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Newton-Raphson Power Flow

POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS
1
Newton-Raphson Algorithm
 The second major power flow solution method is
the Newton-Raphson algorithm
 Key idea behind Newton-Raphson is to use
sequential linearization
General form of problem: Find an x such that
( ) 0 ˆ f x =
2
Newton-Raphson Method (scalar)
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
2 ( )
2
( )
2
1. For each guess of , , define ˆ
- ˆ
2. Represent ( ) by a Taylor series about ( ) ˆ
( )
( ) ( ) ˆ
1 ( )
higher order terms
2
v
v v
v
v v
v
v
x x
x x x
f x f x
df x
f x f x x
dx
d f x
x
dx
A =
= + A +
+ A +
3
Newton-Raphson Method, cont’d
( )
( ) ( )
( )
1
( )
( ) ( )
3. Approximate ( ) by neglecting all terms ˆ
except the first two
( )
( ) 0 ( ) ˆ
4. Use this linear approximation to solve for
( )
( )
5. Solve for a new estim
v
v v
v
v
v v
f x
df x
f x f x x
dx
x
df x
x f x
dx
÷
= ~ + A
A
(
A = ÷
(
¸ ¸
( 1) ( ) ( )
ate of xˆ
v v v
x x x
+
= + A
4
Newton-Raphson Example
2
1
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) 2
( )
( 1) ( ) ( )
( 1) ( ) ( ) 2
( )
Use Newton-Raphson to solve ( ) - 2 0
The equation we must iteratively solve is
( )
( )
1
(( ) - 2)
2
1
(( ) - 2)
2
v
v v
v v
v
v v v
v v v
v
f x x
df x
x f x
dx
x x
x
x x x
x x x
x
÷
+
+
= =
(
A = ÷
(
¸ ¸
(
A = ÷
(
¸ ¸
= + A
(
= ÷
(
¸ ¸
5
Newton-Raphson Example, cont’d
( 1) ( ) ( ) 2
( )
(0)
( ) ( ) ( )
3 3
6
1
(( ) - 2)
2
Guess x 1. Iteratively solving we get
v ( )
0 1 1 0.5
1 1.5 0.25 0.08333
2 1.41667 6.953 10 2.454 10
3 1.41422 6.024 10
v v v
v
v v v
x x x
x
x f x x
+
÷ ÷
÷
(
= ÷
(
¸ ¸
=
A
÷
÷
× ÷ ×
×
6
Newton-Raphson Comments
 When close to the solution the error decreases quite
quickly -- method has quadratic convergence
 f(x
(v)
) is known as the mismatch, which we would
like to drive to zero
 Stopping criteria is when |f(x
(v)
) | < c
 Results are dependent upon the initial guess. What
if we had guessed x
(0)
= 0, or x
(0)
= -1?
 A solution’s region of attraction (ROA) is the set of
initial guesses that converge to the particular
solution. The ROA is often hard to determine
7
Multi-Variable Newton-Raphson
1 1
2 2
Next we generalize to the case where isan n-
dimension vector, and ( ) is an n-dimension function
( )
( )
( )
( )
Again define the solution so ( ) 0 and ˆ ˆ
n n
x f
x f
x f
( (
( (
( (
= =
( (
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
=
A =
x
f x
x
x
x f x
x
x f x
x
 
ˆ÷ x x
8
Multi-Variable Case, cont’d
i
1 1
1 1 1 2
1 2
1
n n
n n 1 2
1 2
n
The Taylor series expansion is written for each f ( )
f ( ) f ( )
f ( ) f ( ) ˆ
f ( )
higher order terms
f ( ) f ( )
f ( ) f ( ) ˆ
f ( )
higher order terms
n
n
n
n
x x
x x
x
x
x x
x x
x
x
c c
= + A + A +
c c
c
A +
c
c c
= + A + A +
c c
c
A +
c
x
x x
x x
x
x x
x x
x



