were with him in the holy mount. as unto a light shining in a dark place.THE REASON OF FAITH. or the declaration of the powerful coming of Jesus Christ.' this writing of them by divine inspiration is so far sufficient to beget and assure faith in you. i. The grounds and reasons hereof. in whom I am And this voice which came from heaven we well pleased. ' these things believe . For we have not followed cunningly 2 Pet. when we made known unto you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ. For the prophecy came not in this first. that it was a fanatical story of madmen. And in like manner is this matter lations be the determined by the apostle Peter. devised fables. until the day dawn. (1. if it were. who not only conversed with Jesus Christ. For if the writing of divine things and revemeans appointed of God to cause men to believe unto eternal life. and means thereof? are written that Saitli the 317 you may blessed apostle.' The question is about were they the gospel. but were eye-witnesses of his majesty. . 15. then it must as such carr}^ along with it sufficient reason why we should believe. i. to be beworth and truth. For he received from God the Father honour and glory. and. heard. are two. no prophecy of the Scripture is of Knowing any private interpretation. and very many are of the same mind still. whether it were to be believed or no. as Festus thought of it. the glory as of the only-begotten of the Father. beholding his glory. and ? Some said it * . and the day-star arise in your hearts. and were eye-witnesses of his majesty.) The testimony of the apostles. averred that what was spoken concerning him.' others. and grounds whereon we should do so. 14. on the contrary. when there came such a voice to him from the excellent glory This is my beloved Son. The apostles.' John i. when preached by Paul Acts xxvi. whereunto ye do well that ye take heed. full of grace and truth. as that thereby you may have eternal life through Jesus Christ. faithful sayings.' yea. upon what grounds was a cunningly devised fable . were words of truth and soberness. that is. — ' . We have also a more sure word of prophecy.' 1 Tim. 16 21. 1 John i. which they gave in evidence of the truth of the But also lieard a miraculous testigospel. 1. that old time by the will of man but holy men of God spake as moved by the Holy Ghost. all its ' . ' ' worthy of lieved for acceptation.

but now is made manifest. 20. the mystery of the gospel. 25. The words that were spoken before by the holy prophets. wherethe church comes to be built in its faith on the ' founby dation of the prophets and apostles . they have a more sure. ' ' testimony ? Why.318 mony THE REASON OF FAITH. 2 Pet. we are said to be prophets and ' built upon the foundation of the apostles. . This God commands to be believed.' that is. not absolutely. he who hath sovereign authority over all. but with respect unto that full manifestation which it hath now received. which was kept secret since the world began. espe- confirmed by the testimony of the apostles.' The matter to be believed is. should we believe this word of prophecy ? may not that also be a' cunningly devised fable. as is ob- why jected? Ver. Holy own evidence with it. Plainly. Eph. and the commandments of the apostles of the Lord and Saviour. made known unto all nations for the obedience of faith.' And because our faith is resolved into them. but the Scripture we believe for its own sake.' ii.' as was said. a most sure word of prophecy. 26. given unto him immediately from God in heaven ver. This gave them indeed sufficient assurance. as on its proper foundation which bears the weight of writings. xvi. But cially as Eph.' that is. All it is finally resolved into this. the everlasting God. * in their According to the revelation of the which was mystery kept secret since the world began. that is.' and the whole Scripture be but the suggestions of men's private spirits. 2. on the authority and truth of God Hereunto we may add that of Paul. teacheth us that we believe all other divine truths for the Scripture's sake. ii. that is sufficient of itself to secure their faith in this matter. 18. the whole object of faith proposed by the same apo' iii. our faith rests solely. it. 20. requires faith in a way of obedifirst Rom. or because * holy men of is God wrote it as they were moved by the Holy Ghost. 20. the written word of God. and by the Scriptures of the prophets.' So stle. or because they are declared therein . but virhereinto shall they resolve their faith who heard not this 17. . according to the commandment of the everlasting God. that which the apostle is. or from the giving of the promise. that the writers of were immediately moved and acted by the from which divine original it carrieth along its Ghost.

but only its thority. it is because either they do not understand what they are produced to confirm. might be produced. it is evident. or cannot answer the proof that is in them. 17. and writings of the prophets. For that which was the said.. and hearing by the word of God. That great testimony to this purpose. in proposing these divine revelations which they received by immediate inspiration from God. namely. 2. x. ^the reason of their faith unto whom they first declared those . — I do not plead it fully insisted on in an- these and many other testimonies to the same purwhich pose. the ivord or will of God as revealed or written. because I have so other discourse. even after his resurrection. iii. 319 ence hereunto. and all the penmen of the Scripture. 25 27. that original we shall not be mistaken. 2 Tim. With some indeed it is grown a matter of contempt to quote or cite the Scripture in our writings. 2. 14 — 17. Our assertion is confirmed by the uniform practice of the prophets and apostles. 1. That it is the Scripture itself. will pride and please themselves in the ridiculousness of proving the Scripture to be word of God by testimonies taken out of it. either as a motive to From encourage us. Tliis course and no other did our ' Saviour. That no other reason is proposed unto us. But. as was we must not forego the truth because either they will not or cannot understand what we discourse about. than the plausible reasonings of any to the contrary. in particular. But for such who pretend to despise those testimonies in this case.THE REASON OF FAITH. or as an argument to assure us. For it is not unlikely but that some persons well conceited of their own understandino. a thousand times. But what ground or reason have we to believe it ? This aione is proposed. which we are to receive and believe with faith divine and supernatural.' Rom. own divine and au- making our duty necessary. and securing our faith inAnd those testimonies are with me of more weio-ht fallibly. the divine revelation made in the preaching of the apostles. Luke xxiv.in thino-s •wherein they are most ignorant. take to beget and confirm faith in the disciples . for faith cometh by hearing. such reverence have they for the ancient fathers. which is proposed unto us as the object of our faith and obedience. some of whose writings are nothing else but a perpetual contexture of Scripture.

or on the account of Luke ' xvi. That which they universally insisted on. ii. whether they wrought any miracles or no. comes of their oral ministry. and declared by them as they were acted by the Holy Ghost 2 Pet. accompanied with such an infallible assurance in them that . was. 24. i. Hence 2. 22. 25. as to their own especial messages and revelations. Under the Old Testament. although the prophets sometimes referred persons unto the word already written. and appointed as the means and cause of our faith. Acts xviii. yet.' And under the New Testament. wrote. 28. 20. but its own authority only. 13. 7 faith and obedience 9. iii. 1. i. Isa. ii. is divine revelations. Thus saith the Lord. some seasons. nor to any other motives or arguments to beget and require faith. xix. and not to Psal. viii. Matt. . And are they called.320 THE REASON OF FAITH. On what and supplies the place. 29. when made unto them by the prophets and apostles. iv. declared. or signs and wonders. 21. in this alone. And for the revelations which they superadded. 14. xxvi. see John v. propose the writings of Old Testament to be received for their own sake. ground soever men were obliged to receive and believe divine revelations. and other evi' dence they pleaded none. their divine original. oracles always required an assent for their own sakes. 4. by Jesus Christ . 42. came not by any private suggestion. God was pleased sometimes to bear witness unto their personal ministry by miracles. the oracles of God Rom. the infallible preachers and wri' the ters thereof do. that the word which they preached. they pleaded that they had them immeAnd this was diately from God. 21. or from any invention of their own. but was indeed the word of God 1 Thess. xxi. — any thing else. they laid the foundation of all the faith and obedience which they required. 31. the God of truth. corded in the Scripture. It is true. on the same are we obliged to receive and believe them now they are made unto us in the Scripture. . as that which their faith was to acquiesce in. it the reason of our faith now they are reFor the writing of it being by God's into the room. the writing being by divine inspiration. * . and with some of them. 45 47. . 2 Pet. — xxiv. Mai.' Gal. was not the word of man. setting out its power and excellency for all the ends of cxix. appointment. in the first place. as Heb.' i. God bearing them witness.' But this was only at 4.

xxviii. and ordinarily'it is indispensable thereunto. by what means the Scripture is brought unto us. they were to esteem him accursed. received 321 it. and submit their consciences unto it? The rule seems plain. as unto our duty. 33. 1. for it is all one. And as for those who were not themselves divinely inspired. For if an angel from heaven should have preached any other doctrine than what they revealed and proposed in the name and authority of God. 26. that there is required as subservient unto believing. . though we do not believe either the one or the other for it. Acts xviii. Rom. with the command of God for obedience unto them Rom. as the reason of the faith of them unto whom they preached and wrote. But upon a supposition of this ministerial proposal of the word. nor the things contained in it to be from him. 16. For this cause they still insisted on their apostolical authority and mission. This ministry of the church. Gal. I desire to know whether those unto whom it is proposed are obliged.THE RKASOX OF FAITH. to rest their faith in it. to receive it as the word of God. III. which ordinarily includes the whole duty of the church in its testimony and declaration of the truth. 15. which included infallible inspiration and directions. or the resolution of our faith into the authority of God in the Scriptures. 28. Mark xvi. they proved the truth of what they delivered by its consonancy unto the Scriptures already written. referring the minds and consciences of men unto them for their ultimate satisfaction . 8. We may that they are obliged so to do . and the truths contained in them. X. I do grant that in extraordinary cases outward providences may supply the room of this ministerial proposal. It was before granted. 25. God hath appointed unto this end. without farther external evidence. as to be preferred above a supposition of the miracle to confirm any highest thing to the contrary . xvi. as a means of it. VOL. or wherein those that were so did not act by immediate inspiration. 14. Y . 3. 'How shall they believe in him of whom they have not heard ? and how shall they hear without a preacher ? and how shall they preach unless they are sent?' Without this ordinarily we cannot believe the Scripture to be the word of God. the [ministerial proposal of the Scriptures. either extraordinary or ordinary.

or on their declaration of any they had from God. to be the Hereby the Scripture is declared unto men . extra- Upon new inspiration of the revelation the preaching of any of the prophets by immediate Holy Ghost. For external motives they used not. tives. and ground.322 THE REASON OF FAITH. then it must contain in it the formal reason of believing. or the testimony or authority of the church witnessing thereunto ? If they were not. and in despising the warnings and instructions which they gave them. there is no doubt but that men are obliged to consider all things of that nature which are proposed unto them. and that under the penalty of divine displeasure. were not obliged to believe them. suppose Isaiah or Jeremiah. by preaching or writing. reason. they declared in the who refused to believe the message name of God. and not to receive it with brutish implicit belief. I desire to know whether or no all persons were bound to receive their doctrine as from God. as the roord of God . as are proposed unto them for its reception and admisI say. Now it is impious to imagine that those to whom they spake in the name of God. its consider this under the distinct ways of ordinary and ordinary. or the full and entire cause. and it tends to the overthrow of all religion. on the best grounds and evidences which the . and they are charged in the name of God to receive and believe it. For the receiving of it is to be an act of men's own minds or understandings. they are acquainted with it. Doth any obli- word of God gation unto believing hence arise ? It may be some will say that immediately there is not only they will grant that men are bound hereon to inquire into such reasons and mo. and what God requires of them therein. then were they all excused as guiltless. without any external motives or ar- guments. If we shall say that they were obliged to believe them. why they ought to believe with faith divine and supernatural. or their declaration of it. sion. Suppose the proposal be made in the ordinary ministry of the church. and so to receive the revelation made by them. to believe and submit unto the authority of God in the revelation made by him. and the present church mostly condemned them and their ministry . proposal. as is plain in the case of Jeremiah. Or let another ground of faith in this case be assigned.

who refuse to receive the gospel. necessarily. such as is that of the church. whereunto this revelation is proposed. which carries with it its own evidence of being a divine revelation. what power. for what God requires us to believe upon. then are all men perfectly innocent. and fire by heat. assent . as the sun manifesteth itself by light. what faculty in 1 the minds of men. and whereby we assent unto the truth of it. But is this is not so. that our faith is built on. and all men. it. It may be said. doth that faith ultimately rest in the truth and authority of God alone. or that so it to be. on that evidence alone. that it is the word of God. we may consider. and not in any human testimony. wherein the mistakes whereon this objection proceedeth will be discovered. nor in any rational arguments or motives that are absolutely fallible. upon the proposal of the Scriptuire unto them. is to overthrow the whole dispensation of the ministry. I shall do these two things. If they are obliged to believe upon the preaching of it. in the preaching of it. hath so always. And. and its own bare assertion. posed Y 2 . as to any respect unto that preaching . would. whether by the proposal mentioned. nature of the thing proposed is 323 But supposing capable of. men to do their duty I whole matter. then hath the word in itself those evidences of its divine original and authority. and resolved into. which to say. I shall shew what it is. As the issue of this whole discourse. or reason of believing. the Scripture itself. I shall mention some of those things. reason of ought ground In answer unto this objection. experience lieth against nor there the veracity of God alone. that there are three ways whereby we assent unto any thing that is prounto us as true. diately resolved into 1. in their diligent inquiries into the desire to know. whereby the Holy Ghost testifieth and giveth evidence unto the Scripture in and by itself. in the first place. it is affirmed. and receive it as such. 2.THE REASON OF FAITH. all any pleadable that so it is. therefore. and believe it so to be. And. which area sufficient ground of faith. there come upon men an obligation to believe ? If there do not. or as the first principles of reason are evident in themselves without farther proof or testimony then €very one. that if the Scripture thus evidence itself to be the word of God. so as that our faith may be imme. thereunto.

which it knows. Jude 10. as being human. without admitting any debate about them. This respects that power of our minds. and concluding one thing from another. Hence it hath a certain knowledge of some things of others an opinion or persuasion prevalent against the objections to the . i. gathering one thing out of another. and resteth on . (2. or an assu- And this assent also hath not only various degrees. with the difference between them.324 THE REASON OF FAITH. according as the testimony is which it ariseth from. . the mind is necessarily determined to an assent unto the proper objects of these principles. whereby we are able to assent unto any thing as true. nor can from more known principles make unto ourselves any certain rational conclusions concerning them. which may be true or false. This in reason answers instinct Hence God complains that his peosin did and ple against their own natural light. and whose force it understands.contrary. and the first rational actings of our minds. yea. the light of nature. no inbred notions of. those dictates are nothing but its assent. are this assent. according unto the nature and degree of the evidence it proceeds upon. and divine. it cannot do It cannot but assent unto the prime dictates of otherwise. And hereon is it able to assent unto what is proposed unto it in various degrees of certainty. forsake the conduct of the instinct of their natures . Isa. (1.) By inbred principles of natural light.) 'By faith. unto of things externally proposed Herein the mind exerciseth its discursive faculty. Thus doth the mind embrace in itself the general notions of moral good and evil. rance of. however it practi- cally complies not with what they guide unto. This is our assent upon testimony. Its first apprehension oi tho.) ^y rational considerations us. if that be human. without either express reasonings or farther consideration. also of divers kinds. as that the whole is greater than the part. 3. In general. which no sense. nor reasonings of our own. if that be so also. could either give us an acquaintance with. things which the light of nature embraceth. (3. and neglect first dictates of reason. but is . inbred principles. which we have no first principles concerning. whereas brute creatures would not in irrational creatures. And so doth it assent unto many principles of reason. whereon we believe many things.

discerning. that to yvwarhv tqv Qzov (^avi^ov l<TTiv Iv avro'ig . the apostle affirms. to these distinct faculties 325 and powers of our himself. his God is pleased to reveal or make known unto us. For he hath implanted no power on our minds. ii. For whereas there are two things in this natural light and first dictates of reason a power of conceiving. us by the innate prin- and affront unto him. 8. do require. i. and moral subjection unto him. and the And exercise unto other ends. so far as our natural dependance on him. or in not using them to his glory when they take his corn. abuse of the faculties and powers of the soul. vi. first. tures of God . and spend them on their lusts Hos. God makes known his being.) He makes himself known unto unto which he hath communicated as a ciples of our nature. blasrifying of God. so an indelible sense of his being. kind. It is a an aggravation of . and. when men abuse the creaotherwise than he hath appointed. atheism. 'That which may subsistence. being made for eternity. the diverting of their principal phemy. secondly. is the highest aggravation of sin. power his authority. Rom. of the sin of fornication and uncleanness in any aggravation But the height of impiety consists 1 Cor. wherewith we are endowed purposely and immediately for the gloHence proceed unbelief. . his natube known of God (his essence. and essential properall. of apprehending. is the end of them all. ^ power ofjudging and determining upon the things so discerned and assented unto by . and whose . (1. And a neglect of the improve- ment of them unto It is this end. and wine. will. and oil. and his will. and our living unto him. As being. is an act of enmity against him. higher aggravation when men in sinning abuse and dishonour their own bodies for these are the principal external workmanship of God. 19. but the principal use and exercise of it are to be with respect unto himself. the powers and faculties of our minds being given us only to enable us to live unto God. preservation unto his glory is committed unto us in an espeThis the apostle declareth to be the peculiar cial manner. and assenting . According souls. 19. like pollutions of the spirit or For these are sins of the highest provocation. : the one ties . by the other his sovereign authority over to the first. in the mind. profaneness. three ivays mind or which sin. 18.THE REASON OF FAITH.

Thus the heavens declare the glory of God.' Psal. beauty. or that souls is whereby are able to assent unto the truth of power of our what he doth by proposed unto us upon testimony. A rational consi- deration of them. his glorious being and power. it necessary. and use. Isa.326 ral. and the firmament shevv^eth his handy-work. to instruct us in the nature. order. Day unto day uttereth speech. which present themselves unavoidably unto reason in its exercise. Rom. by proposing such things unto its consideration. And in and as unto his sovereign authority.' that hath a self-evidencing power. ' without the actual exercise of reason. And thus the mind doth assent unto the principles of God's being and authority.'e himself \xnto ourfaith. is and evidence which God gives in required unto that testimony them and by them unto himself. 7 make of them. is. 29. for the exercise — — (3. THE REASON OF FAITH. Rom. . 14. or other testimony whatever. 3. 20 xvii. which are the judgment that they make. xliv. And thi^s . — 22. in an assent unto the truth of what God intends to reveal unto us that way. the as the when we consider his heavens the work moon and the stars which he hath ordained. as of those of 24 — 28. with respect unto the authority and judgment of God. i. xix. Actsxiv. There is no speech nor language w^here their voice is not heard. their greatness. and cannot but make. essential properties) is manifest in them . So God calls unto men of their reason about these things reand brutishness where them with stupidity they proaching 9. 1 and reveal the glory of God unto the first principles and no- — tions of natural lig-ht. But yet they do not thus declare. and the rational also. he doth evidence it by the consciences of men. ii. To this purpose the apostle discourseth at large concerning the w^orks of creation providence use we are to . 15 — 17. ver. same psalmist speaks. evidence. (2. being. This he doth by the works of creation and providence. xlvi. are wanting therein . . Psal. 15. viii. 18 20.) He doth it unto our reason in its exercise.' 3. of themselves and their actions. ' and properties of God. and cannot but conclude.) God reveals v. acting itself in the minds of all men endued with natural light and reason. and nigtit unto night sheweth knowledge. antecedently unto any actual exercise of the discursive faculty of reason. Only they do so of his fingers. as from whence it may.

the Heat hen philosophers. i. If any thing pretends from the one. in the gospel the righteousness of God 'is revealed from faith to faith .lnbred had in themselves of the being and eternal power of God Wherefore.' Rom. ples and dictates. because it is resolved into testimony alone. i. xi. what is absolutely contradictory unto the other. Unto sent of faith. as revealed in the word. it is no divine of reason in its exercise. being. Thus saith the Lord. j ' and these were so manifest in them thereby. to conclude unto . it is not to be received. of our intellectual rational nature. any thing concerning the nature. or first nesouls. as to draw conclusions directly contrary unto the first principles of natural unavoidable notions which they had of the light.THE REASON OF FAITH. This. 1. faculty at work in But herein were they so vain and foolish. and vehemently n otions they urgeth against. that is directly contradictory unto those princirevelation unto our reason. Heb. is the only and reason of our assent and that assent is the asground this . that there is The foundation of is the whole. 17. kind of revelation. and the God . if any pretend in the exercise of reason. served. Hereon they set their rational discursive the consideration of God and his being. Rom. And many upon of eternal being — their pretended event of things in the woiidf rational consideration of the promiscuous have foolishly concluded that all . that they could not but own them. defect the from but a paralogism This is that which the apostle chargeth on. He doth not reveal himself by his word unto the princiBut ples of natural light. as of all the actings of our in the inbred principles of natural light. or our senses as the means of them. it must be always ob- a perfect consonancy in the things revealed by them all. with all the faculties of our minds. or the Scriptures. sense. And concerning these several ways of the communication or revelation of the knowledge of God. and reason itself. And it is faith that is the evidence of things not seen. not to natural light. or will of God. yet these principles. 21 24. and are drawn forth into their proper exercise by it. so dictates cessary far as it extends. is a rule unto our apprehension in all that fol- lows. in the first place. 327 his word. are consequentially affected with that revelation. proposed unto us in the manner and way before expressed. or But reason. nor unto reason in its exercise.