9
Multi-Variable Case, cont’d
1 1 1
1 2
1 1
2 2 2
2 2
1 2
1 2
This can be written more compactly in matrix form
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ˆ
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
n
n
n
n n n
n
f f f
x x x
f x
f f f
f x
x x x
f
f f f
x x x
c c c
(
(
c c c
( A
(
c c c
(
(
A
(
(
c c c
= +
(
(
(
(
¸ ¸
(
c c c
(
c c c
(
¸ ¸
x x x
x
x x x
x
f x
x
x x x



   

higher order terms
n
x
(
(
(
(
(
A
¸ ¸
+

10
Jacobian Matrix
1 1 1
1 2
2 2 2
1 2
1 2
The n by n matrix of partial derivativesis known
as the J acobian matrix, ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
n
n
n n n
n
f f f
x x x
f f f
x x x
f f f
x x x
c c c
(
(
c c c
(
c c c
(
(
c c c
=
(
(
(
c c c
(
c c c
(
¸ ¸
J x
x x x
x x x
J x
x x x


   

11
Multi-Variable N-R Procedure
1
( 1) ( ) ( )
( 1) ( ) ( ) 1 ( )
( )
Derivation of N-R method is similar to the scalar case
( ) ( ) ( ) higher order terms ˆ
( ) 0 ( ) ( ) ˆ
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
Iterate until ( )
v v v
v v v v
v
c
÷
+
+ ÷
= + A +
= ~ + A
A ~ ÷
= + A
= ÷
<
f x f x J x x
f x f x J x x
x J x f x
x x x
x x J x f x
f x
12
Multi-Variable Example
1
2
2 2
1 1 2
2 2
2 1 2 1 2
1 1
1 2
2 2
1 2
x
Solve for = such that ( ) 0 where
x
f ( ) 2 8 0
f ( ) 4 0
First symbolically determine the J acobian
f ( ) f ( )
( ) =
f ( ) f ( )
x x
x x x x
x x
x x
(
=
(
¸ ¸
= + ÷ =
= ÷ + ÷ =
c c
(
(
c c
(
c c
(
(
c c
¸ ¸
x f x
x
x
x x
J x
x x
13
Multi-variable Example, cont’d
1 2
1 2 1 2
1
1 1 2 1
2 1 2 1 2 2
(0)
1
(1)
4 2
( ) =
2 2
Then
4 2 ( )
2 2 ( )
1
Arbitrarily guess
1
1 4 2 5 2.1
1 3 1 3 1.3
x x
x x x x
x x x f
x x x x x f
÷
÷
(
(
+ ÷
¸ ¸
A
( ( (
= ÷
( ( (
A + ÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
(
=
(
¸ ¸
÷
( ( ( (
= ÷ =
( ( ( (
÷ ÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
J x
x
x
x
x
14
Multi-variable Example, cont’d
1
(2)
(2)
2.1 8.40 2.60 2.51 1.8284
1.3 5.50 0.50 1.45 1.2122
Each iteration we check ( ) to see if it is below our
specified tolerance
0.1556
( )
0.0900
If = 0.2 then we wou
c
c
÷
( ( ( (
= ÷ =
( ( ( (
÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
(
=
(
¸ ¸
x
f x
f x
ld be done. Otherwise we'd
continue iterating.
15
NR Application to Power Flow
16
Real Power Balance Equations
* *
i
1 1
1
i
1
i
1
S ( )
(cos sin )( )
Resolving into the real and imaginary parts
P ( cos sin )
Q ( sin cos
ik
n n
j
i i i ik k i k ik ik
k k
n
i k ik ik ik ik
k
n
i k ik ik ik ik Gi Di
k
n
i k ik ik ik i
k
P jQ V Y V V V e G jB
V V j G jB
V V G B P P
V V G B
u
u u
u u
u u
= =
=
=
=
= + = = ÷
= + ÷
= + = ÷
= ÷
¿ ¿
¿
¿
¿
)
k Gi Di
Q Q = ÷
17
Newton-Raphson Power Flow
i
1
In the Newton-Raphson power flow we use Newton's
method to determine the voltage magnitude and angle
at each bus in the power system.
We need to solve the power balance equations
P ( cos
n
i k ik ik
k
V V G u
=
= +
¿
i
1
sin )
Q ( sin cos )
ik ik Gi Di
n
i k ik ik ik ik Gi Di
k
B P P
V V G B Q Q
u
u u
=
= ÷
= ÷ = ÷
¿
*
*
18
Power Flow Variables
2 2 2
n
2
Assume the slack bus is the first bus (with a fixed
voltage angle/magnitude). We then need to determine
the voltage angle/magnitude at the other buses.
( )
( )
G
n
P P
V
V
u
u
÷ +
(
(
(
(
= =
(
(
(
(
¸ ¸
x
x f x