nor are they co-ordinate. unerring. And this also. things had 2i fortuitous heginning. or commensurate. Such And it is are all the principal mysthe height of folly to reject them. above what they arrived unto. are not equally extensive. seeing they are not contraWherefore. it is a delusion. So the sober philosophers of old attained unto many true and great conceptions of God. So if any pretend unto revelations hy faith. or could not. teries of Christian. It is. or such as from a concatenation of antecedent causes are fatally necessarily. there are . which are contradictory unto the first principles of natural light. Wherefore. tion of himself. folly to pretend that are not infallibly true and first because they are not obvious unto the concep- tions of natural light. holy providence. provided they are not contradictory thereunto. who either did not. . whereby it On this ground the . or equally extensive. these ways of God's reveladictory thereunto.328 THE REASON OF FAITH. Roman doctrine of transubstantiation is justly rejected proposeth that as a revelation by faith. is directly contradictory unto the first principles and notions of natural light. to cross for it make ways whereby God reveals and makes known himand interfere one with another. many things discernible by reason in its exercise. and the excellencies of his nature. would the self. things so made known of God therefore.religion. without the due exercise of reason. and are not disposed by an infinitely wise. 2indihdi\e fortuitous events. or reason in its proper exercise about its proper objects. which do not appear unto the first principles of natural light. cultivate and improve the principles of natural light in the same manner certain. And there are many yond things revealed unto faith that are above and bethe comprehension of reason. which is expressly contradictory unto our sense and reason in their proper exercise about their proper objects. openly proclaims itself not to be an effect of reason in its due exercise. but a mere delusion. as some do. as they did. but subordinate unto one another. because they are not discernible and comprehensible by reason. But yet as these means of divine revelation do harmonize and perfectly agree one with the other so they are not objectively equal. And a supposition of the possibility of any such thing. which w^ould leave us no certainty in any thing divine or human. in the best and utmost of its most proper exercise.

doth sufficiently. we must rationally consider the works of God. infallibly evidence and demonstrate itself to be from him. that is. 20. and in our doino. or we cannot learn them what God intends to reveal of himself. by the (2.) The revelation that works of creation and providence. which the evidence it gives of itself makes to be We dispute not now. even his eternal we cannot be deceived. so that it is It doth not do so impossible we should be deceived therein. the inbred principles of natural light.' Rom. whose folly hath been sufficiently detected by others. They are clearly seen. do not evidence themselves to for they are not capable of .so For the invisible things of God. And if the first dictates of reason concerning God. what a few atheistical sceptics so. according to the capacity of our natures. 329 but are so subordinate one unto another. that what is wanting unto the one is supposed by the other. and the truth of God is the same in them all. in its apprehensions of that nature. in and by the inbred principles of our minds and consciences. nor can be possibly imposed on. doth suffi- lation of God is infallible. being understood by the things that are made.) first The revelation which God makes of himself in the ciently it way. being confirmed by external ar- force first guments and what is written about them.THE REASON OF FAITH. God maketh of himself. and by. manifest itself to be from him. both of creation and providence. be from God. unless they are engaged in a rational exercise. and that the mind neither is. uncontrollably. is to shew their and evidence. that the light of the knowledge of God. . and infallibly. by and infallibly evidence itself to be from him it doth This revein. not to give them any. i. unto our reason in exercise. Wherefore. pretend unto. unto the inbred principles of natural light. infallibly evidenceth itself in our minds. from the creation of the world are clearly seen. concluding rationally one thing from another. All the sobriety that is in the world consents in infallible this. ' power and Godhead . the assent unto it is infallible. yea. doth sufficiently. they are neither of any use nor force . those principles themselves. . unto. (1. this way of God's revelation of himself unto us is infallible. or and the faculties of our souls as discursive. about the means of the revelation by made . unto the accompHshraent of the whole and entire end of divine revelation .

without any possibility of mistake. we should by virtue of them immediately assent unto it. no nor to bare reason in cursive faculty of our minds about . and dislike of him. or its self-evidencing efficacy. 2. as to what they teach of God. with the essential properties wisdom. or the first principles of our understanding. righteousness. who rejected or improved because they did not like cause is God in their knowledge Rom. we confess. their enmity against God. by the works of creation and providence. 20. xlvi. we can demonstratively conclude that it is from God. For which God did so severely revenge their natural unbelief. that is. (3. 19. implanted on it more characters of himself and his properties. than on any other way. So may the Scripture have. and that what is declared therein it is certainly and infallibly true. so as that an assent should be given thereunto. And wherever men do not receive the revelation intended in the way intended. 8.330 THE KEASON OF FAITH. and therefore may be perfectly understood. is it is power and Godhead. did to retain it. not from any defect in the revelation. 15. Psal. Nor doth ercise. in its mere natural exby virtue thereof. or his word which he hath magnifed above all his name. cxxxviii. that what of creation and providence. believing it accordingly .) Unto OUT faith God reveals himself by the Scripture. that they ' not the revelation of God. vicious habits of their minds. that the revelation which God makes of himself. i. and the certainly and infallibly so. And so the apostle saith. And this reGod by his word. its exercise. or the like. or the dis- them but thereunto it doth infallibly evidence itself. It hath indeed such exter- . but only from the depraved. God teaches by his works his eternal do not certainly conclude. so that by bare proposal of it to be from God. . For. that is. as tliat evidence itself unto our reason. doth not evidence itself unto the first principles of natural light. and hath a self-evidencing efficacy though this appear not unto the light of first natural principles. as that the part assent unto self-evident natural prinis less than the whole. whereby he revealeth or velation of maketh himself known unto us. thereof. as men ciples. without the actual exercise of reason. 28.' See Isa. That there expressed. goodness. as . xliv. infinite like. is not sufficient nor suited to evidence itself unto the light of nature. namely. which I principally insist on from hence is.

being the most minds. to make our asbe according unto the mind of God. therefore. as makes a great impression But the power of our souls whereunto it is is that proposed. thereby exciting and bringing forth faith So when God by into exercise. than his revelation of himself. in the exercise offaith. On this supposition. doth infallibly conclude upon the evidence that is in that revelation. nal evidences 331 accompanying it. by the works of creation and providence. that there is a God. that hath some resemblance unto our inbred natural principles and they will act that instinct. be not so. is. as a ground and reason why we should believe it to be from him. without true. But as unto the power or faculty of life. and he eternally powerful and that his eternal . by the things that are made. to be from him. This. are to he prepared and assisted by the Holy Ghost. power and Godhead. doth manifest itself unto our minds in the exercise of reason to be from him. whereby we can give an assent unto the the truth. brute creatures. . there is nothing in the nature of irrational creatures. the heavens declaring his his handy-work the reaglory. nor with less assurance than what we assent unto. all that remains would not be sufficient to conduct us through the affairs of this natural noble faculty of our into a great likeness of reason in its exercise.THE REASON OF FAITH. doth no less evidence itself unto our minds. we have declared and proved before. and such as is required of us in a way of duty. wise. in this especial case. And this is the principal and most noble There is an instinct in faculty and power of our natures. And when God revealeth himself. and the firmament shewing son of men stirred up and brought into exercise thereby. any farther arguments to prove the revelation his word reveals himself unto to be the minds of men. is that whereunto the highest way of divine revelation (4. And if our souls did want but this one faculty of assenting unto truth upon testimony. in and by the dictates of natural light. or the power of the soul to assent unto truth . improved on reason itself. that hath the least shadow of it or likeness unto it. or gives no less infallible evidence. the revelation which God makes of himself by his word. upon testimony of the proposer. That our minds. although it giving an assent unto things on witness or testimony. by experience.) sent to is proposed. the works of creation. whereof we have no other evidence.

a sufficient for the reply security of the authority of the Scriptures (though . to be divine or from God. suppose that to be so. an nuUus sit dubitare possit. esse tam apersophers granted. that this is no proof to him. a divine revelation. 2. And if I declare unto any one. by themselves.' and he shall demand how I prove it it is a sufficient answer to say. and if he be it is reason. order. THE REASON OF FAITH. ccelestiaque conlemplati sumus. i . that it manifesteth itself and by its own and if he add. in the consideration of them. to say he is phrenetic. And if I tell a man that the 'heavens declare the glory of God. must necessarily conIf he shall say. and hath not the use of his reason. do manifest unto the reasoji of every man in its due and proper exercise. it is a satisfactory an: m swer. from the creation of the world. their original. produced. and shineth on the earth. in case he be so indeed. that the being of God is so revealed by them. pear unto him.' saith Cicero. a sufficient reply. that he hath the use and exercise of his sense and reason as well as others. quo hsec reguntur quod qui dubitat baud sane intelligo cur non idem sol sit. that these things. cum coelum suspeximus. that it doth not so apclude that so it is. and made so as that whosoever knoweth how to use and . and that it doth evidence and manifest itself so to be. that revelation doth no less iyifaUihly evi- dence itself. that . and the firmament sheweth his ' handy-work. being understood by the things that are made . and use. if he ques- tion or deny it. tell him that he is blind and if he be not so. that no purpose to argue with him who contradicts his oivn for he leaves no rule whereby what is spoken may be . ' the Scripture is the word of God. that there is an eternal. If he shall say. infinitely wise and powerful being. exercise his reasonable faculty.*^ De Natura Deor. and yet it doth not appear unto him it is as unto the so to be present inquiry. to it is to sense. tried or judged on. for he doth light not discern it .332 upon testimony. that he argues in express contradiction unto his own may be demonstrated. as not so.quamesse aliquod numen praestantissimae mentis. and ask how I shall prove it. it is a suffi- cient answer to say. lib. in and . If I shall say unto a man that the sun is risen. This the Heathen philo' Quid potest. tum tamque perspicuum. nature. are clearly seen. without any external arguments to prove it so to be. by Avhom they were caused.' or that the invisible things of God.

. give such an evidence unto his word And neither of these can as mip'ht manifest itself so to be. .THE REASON OF FAITH. And God requireth of us that we should infallibly believe what he proposeth unto us. it. at least when we have infallible evidence that it is from him. or could not. And as he appointeth faith unto this end. To say that God either could not. which is its most noble faculty. though of another kind. 2 Chron. because the power of the mind to give assent upon testimony. vii. more firm and accompanied with more assurance. 16. reason is. which are impressed on be not so. xx. before described. so he doth both judge and condemn them who fail therein Isa. is exceedingly prejudicial unto his honour and glory. as to evidence itself to be so. and it. and bestows it upon us for this very end. seeing he designed far greater and more glorious ends in this than in them. suited. 20. If it seeing it it is it is it must be either because our nor able to receive such an evidence. because God works it in us. and approveth of its exercise. and communicated unto a divine revelation. 9. other means 333 maybe used . why he should implant a less evidence of his divine authoof rity on this than on them. is elevated and strengthened by the divine supernatural work of the . Mark xvi. divine authority of the Scriptures is discoverable in the light whereof alone we can read those characters of its divine extract. as he hath done unto those by the or because God light of nature and works of providence would not. because this kind of divine revelation is not capable of receiving such evidences it must be either . suppose God would give it unto the revelation of himself by his word. that 'all men have not faith by which alone the evidence of the . or would not. faith is not fitted. give such a power unto the revelation of himself by his word. If any one shall say the reason is.^ for his conviction) to say. That our faith is capable of giving such an assent is evident from hence. Yea. our an assent. goodness of God. be affirmed without a high reflection on the wisdom and our duty to believe so to be. faith is capable of giving Holy Ghost. than any And the is given by reason in the best of its conclusions. seeing the everlasting welfare of the souls men is incomparably more concerned therein than in the And what reason could be assigned other ways mentioned.

whereon we do original The way whereby we learn the eternal power believe it. and use. For from the consideration of their subsistence. in the second place. And this work or testimony of the Spirit may be reduced unto two heads. into way and means whereby they evidence themselves unto us. communicated unto be demonstrated shall it. and the Scripture thereby to be the word of God. in the last part of this discourse. tokens. wisdom. the author of the Scriptures. and goodness. or supernatural assent unto as it is of God. wisdom. from the works of creation. I . because there cannot be evident characters of divine authoon it or mixed rity. throughout. of whose power and wisdom these things are the manifest effects. reason doth necessarily conclude an infinite subsisting being. but itself. the remains only that we inquire. that it is the authority and veracity of God. power. and impressions of his divine power. It mony. order. civ. greatness. testimony of the Holy Ghost. by the Holy Spirit its author. hath been already declared. is an assent upon testi2. And this we say is the this case whereon faith doth rest. of all nature. See to this purpose the blessed meditation of the psalmist. implanted with it or because an efficacy to manifest them cannot be . It now that it is the formal reason the ivord of our faith. which may be distinctly insisted on. and deity of God. IVow there are greater and more Psal. revealing themselves in the Scripture and by it. and by them. These are clearly seen and understood by the things that are made we need no other arguments to prove that God made the world. is no otherAvise but by those marks. or they do give the first Spirit which our faith rests upon and divine evidence of its authority. and consequently divine faith is an assent upon divine There must be some testimony or witness in testimony. That both these are otherwise. goodness. . Now because faith.) The impressions or c^a/ac^ers in the Scripture and upon it. so as that we may undoubtedly and infallibly believe it so to be. given unto them.334 THE REASON OF FAITH. that are upon them. as we have shewed. shall which I enter upon. It carrieth in it and upon it the infallible tokens of its orio-inal. in them. which are subjectively left (1. are the first the divine excellencies or properties of the divine means evidencing that testimony of the .

Hence David comparing the works and the word of God. and yet not cording or leave upon it any t£Kju?. 9. than the other word unto our do the works faith to to be his. that there festation is that mani- made of the Scripture. whether (morally be possible that God should immediately by it. 8. but until they will directly deny it. I confess. although he ascribe much unto the works of creation. Men who are not ashamed of their Christianity. as the immediate author of the Scripture. And these do manifest the clearly. As yet I do not know that it is the contrary asserted. as to their instructive efficacy in declaring God and his glory. it all. and other divine infinite excellencies. 1—3. will not be so to profess and seal that profession with their blood. prescience. any infallible with it. namely. if we believe it so at {original. which had been hidden in himself from eternity. I shall not need farther to confirm treatise. 7—9. that God. from the eternal counsels of his will reveal himself. hath left in the very word itself evi- be his more unto our denied by any. There is in itself that evidence of from the characters of divine excellencies its divine left upon in. yet doth he prefer the word incomparably before them. by its author the Holy Ghost. cxlvi. and yield obedience unto him acto the declaration of himself so made. and to rest their eternal concernments on that security herein which they have attained. &c. than it I I leave to himself. on purpose that believe them. truth. or dent tokens and impressions of his wisdom. reason. holiness. of what sort soever. Some. the thoughts and purposes of his heart. as faith quietly rests . 335 evident impressions of divine excellencies left on the written word from the infinite wisdom of the author of it. Psal.joiov. as it is excels in evidence all that their reason receives concerning: his power from the works of creation. 20. speak suspiciously herein . goodness. power. glorious properties of God in and by the a divine revelation which incomparably This is that whereon we believe the Scripture to be the word of God with faith divine and supernatural. than any that are communicated unto the works of God. sufficiently evidenced unto the enlightened minds of believers. his mind.THE REASOiV OF FAITH. give we should token. And it speaking) have done long since in another be considered. omniscience. namely. evidencing him to be the author of that revelation. xix. xix.

or one unlearned. and its profession. who is the image of God. and learned men.' which often light will . no less than unto the And the truth is. rational. (2. could give the least countenance unto see 1 Cor. any external argu- among them. learned philosophers would have had the advantage incomparably above others. This the apostle expressly affirms to be the reason and cause of ' If all prophesy. . and report that God is in you of a truth. 23. in of one that believeth not.' a light shining in itself unto all who are not ' blind. 1 Cor. who at first most readily received the gospel. is by them.' The acknowledgment and confession of God to be in them heart or nistered a profession of faith in the word admiSuch persons assent unto its divine auAnd on what thority. if rational arguM'isest philosophers. or believe it to be the word of God. 24. and most firmly For whereas all such to adhere unto it. made manifest. he is judged of all. xiv. minds of on the do men. and all the writings concerning the original of Christianity. he puts forth in it and by by the power and authority which it over the minds and consciences of men. i. is expressly It was not upon the force of declared. should shine unto them.336 and THE REASON OF FAITH. with its operation of divine effects thereon. he is convinced And thus are the secrets of his all. it could have would and men learned that always been philosophers the forwardest and most ready to admit it. whether of Christians or Heathens. compared unto a dark place. 25. and there comes faith . lest the light of the glorious gospel of Christ. is resolved into. 26. but ing the Scripture to be the word of God. and so falling down on his face. or have their eyes ' blinded by the god of this world. an assertion which nothing but gross ignorance of the Scripture itself. that it was the wise. From hence is the Scripture so .' which consideration large elsewhere. And this evidence is manifest unto the meanest and most unlearned. according as they prevail arguments are able aright to discern their force and judge of them. called ' evidence light. And so some have of late affirmed. evidence or ground of credibility they did so. or do wilfully shut their eyes. ments and external motives were the sole ground of receivnot be. he will worship God.) 1 have handled at The Spirit of God evidenceth the divine original and authority of the Scripture.

the living and eternal word is principally intended. or any church whatever nor was it upon a conviction of any miracles which they sav/ wrought in its confirmation. namely. that they received the word not as the word of man. It was not upon the testimony of this or that.' he cannot is but grant that there Belov t). in its place and use. 29. III. of the joints and ' ' marrow. Samaria believed that Jesus was the Christ.' John iv. that the by it. Hereby then doth the Holy Ghost so evidence the divine authority of the word. or ac- companying of it. was that divine power and efficacy. 12. 24.' or passeth a critical judgment * on the thoughts and intents of the heart. v/hereof they found and felt the experi-*. the only evidence whereon they received the word and acknowledged it to be of God. by that divine power which it hath that we do assuredly acupon our souls and consciences. he who searchAnd if the woman of eth.' or makes manifest the secrets of men's hearts.THE REASON OF FAITH. and is a discerner. finding the v/ord to an irresistible power of come upon his conscience thereon. tlie ground of the failh and confession declared. which effectually works itself in them that believe. from the word of men. judged of all. He is convinced of all. yet the power and efficacy there ascribed to him is that which he puts forth by the word of the word also. ii. * He is conviction and judgment convinced of all.' Heb. and evidences z VOL. knoweth. And so that to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit. It distinguisheth itself to be in- . 15. and judgeth the heart. quiesce ' commended. Wherefore. Especially his mind is influenced ' secrets of his heart are made manifest by this. 337 ments produced and pleaded unto that purpose. a divine efficacy in it. seeing God alone is KapdioyvM(TTi]g. which makes manifest even the secrets of our hearts. there is reason to believe that word to be from God. is opposed unto the efficacy and use of the miraculous gifts of tongues.' 1 Thess. as it is here expressed.' For all men must acknowledge this to be an effect of divine power. that ever she did . ' pierceth gospel.' whereon he falls down before it with an acknowledgment of its divine ' with authority. ence in themselves. because he told her all things. ver. iv. but as it is in truth the word of God. 23. judged of all. and tlius are the secrets of his heart made manifest. Yea. So the Thessalonians are in it to be from God. And although I do conceive that by the word of God.

not of corruptible seed. The oreatness and glory of this work we have elsewhere declared at large. that although a man be furnished with external arguments of all sorts. that the Holy Spirit giveth testimony unto. and evinceth the divine authority of the word. ' ' . nor can believe it. and the wisdom of God. and have any experience of it in their own hearts. i. by the word of God.ord is the only instrumental cause. And he who hath effectual operation in tliem this testimony in himself hath a hioher and more firm assurance of the truth than what can be attained by the force of external arguments. 21. as some of the ancients do.' 1 Pet. or the effects which are produced thereby. principal divine effect of the word of God is in the conversion of the souls of sinners unto God. improperly.338 deed tlie THE REASON OF FAITH. who prefer the work of the new creation before the work of the old. but of incorruptible. So that be weakness and foolishness unto others. in general. it is the power of God. with faith divine and supernatural. although he esteem his motives of credibility to be efl'ectually persuasive. The And all those who are acquainted with it as it is declared in the Scripture. word of God by its that believe. yet if he have no experience in divine power. concerning the divine original and authority of the Scriptures. if we consider some few of those many instances. pressive of itself.' James i. as although is Christ himself unto them that are called. of this great and glorious eflect. whereby the divine power operates and is exFor we are born again. Wherefore. by its powerful operations and divine effects on the souls of it human them that do believe. yet. to be the word of God in a due manner. do constantly give it as an instance of the exceedingIt may be they speak not greatness of the power of God. This will be the more manifest. for the express evidences of almighty power contained in it. But he that hath this experience hath that testimony in himself which will never fail. the v. he neither doth. And I must say. authority. wherein it exerts its power. For of liis own will doth God beget us with the word of truth . Now. I say. or the credit of testimony. and efficacy. and have the authority of any or himself of its all the churches in the world to confirm his persuasion. born of God. which abideth for ever.

THE REASON OF FAITH. It is unto believers an ingrafted word. authority.' 1 John v. that it is not the word of man. and to bring them unto the faith. A declaration of the divine power which some have found by experience in the word. ' ' power of God unto salvation unto All the power which believe. and re- this of its mighty 2 . 339 is the seed of the new creature in us. convert. conversion. therefore. which is able to build us up.' Rom. and give us an inheritance among them that are sanctified. 16. 32. have that infallible evidence and testimony of its divine original. God puts forth and exerts in the communication of that grace and mercy unto believers. and it is all I aim at herein. 21. there is none more prevalent nor cogent. 10. this testimony is private in the minds only of them on whom this work is wrought. i. but of God.' Acts xx. 2. but common unto all believers). will be said. The word of God's grace. or may be pleaded tive to justify the divine authority of the Scripture. Yea. And by 1 Pet. as a principal mounto believing. and all their faculties. as parts of the same divine testimony. The work which is effected and sanctification of the souls of believers. in an especial manner. is the divine authoword evidenced by the divine power and efficacy it given unto by the Holy Ghost. our souls. that our whole natures. do I press it no farther. whereby they are gradually carried on and prepared unto salvation. The word same word is this new nature kept and preserved and the whole soul carried on unto the enjoyment of God. who are really converted unto God by the power of the word. And the . in himself. that they thereon believe it with faith divine and supernatural. he that 'believeth hath the witness by it in the regeneration. yet ministerially pleadable in the church. and power in their own souls and consciences. whereby are changed and renewed into the image and likeness of God.' James i. z efficacy to change. rity of the Therein. he doth it by the that because it is the ' them that do word. 18. (for in itself is it But it is although this testimony be privately received not so. which is able to save their souls. yet. that all. of all the external arguments that are. than in all ages on the souls of men. ii. And. but. is an ordinance of God to convince others. Let it be granted. in conjunction with the other evidences before-men- tioned. doth evidence it infallibly unto their conIt sciences.

enjoying benefit and advantage by them. how should it come thus to speak in his name. all the world cannot give it peace. which are clearly sensible and enlarge the evidence. but none can be so upon its internal actings. a new government. of sin on those who expected and who would avoid it. see 1 Cor. conscience im- rule. Were not sj>eaks peace. nor had any regard unto. nor would it do so. which before they took no notice of. inclinations. whether they would or no. and where it it trouble.) Txie work of conviction it not. as it were. in order to the judgment of God upon it and all its actions. the word of God. that no God in man. The world is filled with instances of this nature. to conclude. that is. and no otherwise. must be presently Conscience is or eternally miserable. which liath tliem into the image and likeness of been visible and manifest. As. destroyed their hopes. human power But the can possibly enter into in it. contrary to their desires. this work of conviction or dispose of it any wise. and made them. xiv. hath awed. if by any means possible they could. the word coming upon them in its power.26. takes possession of it. disposeth it unto peace or trouble by its laws or rules. whilst men have been full of love to their sins. and carnal affections. And it is contrary to the nature of conscience to take this upon itself. at peace in them. either preceding or following of it. who desired it not. act. but that it sensibly finds God invasion speakingand acting in it. belonging unto this general work. Moreover. there are yet other particular effects of the divine power of the word. and terrified them. No power under heaven can cause conscience to think. Where it gives disquietments. than it doth by its immediate respect . of sin. An may be made on the outward duties that conscience disposeth unto. taken away their peace. there is none can give this the word of God. the territory or dominion of which he hath so reserved unto himself. and it doth? when once mediately owns a tieiv as to act his authority in the consciences of men it begins this work. Scripture. a neio law.340 new THE REASON OF FAITH. they (1. entereth into the conscience of the sinner. God. or judge otherwise.and by it. 25. disquieted. that if they comply not with what is proposed unto them in that word. on the minds and consciences of men.

artifices and delusions easily discoverable. or the entertainment of their comto deride and scoff at pany. is fore. prevailing over all their previous thoughts and inclinations. unto God. implies a contradiction. bribed. But the power of those divine worshippers convictions. love of and in their carnal peace sin. antecedently unto any right judgment they can make of themselves or other things. by merable inveterate prejudices what tosses and ruin to their outward concernments many have fallen into by admitting of their convictions. utdebauched. when they think of nothing less. with innusecurity. superstitious principles means of conveying unto it a sense of divine so is it with the Mahometans. into the mind. in the world. they prepossess their minds and inclinations by traditions. come from without. upon the minds of men. Those first affect. The convictions we treat of. and artifices. is no uct of conscience. and at length. take on However terly power of false. I know conscience may be prepossessed witli prejudices. Wherefore. some. and are insinuated persuasions are gradually or without admitted insensibly reluctancy. corrupt. befal But these divine convictions by the word men. and by education. diligence. under God it cannot. to force iui mind's seU'jinJgiug with respect unto not so. Whereact of conscience. insensibly influenced and diverted and is deceived as to its judging of the voice of God . and desire nothing less. For it Is (lie 341 God and what . have . what force. them from what should be spoken unto confirmed some have been how added unto the same purpose. and tlieyare generally wrapt up and condited in their secular interests. and some that go on purpose It might also be it.THE REASON OF FAITH. . it may bedefiltd. being opposition never accompanied at their first admission with any secular disadvantage. and that and errors. and other false authority. whereof we treat. Avith the insinuation of traditions. as itself the with a sensible power. these immediately principle the practical understanding and selfsuch opinions and judging power of the soul. admit of a superior power. when they design other things. some. For where these are not imposed on men by . a power above or over itself. whereby conscience is into improper respects. seared. deceive. and delude the notional part of the soul. as the pleasing of their ears. is manifestly different from such prejudicate opinions.

iv. but shall. error. men from all their wanderings in error. fill the whole world even as it is at this day. the minds of stition. our present or future condition causing all the had framed and of which men false ghosts. 29. superand other effects of darkness. ' . what contribution of aid and as- sistance hath there been from Satan unto this purpose . and that spiritual accompanied. For what but divine truth could recall is . Ix. and See by the light that illuminating efficacy wherewith it (2. It is the kingdom of Satan filled with darkness and confusion. i.' Isa. om' duty and end. and accompanied with a to be spiritual illuminating efficacy. things images and fancied unto themselves in the dark. And no man can give a greater evidence that it is so. confusion. that concern either God or our.342 been used THE REASON OF FAITH. God. where it is communicated by the providence of God. . and accomplished its whole designed effect. which it conveys into and imHence there is none of plants on the minds of believers.' 2 Pet. nor whither they go. Hence it is called a 'light shining in a dark place. Digitus Dei! this is none other but the power of selves. Zach. them who have gained any experience by the observation of God's dealings with them. lying vanities.) It it doth is in it. to vanish and disappear. our misery and blessedness Scripture. 2 Cor. Superstition. and thick darkis in darkness. thereby evidencing itself a divine revelation. And the minds of men are naturally in darkness there is a blindness upon them that they cannot see nor discern spiritual things. 19. Without the Scripture all the world Darkness covers the earth. But principally itevinceth this its divine efficacy. i. Jer. 6. That light whereby God ' shines into the hearts' and minds of men 2 Cor. X. xxiii. ness the people . by that spiritual saving light. to defeat them. although they know not . misapprehensions about the selves. . wherein men know not at all what they do. 4. hath the divine power of the word absolutely prevailed. as I have at large evinced elsewhere. yet against all. 6. With respect unto both these kinds of darkness the Scripture is a light. 2. discovering all things clearly and steadily. comes in as a light into a dark place. idolatry. which of themselves they love more than truth? All things being filled with vaGod and ournity. than he who denies it so to be. 5. no not when they are externally proposed unto them. 4.

its power in administering strong and most unrelievable distresses.'hich he hath made of himself in his word. The same is the frame of their hearts and minds towards the Scripture. wish it were not. that they dare not absolutely reject it. can say. a glorious supernatural light introwhereby they who before saw no- thing in a distinct affecting manner in spirituals. they hate also. and that for no other reason but because it is the word of God. and yet dare not absolutely refuse or reject it. that whereas I was born blind. xlv. wherein consolations in the evidences divine . And there is no person who hath the witness in himself of the kindling of this heavenly light in his mind by the word. the beauty. would be glad to be free of his rule.) It doth. By the efficacy of this power doth he evidence the Scripture to be the word of God. as the instrument of the Spirit of God for the communication of saving light and knowledge unto the minds of men. because of that testimony for himself. the glory. 5. do now clearly discern the truth. in like it manner. 6. evidence its divine authority puts on the minds of the generality of mankind unto whom it is made known. 18. despise all its promises. 4. and have their minds transformed into their image and likeness. Psal. unto whom the Lord Jesus re- who believe. the apostle declares. like nothing. according to the revelation v. deepest Some such there are. They hate it. and manifesteth itself so to be. which -he keeps alive in them whether they will or no. This testimony it hath fixed in the hearts of multitudes of its enemies (4. iv. bat are not by any means able to shake off a disquiet in the sense of its divine authority. and such many men fall into. but hath also the evidence in himself of its divine orioinal. They v. 343 ways and methods of ' thing 1 know. abhor all its threatenings.THE REASON OE the EAITIi. Multitudes there are unto whom the word by the awe. which is declared. iii. They deal with it as they do with God whom himself. One man the Spirit's operations by the word. now I see. with the stored his sight. hope it is not true. 2 Cor. and excellency of heavenly mysteries. approve of nothing.ish he were not.' This power of the word. who hale all its precepts.) It . but yet dare not. find by it duced into their minds. of what it declares or proposes. (3. sometimes they hope he is not. cannot absolutely deny and disown him. Those yea.

which we designed to declare. . we may in this mortal pains. doth secretly and ejfectualli/ persuade and satisfy thereof. farther a peculiar work of his. dangers. Yet in these and the like distresses doth the word of God by its divine pov/erand efficacy break through all interposing difficulties. or. yet there hath been no hand to help them.' Though they are in bonds. yea. deaths. wherein the word gives evident demonstrations unto the minds and consciences of men of its own divine power and authority. . keep out the word from entering into prisons. flames. nor all the diligence or fury of men. and there hath been an eye to pity them. not to be brought out but unto death by the most . means and hopes of relief may be utterly removed and taken away. And sundry other instances of the like nature might be pleaded. wants. in the second part of this discourse. as on tors other accounts. so in particular under the power of persecuwhen they have been shut up in filthy and nasty dungeons. whereby he effectually yet ascertains our minds of the Scriptures being the word of God. Such hath been the condition of innumerable souls. So is it when the miseries of men are not known unto any that will so much as pity them. or the bloody cruelty of man inflict. which is the second way whereby the Koly Ghost its author gives testimony unto its original. farther to confirm this part of the truth thus far debated namely. dungeons.344 all THE liEASOX OF FAITH. if they have been knovvu. exquisite tortures that the malice of hell could invent. But it is not merely the grounds and reasons whereon we believe the Scripture to be the word of God. there is deration. consolations against or whatever all fears. life be exposed unto. Wherefore. whereby we are ultimately established in the failh And I cannot but both admire and bev/ail that this should be denied by any that would be esteemed Christians. if there be any necessity thereof. all dark and discouraging circumstances. I shall take occasion. and full of glory. commonly filling them under overwhelming calamities with joy unspeakable. that God. yet is the word of God not bound neither can all the power of hell. or wish them relief. The whole work of the Holy Spirit ena- bling us to believe them so to be was proposed unto consiAnd beyond what v/e have insisted on. hif his liolij Spirit. supporting. and comforting such poor distressed sufferers. refreshing. and to administer strong ' .

no assent of the 7nind can he accompanied with any more assurance. It cannot. For those characters of divine wisdom. 2. and assurance of mind. by the meanest and most learned sort of true believers. as of the most learned believer. Now. apprehended. ^Vhat is most unlearned certainty. therefore. the 345 andiutihoiih/ of minds and wuh of believers in the divine trulh whereby he infallibly secures their fait'ii agaiiist all objections and temptations whatsoever. the ground and reason why the meanest and sort of believers do assent unto this truth. that the formal reason of faith consists in those things. of necessity be granted. than the wisest and most learned of them. as was said. whereby we bebe the word of God. the Scriptures. accordBut I ing unto the undeceivable truth and guidance of it.eir concernments. Wherefore. And they also are no less capable of an expejimeniail understand i)ig of the divine power and efficacy of the Scriptures in all its spiritual operations. herein is Yea. wherein soever it consists. It must. are as legible unto the faith of the meanest. goodness. con- sist in such subtle and learned arguments^ whose sense they cannot understand or comprehend. Nor doth any evidence of truth beget an assent unto it in the mind. But the things we have pleaded are of another nature. they do no less firmly assent and adhere unto it. which are implanted on the Scripture by the Holy Ghost. than those who are more wise and skilful in discerning the force of exteriial arguments and motives of credibility. the evidence of this truth. is usually affirmed . oft-times the faith of the former sort of the best growth. with respect unto this life and eternity. than the evidence resolved into. it is whose effect it and which that which is perceived. Whence it is lieve the Scriptures to that the assent of faith. grace. therefore. and understood. with no less firmness. that the Scriptures are the word of God. but as it is apprehended and understood. shall no farther insist on these at things present. so thnt they can safely and comfortably dispose of their souls in all th. holiness. than do the wisest and most learned of them. For. whereof the evidence is equally obvious unto all sorts of believers. will afford.THE IlEASOX OF FAITH. and firmest consistency against oppositions and temptations. offer themselves unto consideration from what hath been discoursed. and sovereign authority. must be is. Three things do 1.

. And hence it is that the whole soul doth more firmly adhere unto the objects of faith upon that evidence which it hath of them. And whatever may be said of this cannot distinction. argumentis. And the schoolmen do distinguish between a certainty or assurance of evidence. and what it is meet lieve and able to produce. but of adherence Quoniam fideles Christiani. velinclinari. Stultus enim et ridiculus esset geometra. modestly be denied. why faith is more certain than science. that there is a greater assurance in faith. For in bearing testimony hereunto. si acerrimis tor- mentis cogeretur scientiam suam de conclusione aliquageometrica vel arithmetica retractare. But it is not easily to be conceived how the certainty of adherence should exceed the certainty of evidence. by the most exin the confirmation of truth which they tortures. quisite any have received merely on the ground of reason acting in human sciences. And Bonaventure giveth a reason of no small weight.346 to be is THE REASON OF FAITH* accompanied with more assurance than any assent which upon the most demonstrative principles. with respect unto any object whatsoever. or in all that do sincerely bebut in its own nature and essence. than unto other thin OS whereof it hath clearer evidence. because of the goodness and excellency of the things that are believed. as have so done on the certainty which they had by faith. In the latter they say the certainty o^ faith doth exceed that of science but it is less in respect of the former. that the Scripture is a divine revelation. not with the certainty of speculation. have innumerable multitudes non esse mentiendum. ut veritatem quam credunt vel ore tenus negent . and an assurance the effect of science . nee tormentis. and their lives. wherein the will and the affections are little or not at all concerned. ' : quod nemo peritus alicujus scientise faceret. They who affirm this. nisi in quantum dictat fides. qui pro sua scientia in controversiis geometricis mortem auderet subire. and affects the mind only but the evidence which we have by faith effectually worketh on the will also. than is in any scientifical conclusions until as many good and wise men will part with all their worldly concernments. of adherence. . that the evidence which we have in things scientifical is speculative. . nee nee blandiraentis adduci possunt.' I think it . do not consider faith as it is in this or that individual person. That which seems to render a difference in this case is.

truth. wherein alone the mind can find absolute rest and satisfaction (which is its assurance). by his word. cheerfully and joyfully sacrificed all their temporal. 347 of the best. and the wisest men that ever were in the workl. of what sort soever. Wherefore.) That the revelation which God makes of himself. the internal work of the Holy Spirit on the minds of men. therefore. whereof in this world we . This rendereth it of another nature than any mere natural act and operation of our minds. namely. and the external the work of the same Spirit giving evidence in and by Holy Scripture unto its own divine original. it hath the highest rest. and so not capable of comparison unto it as to degrees. in the assurance of faith. therefore. the soul by faith making the nearest m approaches. is it is only because it is of a more excellent kind. that those that would deny two things. concernments. and assurance therein. and goodness. Wherefore. enabling them to believe. unto the firmitude and constancy which we have concur. if the assurance of it may not properly be said to exceed the assurance of science in de- (2. do endeavour to ex- . unto the eternal spring of being. according as their persuasion in faith proved true or false. For they it under a fidl satisfaction that in parting with all tem- porary things. (3. which it hath in the testimony of God. or would so separate between necessity them. is capable of. or eternally miserable. they should be eternally blessed. satisfaction. where it hath the highest evidence whereof it is capable. his mind and will. did and adventured all their eternal.) Unto the assent of divine gree. the holiest. It followeth either of those from hence. as to exclude the of either unto the duty of believing. whereof in this life it is capable. is more excellent. that in this life it can attain unto. and accompanied with greater evidence of his infnitely glorious properties. are capable.) That this ahiliti/ of assent upon testimony. is the highest and most noble power or faculty of our rational souls and. than any other discovery of truth. And. especial internal operation faith there is required an of the Holy Ghost. it giveth us the highest certainty or assurance. 3. three things do (1. Neither is the assurance of the mind absolutely perfect any thing beneath the enjoyment of God.THE REASOX OF FAITH.

and so indeed it came to pass. the doctrine and truths contained in it.ord itself unto them in the evidence and demonstration of the Spirit. but not without the untional grounds. By the way. 1. . that those o£ atheistical spirits it of a truth . in the first place. that the plea hitherto insisted on cannot be managed without great disadvantage to Christian religion. . 1. on what grotinds can we proceed to convince an unbeliever ? Ans. but in themselves such as cannot but such as do believe. therefore. It is.348 THE REASON OF FAITH. and to substitute a pel all true divine faith out of the world. the other by some learned men since their days. ii. And there are sundry arguments which forcibly and effectually prove the doctrine of Christ to have been true and divine. which are not of any efficacy to prove the divine authority of the Scriptures . . they were convinced and falling down acknowledged God to be 2. For if we take away the ra- on which we believe the doctrine of Christ to be true and divine. in 1 Cor. whatever doth prove the divine authority of the Scriptures. and so might the doctrine of Christ have been. and the whole evidence of the truth of it be laid on things not only derided by men of atheistical be discerned by any s^nrits. 5. It is likely that in this their proposal of the gospel. speakable disadvantage of the church. xiv. 25. 4. unto unbelievers. it is one thing to prove and believe the doctrine of Christ to be true and divine another to prove and believe the Scripture to be given by inspiration of God. The way principally insisted on by the apostles was hy preaching the v. For a close imto this discourse. doth equally prove the divine truth of the doctrine of Christ. There are two ways of convincing unbelievers . by the power whereof manifesting the authority of God in it. though on the other hand. A doctrine true and divine may be written in and proposed unto us by writings that were not divinely and infallibly inspired. which hath now been drawn forth unto a greater length than was at first intended. objected. would both deride them and it. probable persuasion in the room thereof. which alone was proposed unto consideration. or tlie divine authority of the Scripture. 26. I shall consider some objections that are usually pleaded in opposition unto the truth asserted and vindicated. the one insisted on by the apostles and their Jblloicers.