2
2 2 2
( )
( )
( )
D
n Gn Dn
G D
n Gn Dn
P
P P P
Q Q Q
Q Q Q
(
(
(
÷ +
(
(
÷ +
(
(
(
÷ +
¸ ¸
x
x
x


*
19
N-R Power Flow Solution
( )
( )
( 1) ( ) ( ) 1 ( )
The power flow is solved using the same procedure
discussed last time:
Set 0; make an initial guess of ,
While ( ) Do
( ) ( )
1
End While
v
v
v v v v
v
v v
c
+ ÷
=
>
= ÷
= +
x x
f x
x x J x f x
20
Power Flow Jacobian Matrix
1 1 1
1 2
2 2 2
1 2
1 2
The most difficult part of the algorithmis determining
and inverting the n by n J acobian matrix, ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
n
n
n n n
n
f f f
x x x
f f f
x x x
f f f
x x x
c c c

c c c

c c c

c c c
=
c c c
c c c
¸
J x
x x x
x x x
J x
x x x


   

(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
21
Power Flow Jacobian Matrix, cont’d
22
Two Bus Newton-Raphson Example
Line Z = 0.1j
One Two 1.000 pu 1.000 pu
200 MW
100 MVR
0 MW
0 MVR
For the two bus power system shown below, use the
Newton-Raphson power flow to determine the
voltage magnitude and angle at bus two. Assume
that bus one is the slack and S
Base
= 100 MVA.
2
2
10 10
10 10
bus
j j
V j j
u ÷
( (
= =
( (
÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
x Y
23
Two Bus Example, cont’d
i
1
i
1
2 2 1 2
2
2 2 1 2 2
General power balance equations
P ( cos sin )
Q ( sin cos )
Bus two power balance equations
P (10sin ) 2.0 0
( 10cos ) (10) 1.0 0
n
i k ik ik ik ik Gi Di
k
n
i k ik ik ik ik Gi Di
k
V V G B P P
V V G B Q Q
V V
Q V V V
u u
u u
u
u
=
=
= + = ÷
= ÷ = ÷
= + =
= ÷ + + =
¿
¿
Note: G
ik
= 0
Also note: Y
22
=-10
24
Two Bus Example, cont’d
2 2 2
2
2 2 2 2
2 2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2 2 2
2 2 2 2
P ( ) (10sin ) 2.0 0
( ) ( 10cos ) (10) 1.0 0
Now calculate the power flow J acobian
P ( ) P ( )
( )
Q ( ) Q ( )
10 cos 10sin
10 sin 10cos 20
V
Q V V
V
J
V
V
V V
u
u
u
u
u u
u u
= + =
= ÷ + + =
c c
(
(
c c
(
=
c c
(
(
c c
¸ ¸
(
=
(
÷ +
¸ ¸
x
x
x x
x
x x
25
Two Bus Example, First Iteration
(0)
2 2
(0)
2
2 2 2
2 2 2
(0)
2 2 2 2
(1)
0
Set 0, guess
1
Calculate
(10sin ) 2.0
2.0
f( )
1.0
( 10cos ) (10) 1.0
10 cos 10sin 10 0
( )
10 sin 10cos 20 0 10
0 10 0
Solve
1 0 10
v
V
V V
V
V V
u
u
u u
u u
(
= =
(
¸ ¸
+
(
(
= =
(
(
÷ + +
¸ ¸ (
¸ ¸
(
(
= =
(
(
÷ +
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
(
= ÷
(
¸ ¸ ¸
x
x
J x
x
1
2.0 0.2
1.0 0.9
÷
÷
( ( (
=
( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
26
Two Bus Example, Next Iterations
(1)
2
(1)
1
(2)
0.9(10sin( 0.2)) 2.0
0.212
f( )
0.279
0.9( 10cos( 0.2)) 0.9 10 1.0
8.82 1.986
( )
1.788 8.199
0.2 8.82 1.986 0.212 0.233
0.9 1.788 8.199 0.279 0.8586
f(
÷
÷ +
(
(
= =
(
(
÷ ÷ + × +
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
÷
(
=
(
÷
¸ ¸
÷ ÷ ÷
( ( ( (
= ÷ =
( ( ( (
÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
x
J x
x
(2) (3)
(3)
2
0.0145 0.236
)
0.0190 0.8554
0.0000906
f( ) Done! V 0.8554 13.52
0.0001175
÷
( (
= =
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
(
= = Z÷ °
(
¸ ¸
x x
x
27
Two Bus Solved Values
Line Z = 0.1j
One Two 1.000 pu 0.855 pu
200 MW
100 MVR
200.0 MW
168.3 MVR
-13.522 Deg
200.0 MW
168.3 MVR
-200.0 MW
-100.0 MVR
Once the voltage angle and magnitude at bus 2 are
known we can calculate all the other system values,
such as the line flows and the generator reactive
power output
28
Two Bus Case Low Voltage Solution
(0)
2 2
(0)
2
2 2 2
This case actually has two solutions! The second
"low voltage" is found by using a low initial guess.
0
Set 0, guess
0.25
Calculate
(10sin ) 2.0
f( )
( 10cos ) (10) 1.0
v
V
V V
u
u
(
= =
(
¸ ¸
+
(
=
(
÷ + +
(
¸ ¸
x
x
2 2 2
(0)
2 2 2 2
2
0.875
10 cos 10sin 2.5 0
( )
10 sin 10cos 20 0 5
V
V V
u u
u u
(
=
(
÷
¸ ¸
(
(
= =
(
(
÷ + ÷
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
J x
29
Low Voltage Solution, cont'd
1
(1)
(2) (2) (3)
0 2.5 0 2 0.8
Solve
0.25 0 5 0.875 0.075
1.462 1.42 0.921
( )
0.534 0.2336 0.220
÷
÷
( ( ( (
= ÷ =
( ( ( (
÷ ÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
÷ ÷
( ( (
= = =
( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
x
f x x x
Line Z = 0.1j
One Two 1.000 pu 0.261 pu
200 MW
100 MVR
200.0 MW
831.7 MVR
-49.914 Deg
200.0 MW
831.7 MVR
-200.0 MW
-100.0 MVR
Low voltage solution
30
Two Bus Region of Convergence
Slide shows the region of convergence for different initial
guesses of bus 2 angle (x-axis) and magnitude (y-axis)
Red region
converges
to the high
voltage
solution,
while the
yellow region
converges
to the low
voltage
solution
31
PV Buses
 Since the voltage magnitude at PV buses is fixed
there is no need to explicitly include these voltages
in x or write the reactive power balance equations
– the reactive power output of the generator varies to
maintain the fixed terminal voltage (within limits)
– optionally these variations/equations can be included by
just writing the explicit voltage constraint for the
generator bus
|V
i
| – V
i setpoint
= 0
32
Three Bus PV Case Example
Line Z = 0.1j
Line Z = 0.1j Line Z = 0.1j
One Two 1.000 pu
0.941 pu
200 MW
100 MVR
170.0 MW
68.2 MVR
-7.469 Deg
Three 1.000 pu
30 MW
63 MVR
2 2 2 2
3 3 3 3
2 2 2
For this three bus case we have
( )
( ) ( ) 0
V ( )
G D
G D
D
P P P
P P P
Q Q
u
u
÷ +
( (
(
(
= = ÷ + =
(
(
+ ( (
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
x
x f x x
x
33
Modeling Voltage Dependent Load
So far we've assumed that the load is independent of
the bus voltage (i.e., constant power). However, the
power flow can be easily extended to include voltage
depedence with both the real and reactive l
Di Di
1
1
oad. This
is done by making P and Q a function of :
( cos sin ) ( ) 0
( sin cos ) ( ) 0
i
n
i k ik ik ik ik Gi Di i
k
n
i k ik ik ik ik Gi Di i
k
V
V V G B P P V
V V G B Q Q V
u u
u u
=
=
+ ÷ + =
÷ ÷ + =
¿
¿
34
Voltage Dependent Load Example
2
2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
In previous two bus example now assume the load is
constant impedance, so
P ( ) (10sin ) 2.0 0
( ) ( 10cos ) (10) 1.0 0
Now calculate the power flow J acobian
10 cos 10sin 4.0
( )
10
V V
Q V V V
V V
J
u
u
u u
= + =
= ÷ + + =
+
=
x
x
x
2 2 2 2 2
sin 10cos 20 2.0 V V V u u
(
(
÷ + +
¸ ¸
35
Voltage Dependent Load, cont'd
(0)
2
2 2 2
(0)
2 2
2 2 2 2
(0)
1
(1)
0
Again set 0, guess
1
Calculate
(10sin ) 2.0 2.0
f( )
1.0
( 10cos ) (10) 1.0
10 4
( )
0 12
0 10 4 2.0 0.1667
Solve
1 0 12 1.0 0.9167
v
V V
V V V
u
u
÷
(
= =
(
¸ ¸
(
+
(
= = (
(
¸ ¸
( ÷ + +
¸ ¸
(
=
(
¸ ¸
÷
( ( (
= ÷ =
( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
x
x
J x
x
(
(
¸ ¸
36
Voltage Dependent Load, cont'd
Line Z = 0.1j
One Two 1.000 pu
0.894 pu
160 MW
80 MVR
160.0 MW
120.0 MVR
-10.304 Deg
160.0 MW
120.0 MVR
-160.0 MW
-80.0 MVR