and no way inconsistent. or declared. they exceedingly prejudice the truth by subjecting it unto dubious disputations. nor of their own invention. truths^ precepts. 2 Tim. These things are subordinate. if we will attend unto our own. and the : we come experience of the whole church of God. Accept but of these two limitations. whereas in itself it is clear. the v. For this were the ready way to set up an opinion instead of faith supernatural and divine. plead the self-evidencing poiver of the Scripture. is also unto the farther establishment of them who do believe. whereunto God gave success. whilst they attend unto these rules. and not liable unto just exceptions.OF FAITH. proposed. as to deny that the use of other external motives and arguments is necessary to stop the mouths of atheists. Unto' some the word of God . many esteeming //ftv^sc/res to be errant he babfjiers ?ind their 349doctrine to But yet they desisted not from pursuing folli/. firm. to of men. they are appointed to declare that these things are not from themselves. (1. For if to manifest their own skill or such reasons as are capable of an learning they plead answer and solution. at first extraordinary. proniises. and it is acknowledged that the rational grounds and arguments intended may be rationally pleaded.THE REASON. And this is done vari- — in this ministrj/ thus ously. to very good purpose. and sacred. their work in the same way. wherein some learned persons have laboured. The truth is. preached. unto the conviction of gainsayers.The other way is to prove unto unbelievers that the Scripture is true and divine hy rational arguments. whilst in are not only utterly unacquainted with a condition they the mysteries of it. iii. or which it is resolved into.) That they do not pretend their rational grounds and arg-uments to be the sole foundation that faith hath to rest upon. but filled with contrary apprehensions. (2.ay whereby to believe the Scripture to be the ivord of God God having first given •ordinarily is this and no other. and ought so to For no man doth so be. especially in these last ages. hath appointed the ministri/ ward ordinary. 14 17. together with this proposition of them. his word as the foundation of our faith and obedience. afterpropose unto us the doctrines.) That they produce no arguments but such as are cogent. or is thus -comes. And certainly their labours are greatly to be commended. and threatenings contained therein .

and consequently prejudices against it. but being his oicii institution for their illumination and conversion. are directed unto the Scriptures as the sacred repository thereof. and that it would evidence itself unto them so to be. 14. Unto these the first preachers of the gospel did not produce the hooh of the Scriptures. by others whose hearts God opened to attend nnio it. whereon the church Those of both sorts unto cipally the ministri/ of the ivord is ordained of God unto that is the ground and pillar of truth. with inquiry into it and consideration of it. and must do so unto such persons and nations as are yet in the same state with them. God cooperating by his Spirit. with the characters of divine wisdom and holiit. Rom. And the event hereof among mankind was. This is the way whereby men ordinarily are brought to believe the word of God. the same doc- trine is variously instilled into persons according unto the several duties and concerns of others to instruct them. which no one soul was ever converted unto God by. x.350 THE REASON OF FAITH. i. and rest in it as the immediate word of in the case of the woman of Samaria. and the inhabitants of Sychar. For this God of it in their wisdom and authority of But they preached the doctrines unto them. Rom. and tell them that it was the word of God. Upon this proposal. 15. grroundins themselves on the divine revelato despise the had been own ministry. there is that evidence of original communicated unto their minds through its end. and that revelation is contained in the Bible. John iv. it was embraced and submitted unto. that by some this neiv doc- was derided and scorned. And this proposition of the truth or preaching of the gospel was not left of God to work itself into the reasons of men by the suitableness of it thereunto . which is his word. Thus w'as it which they are now enabled to discern. divine its power and efficacy. as they say. Thus it came of old unto the Pagan xcorld. lion contained therein. trine Among those who after the born. 42. he accompanied it with divine power and made it effectual unto the ends designed. 16. nor by . and that neither by external arguments or motives. loithin the pale propagation of the gospel are of the church. For they are told that these things come by revelation from God. ness implanted on that tliey believe it God. with respect unto their faith in Christ Jesus . Prin- whom the doctrine mentioned is preached or proposed.

concerning which alone is our inquiry. that if there be such clear evidences in the thing itself. But it will be yet farther objected. deration hereof ought not by any Christian to be excluded. the Scripture is the word of God. because it is a subject not capable of it. with that which they faith we . is self-evident unto our reason upon its first proposal but such none pretends to be in the Scripture. which respects the power of our minds to assent unto truth upon testimony. that the . then it lies either in the naked proposal of the things unto the understanding and if so. But it is by are obliged to receive the truth of this proposi:tion. ancient or modern. that they can give no reason of. But they say not that this is the objective testimony or evidence on which we believe the Scripture to be the word of God. as is in first principles. . Protestant. We do not dispute how far. 351 any mere naked proposal and offer of the book unto them. but in the efficacy of the Spirit of God I in the minds of them unto whom it is pro- posed. but only that they are so persuaded.THE REASON OF FAITH. Ans. And the consi1. or mathematical demonstrations. must likewise assent unto this that the Scripture is the word of God. or by what means. nor that it is capable of a mathematical demonstration. in the divine original and authority of the Scriptures. whole is greater than the part. That the whole is greater than the part. that is. Popish or who doth not assert that there is a work of the Holy Ghost on the minds of men necessary unto a due belief of the Scriptures to be the word of God. 2. . but content themselves call a moral certainty. Nor do those who denying by their ture. pretend the self-evidence of the Scriparguments for its divine authority to give such an evidence of it unto reason. then every one that assents unto this proposition. nor by immediate revelation or private subnor is their faith a persuajective testimony of the Spirit sion of mind. may be evidenced merely unto our reason but unto our understanding as capable of giving an assent upon testimony. this proposition. nor by miracles. that none who freely use their reason can deny it. 2. infallibly on that which is infallible. It is not said that this is a first principle of reason. know no divine. . or the evidence must not lie in the naked proposal. though it be of faith.

we do believe. which we deny and affirm that we are obliged unto many things by virtue of God's command. : We way Where the proposal of the Scripture is made in the before described. in such ways . It is another question. who faith. the whole work of the Spirit must not be ashamed to resolve all we do well. 1. and none have Spirit of but those in whom it is wrought by the last. 2. If this were otherwise. Auu hereunto it evidenceth Its own truth. and not his internal testinionrj to be the formal. upon the evidence 4. in proposal of the gospel to the Heathen . which he did not. 3. that is. It will be objected. that if this be so. or reason why efficient of believing. and in obedience to the command of God. or the most forcible arguments in things moral. and is thereinto all will be refor A/is.S-yj THE UEASOX OF FAITH. true. unto spiritually the efficacious operation of the Holy Ghost in us. not with the same^ but with an evidence and certainty of a higher nature and nobler kind than that of the strictest denionslration in things natural. divine revelation made unto men. every real. Indeed there no room is for this 'objection . pleaded only as he is the cause and the not objective. But. which we have no power to answer but by virtue of hisgroce. on pain of his displeasure. whether all obligation unto duty is and must be proportionate unto our own strength without divine assistance. reason of our faith. nor doth at this day at the first or else as in the ordinary the are not of word. as is sufficient to oblige them unto whom it was made to believe it. unless we But this still makes intend to be ashamed of the gospel. those unto whom it is proposed are obliged to receive it as the word of God. then none can be obliged hath not solved at to receive the Scripture as the faith word of God. 3. Yea. or every proposal of the Scripture by divine providence. his internal operation to be the efficient. nor is it ministry their sin to refuse a compliance with his will. hath that evidence of its being from God accompanying of it. they obliged thereby. as in many of the prophets . when he requires faith and obedience his wisdom he judgeth meet. then either were God oblisred to confirm every particular divine revelation with a miracle (which as to its obligation unto believing wants not its difficulty). which it gives of itself so to be. God.

the Book of' Proverbs.THE REASON OF FAITH.or means. than admit of this relief. namely. They have all of them hitherto in matter or manner. . manifested themAnd much danger is not selves to be of a human original. All books whatever. of Ecclesiastes. or have been pleaded by others to be of that extract. are not bound to refuse the ministry of the church. As to the books of the Old Testament. rational . or respect unto his testimony. and reject others. which we have an ability for. 353 If this difficulty can be no otherwise avoided. that unto the church of the Jews were committed the oracles of God: which both confirms all that we receive. have been. we tion which respects particular books of the Scripture. in plain confessions. ithough the Scripture be to be believedybr itself. canon of them given us in the New. without the help of other . and excludes all that we exclude. with the testimonies which either directly We Alcollaterally any one part of it gives unto another. ers. 4. without any spiritual aid of the Holy Ghost. III. that any unto whom the Scripture is proposed are excepted from an obligation unto believing. or the advantages of providence whereby the Scripture is brought unto us. the for future shall set forth with that from be feared any jto I I ' the same pretence. I shall rather ten thousand times allow of all the just consequences that can follow on the supposition mentioned. But of those consequences this is none. For. and may be from themselves. were. 5. as. but by affirming that the faith which God requires of us with re- nothing but a natural assent unto it upon arguments and considerations. there are no pretendto nor ever the least exercise of the faith of any. as before described which overthrows all faith. why receive them as canonical. or other sufficient evidence. 1. yet it is not Drdinarily to be believed bi/ itself. On these suppositions I fear not to affirm that there on every individual book of the Scripture. without farther help. that have either themselves pretended unto a divine original. In like manner there is no difficulty in the usual objecis spect unto his word. And unto the New. 3. particularly those jire 2 A VOL. and not of Wisdom. we have the . and not Ecclesiasticus. 2. especially that which is divine. evicted of falsehood in that pretence. where it is affirmed.

But although our Lord Jesus Christ wrought no miracles to prove the Scripture then extant to be the word of God. for nothing he said of that kind may be separated from its circumstances . 13. that believe is those mere words. Acts viii. or they will produce only a false faith. 13. those divine characters and criteria. and perished in their unbelief. had all this evidence in them or with them . I am the light of the world.' or the like. and himself to be the Mes- Jews were bound to believe what he taught. I say of believers. as is of the Scripture) came and preached unto the Jews. . or those who do not believe. 7. therefore. that will not abide . or a ravished assent upon . for we inquire not on what ground unbelievers. nor yet directly on what outward motives such persons may be induced so to do. what the faith of them who do resolved into.an amazement. iii. the Saviour of the w^orld. 21. and to submit unto his institutions although he wrought no miracle. and those who did not. miracles themselves will be decessary to confirm his spised . rejected the counsel of God for their good. so they were by some who were afterward converted by the preaching of the word. But our sole inquiry at present is. Acts ii. so did many of them upon his preaching only And in like manner they were bound to believe the doctrine of John Baptist. with ' the evidence of the presence of God with him in the declaration that he made of his doctrine. and to testify their divine authority unto the minds and consciences of believers.354 THE REASON OF FAITH. personal ministry by them. named. i j l( . work. but supposing the testimonies given in the Scripture beforehand to his person. and John iv. said that when our Lord Jesus Christ (for we acknowledge that there is the same reason of the first giving out of divine revelations. seeing he wrought them among such only as by whom that was firmly believed yet the wisdom of God saw it nesiah. and manner of coming. the . It is not. do believe the word of God. time. 8. 42. which are sufficient to difference them from all other writings whatever. and himself to be the Son of God. And without a sense of the power and efficacy of the divine truth of the doctrine proposed.

whatever may be known of the light of nature. I. as on all hands agreed upon. Such 1. with some attestations §!. and necessary actings of The God by conscience. Unto the inquiry. Benefactor. the things that follow are proposed. are. whatever is manifest in or from the works of creation or providence. as our both TO yvojarbv tov Qwv. is in this inquiry. Judge. so far as they are any 2 A 2 . That all those unto whom God hath granted divine revelations immediately from himself. Our relation unto him and dependance -Creator. Wherefore. rule. were infallibly assured that they came from God. and that their minds were no way imposed on in them. as to the being. a supernatural revelation of his mind and will unto them. shall give a close to this faith A. for their own use. many things are supposed. believe and put their trust in him. representation of the nature and reason of that wherewith we believe the Scripture to be the word of God. on him.iven unto the substance of what hath been delivered concerning it. acknowledged That beyond the conduct and guidance of the light of nature. 6. 5. that men may live unto God. and his self-subsistence. SUMMARY As to the first part of this design. whose demonstration or proof belongs not unto our present work. 2. and authority of God. necessary. Preserver. son. 3. as unto things temporal and eternal. That all these divine revelations. is supposed as 4. on what grounds. or for what readiscourse. and that of all other men unto whom they were to be communicated. especially in that condition wherein all mankind are since the entrance of sin. we believe the Scripture to be the word of God. The being of God. with all the essential properties of his nature.APPENDIX. so as to come unto the enjoyment of him. in that obedience which he requireth of them. according to their duty. and Rewarder.

that the Scripture velation. ariseth partly from the na2. I say. . it is necessary that we should believe it unto those ends and God requireth it of us. and satisfy unprejudiced peris the word of God. From the arguments and testimonies of this nature. of what belongs unto our present peace. There are many cogent arguments. but what is of the same divine original. 4. that the Scripture is the word of God. are supposed unto our present inas that the reader is not to quiry. to contain and exhibit an immediate. motives to persuade. we cannot live unto God as we ought. without the knowledge whereof. a sons.356 way THE REASON OF FAITH. convince. 3. m The obligation of this duty of thus believing the Scripture to be the word of God. Scriptures. so far as is any way needful that they may live unto him and that nothing is contained in them. as are ovvmed and approved by the generality of mankind. or a divine reand every way sufficient to stop the mouths of gainsayers. and that obedience which is acceptable of those books or in the contained are now him. 1. and future happiness. these books of the Old and New Testament. the Old and New Testament which are commonly received and owned among all sorts of Christians. of our relation unto him. . and his government of the world. as that those who live not in contradiction unto their own light and reason through the power of their lusts. We cannot thus believe it in a way of duty. necessary to guide and instruct men in the true knowunto ledge of God. are bound to believe this Scripture. to be the word of God . But on these suppositions it is alleged and proved. may be attained . ^ ture of the thing itself. supernatural revelation of his mind and will. That all men unto whom it is duly proposed as such. And arguments of this nature may be taken from almost all considerations of the properties of God. divine. and assent whereunto. and that such. These things. and taken for granted so look for any direct proof of them in the preceding discourse. proceeding on such principles of reason. but upon a sufficient evidence and prevalent testimony that so it is. that is. For it being that revelation of the will of God. 5. that so we should do. . testimonies. and . and partly from the especial command of God. nor come unto the enjoyment of him. firm persuasion of mind defensible against all objections.

selves contained in the Scripture. And to exclude the consideration of his work herein is to cast the whole inquiry out of the limits of Christian religion. and such moral considerations as vehemently persuade the divine original of the Scripture. and rebuked by external arguments. For it is not to be merely human. nor any divine truth therein contained. The former sort may be j resisted. or testifying it unto us . also. is not entirely that faith wherewith we are obliged to believe the Scripture to be the word of God in away of duty. that persuasion of mind which may be thus and which resteth wholly upon these arguments and testimonies. Wherefore. how firm soever the persuasions in it may be. but divine and supernatural. 357 cannot but judge it their wisdom. word of God Those only can believe the Scripture aright to be the in a way of duty. whereby we are enabled to believe in a way of duty with faith supernatural and divine. whose minds are enlightened. But yet attained. Yet are they such as that as without the first work of divine illumination we cannot believe at all in a due lieve manner. 11. Yet is not this work of the Holy Spirit in the illumination of our minds. attend unto the consideration of it. and who are enabled to believe by the Holy Ghost. and interest to yield obedience unto his will as revealed therein. nor all of them jointly. is our faith resolved thereinto. Those who believe not are of two sorts. the formal reason of our faith. or the evidence whereon we do so. without the We effectual illumination of our minds by the Holy Ghost. the ground and reason ivhy we do believe. of the same kind with that whereby we believe the things them6. for they are either such as oppose and gainsay the word as a cunningly or such as are willing without prejudice to devised fable . establishing this faith against temptations unto the contrary. so without his other consequent operations we cannot believe steadfastly against temptations and oppositions.THE REASON OF FAITH. 8. Whereas. and farther ascertaining us of the divine original of the Scripture. and from the same principles . there are sundry other acts of the Holy Spirit in and upon our minds. opposed. nor 9. yet are they none of them severally. 10. duty. 7. nor the ground which we be- upon. cannot thus believe the Scripture to be the word of God.

which as it is a testimony gives our assent unto the Scriptures the general nature of faith. and as it is required of us. 14. This divine testimony given unto the divine original of the Scripture in and by itself. 13. or Corol. or upon the authority of that church by whose ministry the Scripture is proposed unto them to be believed. their may mouths be stopped as to their cavils and excep- tions against it. Wherefore. and enabled to believe it. yet is it for its own sake only. manifesting itself to be the word of God. is characters of the infinite perfections of the divine nature that are in it and upon it . Wherefore. is the authority and veracity of God alone. evidencino" themselves unto our minds and consciences in and by the Scripture itself. which is the ordinance of God unto that pur- pose. The formal reason of faith divine and supernatural^ whereby we believe the Scripture to be the word of God in the way of duty. and as it is a divine testimony gives it the especial nature of faith divine and supernatural.358 THE REASON OF FAITH. where- with accompanied. persuaded. j Those who either deny the necessity of an internal subjective work of the Holy Ghost enabling us to believe. The other sort are to be led on unto bethe ministry of the church in the dispensation of lieving by the word itself. efficaciously. and it be the principal duty of the true church in all ages to give testimony thereunto. . although there be many other means whereby we are induced. 12. But. and efficacy. which it hath done successively at all times since first it was intrusted with it and so. or upon the divine testimony that is given in it and by it thereunto. it is supernatural. And herein consisteth that divine testimony of the Holy Ghost. over and upon the souls and consciences of men. so by the authority. Neither sort do ever come trulv to believe. although there be many cogent external arguments whereby a moral steadfast persuasion of the divine authority of the Scriptures may be attained. and the satisfactory excellency of the truths contained therein. that we believe it to be so with faith divine and 15. ( I . either merely induced thereunto by force of moral arguments only. whereinto our faith is ulti- ly evidenced and made known. as by the mately resolved. power.

or leads us unto know[This is that which we lay down as the reason and ledge. But whatever is judged. this pur- "E)(0/x£v yap rrjv ap-)(rjv rrig di^a<TKa\iag t6v Kvpiov. KVpiaKr) ypa<pri rs koi (pcovri d^io- TTKTTog HKOTwg dv did TOV Kvpiov irpog tyiv tCjv dvOpojTrojv evep- ysmav avTi] kvepyovpivt]' yjpwfxwa (jjg KpiOrjvai' irpog Trjv rwv TrpayiidTwv evpeaiv to Kpivo/xevov cl irdv. did n tov ivayjiXiov. Iti uTnaTOv Trplv ovd' uxtt' dp)(fi TO Kpiaiwgceo/xivov. And certainly administered by the Lord for the bewe use it as a rule of judgino* for the invention of things. cipal parts of it. This being the substance of what is declared and pleaded to prevent the obloquy of preceding treatise some. the principle will not be kept' [that is. Clemens Alexandrinus discourseth at large unto pose.' ground of faith. 'And if any one dpiXn KpiTYipio)' suppose that he needeth any other principle. apostles. for the principle or of doctrine. and confirm the judgment of others. iiTig eripov SacrS'ai O fiiv viroXd^oi. gospel. and whereon all other things asserted in it do depend. Old T£ Twv 7rpo^r)T(ov. I shall add the suffrage of ancient and modern writers given unto the prinfor in the . But he who is faithful from himself is worthy to be believed in his sovereign writing and voice. ' which as itappeareth is nefit of men. or do deny their joint concurrence divine in and unto our believing. do deny all faith properly and supernatural. koX did twv fiUKapiiov cnrocTToXwv. rr.' The intention of his words is. if we need any other principle whereinto to resolve our faith. TroXvTpoirojg koX TToXw/xepwc ^K «/0X''^ ^'^ ' have the Lord himself TtXoQ rjjovijievov Trig yvdia^wg. in various manners We and by divers degrees goeth before us. And this word is so to be believed. because if it be so it . that God who alone is to be believed for himself. namely. Stromat. is not credible or to be believed until it is judged. and that is no principle which stands in need to be judged. the word of God is no more a principle unto us]. ovv £^ aavTOv marug. who by the probeginning the and blessed phets. 7. as not to be subject unto any other judgment .THE REASON OF FAITH.] So he adds . the authority of the Lord himself inT?)v cipxnv Se structing us by the Scriptures. ovKir av ovT(x)g dpyji (^vXay^Buri. hath given us his word as the rule whereby we are to judge of all things. 359 the objective testimony of the Holy Spirit given unto the Scripture in and by itself.