With constant impedance load the MW/Mvar load at
bus 2 varies with the square of the bus 2 voltage
magnitude. This if the voltage level is less than 1.0,
the load is lower than 200/100 MW/Mvar
37
Solving Large Power Systems
 The most difficult computational task is inverting the
J acobianmatrix
– inverting a full matrix is an order n
3
operation, meaning
the amount of computation increases with the cube of the
size
– this amount of computation can be decreased substantially
by recognizing that since the Y
bus
is a sparse matrix, the
J acobianis also a sparse matrix
– using sparse matrix methods results in a computational
order of about n
1.5
.
– this is a substantial savings when solving systems with
tens of thousands of buses
38
Newton-Raphson Power Flow
 Advantages
– fast convergence as long as initial guess is close to
solution
– large region of convergence
 Disadvantages
– each iteration takes much longer than a Gauss-Seidel
iteration
– more complicated to code, particularly when
implementing sparse matrix algorithms
 Newton-Raphson algorithm is very common in
power flow analysis
39
Dishonest Newton-Raphson
 Since most of the time in the Newton-Raphson
iteration is spent calculating the inverse of the
J acobian, one way to speed up the iterations is to
only calculate/inverse the J acobian occasionally
– known as the “Dishonest” Newton-Raphson
– an extreme example is to only calculate the J acobian for
the first iteration
( 1) ( ) ( ) -1 ( )
( 1) ( ) (0) -1 ( )
( )
Honest: - ( ) ( )
Dishonest: - ( ) ( )
Both require ( ) for a solution
v v v v
v v v
v
c
+
+
=
=
<
x x J x f x
x x J x f x
f x
40
Dishonest Newton-Raphson Example
2
1
(0)
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) 2
(0)
( 1) ( ) ( ) 2
(0)
Use the Dishonest Newton-Raphson to solve
( ) - 2 0
( )
( )
1
(( ) - 2)
2
1
(( ) - 2)
2
v v
v v
v v v
f x x
df x
x f x
dx
x x
x
x x x
x
÷
+
= =
(
A = ÷
(
¸ ¸
(
A = ÷
(
¸ ¸
(
= ÷
(
¸ ¸
41
Dishonest N-R Example, cont’d
( 1) ( ) ( ) 2
(0)
(0)
( ) ( )
1
(( ) - 2)
2
Guess x 1. Iteratively solving we get
v (honest) (dishonest)
0 1 1
1 1.5 1.5
2 1.41667 1.375
3 1.41422 1.429
4 1.41422 1.408
v v v
v v
x x x
x
x x
+
(
= ÷
(
¸ ¸
=
We pay a price
in increased
iterations, but
with decreased
computation
per iteration
42
Two Bus Dishonest ROC
Slide shows the region of convergence for different initial
guesses for the 2 bus case using the Dishonest N-R
Red region
converges
to the high
voltage
solution,
while the
yellow region
converges
to the low
voltage
solution
43
Honest N-R Region of Convergence
Maximum
of 15
iterations
44
Decoupled Power Flow
 The completely Dishonest Newton-Raphson is not
used for power flow analysis. However several
approximations of the J acobianmatrix are used.
 One common method is the decoupled power flow.
In this approach approximations are used to
decouple the real and reactive power equations.
45
Decoupled Power Flow Formulation
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2 2 2
( )
( )
General form of the power flow problem
( )
( )
( )
where
( )
( )
( )
v v
v
v
v
v
v v v
v
D G
v
v
n Dn Gn
P P P
P P P
(
c c
(
(
(
A c c
A
(
÷ = =
(
(
(
A A ( c c (
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
(
c c
(
¸ ¸
(
+ ÷
(
A =
(
(
+ ÷
¸ ¸
P P
θ θ V
P x
f x
Q x V Q Q
θ V
x
P x
x