very incorrectly transcribed. and all to prove the Scripture other things by the Scripture. to verify the numerous Dr. he plainly afstration. and controversialists of a quotations of more recent period. dit i but to beget a belief also of what is spoken. omitted. EiKortu^' Toivvv TTiaTu Trepi(^aX6vTeg avairobuKTOv ap^jiv ek TTipiovaiaq. dXXd rrj tow Kvpiov ^(ovrj '^H Trdaojv dirodd^eojv \ov Se. vii. 4. (rnVrEiif for SiSaa-xaxitts. but all namely. Strom. we are instructed by the voice of the Lord himself unto the acknowledgment of the truth. ov ttjv e^ dvttkttov- | OpajTTMV dvafxivofxfv fiapTvpiav.' In few words he declares the substance of what we have pleaded for. and. Vid. believe the Scripture for itself. diruv TO do^av. we expect not the testimony of men.u9a TO ^j/roujUEvov. — firms that the way of Christians was by ^ itself. and a boundless accumulation of books. The Editor. however. the evidence and demonstration of be taken from itself alone . sufficient merely to say or assert what appears to be truth. which is more full and firm than any demonstration. 16. Wherefore. are assured by faith. Kvpiov irai^evoneda irpog rrjv iTriyvoxriv rrjc aXrj' Bdag. 1713. which Ei divine original is to yet he farther confirms. the Scripture. Alex.. expenditure of time and labour. nor would it be possible. that he does not undertake.360 THE REASON OF FAITH. These passages from Clemens Alexandrinus. dWa TricFTuxjacT^ai del ovk apx^^ [xovov airXivg to X£)(Biv. pp. Owen from the fathers and schoolmen.' ' i . olg Ka\ Itt' io-ji? avTaTTOi^aive^aL e^eotiv. No more do we mainsufficient strations of the principle tain in this cause. which rather is the only demonThus we. — l^iyyvwTipa fxaXovTwg ovv kol ri/Lulg air ] .) have been corrected. . without a prodigious. taking our demonstrations of the Scripstration. but confirm that which is inquired about with the voice of the Lord. cap.891. &c. seeing we have right also And seeing it is not to define in contradiction unto them. 890. f. yea. ed. it is meet that embracing by faith the most indemonstrable principle. as that which needeth no antecedent or external demonstration . avTiov TTEpi dvT<i)v TU)v ypa(p(i)V TeXeiiog dirocuKVVVTtg ek TrtoTEW^ ' For we would not attend or give ereireiOofxiOa dTrodeiKTiKwg. almost useless. avawaXeixXov for avttTro'SsiXTov. 1] [jLovi] ciTToSH^ig ovaaTvy\dvH. as by demonof out ture And in other places. Oxou. Kol Tag air odei^iig Trap' avrrig rrig apxrjg Trtpl rfjc apxriQ Xaj3o vrtCj ^wvf. as Strom. And so he proceeds.'' i | simply to the definitions of men. that we . at the same time. lib. rriv cannot be either a principle or a rule. Clem. its S' S i i Ov yap airXiog dirocpaLVOfxivOLg dvOpwiroig Trpoai^oifisv. Trifi -rni? i^X/'i. but what Clemens doth here assert . takes this opportunity of stating. and taking the demonfrom the principle itself. Op.

et rogarem eum. and I would apply the ears of my body to the sounds breaking But if he should use the Hebrew forth from his mouth. et qui illi servo tuo dedisti haec dicere. tenerem eum. ed. TTVEiifxaTog jeMixeTpitcaig avayyaig. sine strepitu syllabarum diceret. cxv. I would hold him. 361 V virep Basilius speaks to the same purpose on Psal. sine oris et linguae oritself. scirem quid diceret. for if he were. ut mihi ista panderet. above all methods of reasonings faith which is not the effect of geometrical demonstrations. 371.^ Faith which draws the soul . ed. for he would language. Si autem Latine. = Oxon. Wkxtiq. eum ergo ilium interrogare non possim.'^ by him. he wTote it. verum dicis . transivit hinc ad te . i. Moses wrote this. Confess. sed unde scirem an verum diceret? quod etsi hoc scirem num et ab illo scirem? Intus utique mihi. neque enim nunc ante me est. nee Grseca. scripsit et abiit. oracles hath its credibility from because of its divine inspiration.' — o Op. Veritas. 2. I would understand how thou madest the heaven and the earth. at ego statim erectus confidenter illi homini tuo dicerem. nee Latina. verum dicit . though taken notice of by all. te quo plenus vera dixit. and is gone hence to thee. are to assent asserted cap. ' The doctrine of the divine ganis. torn. nee Hebrsea. et per te obsecrarem. Bened. te Deus mens rogo. Tag XoyiKag fiiOo^ovg Tijv ipv^riv dg avvKara^ amv UicFTig. cause. 2. nee barbara Veritas. parce peccatis meis. not at all touch my mind. At si Hebraea voce loqueretur. da et mihi hsec inI would hear.' The words of Austin.' The nature. and ask him. et prseberem aures corporis mei. p. yet * may here be again reported. Nemesius de Homin. 92. . 3. p. Nam si esset. but of the efficacy of the Spirit. and beseech him for thy sake. that he would open these things unto me. ' aW 17 raXg tov Ivepydcug tKyivofxivr]. and efficacy of that faith whereby we believe the Scripture to be the word of God. ov)(^ t) lAKOvcFa. t5 Triarov rtf lavrrig 8)(ou(7a dia to S'sottveuotov tlvai. if he should speak Latin. I should ' telligere. frustra pulsaret sensum meum. in vain should he affect my sense.THE REASON OF FAITH. sonis erumpentibus ex ore ejus. intus in domicilio cogitationis. for he is not now before me. Scripsit hoc Moses. nee inde mentem meam quicquam tangeret. 'H twv Ohojv Xoyiwv ^i^aaKoXia. Audiam et intelligam quo modo fecisti ccelum et terram. cap. 1671. lib.

unde tam potenter influat in animos auditorum. would say. sed ad solide credendumomnes inflectat? Non est hoc imputandum rationum evidential quas non adducit. 'Siquis evangelicae prsedicationi consentire posse confirmat. 2. And in- who gavest unto this thy serunto me to understand them. that we may believe. as to enforce an acknowledgment from them. lib. Greek. The second Arausican council gives full testimony unto the necessity of the internal grace of the Spirit. would say unto : that servant of thine.' To descend unto later times wherein these thino-s have been much disputed. cap. sed vide an id in causa ' sit quod persuasi sumus earn a prima veritate fluxisse? sed unde sumus ita persuasi nisi ab ipsa. should I know it of him? Within me. when they have examined themselves about it. The words of Baptista Mantuanus are remarkable. with are true O my : Whereas. yet the truth hath beamed such lioht into the eyes of many. which we have before considered.362 THE KEASON OF FAITH. that he plainly affirms that faith would not ensue on the declaration of the prophets themselves if they were present with us. Sed unde oro banc authoritatem sibi vendicavit? neque enim vidimus nos Deum . pardon my sins. cannot ask him. ask thee. I ask of vant to speak these things. without the organs of mouth or tongue. 7. haeretico fallitur Spiritu. spake the things that thee . and thou O truth. I Thou speakest I truth. nor any barbarous language.' deed he seems to place all assurance of the truth of divine revelations in the inward assurance which God gives us of them by his Spirit. give That which is most remarkable in these words. therewhich he be- God. He speaks the truth and I being immediately assured or certain of it. truth neither in Hebrew. unde tarn suadibilis sit ipsa Scriptura. non artis industrise aut verbis suavibus ad persuadendum accomodatis quibus "non utitur. unde tantum habeat energisD. Saepe mecum cogitavi.f" quasi ad ei credendum nos sui ipsius contrahat authoritas. know what he said but whence should I know that he spake the truth? and if I should know this also. ut non ad opinandum tantum. absque illuminatione et inspiratione Spiritus Sancti. Can. is. Latin. ing filled. in the habitation of my own thoughts^. fore. without - the noise of syllables. unless there be an internal work of the Holy Spirit upon our minds to enable us. and persuade them thereunto. . 3. De Patient.

is And in what sense this divine inspiration assuring of us. riseth in opposition unto an especial interest of things there are which are principally excepted concerning our belief own. be may that truth is more solid in it. quod in ea Veritas sit solidior quamvis non clarior. with words smooth and fit to persuade. Two against in the doctrine of Protestants. but surely to believe. by assert is most vehemently opposed. which it doth not produce. 363 concionantem. from whence it doth so powerfully influence the minds of its hearers. hath it this authority? we believe it. tamen ac si vidissemus. the greater power. scribentem. habet enini omnis Veritas vim inclinativam. But why then do not all believe the gospel? Ans. I shall close the whom the truth which we when their it whole with the testimony of them. for The first is . the greater truth. nor unto the industry of art. sed cur ergo non omnes credunt evangelio? Respo)td. we believe and firmly hold. But whence are we so persuaded but from itself alone? as if its own authority should effectually draw us to But whence. This is not to be imputed to the evidence of reasons. with respect unto the Holy whereas they teach Spirit as the efficient cause of faith. firmly believe the Scriptures. and that which is greatest the greatest eflicacy of all. writing. see then if this be not the cause of it. saw not God preaching.' allowed hath been declared in the preceding discourse. though not more clear than in other writings for all truth hath a persuasive power. et maxima maximam. this is the reason why we so firmly adhere unto it. docentem. Sed longa opus est disputatione? firmiter sacris Scripturis ideo credimus quod divinam inspirationeraintusaccipimus. Because all are not drawn of God. forsan fuerit haee ratio firmiter adhaerendi. Quod non omnes trahuntur a Deo.' 'I have often thought with — myself whence the Scripture itself is so persuasive. that it inclines or leads them not only to receive an opinion. or teaching of it but yet as if we had seen him. that we are persuaded that it comes from the first truth or verity. because we have received a . et major majorem. of the Scripture. I pray. that the It things which we read proceeded from the Holy Ghost. credimuset tenemus a Spiritu Sanctofluxisse quae legimiis. But what need is there of any long disputation ? we therefore. which it useth not.THE REASON OF FAITH. .

364 that no in a - THE REASON OF FAITH.' * And Bellarmin speaks to the same pur- Argumenta quae articulos fidei nostras credibiles fanon talia sunt ut fidem omnino indubitatam reddant. 2. Tlieol. 6. without special grace. omnia sive alia quse- cunque adhibita ab eo qui proponit fidem. however be proposed unto him. nor any other which may be used by him who proposeth the are not sufficient causes of object of faith to be believed. id est. authoritatem ilia praedicta. 3. and operation of the Holy Ghost. lib. lib. lib. disputes ex' Melchior Canus. that moventis ad credendum. or to believe with faith rightly so called. to but there is moreover believe believing as we are obliged internal efficient cause moving us to believe. And on as most yet those of the Roman church who are looked Protestants which most of faith averse from that resolution acquiesce in. 8. aut ex veri nominis fide credere. controver. do expressly maintain both these assertions. non esse sufficientes causas ad credendum ut credere tenemur.' Which he there it is impossible proves with sundry arguments. pressly to this purpose . impossibile esse sine special! fidei divinitus infuso. which is the especial help or aid of God. humanam et incitamenta Id statuendura est.' And a little after . ' to prove. nisi mens divinitiis adjuvetur. unless the mind be divinely assisted. Arbit. is gratia. ac dono De Principiis Fidei. ' ducere. 1. cap. whereas or witness they also affirm that there is an inward testimony the confirms and assures he of the whereby real internal aid it . minds of men in the exceeding and motives all . without the man can due manner Holy Spirit. The arguments which render the articles of our cap. namely. 8.' De Grat. cap. And. and with what arguments soever the truth of its divine original be confirmed this is charged on them as an error and a crime. an necessary — ' . Dei speciali auxilio This is firmly to be held. ciunt. actum verte fidei proStapleton. The design of 4. ' faith credible. believe the Scripture to be the word of God and according unto his duty. are not such as produce an undoubted faith. et lib. and the divine infusion of the gift of faith. and all the motives before mentioned. faith of the Scriptures with an efficacy the persuasive evidence of outward arguments this also by some they are traduced for. sed prseterea opus esse interiori causa efficiente. that to produce any act of faith.' loc. secondly. pose .' human authority.

' 'Where- — persuasions or arguments are not sufficient causes of faith. Let any man compare these words with those of Calvin Institut. hoc est.THE REASON OF FAITH. quse per ut animum inducant seipsa satis prudentibus esse debeant. there is. divinum quoddam lumen incitans ad credendum. lib. quod alio quodam modo et longe fortius quam ulla argumenta persuadet. which arguments themselves ought to suffice prudent persons to ineven * Whereas. tamen nescio an non sit argumentum iis omnibus majus. rum approbationem ut quis ecclesise testimonio ac judicio circa Scriptura' The secret credat. . as I remember. that a man may believe the testimony and judgment of the church about the Scriptures. a certain divine light. ut praecipue quidem propter nullum argumentum.' And the words of Gregory de Valen' Cum hactenus ejusmodi argumenta tia are remarkable. I cited before. testimony of the Spirit is altogether necessary. 2. Qu. quod qui vere Christiani sunt. however the things of faith fore. sect. sed necessaria est insuper causa interior. 4. given us by the grace of God. 7. Disp. cap. that is. sentiunt. ita se animo quod ad fidem attinet.' Yea. inciting to believe. punc. pro authoritate Christianiee doctrinse fecerimus. all other learned men of the same profession do speak to the same purpose. yet I know not whether there be not an argument greater than they all. ' we have by duce their minds to belief. 3.' saitli Stapleton. sect. that they are moved . quod vel hactenus feciaffectos esse. 1. velle credere . sed propter aliud nescio quid.' saith he. Extemse igitur omnes et humanse persuasiones non sunt satis ad credendum. mus vel ratione similiter excogitari possit. in Thom. and he will know whence the sense of have them was taken. 7. necessary an internal cause. et oculi quidam interiores Dei beneficio ad videndum dati. which. est. quantuincunque ab hominibus competenter ea quse sunt fidei proponantur. * 365 he speaks yet more plainly. or certain internal eyes to see. that those who are truly Christians do find or feel by experience their minds so affected in this matter of faith. all external human may be sufficiently proposed by men. namely. hitherto pleaded for the authority of Christian doctrine. 5. 1. ut ad firmiter credendum se intelligant.' Tom. moreover. * The other assertion also they do no less comply withal Arcanum divini Spiritus testimonium prorsus necessarium .

which stands on far surer but only to obviate prejudices in the minds of some.366 THE REASON OF FAITH.' — ' his revelation. who being not much conversant in things of this nature. humanis menIt is God himself. but for somewhat else which persuades our minds in another manner. are ready to charge what hath been delivered unto truth which we have pleaded . witnesseth unto the minds of men the truth of Christian doctrine.' And to shew what he means by this internal argument and persuasion. and far more effectually than any arguments whatever. not to confirm the for. . (and obliged) firmly to believe. neither for any argument that we have used. who by the voice of tibus contestatur. nor for any of the like sort that can be found out by reason. voce revelationis suse et interno quodam instinctu et impulsu. and by a certain internal instinct and impulse. ' Deus ipse imprimis est. he affirms elsewhere. or of the Holy Scripture/ These few testimonies have I produced amongst the many that might be urged to the same purpose. foundations this purpose with singularity. atque adeo Scripturam sacram verara esse. qui Christianam doctrinam that.

WAYS. WITH THE EXTERNAL MEANS OF THE INTERPRETATION OF THEM. AND MEANS.SYNESIS nNEYMATIKH: OR THE CAUSES. that I may behold wondrous things out of thy law. cxix. 144. —Psal. and I shall live Ver. Give me understanding. 18. WITH ASSURANCE THEREIN: AND A DECLARATION OF THE PERSPICUITY OF THE SCRIPTURES. OF UNDERSTANDING THE MIND OF GOD. . Open thou mine eyes. AS REVEALED IN HIS WORD.

May 13.I i 1 1 IMPRIMATUR. 1678. Sill. . Guil.

To declare the attain that vay and means whereby we may assuredly mderstanding. or the grounds whereon we believe the |Son 'Scripture to be the word of God. At least the knowled2:e and understanding of those things wherein our present duty and future state of blessedness or misery are immediately concerned. and grace. are the My principal scope in both such is been to manifest that the abundant good- less. few words. and pre-required unto all other acceptable But althouo^h this be the first fundamental obedience. those whereby we come infallibly to believe the is scripture with faith divine ubject of the former. in a Some while our duty. lath and supernatural. are no less 'indispensably necessary unto us. of God. LS the design of the ensuing discourse . unless we understand the mind and will of God therein revealed. yet is it not sufficient unto any of the ends thereof (that we believe the Scripture to be a divine revelation). Ill. since I published a treatise about the reaof faith. wisdom. shall or can come short of the advantage in- VOL. with that faith which I SHALL. in granting unto us tie inestimable benefit of his word. that no persons whatever. give the reader an account of the occasion and design of the small ensuing discourse. than :he is the belief of Scripture to be the word of God. is principle of supernatural religion.THE PREFACE. 2 u .

a full compretended that prehension of all divine revelations in this life. that they may live unto God. may. der of things and persons which tion. that every one: i present and eternal welfare. tended by ritual but through their own sinful negligence and ingratitude.' takes care of his who own unto that end. or that all men. and come unto the enjoyment of him. shall . in their various circumstances. \ spiration of the penmen thereof. and discharge of the duties by him prescribed. and grace. which he will not withhold from any who dili-! gently seek him. is guide him unto eternal The same measure of divine knowledge] be sufficient to not required in all and every one. nor perhaps of any one of them. it. in the^ use of the same means prescribed unto them. For he hath given the evidences of such convincing procedure or emanation of the Scripture from himself. Thei dispensation of God towards mankind in nature. the highest crimes in things of a spi- . with a due dependance on the aid and as-. as will blessedness. as unto the faith and. with full assurancejl therein. and so plainly all sorts de-j clared his mind and will therein. is of divine constitu-i Nor is it can have. infallibly attain that measure of the|. by the divine in- and eternal concernment. of per-! obedience which he requires of any or sons. riety is an invincible spring of such va-l among them. and shall. .CCclxX THE PREFACE. providence. knowledge of his mind and will. as will not allow a prescription of same measures of knowledge unto all who have a consistency with divine wisdom and goodness and a supposition of it would bring confusion into all the or-i the . sistances. in any one man may or the use of any means whatever. in the due use of the means by him ap-! pointed.

should have a perfect comprehension of the entire revelation of God. ledge and comprehension would be inconsistent with that state and condition wherein we are to walk with God. For besides that he hath replenished it with unfathomable stores. or a perfect understanding of the whole Scripture. with all that contained therein. and hath provided another state for the comprehension of that by sight. in the grant that self. nor ever designed unto them in a way is of privilege. unsearchable treasures of divine mysteries. and discharge the duties thereYea. such knowledge is not necessary unto any. hath suited itself unto the instruction of every individual believer. that they may lead the life of faith. unto the into eternity. wherein we cannot find out the Al- mighty unto perfection.THE PREFACE. as that fail no one person doth or can from attaining 2 B 2 all that under- . of titude of them Wherefore the wisdom of God therein. and love of God towards mankind. that such is the wisdom. that any society of them. CCclxxi have the same conceptions of all things revealed. moment of his entrance That any one of them. states. was never required of them in a way of duty. with respect unto that inconceivable which all sorts variety circumstances. according to the tenor of the covenant of grace. and every part of it. and But the substance of during the continuance thereof. such a knowof. what we plead for is. which is the object of adoration and admiration in believing . goodness. and that in all ages. of causes do distribute the whole mulinto. and conditions. The Scripture was given for the use of the whole church. he hath made unto them of the revelation of himhis mind and will in the Scripture. in all holy obedience unto God.

it standing in and of it. so as in both they may be acwith him. and grace. that they ought to betake themselves either to . By what ways and means he hath all vided for the assurance and security of thus promen. Scripture to ^ them way of duty. so as to God in his circumstances and come unto the blessed enjoyment of him. nor do you pretend unto any immediate inspiration to give you assurance? And if on these insnaring inquiries they are cast under any doubts or perplexities in their minds. in a both of them principally intended for the use of the ordinary sort of Christians. which he exerts namely. and what are those^ acts of his wisdom.CCclxxii THE PREFACE. power. in things of their eternal concernment. is the design of this and the other cepted And they are forementioned discourse to declare. which is any way needful for his guidance to live unto relations. and understand his mind revealed therein. For they are freto quently attacked with those questions. and want of a due dependance on those spiritual aids and assistances which he hath prepared for that end. How do you know the Scripture to be the word of God 1 And what assurance have you that you understand any thing contained in them. the next insinuation is. as it often falls out amongst them who have not diligently weighed the principles of their own profession. but by the sinful neglect of the means and duties prescribed by him for the attainment of that understanding. who know it their concern- ment be established in the truth of those things wherein they have been instructed. seeing all sorts of persons are divided about their sense and meaning. both according unto what is required of for that end. that they may both believe the be his word.

men engage and scarce distinguishable from. And upon the principles evinced and confirmed in them. wherewith I shall close this preface. I have What conduct yet proposed a farther inquiry. in this world. is designed in these small treatises. or as their CCclxxiii own light and reason. that which the grave I have but one thing more to acquaint the will afford. ought to betake himself unto. in these times of great contests about the assurance of faith. will intention. live prevent the accomplishment of that In the continual prospect hereof do I yet and rejoice. some other present guide. make a complete resignation of themselves and the conduct of their souls unto the pretended authority and guidance of other men. . in the use of known and obvious means or duties. namely.THE PREFACE. among other advantages un- me an unconcernment in speakable. which. not be deceived nor miscarry in the end? it. his mind and will this there- so far as their present obedience ness are concerned. which vehemently pretends unto the And But probably the near approach of the daily expected and earnestly desired hour of my discharge from all farther service sole infallible conduct in these things. and the causes of of his that own he may this is every one that takes care salvation. nor depend on any but God himself. To give assurance and secuunto their minds. which the passions or interests of them in. and that unto and eternal happiend they need not be beholding unto any. reader withal. that they neither are nor can be deceived in the belief of the Scriptures to be the word of rity God. of a very near alliance unto. hath already given those oppositions. and the understanding of in. designed with especial respect unto the church of Rome.

volume on that what yet remaineth for the complete accomplishment of what I had designed thereon. the and it is same with is that wherewith the preface unto the former discourse concluded. some The first years since pubsubject. having found good acceptance among that are godly and learned. that may have I have been desired to give out their use. This also belong- eth unto the second part of my discourse. in this way of lesser discourses. . both at home and abroad. before the it whole be finished. them lished. or whether ever be so or no. concerning the Dispensation and Operations of the Holy Spirit.CCclxxiv THE PREFACE.

it but acought not to be interpreted. terest in Christian religion. unto God. The main question stated. greatly to look well to those sprhigs. It concerneth us. yet if the springs of them be in the power of others. Usurpation of the church of Rome. the same of and to the mind. And when it is believed so to be. thereby into their one spring secured. and so rendered useless unto us. and our understanding of the mind and will of God as revealed in them. The Scripture itself. with reference unto (he interpretation of the Scripture. Thus hath it fallen out in the world in this matter so hath the church of Rome endeavoured to deal with all Christians. on their pleasure he must al- ways depend for the benefit of them. the GeSjjirit of God himself neral assertions to be proved. of light and truth derived. cannot be believed to be the word of God. it cannot be understood. they tell us. I. From them are all those streams Though a man may have pleasant streams running by his habitation. with faith divine. and made fruitful refreshed. and watering his inheritance. The principal efficient cause of the understanding zvhich believers have in the mind and will of God as revealed in the Script ares. cording is . or right understanding of the mind of God therein. Right andahilitj/ of all believers as to their own duty herein asserted. vJuR belief of the Scriptures to be the word of God. Importance of the truth proposed. that they be neither stopped nor defiled. Declared in sundry particulars. therefore. or a divine revelation. Their main endeavour is to seize those springs of religion . judgment. CHAP. who can either divert their course or poison their waters.SYNE2I2: HNEYMATIKH. are the tivo sprhigs of all our inwhereby our souls are watered. exposition. but upon the proposal and testimony of their church. own power. hfer- encesfrom them.

they with all manner of errors this subject taken out of their hand. And when Scribes and Pharisees had gotten the key of knowledge. as our Saviour tells For the one of these springs. For besides other advantages wherewith the knowledo. their church hath the sole poicer of interpreting the Scriptures. which manner secures the other. they have dealt with them according as might be expected from ribns. Scripture itself. so as that they became not only useless. truly believe the Scripture to be the word of God. OF in like church. as revealed in understanding . when they had got the possession of them. WAYS. so to do. that souls of men. to refresh the church and make it fruitful unto God. nor suffer those that would. or I have vindicated the just rights of all Christians thereunto. which is the letter of the us. That which now the right of all lieth before us. The first of these springs I have in a former discourse on terpretation of the Scripture. or the so/e inits have poisoned the streams and delusions. they stopped them up. And hav- ing of old possessed these springs of Christian religion. namely.e of that truth is accompanied it dispossesseth the Romanists of . This I did. and whereon any can. by shutting it up in an unhioivn tongue. without any regard to the testimony or authority of their church. And in the exercise of their pretended right unto the other spring. and given them possession thereof. by declaring the true grounds and reasons whereon we do. with faith divine and supernatural. but noxious and pernicious unto the For under the pretence hereof.376 THE CAUSES. and debarring the people from the use of it. is the vindication of believers unto the other spring also. by evidencing that we do and ought thus to believe the divine original of the Scripture. their claim unto this fountain of religion. and partly diverted course. when it ought to have gone forth like the waters of the sanctuary. they would neither enter into the kingdom of God themselves. have they obtruded all their errors with all their abominations in worship and practice on the minds and consciences of men. so far as we ourselves are concerned therein. unjust invaders of other men's rights. and malcejidei possessoSo when the Philistines contended for the wells which Abraham and Isaac had digged. they partly stopped it up. AND MEANS. and cntinot err therein. or a right of the mind and will of God.

is required of persons in their various conditions. for which any believer may be called to suffer in this world. The truths of the gospel. the things which he hath revealed in his word. yet is not their understanding of the truth. For we are not promise. among other things. to be established in. hut helpet's of their Joy. as they are teachers of others. necessary unto the interpretation of difficult places in the Scripture. And thereon depends all our interest in that great that we shall be all taught of God. arid error. suitably unto the duty that God requireth of in their several capacities and conditions. unto blessedness.UNDERSTANDING THE MIND OF GOD. and the ways of religious worship. if their spiritual judgment of truth and falsehood depend on there is And the authority of men. and by him. unless we do learn from him. which is sufficient to direct to deliver him from the and to conduct him the life of God. so. or all that knowledge of the mind and will of God revealed in the Scripture. and faith in it. what measure of understanding of the mind and will of God as revealed therein. or to be resolved into. That every be- due use of the means appointed of Godfor that end. they will never be able to undergo any suffering for the truth. who are not appointed of God to be lords of their faith. darkness. as unto the him in belief of the Scripture itself. knowledge. and faith of the things contained therein. shall.full assurance of understanding in themselves. or among the number of them that are to be taught. liever My may. and instruct them in the knowledge of his mind and will revealed in the Scripture. as a means appointed lead. guide. And although ordinary believers are obliged to make diligent and conscientious use of the ministry among other things. be afterward spoken is What and passages unto. are such as about whose ^nse and re- . their apprehension of it. them 377 the Scripture. so as unto the understanding. their authority. unless they hold their persuasion of the sense of Scripture revelations from God alone. Wherefore. not any truth of greater importance for men For unless they have Q. attain unto such a full assurance of understanding in the truth. which is the principal end of that ordinance. dangers of ignorance. to of the church of God to rest upon. or to perform any duty unto God in a right manner. we do not depend on the authoritative interpretation of any church or person whatever. principal design in the is to manifest.

in giving testimony unto the most perni. yea. versy concerning those things so controverted.ic\\ it hath prescribed unto him: he will have little joy of his Yea. And if there be not an assured. But in this state of things. but that they do not wholly depend on the expositions and interpretations of other men. and at the same time. those who may possibly be called to suffer for the truth in any season. distinguish himself from suffer.378 THE CAUSES. cious errors hath. Yea. because such or he hath in veneration or esteem do so affirm. or. WAYS. they It for all may outward means of confidence which he have also. if a man under his sufferings for his profession. Dissent is grown almost all that is criminal in Christian religion all the world over. infallible way and means of communicating unto all believers. can give self God. do yet freely and fully allow. that they may have in themselves a certain undeceiving understanding of the mind and \v'\\\ of God. the papal OTi\\e reformed church. as revealed in the Scripture. and inclinations. revealed in the Scripture. Truth and error are promiscuously ^ersecM^et/ according unto the judgment. can. . \Nh. unless we grant men an immediate understanding of their own in the mind and will of God. OF and contro- velation in the Scripture. upon errors differing from both. there is great difference among men. or to For him- no other account but this. soul and conscience. they cannot suffer for them either are fixed in their cheerfully or honourably. yea. AND MEANS. independent on the authority of any church or persons whatsoever the use of whose ministry herein we . the grounds whereof own minds. interest. to assure their minds in this fundamental truth . or on any occasion. is the truth of God such whom and have so instructed him. a knowledge of the mind and will of God in the Scripture. there will be nothing whereby a man who suffers for the own those who in his most important truths of the gospel. of them that are in power. in this matter as things are stated at this day in the world. because this is the doctrine of this or that church. sometimes both truth and error are persecuted in the same place. a full assurance therein. there is that which is yet worse suffering in the end. be they who they will. therefore. so as to give glory to obtain any solid peace and comfort in their own souls. That what he suffers for. all behoveth.

as unto what he ivould have us in know or believe. In answer unto the inquiry proposed concerning the knowledge and understanding of believers in the mind of God. in answer unto the design of God. in an acceptable manner. All the means. in opposition unto ignorance. die in peace. which are . appointed of God thereunto. without a supposition hereof. First. more pernicious than this. internal and external. errors. and according to their duty. There an especial work of the Spirit of God on the minds of men. And. and the under- hending aright standing of the mysteries of heavenly truth containd therein . and underis standincr unto them. it is As the Holy Spirit of God himself alone. may own minds. to the first of these. derstanding in their . of the meaning and attain a right vnsense of the Scriptures. mistakes. The principal efficient cause. or any men whatever. 379 Nor. obedience offaith. so as that his obedience may be the. Hoiv they may attain a the Scripture. as to the doctrine or truths contained in them. light. as that they may hend them in a useful manner. and so in a right manner to petform the duties which by them we are instructed in. communicating spiritual wisdom. indeed.UNDERSTANDING THE MIND OF GOD. there never was any. can any man perform any duty to God. and I shall add hereunto . and allfalse apprehensions. without the effectual aid and assistance of the Spirit of God. It is the fondest thing in the world to imagine. or the principal efficient cause of the due knowledge and understanding of the will of God in the Scripture. but in and by our own . or. nor can upon good grounds his 07vn faith alone. that the Holy Ghost doth any way teach us. For. That the mysteries of the unto the common reason and undergospel are so exposed know them and comprestanding of men. necessary unto their discernment and apprethe 7nind of God in his word. our present inquiry is Horv believers. there is none. since the just shall live by Wherefore. as revealed in the Scriptures I shall consider. and what right perception of the mind of God he intends in the revelation of it. that among all the false and foolish imaginations that ever Christian religion was attacked or disturbed withal. Secondly.

to enable us to understand the Scripture. would deal with us as the Philistines did with Samson. WAYS. in this matter. IPet. they were by the same means to inquire into the mind and will of God in them. it is asserted. Whatever we know. and standing. The substance.380 THE CAUSES. we do not. or 'wara^^'idite prophetical inspirations. whether there be not an especial work of the Holy Spirit of God. II. reason in the things of religion. though there be great use of the true ministry of the church unto that end. nor need to. of the sense and meaning of the Holy Ghost therein. OF renounce all enthusiasms reasons and understandings. Neither did the prophets or holy penmen of the Scripture learn the mind of God in the revelations made unto them. as we do it in and by the written word . enlightening our minds. we know it in and by the use of our We what we conceive. we cannot attain that knowledge of the mind and will of God in the Scripture. That we stand not in need of any new divine ajjlations. or our coming unto the riches assurance of binder standing in the acknoivledgment full God mi/sttry of God. and plead not for any immediate prophetical Those who would prohibit us the use of our inspirations. were in the stead and place of the written zcord. and enabling our understandings to perceive and apprehend his mind and will as re-vealed in the Scripture. which is required of us in a way of duty. we do it by our own underOnly the inquiry is. merely from the divine inspiration of them. first put out our eyes. I. III. That as to the right understanding of the mind of of the of the in the Scripture. and then make us grind in their mill. with the help of external means. principally. ensuing discourse. of the reason. AND MEANS. and no otherwise. or all of them in the world. therefore.i. j) 1' Wherefore. . be it of what sort it will. depend on the authoritative instruction or interpretation of the Scripture by any church whatever. 11. After they did receive them. That in the mere exercise of our own natural reason and miderstanding. without the special aid and assistance of the Holy Spirit of God. may be reduced unto these heads. Those immediate inspirations unto them. and by them unto the church. 10. or the mind and will of God as revealed therein. and without which we cannot so do.

are of two sorts first. without which they position are of no use and the latter is not only consistent therewith. the substance of what is designed in the en. or comply with his own duty in all that he may be called to do or suffer in this world. but as they are elevated. in the accommodation of arts and sciences with all kind of learning unto that first sort of them doth entirely depend on a supof the spiritual aids mentioned. VII. It is all the other assertions do abso- this the Scripture itself alone from whence the truth in matter can be learned. work. it down concerning is evident. This being. and. needful unto the end proposed namely. is in the first place and principally to be confirmed. 381 IV. as prayer. us in a way of duty. either in general. suing discourse. is not resolved into. light. that we may aright. or as to any especial doctrine. whereby any man may answer the mind and will of God. enlightened. conducted. as that whereon lutely depend.UNDERSTANDING THE MIND OF GOD. secondly. understand the mind of God in the Scripture ourselves. according unto our duty. That whereas the means of the right interpretation of the Scripture. That there is an especial work of the Holy Spirit in the supernaturul illumination of our minds. VI. any immediate inspiration or enthusiasm . The certainty and assurance that we may have and ought to have of our right understanding the mind of God in the Scripture. in his Wherefore. and knowledge unto them. and . and by which alone what is pro- i'<x . in communicating spiritual wisdom. disciplinary. but singularly subservient thereunto wherefore the nature and use of all these means shallbe afterward declared. it doth not depend upon nor is resolved into the authority of any church in the world. doth not depend upon. V. nor is it the result of our reason and understanding merely in their natural actings. guided. That hereby alone is that full assurance of understand^ ing in the knoivledge of the mysterij of God. such as are prescribed unto : especial circumstances. and understanding of the mind of God therein. his truth and grace to be obtained. the . and the like . by an internal efficacious work of the Spirit of God upon them. meditation on the word itself. or interpret it unto others. that the positions before laid the especial work of the Spirit on the minds of men.

suasion and full assurance that the things wherein he hath been instructed.' Secondly. First. and in use of the means appointed of God unto that end. : . and which he knows. ^o betake himself unto. and do give our assent thereunto.382 THE CAUSES. as to the right understanding of the mind and will of God in the Scripture. And as I shall shew that there is no safety in depending on certainty or full assurance of them. 4. or immediate pretended infallible inspirations . That which the evangelist Luke proposed in his namely. AND MEANS. When we come to consider posed concerning the way and manner of the communication of these spiritual aids unto us. that we may have a * . When we have been instructed in the truth of the gospel. namely. We design to inquire what conduct unto this end a man that takes care of his salvation. ought in this matter. the whole foundation of this work lies in these two things 1. the whole matter will be more fully stated. That he writing the Gospel unto Theophilus of he had been the the wherein know certainty things might instructed .' Luke i. And there are two ends designed in this undertaking. This therefore we shall to an undeceiving perdirect. and who is convinced that he must give an account of himself unto God. as unto this part of this work I shall do little more than plead the express testimonies thereof. and cunning craftiness. OF first it must be tried . That there is such an especial zcork of the Holy Spirit on our minds. of God mind and will of God as revealed in the Wherefore. How a man may come * enthusiasms. are true and according to the mind of God. yet it is needful that we should examine the grounds and reasons of what we do believe thereon. WAYS. therefore. by the sleight of men. and such objections as may be laid against our assertion be removed out of the way. so as that he may thereon be no more tossed to and fro with every wind of doctrine. is the only safe guide to bring us unto the full assurance of the Scripture. enabling them to understand the Scriptures in a right manner. or to know the mind of God in them. nor on the pretended infallibility of any church so the Holy : enlightening our minds in the exercise of our own Spirit reason or understanding. whereby they lie in wait to deceive.

Eph. or of the same signification with. But that the force of our argument from this testimony may be the more evident. what are the effects of it upon our minds.24. our underselves standing. 383 2. ver. — — The whole ' of our assertion Psal. 45. That it may be esteemed our duty to pray we pray manner. and what is the true exercise of our minds in compliance therewith. The word signifies instruction . 17 pleaded. Objections anstvered. assertion confii-med with testimonies of the Scripture. it is his teaching or instruction of us by the revelation of himself. of the wonderful things of the law. And what we pray for according to the mind of God. When the books of the Old Testament were completed. Thus he prayed. the same which we intend by the Scripture.' The same request for the substance of it is repeated sundry times in the same Psalm. 18. for distinction-sake. cxix.' and ~ — . opened at large. is the substance of what we plead for. and be- ing referred unto God. xiv. 13 18. is not of ourit is that which is . XXV. that which we receive from God. that we have not in and of ourselves . CHAP. Psa/.-"]J may behold wonderful things out of thy law. opened. them laid down in our assertion. In shewing what is the especial nature of this work. i. What for from God. and how it differs from all enthiisiastical inspirations. that we do receive. Hos. the words or terras of it must be explained. they were. that we may see whether they be equivalent unto. eyes. Wherefore. explained and plained. cxix. that in the knowledge whereof the psalmist would be illuminated. that is the psalmist. The general II. distributed into min aaiDD and CD'xni or the * Law. our discerning. Tsa. 1. I Open thou mine comprised in the prayer of "imino DIN^DJ niyDXI >3>j. 34. Luke i. is n"iin. 9. in conjirmation of the truth. 2 Cor. and these things we shall first inquire into. 18. That which is the object of the understanding prayed for. ex19. given us. as the ancient church constantly pleaded against the Pelain like gians. 33.' the ' Psalms.UNDERSTANDING THE MIND OF GOD. iii. &c.

is the entire revelation of the will of unto the church for the rule of is. effects of infinite — .' to be great' the use of reason cannot by ' ' — ' — are things that have such an impression of divine wisdom and power upon them. who meditateth therein day and night . which are above the natural reason and understandings of men to find out and comprehend.' Isa. .' "ir IDD they by Because they were wonderful' in themselves. AND MEANS.' hid from thee. is evident from the first of them. 11. as that they are justly the object of our admiration. Wherefore. 8. are those expressions and effects of divine wisdom in the Scripture. WAYS. the foundation of all future revelations under the Old Testament.lxxvii. n'pd' '3 If a matter be too hard for thee. therefore. that — signifies to be and ' the Holy Scripture.384 the ' THE CAUSES. 2.' Isa. in the psalms. That which is too hard for us as Deut. That. which hath respect unto the command of reading and meditating on the books thereof\n that manner. they neglected and despised them. in this place. But whereas these books of Moses were. which is intended by ' this word. because they are . 6. OP Under that distribution Prophets . i. 11. these wonderful things of the law. In this law there are niS^Di * wonderful. 44. its faith God. Torah signifies the five books of Moses. 2. as it were. xvii. meet wigdom These things and doctrines God calls ''jmri 12"1» Hos. the written law is intended. Josh. as that which was foreign and alien from So deal many with them. which belonged not unto them or whose name is HbD. therefore. And that by the laiv.' to be high :' that attain unto or understand. Psal. * the mysteries of the gospel at this day . great and marvellous * wonderful. For all the in him. ' I have written unto him the great things of my law and were counted them as a strange thing. the psalmist understands all the books that were then the explication thereof: given unto the church by revelation for the rule of its faith and obedience. i. 20. "im "jDO And it is the name whereby the miraculous works of God — . given and obedience . By the Imv. ' are expressed.' Luke xxiv. Ixxviii. viii. Such are the mysteries of divine truth in the Scripture especially. 12. 8. viii. ix. because Christ is in them.' Psal. which were given in all the writings of it are usually called 'the Law. which men Hence mxbD3 wonderful things :' K^D hidden. wherein he is declared blessed.