46
Decoupling Approximation
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
Usually the off-diagonal matrices, and
are small. Therefore we approximate them as zero:
( )
( )
( )
Then the problem
v v
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
c c
c c
(
c
(
(
(
A
A
c
(
÷ = =
(
(
(
c
A A ( (
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
(
c
¸ ¸
P Q
V θ
P
0
θ
P x
θ
f x
Q
Q x V
0
V
1 1
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
can be decoupled
( ) ( )
v v
v
v v v
÷ ÷
( (
c c
A = ÷ A A = ÷ A
( (
c c
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
P Q
θ P x V Q x
θ V
47
Fast Decoupled Power Flow
 By continuing with our J acobian approximations we
can actually obtain a reasonable approximation that
is independent of the voltage magnitudes/angles.
 This means the J acobian need only be built/inverted
once.
 This approach is known as the fast decoupled power
flow (FDPF)
 FDPF uses the same mismatch equations as
standard power flow so it should have same solution
 The FDPF is widely used, particularly when we
only need an approximate solution
48
FDPF Approximations
ij
( ) ( )
( )
( ) 1 1
( ) ( )
bus
The FDPF makes the following approximations:
1. G 0
2. 1
3. sin 0 cos 1
Then
( ) ( )
Where is just the imaginary part of the ,
except the slack bus row/co
i
ij ij
v v
v
v
v v
V
j
u u
÷ ÷
=
=
= =
A A
A = A =
= +
P x Q x
θ B V B
V V
B Y G B
lumn are omitted
49
FDPF Three Bus Example
Line Z = j0.07
Line Z = j0.05 Line Z = j0.1
One Two
200 MW
100 MVR
Three 1.000 pu
200 MW
100 MVR
Use the FDPF to solve the following three bus system
34.3 14.3 20
14.3 24.3 10
20 10 30
bus
j
÷
(
(
= ÷
(
÷
(
¸ ¸
Y
50
FDPF Three Bus Example, cont’d
1
(0)
(0)
2
2
3
3
34.3 14.3 20
24.3 10
14.3 24.3 10
10 30
20 10 30
0.0477 0.0159
0.0159 0.0389
Iteratively solve, starting with an initial voltage guess
0 1
0 1
bus
j
V
V
u
u
÷
÷
(
÷
(
(
= ÷ ÷ =
(
(
÷
¸ ¸
÷
(
¸ ¸
÷ ÷
(
=
(
÷ ÷
¸ ¸
(
( (
= =
(
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
¸ ¸
Y B
B
(1)
2
3
0 0.0477 0.0159 2 0.1272
0 0.0159 0.0389 2 0.1091
u
u
(
(
¸ ¸
÷ ÷ ÷
( ( ( ( (
= + =
( ( ( ( (
÷ ÷ ÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
51
FDPF Three Bus Example, cont’d
(1)
2
3
i
i i 1
(2)
2
3
1 0.0477 0.0159 1 0.9364
1 0.0159 0.0389 1 0.9455
P( )
( cos sin )
V V
0.1272 0.0477 0.0159
0.1091 0.0159 0.0389
n
Di Gi
k ik ik ik ik
k
V
V
P P
V G B u u
u
u
=
÷ ÷ (
( ( ( (
= + =
(
( ( ( (
÷ ÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