There is wards are treasured for. therefore. laid up or treasured. wisdom. ' derful things' of the Scripture. up in the Scripture. with their especial respect unto Jesus Christ. yet would not trust unto his own reason. and nowhere else. are they to be learned and received. in themselves marvellous.' >:)}~bi ' reveal opening mine eyes. expressed in the words the act of God tous. acknowledging therein that it is the especial work of God hy his Spirit. and sacred truth is sacred light. for the understanding of them. 3. discern. For the psalmist who was wiser than the wisest of us. unveil my eyes. spiritual. wisdom. are those mysteries of divine truth. . of them. to discern. they are niK^D3 they reject and despise them as things alieyi and foreign unto their religion. which 4. 2 c . in the law or Scripture. that are revealed and contained therein. do both despise their duty. or repository ' Behold wonthe sacred is There are wondrous in of the works nature and things providence and much of them is contained in the treasury of reason.' uncover. and who had so earnest a desire after these things. This makes the psalmist pray so frequently. Wherefore. hidden. There is a lig?it in the word. Three things are supposed in the words concerning these wonderful things : (1. (3. * This is called his : VOL. to enable us to understand his mind and will as revealed in the Scripture. 385 heavenly.) That we are not able of ourselves thus to discern them without divine aid and assistance. and our great privilege when we are enabled so to do. but betakes himself unto God by prayer. Those. But these are stored in the law only.) That they are recorded.UNDERSTANDING THE MIND OF GOD. so as that from thence alone. wherein it may be discerned. or come to an acquaintance with them. whereby he enableth us to behold. and understand the wonderful effects of divine wisdom. so fervently. (2. which the psalmist prayeth of our eyes. derful things out of the law. and forsake their own mercy. and nowhere else . and grace. to understand them. III. the won- — . and diligence. to have an inspection into them. ability.' That alone TTapaKaTaQi]Ky].) That it is our duty to behold. that he may have the discerning of them. and above the understanding of the natural reason of men that is. by whom they are neglected. all truth is light.

a 9. The lazv is the Scripture. in such a manner as God requireth us to do and whosoever hath received the grace of this divine illumination. or by virtue hereof. and understand them these And we hence farther things are in the text. AND MEANS. This we cannot do without a supernatural act of the Spirit of God upon our minds. to enable us to do. cxix. the word of God ing. and ignorance whereof we have treated elsewhere. the written word of God. xliii. And this veil is that of our natural darkness.386 THE CAUSES. veil. it is our duty to pray for. can we illumination. blindness. is the peculiar work of the Holy Ghost. know or understand the mind of God in the Scripture. is to discern and understand them aright. enabling them to discern them. avavTippriTwg. But there is by nature a covering. But since all things are ' brought to light by the gospel.' or mysteries of divine wisdom contained and revealed. at least we may do . ' it by virtue of that aid and assistance . 3. But such aid.' . . There is but one thing which I can foresee. argue. and such as needed neze revelations for the understanding of them. that may with any pretence of reason be objected unto this testimony of the psalmist in particular. 5 Therein are wonderful things. I see not what is wanting unto the explanation or confirmation of the position before laid down. may do so. And this is that he speaks of the times and writings of the Old Testament.xxxvi.' Psal. OF ' expressly called light .' is velamefitum levare . without that aid and assistance. which is our duty to pray for spiritual supernatural aid. the only thing to be proved. With respect hereunto the * Revelare psalmist prays that God would reveal his eyes. nor to discern any thing by it in a due manner. Now it is confessed that there was in them a darkness and obscurity. which includes the substance by just consequences of what is pleaded for. with respect unto our own faith and obedience. To behold these things. that of ourselves we are not able to do. The communication of spiritual light from God. 105. WAYS. on the eyes of the understandings of all men. that we may understand aright the revelations of the mind and will of God in the Scriptures. to reveal is to take off the veil or coveris Yea. so far as he is concerned in point of faith or obedience. that they are not able of themselves to behold this light. He is the immediate author of all spiritual But hereby alone. that.

The j^rs^ veil. a lustre. which was the substance and end of the law. They did not see or discern the glorious and ' wonderful things' that were in the law. that which was on the face of Moses. This they could not see * wonderful things' conas clearly to discern the tained in and under them. 2 c 2 . xxxiv. ' his face shone . The whole ministry of Moses was but a testimony given unto the things that were afterward to be spokeii concerning him. In answer hereunto I shall consider the discourse of the apostle. as the apostle declares . . that was on their One that was put on Moses' face . 29. or doctrine of the gospel. wherein he stateth this whole matter 2 Cor. wherein life and immorand the wonderful things of the tality are brought to light. ' And blinded : for until this day remaineth the same veil untaken away. Heb. in the reading of the Old Testament. Some dark apprehensions and . when it shall turn unto the Lord (or they be turned unto the Lord) the veil shall be taken away.' When Moses had received the revelation of the law from God. ' receipt of this revelation his face shone . But their minds were 18. iii. that the children of Israel could not steadfastly look to the end of that which is abolished. not as Moses who put a veil over his face. Now the Lord is that Spirit and where the But we all with open Spirit of the Lord is. and the end of them all. 5. in the revelation.' they could not comprehend the truth concerning Christ.UNDERSTANDING THE MIND OF GOD. he was in them all.' because there was a light. there is liberty. On the represented. 13 — . in the things revealed unto him and by them reflected on his ministry. Nevertheless.' Exod. shadows. iii. there is 387 no need of any special aid or assistance of the Holy Spirit by supernatural illumination for the understanding of them. a glory. face behold as in a glass the glory of the Lord. . For there were won- derful things contained in that revelation with respect unto Jesus Christ. another own hearts. was through the obscurity of the instructions given them as wrapped up in tt/pes. This veil is quite taken off. this light did not shine imme- diately into the hearts and minds of the people. which was so . For there was a double veil or covering that hindered them. and dark parables. which is done away in Christ. Nevertheless. ' glances of light they had but they could not look steadfastly unto the end of that which was to be abolished .

388 THE CAUSES. ' as the Syriac reads it. it evident that although there be a difference between them under the Old Testament and us. And : that God. That is. ' This ensues on the taking away of the second veil of darkness and blindness. hereof he declareth two things 1. The former veilis taken away by is on men by nature. saith the apostle. face. IDl^n Dibn the covering. 2. veiled over all nations. This latter is to be removed only an effectual work of the Spirit of Christ. and those under the Neiv. pressed. which is destroyed and removed by the doctrine of the gospel . But. and plainly extherefore. TTjOocrwTTOv a voKEKaXAujulvov. a great difference between those under the Old Testament. that he might be able to behold. That as unto the doctrine itself concerning the veil. whereon the glory of Christ is reflected. but those who are converted unto the heart.' whereby we are enabled to discern the wonderful mysteries of God so revealed. shadows. yet there is none. 7. there is another veil a veil upon . is on the hearts of the .' is This being the design of the discourse of the apostle. is that which is prophesied And he shall destroy in this mountain the of. it is no more represented unto us in types. That we have an open uncovered face . That. Hereby the veilis taken off from the face of Moses. and. 2. which is on the hearts of all by nature. that there is Herein. therefore. WAYS. in the conversion by cf the souls of men unto God. That this is done veil away only in Christ . and dark parables . OF mystery of God in Christ are fully declared. the doctrine of the gospel. as to the veil which all by nature. XXV. or the double veil. that is on the face of all people and riDiDin riDDOm. and take away his natural darkness and ignorance. but in the clear glass of the gospel.his mind. And two thino-s do ensue on the removal of this double 1. it is acknowledged. which must be removed by Holy Spirit. this double veil by the and grace of the gospel. mystery of God in Christ . AXD MEANS. it is not taken away from any. covered. This is the covering of ignorance. blindness. the veil The removal and destruction of ' Spirit . Isa. as to the veil that was on the^flce of Moses.' or. or we cannot with open face behold the glory of the Lord the thing which the psalmist prayeth for in the insisted on. that God by his Spirit would place more and more renew. darkness. . a revealed eye.

Wherefore. secondly. literal sense of Scripture propositions. And prayed unto others. Luke xxiv. who were not destitute of any rational abilities. If we need the openings of our understandings hy an act of the power and grace of Christ. required in us thereunto. I am afraid they do not understand those places of Scripture. namely. for if we could. until the Lord Christ opened their understandThere was needful unto them an immediate gracious ings. as those who pretend Howbeit" they could not unhighest amongst us. And the act of Christ in opening their understandings. And I cannot yet much value those men's understanding of the Scripture.' A needless work ifsome men may be believed. And probably they were as well skilled in the for. that we may understand the Scriptures. viour upon it. no need of this act of Christ towards these disciples. that is. that for their parts they need no such especial aid and assistance to enable them to understand the mind of God in the Scripture. so as to the believe and yield obedience according unto our duty . where this aid and assistance Scripture. perceive. these were preached unto them every day.^ere instructed in.UNDERSTANDING THE MIND OF GOD. unto ways first. is openly the doctrine of the distinguished from the proposition of made two This was them. 389 and understand. these they v. that . which he is . nothing their understandings. ' so expressly affirmed to be necessary thereunto. act of his divine power on their minds to enable them thereunto. 45. These they read. if we consider the communication of the grace. there is : In the oral discourse of our SaScripture itself. if . and the psalms ver. But the meaning of the psalmist will the better appear. Then opened he their understandings. that they might understand the Scriptures. whose understandings are not opened by the Spirit of Christ. so to be. In the Scripture consequence is evident . then without it we cannot so do. of the law and the prophets. This is expressed. derstand those wonderful things in a way of duty. and as they ought to do. which is sufficiently exposed to the common reason of all mankind I shall only say at present. Distinct from both these is that act of his whereby he opened they might una real interbut derstand the Scripture. The truths concerning him were revealed in the Scripture. the mind of God as revealed in the any shall suppose or say. 44. But our Lord Jesus Christ thought not so.

OF nal act of grace. Believers are not directed to look after such revelations for . is the whole of what we would assert.390 THE CAUSES. to for. AND MEANS. the church of rality : . duty to do for ourselves. And these are all we plead Let them be granted without any other distinctions or limitations. without we can- not do. 1. and what the exceeding greatness of his power to us-ward who be- lieve. But some particular passages in the words may be considered for the better understanding. therefore. it is unquestionably our out. especial aid and assistance from him by his Spirit. and what the is riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints. that ye may know what is the hope of his calling. the genetheir guide was obliged to attend thereunto alone. These things are plain. men would acquiesce by faith we need to plead this cause no in what is here And I shall only shew in the opening of them. — ' : the eyes of your understandings being enlightened. and not liable. WAYS. ever since the Scripture was written. an eminent place that must be pleaded disThat the God of Eph. any exception. It is a revelation that the apostle prays for or a Spirit of revelation to be given unto them. or the enlightening of the eyes of our understandings. And. that his God mind know and understand andzcill. in the illumination of their minds can be intended thereby. i. but wholly without cause. than any we can find declared. For he understands not new immediate external revelation from God. may give unto you in and revelation the knowledge of him of wisdom the Spirit But there is tinctly to this purpose. and there is an end of this difference. are more emphatical unto a spiritual understanding. as I suppose. the nature whereof shall be farther explained afterward. and nothing And if For the words and expressiotis of the truth here used. 1. would enable us by his Spirit We to are then to pray. but what the Scripture will justify. 17 19. and farther confirmation of the truth contained therein.' This else. This. how our position and sense is contained in them. glory. farther. as revealed in the Scripture. And the aid he gives us consists in the effectual illumination of our minds. what the apostle doth here for others. Father of the our Lord Jesus Christ. This greatly offends some at first hearing.

whereby no new things are revealed unto our minds. or ' revelation. And the Holy Spirit is here called the Spirit of revelation. or are not outwardly revealed anezo. by they might understand. is the discovery of any thing. this inquiry . as when any one maketh use of a telescope to . but only unto things already revealed in the Scripture or tradition. whether by the proposal of it unto us. Rom. What some among their light. i. put an end unto all expectation of any new. At least we take it for granted in until the nezo revelations as and that infallible inspirations in the discovery of not before revealed.UNDERSTANDING THE MIND OF GOD. are ceased in the church. 2. 7. 1. . to add he pleased . were already revealed in the Scriptures of the Old Testament. 11. posed. As when God opened the eyes of the servant of Elisha on the prayer of his master. 12. They were not brought thither by the opening of his eyes onlv he was enabled to discern them which before he could not do. wherein the faith or obedience of the church should be concerned. of any other revelations. 1 ourselves do ascribe of this nature unto do not well know. and unto. but what was really in the same place before. which without that assistance it could not reach unto. Gal. xii. 6.hut our minds are enabled to discern the things that are revealed already. behold things afar off. In the latter. in. Eph. and the infallible declaration of the gospel in the preaching of the apostles. 17. All the things here mentioned the which he desires apostle. i. 25. Or. 391 as their only rule of faith and obedience. 2 Cor. completing of all the books of the New. And although God reserved unto himself a liberty under the Old Testament. causally . yet he always bound up the faith and obedience of the present church.' things in a due manner. only his visive faculty is assisted to discern them at that distance. or the enabling of us to discern it when it is so proIn the first sense it is used. And he hath now by the Spirit of his Son. Nor things do the Papists extend their infallibility/ thereunto. . But there is an internal subjective revelation. But there was a new work of revelation required. unto what he had already revealed. that would understand and comprehend these the For aTroKoXvxpig. xvi. ii. no object is presented unto him. 32. nor shall now inquire. Luke ii. every person. that v^ere round about him 2 Kings i. to see the horses and chariots of fire. and New that were then written.

392 as he his is THE CAUSES. and of the that should make him of quick understandfear of the Lord . but that our minds do stand . he is called 'the Spirit of wisdom and understanding.' Such are the things that are proposed unto us in the And the principal reason why some men judge Scripture. And. OF the author or principal efficient cause of it : so in communication unto the Lord Christ himself. or the object of our admiration .' as the psalmbelieve. the Spirit of counsel and might. is in and his judgments them. 33. Rom. 2. but only as they are revealed therein. ' . xi. And in the manner of his expression he declares these things to be wonderful.' such mysteries in the gospel as we plead. 2. AND MEANS. or of the revelation of them. ' the hope of God's calling.' ' ist speaks. WAYS. the depth of the riches of the wisdom and knowledge of set forth the ways of God. chap. or truly great and glorious in them.' and the * exceeding greatness of his power in them that do ' These are some of the principal and most important mysteries of the gospel. because they do not finding out.' the apostle expresseth in particular. And there apprehend that there is any thing wonderfid. it so a to understand and comprehend by the inmatter easy nate abilities of their own minds the revelations that are made in the word of God unto us is. iii.' Isa. virip^aXXov fiiyeOog an exceeding or inexpressible greatness of power. therefore. For there riches of glory .' . For grant that there are such wonderful things. because they cannot raise their minds unto a comprehension of these mysteries as they are in themselves they corrupt and debase them. how unsearchable are past ' his ways. No other understanding can we have of these things. to suit them unto their own low carnal apprehensions. and the men of that persuasion will not deny.' the riches of his glory. that it is avi^iyyiaaToq. and distributes them under sundry heads as they were more clearly revealed in the gospel. ing in the fear of the Lord. 8. xi. the Spirit of knowledge. What the psalmist in the place before insisted ' on calleth in general mi<^D3 wonderful things. when God. 'past all investigation' or search the same word that he useth to . which is the principle that works effectually in the whole of Socinianism. So he expressly affirms. 3. his design is to declare them ' O wonderful.' which is is in them ' ttXovtoq rfjc So^rjc the beyond our comprehension. Such are.

he cannot know them unless they are clearly and fairly proposed unto him no. Had they not the Scripture also . know that the apostle intends only. 20. he . that so many upon their first conversion burnt * to the value of fifty thousand pieces of silver . thatjthey might know them. men by nature. 1 have kept back nothing which was pro. in 393 For they aright. nor then neither.UNDERSTANDING THE MIND OF GOD. and New which were then written ? Did not the others and preach the doctrine of the gospel unto apostle them. It is true. . therefore doth the that these Ephesians might be so earnestly pray. need of a heavenly assistance to comprehend them deny them for no other reason/ but becannot comprehend them. perception. which is neither weakness nor discommendation.' Acts xix. that a natural man cannot things that are never proposed unto him. and he doth it Because it is with an unusual solemnity. cause their reason 3. man to have. spiritual For neither can the man so know any thus with thing. Concerning these things so revealed in the word the apostle prays for these Ephesians. invocating the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. or understanding of them. or that he can have cannot know them . Speaking unto these very persons. ' But what reason is there for this earnestness ? What is wanting unto these Ephesians ? what would he yet have for them? were they not rational men that had their eyes in their heads as well as others? nay. ii. He cannot do so by the use of any outward means alone. as also he expresseth the way whereby alone they might be enabled so to do. Probably they were many of them very know- ing in the 7iew and old philosophy. the leaders ' of them he saith. Eic to d^vai vfiaQ' that they might have a sight. and therein the things which he here mentioneth ? He Acts xx. declareth. apostle enabled to understand and know these things. It is futilous to imagine This he denies a natural ' .' 1 Cor. and expressly testifieth. 19. that is. were not many of them learned men and skilled in all the curious arts of those days? for here their it books was. that he did those of the . . that is. the Father of glory :' which argues both a great intension of spirit in him. 14. it may be said. and great weight laid upon the matter of his request. all the books of the Old Testament. by the light and power of his own natural faculties. 27.

and the use of their reason and let them have the I . but to conceive the grammatical sense of the words that he useth. OF unto you. than we understand of the things themselves that are revealed by him. clearly proposed not so reveal and propose it was because the could apostle God them. and what the . and the nature of his propositions and arguings ? And although St.394 fitable THE CAUSES. and they defy the world to think that they yet want any thing to enable . . What.' namely. them to knotv. or because he would not. proach to reason this is It is. therefore. WAYS. which is foolish and impious to imagine. If he could not. caiiting and nonsense. that these Ephesians were generally as and some of them as learned. i . as any in our days. as some say. then he prays. Paul. be one of the obscurest writers thei/ ever met with. or that they might learn what he could not teach them. To fancy any i i ' be necessary hereunto is fanatical madness. then he prays. that they may know. that that might be revealed unto them which was not so to him . i . to think that not enough to enable men to understand the mind of ! l iv ^ God in the Scriptures. For what would men have? what should ail them ? Are not the doctrines of the gospel highly rcrfio^a/? are not the things of it eminently suited unto the reason of mankind? are not thing else to the books of the Scripture written in a style and languao-e hitelligible? Is there any thing more required unto the un- j I < ' derstanding of the mind of any author. j| !' things of the gospel. a reand Christian religion itself. Yet grant some of ours but thus much. that we understand no more of the mind of God in the revelations that he ma4t8s unto us. or the doctrines of it rationally proposed unto them. yet surely by these means some good shift may be made with his writings also. as they are in the Scripture. therefore. am persuaded. but declared unto you : all the counsel of of his calling. that they have their wits about them. wise. which he could easily have so done which is equally foolish to suppose. and rightly to understand them. that they might know and understand these things ? For we must know. If he would not. and revealed. that which he would not teach them. do they yet lack ? What is yet farther needful. AND MEANS. let them have what conceit of themselves they please. what is the hope these things sufficiently not were of his greatness power unto them ? If they were not.

But yet if men should be allowed to suppose. that our minds were no way vitiated. wherein these Ephesians were not wanting . and the use of means. depraved. and ! It that others. unto the highly rational abilities cannot be denied. posed unto us. we may be God unto this end. that we can comprehend and understand the mysteries of the gospel without For the original light and especial spiritual illumination. and if they are. and reason above others. if mysteries of grace when proposed unto us. diligent they may i . our minds be not corrupted or depraved. And we find that the apostle reneweth his prayer for them again unto the same purpose. that these things are consistent. ' it is necessary that the eyes of our understanding' should be spiritually opened and enlightened . that these Ephesians should have the it special aid of the Spirit for. wisdom. but that the apostle necessary. or necessary for us in the state of nature. that the apostle judgeth.UNDERSTANDING THE MIND OF GOD. should pray for them also. whose duty it is. be of it so. For neither their being nor revelation was consistent with the state of integrity. abilities of our minds was not suited or prepared for the receiving and understanding of them. 14 from hence. Wherefore. although our minds should be allowed to be as wise and perspicacious with respect unto that natural knowledge of God and all that belongs unto it. which supposition is the sole foundation of these assertions yet it is most irrational to imagine. iii. which he prayeth excused if we dare not think ourselves better than they nor to have a sufficiency of learning. Well. that be inquiries. yet would it not follow. that over and above the utmost exercise of our natural faculties and abilities in the — use of outward means that we may know the mind of God in the Scripture. at . we cannot understand the mind of God therein. with of And . there is no need of the gospel nor its grace . or less to need prayers of this nature than they did. chap. but other men it seems think not so. All the difference ariseth great fervency . But it may yet it is meet that they should both pray for themselves. 395 some persons it judged present. that we are able to discern the The truth is. For notwithstanding men's rational abilities. be said. which was pro. without especial illumination. or darkened by the fall. 19. obtain and in their is so.

that God would open his And it is the internal work of ilhnnination that is ineyes. not able of themselves to apprehend are that at all. as shall be immediately declared. in and for the removal have at large elsewhere declared. dilij gence. i . in order unto the end ' proposed. and that they may have the especial blessing of God thereon. That on these suppositions . is. which is ab- solutely necessary thereunto. and praying for a blessing in their diligence. efficacy. but that God would give them the ' Spirit of wisdom and reeth for. AND MEANS. . AV'AYS. pends because I must speak somewhat more in particular unto the tended. For they cannot but think it strange to pray for a Spirit of wisdom and revelation' to be given unto their ivhole congregations. is Besides. I understand not how this prayer can be suited unto the principles of any who deny the necessity of this internal spiritual aid. Now. what is the nature of that spiritual is communicated unto us. velation to enlighten the eyes of their understandings. and power. they disavow any farther concernment in this matter. although the main force of the argument deon these words. and we shall speak unto them afterward.' that they may know them. yet shall 1 not insist here upon them. are here supposed. unto quisite men be diligent in the discharge of their duty herein. 4. The thing in especial prayed for.' for in the place before insisted on. I answer. is. or to them. that there is an especial work of the Spitit of God in the enlightening light which I thereof. they prove and know the mind and things of God in the Scripture. These are not the things that the apostle here prayeth for. ' ' > And for themselves. nature of this work afterward. there is indeed nothing wanting. And if that be not also reThat this end. how it is taken away and removed. but that which the apostle moreover pray- which is none of them. standings what is its nature. that the eyes of our understandings may be This is the same which the psalmist prayeth enlightened. his prayer is vain and useless. which were a dangerous way to make them wiser than their teachers. in general. And indeed. usino. OF But this doth not the blessing of God upon their diligence. All that at present I shall observe from these words.396 THE CAUSES. what is that darkhere supposed to be on our minds or under- . ' ness which . or that any thing is wanting in them.' ' | .

is not fore. hath this ability to know the mysteries of the gospel. necessary unto our discerning of the mysteries of the gospel in a clue manner . and evince the truth. and the ' God of glory . all that we receive from him and by him.' Psal.' to intimate that it proceeds from his relation unto us in Christ. and may not boast as if it were from himself. unto the church. ver. the Fa- unto his own ther of glory. we have it by the way offree gift or donation also. That the God of our Lord Jesus Christ. And what he is promised or given in the gospel so any thing that is in our own power. And this is the Holy Spirit. as we do.' That the Holy Spirit is the immediate author of all supernatural effects and operations in us. of God the Father. 397 the eyes ofou?^ understandings. doth farther confirm the same truth. or free gift. hath been elsewhere proved at large. 8. What in us. ' unto you it is given to know the mysteries of God. Luke xi. the ' King of glory. He hath received it. Therefore is this ability of understanding the Scripture. Wherethe ascription of the communication of this ability unto the Holy Ghost. is declared concerning the author of this work the principal efficient cause of it. donation. but to them (to others) it is not given. 17. of the work ascribed unto him. give unto you. and I . And these titles are prefixed unto this grant or the request of it. who yet heard his on whom he will. ' that he 5.' as he is the eternal spring and cause of all glory. 2. or would give unto you the Spirit of wisdom and revelation.' xxiv. and the mysteries of the truth contained therein. he hath it hy free gft. with that love and bounty wherein he is the cause of all grace and glory unto us. 7.' Acts vii. * the God of our Lord Jesus Christ. do evidence the nature. As for the first. and his properties as communicated. Wherefore. Whoever. xiii. which he bestows his disciples. a mere free gift of God. So our Saviour told words. it is by the ' grant.' Matt. the Father of glory. with respect But he is the 'Father of glorious majesty. therefore.UNDERSTANDING THE MIND OF GOD. 13. is a sufficient evidence that we want it in to effect. ourselves. or donation from God. glory. 11. receiving this Spirit hy free donation. and understood the literal sense of the propositions used by him as well as the disciples did. would God is called. And all things here affirmed concerning the manner of his communication unto us. which was to be proved.

' Hos. unchangeably so. the wisdom of the just Luke i.) He is the ' Spirit of wisdom. 1 Cor. that formed the eye. . 2. as he is essentially so in himself. and he shall know them. and that because he was to make him of ' quick understanding in the fear of the Lord . 3. Men are naturally! wise in their own conceit which if continued in. That he is the cause of all wisdom in others. iv.' Isa.' ver. he wisdom and understanding . James i. that none of the wicked shall understand. And in nothing doth it more evidence itself. to is to do. OF had not received it. 9. than in apprehensions of their own abi' : . And it is called. For all eternally. I . as thus given unto open our eyes. xxvi.' with respect unto the work which he For wisdom is required hereunto. AVAYS. xi. called the Spirit of wisdom. and from judging the things of God to be folly. for the ways of the Lord are right. and as he is And it is in the the efficient cause of all wisdom unto others. This wisdom is not in us by nature. butphet affirms. That wisdom which may deliver us from being really fools ourselves.' . (1. nitely. are wisdom and revelation. is a hopeless frame of mind Prov. as the apostle speaks. 1 ' | ' . AND MEANS. 12. 17. that he 7. properties ascribed unto him. because they do not spiritually understand them. xii.' Dan. and dislike the ways of God. peculiarly ascribed unto him. and the just shall walk in them but the transgressors shall fall therein . . and There is a wisdom required hereunto he shall understand these things prudent. He is a' Spirit of wisdom' essentially in himself. and causally And these things do mutually or efficiently unto others. shall he not see ?' And because he is essentially wise. 17. as thus communicated for this end. and so cast themselves And it is of the same things that the prointo destruction. he must be the author of all wisdom unto others. is a demonstration that he is essentially wise in him'For he that planted the ear shall he not hear? He self. Who is wise. And this property us. Want of this wisdom is the cause that wicked men take offence at. latter good must come from that which is infiHe is. ' therefore. the Again.' on both these accounts . the called the Spirit of head of the church. 10. the wise shall understand .398 THE CAUSES. demonstrate each other.' is So ' in the communi- cation of him in all fulness unto the Lord Jesus Christ. xiv. way immediately that he is ' is here so termed.

and therein is he unto us. and to trust thereunto in the thino-s of God. our Lord Jesus Christ affirmed that he came into ' that they which see not. doth the apostle give that advice unto us. the Pharisees who had great apprehensions of their own wisdom and understanding in the law. shall understand these things. than a proud conceit of their own wisdom. in the way that shall be afterward declared . and none else. and in their contempt of what they do not so. wit. the meanest believer who hath received this wisdom from above. 18. who do not doctrinally own the receiving of . To whom this is not given. and abilities. therefore. lity to 399 comprehend spiritual things. ' And are we blind also ?' John ix. among a fool. 18. When the world. if any man ' . this wisdom w-hich is the daughter of natural darkness. might see.' 1 Cor. This is a matter wherein are very apt to deceive themselves even to conceit themselves wise. And with respect hereunto. Wherefore. let him become . i. and explode the consideration of these things in our inquiries after the mind of God. therefore. as folly. 5. iii. Without this wisdom which he works in us.UNDERSTANDING THE MIND OF GOD. ag?/? of spiritual wisdom and understand' ing necessary hereunto. is nothing that sets men at a greater distance from divine instruction. 23. they know not the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven. Let men please or pride themselves w'hilst they will in their own wisdom and learning. you seemeth that he to be wise in this world. replied with scorn. the Spirit of wisdom freeth the minds of believers from.' or to communicate spiritual saving light into the minds of men. yet do I not judge all them to be ^""ifi P^f^^ti^^^ll^y blind. Whereas. he gives us that wisdom which is from above. no man can understand the wisdom of God in the mystery of the gospel whoso is thus ' .40. knoweth more of the mind of God in a due manner than they do. 1 Cor. 33. and that to their eternal ruin. . according unto the measure of the gift of Christ. and the mother of proud cial there spiritual ignorance. It proved no otherwise. whereof alone he there treats. parts. a ' Spirit of wisdom. the espe- men promise of God is to teach the meek and the humble. that we may discern the wonderful things' that are in the word of God.' Moreover. may be wise . as our duty Let no man deceive himself. made wise. There is.' which we are directed to ask of God James i.

renders the word of God of none effect. as given Spirit of wisdom. upon this spiritual wisdom.400 this THE CAUSES. spiritual way some apt to glory as if they had not received. And this was the I of old came to understand divine revelamind of God as revealed in the Scripture. If others who seem to scorn all mention of the teaching of the HoIt/ Ghost. and effects of it. nor have any thing in a but what we have received. thus to be bestowed thus to be us. it is what I understand not. unto us. iv.' because he 7naketh This wisdom we have not us wise or worketh wisdom in us. the Holy Spirit. have found out a course more expedite unto the same end. or the cipate in. or understand God therein which is all that we plead for. . for to suppose it. yet are of ability. 1 Cor. ' Wherefore. wrought in us. is fully declared therein. is said to be a of ourselves . WAYS. because the whole of what we assert in general. is necessary that we may And know the mysteries of the gospel. as the apostle not ourselves to intimates . AND MEANS. OF wisdom and light differ from above. causes. in the nature. the mind of have insisted the longer upon this testimony. For. 7. nor do desire to parti- way whereby they tions. . although we make from others.

III. 45. de- clared.' God Spirit of truth.' He is so as he is the revealer of all divine supernatural truth unto the church. respect unto the object. As he is also called the Holy Spirit. ' When the Spirit believers promised . it. so he is originally called the Holy Spirit on the account of his essential holiness. Wherefore. * . lutely that is civil. they are so. and contruth which he is cerning their faith and obedience. as unacquainted with. diso essentially. assurance of the truth they have who are taught of God. 6. opened. 13. intended. D 2 VOL. The mysteries of the gospel. eternal verity . 27. vi. 22. or all truth of that nature whereof j our Saviour there speaketh. III. How the Holy Spirit guides : . he shall guide you into called the as ' all truth. 2. 13.20. Eph. What 5. the counsel of God about the salvation of the church by Christ. it is not all truth absoThere is truth ^in things natural. We see believers of all sorts as ignorant of. How far all true the believers are infallibly led into all truth. >f truth is come. and stories of things that are past . all that truth.' principally * absolutely is called the God He is the first. of the kingdom of heaven. There are yet other testimonies which may be pleaded unto For unto this end is the Holy Ghost the same purpose. many of these With men whatever.UNDERSTANDING THE MIND OF GOD. John XXX. John xvi. absolute. Practical truths inferred from the assertion And manner how proved. as any other sort of one word of the promise of Christ fall unto the ground. Other testimonies pleadedin the confirmation of the same truth. is alone intended. account solely that he is here called the Spirit of truth. 401 '^ CHAP. unto all John xvi. as he therefore is he here prois author of all holiness in others . i. it is his work to lead us into all And two things are considerable in this promise 1 What is intended by all truth. nothing of this nature is comprised in this promise. vine. ' mised unto the church as truth. Yet doth not things. But it is not on that he is . or leads us into 1.' The Holy Spirit is on the same account of truth . explained. 1 John ii. are the all the the This apostle calleth promised to guide us into.

It is Christ alone. 27. in these chapters of the Gospel. how the Spirit doth thus lead The external revelation of truth is herein supposed. equally to be led into all truth. and the administration of the other. that this of the Spirit should he for ever . OF counsel of God. his duty and his work. namely. course and whole design of our Lord Jesus Christ unto that: For he promiseth him in opposition unto his own purpose. as to the degrees of light and knowledge. WAYS. unto them. j us into all truth. and obedience of every one. They are not all of them. is the of the measure of his receiving these gifts of Christ. j i j The promises concerning the mission of the Holy Spirit \ not to be con-j fined unto the apostles. unto all the members of the church. none shall receive any thing that he is not to use and improve in i a way 2. This he is promised to instruct us in the know- I . assigns the measures wherein every one shall be made partaker of it. It admits of a limitation with respect unto the diver. in a spiritual manner. whereby I understand no more. For unto ' I every one of us is given grace according unto the measure of the gift of Christ . is to overthrow the foundation of all truth and. comfort in the church. who in all grace. work. AND MEANS. are temporary abode in the world. 1. xv. 16. nor unto the first age or ages of the\ To do so is expressly contradictory unto the dis-: church. rule The duty. light. some things must be observed. As. which respects all the ends of our faith and obedience ver. shall be so far led into the knowledge of it. Matt. ew? ttiq avvTeXdag Tovalu)vog. 21. of duty.xvi. 20. None shall want any thing that is necessary unto him . In his sovereign will he hath allotted the measures of grace. xiv. Our second inquiry is. To clear the truth hereof. or the persons unto whom this truth is to be communicated. sity of subjects. For their preservation in the one. but so as it is required of us in a way of duty.402 THE CAUSES. as is necessary unto his own estate and condition. xxviii.' Acts xx. that is. 7. and that of the meanest believer in the world. 2. and knowledge. chap. Every one unto whom he is thus promised. And there is no less the free gift of difference in these measures. xiv.' Eph. than in the knowledge of the most glorious apostle. And to suppose' the contrary. unto the consummation ofj the whole state of the church here below. depend on the . namely. iv. ledge of.

that is intended. 4. whom this promise is made. respected only things that were peculiar unto their office . nor are they to look for them.' John 2.) This the word enthe Spirit of truth. it is the internal teaching of the Holy Ghost all mind of God. Wherefore. of giving an understanding of the sacred truths as revealed. but by the Holi^ Spirit. he prayed for all them that should believe in him through this word unto the end of the world . But 3. as For what herein he given in pursuit of this promise. xvii. It is granted.' For we are thus taught of God by the Spirit's leading us into all truth. shall lead and forceth ' . their peculiar interest in these promises. there- . he reActs viii. so now were fully empowered and enabled unto all that belonged they this his that office whereunto he . (2. ' prayed for his apostles. b^riynaei vfxag. Acts ii. I ?' lav /ii) rig 6^r)y{]<Ty fxe plieth. 4. 4. when he descended on them in that glorious visible manner. For.' and no otherwise. by his in. of it. other interpretations the words will not admit. 31. that is. It is jective revelation of it. that is intended are not granted unto all believers unto not an external guidance into the truth by the obfor such revelations . Thus the Holy terpretation give me an understanding all truth by giving us that understandinto us leads Spirit And ing of it. which of ourselves we are not able to attain. Foras they were commanded by our Saviour to tvait 1 — for coming before they engaged in the discharge of had called them Acts i. So when Philip asked the eunuch whether he understood the things which he read out of the prophet Isaiah. guide you in the right way to the knowledge of the truth. and had their accomplishment on the day of Pentecost. is common unto all and so is not the subject of an especial promise.UNDERSTANDING THE MIND OF GOD. 403 accomplishment of this promise alone. which are no otherwise communicated unto us. such as that mentioned in this place is not. thereunto. we shall be all taught of God.) it is the same * with that other promise. truth in the ministerial proposal of the world unto whom the word is preached. (1. that sundry things in the promises of the Holy Ghost were peculiar unto the apostles. 2 D 2 It is. 'How can * unless one lead me' to the sense of it . And so also do all the benefits of the intercession of Christ. And the revelation of it.

This is again affirmed concerning all believers . necessary hereunto. therefore. iii. Herein all are agreed. . is called an unction. i. are intended. 14. a spiritual unction ascribed unto any thing else in the whole Scripture. and lead us whence he is called ' the Spirit of the Lord.) That expression. of ourwithout his especial assistance and guidance. 7. 22. Wherefore. with respect unto the end mentioned. and that for the end here mentioned. Unto this end that they may do so. the the Scripture.' into all truth or of Christ. (4. &c. Neither is Rev. is evident in many places of the Scripture see Heb. . . 23.' is nothing but an exof the same of Christ. (1. Jesus Christ. 27. OF work to give us a useful saving understanding of all sacred truth. to teach us. 19. doth expressly answer unto the promise of Christ. Eph. or the mind of God as revealed in the ScripAll spiritual divine supernatural truth is revealed in ture. 16. of is and assistance here promised unto them that do believe. 9. namely. is expressly assigned unto the Holy Spiiii. . and understanding in.' John xiv.' (Acts iii. And it is plain in the text. 17. and the anointing which you have reyou know all things ceived of him abideth in you and ye need not that any man teach you.) That also. is not questioned by any that are conversant about these thmgs with sobriety. i. (2. 20. his THE CAUSES. 'You have an unction from . of this truth as so revealed. to send his Holy Spirit unto us. but as the same anointing teach eth you of all and even as it hath things. i.' That by the unction and anointing in this place the Spirit of God and his work. is the duty right understanding all. WAYS. and is truth. taught you. 16. 2 Cor. For. or is said to anoint us.) that is. are to prai/ for. His divine aid And this is. * (3. The knowledge. . the Holy Spirit nied. and is no lie ii.404 fore. 18. 1 John the Holy One. that he shall 'abide promise pression with us for ever . of his abiding in us. iii. ture of this assistance it shall be spoken unto afterward. 2 Cor. the As unto the especial natruth revealed in the Scripture.) That the Holy Spirit in his especial operations. as it is promised. we selves. we cannot attain a due knowledge of. ye shall abide in 1. according unto the means which they enjoy. Phil. 'which you have from the Holy One. it.) The work here assio-ned unto this unction. and the Neither can this be deduties that are required of them. AND MEANS.

) What is the effect of his work in believers. as what it is that teacheth And to say as they do. de Spir. doth plainly intimate his essential verity. to place of the doctrine of the gospel. namely. (1. []. lit . but the effect of the unction here ascribed unto believers. Two thino-s are to be observed in what is here ascribed unto this unction.' It is. may be spoken in its intended. lib. Dydius. but that is truth and no lie. ascribe the things here mentioned unto any thing For so do else. as that which they had received from the Holy One. And I cannot but wonder that any persons should against this ojien and plain evidence.' is (5.] (1. ' of it. And on that account what is spoken of the teaching of the Spirit of God. and not efficiently. 2. 2. not only that it it true. and the Holy One to But the other be the Spirit himself. and privileges. as what we are be taught. to signify the gifts of the Spirit communicated unto them for the discharge of their office. in loc. and that exclusively unto the Holy Ghost. because he teacheth us But here it is spoken oi objectively. the work of the Holy Spirit that is here described. after Socin. is to assert the effect For that signifies no more. are said to be made kings and priests unto God. therefore. (2. He alone with his gifts. is the means or instrumental cause of this preaching the teaching by Holy Ghost. that ensue thereon.) For the first. or how he produceth that effect. here or any where else in the whole Scripture. graces.) What is the nature of it. whereby kings and priests are anointed with oil. that by this unction the doctri