¸ ¸
÷ A
= + +
÷ ÷ ÷
( ( (
= +
( ( (
÷ ÷ ÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
¿
x
(2)
2
3
0.151 0.1361
0.107 0.1156
0.924
0.936
0.1384 0.9224
Actual solution:
0.1171 0.9338
V
V
÷
( (
=
( (
÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
(
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
÷
( (
= =
( (
÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
θ V
52
“ DC” Power Flow
 The “DC” power flow makes the most severe
approximations:
– completely ignore reactive power, assume all the voltages
are always 1.0 per unit, ignore line conductance
 This makes the power flow a linear set of equations,
which can be solved directly
1 ÷
= θ B P
53
Power System Control
 A major problem with power system operation is
the limited capacity of the transmission system
– lines/transformers have limits (usually thermal)
– no direct way of controlling power flow down a
transmission line (e.g., there are no valves to close to
limit flow)
– open transmission system access associated with industry
restructuring is stressing the system in new ways
 We need to indirectly control transmission line flow
by changing the generator outputs, for example
54
Indirect Transmission Line Control
What we would like to determine is how a change in
generation at bus k affects the power flow on a line
from bus i to bus j.
The assumption is
that the change
in generation is
absorbed by the
slack bus
55
Power Flow Simulation - Before
One way to determine the impact of a generator change
is to compare a before/after power flow.
For example below is a three bus case with an overload
Z for all lines = j0.1
One Two
200 MW
100 MVR
200.0 MW
71.0 MVR
Three 1.000 pu
0 MW
64 MVR
131.9 MW
68.1 MW
68.1 MW
124%
56
Power Flow Simulation - After
Z for all lines = j0.1
Limit for all lines = 150 MVA
One Two
200 MW
100 MVR
105.0 MW
64.3 MVR
Three
1.000 pu
95 MW
64 MVR
101.6 MW
3.4 MW
98.4 MW
92%
100%
Increasing the generation at bus 3 by 95 MW (and hence
decreasing it at bus 1 by a corresponding amount), results
in a 31.3 drop in the MW flow on the line from bus 1 to
2.
57
Operating Areas
 An operating area has traditionally
represented the portion of the interconnected
electric grid operated by a single utility
 Transmission lines that join two areas are
known as tie-lines.
 The net power out of an area is the sum of the
flow on its tie-lines.
 The flow out of an area is equal to
total gen - total load - total losses = tie-flow