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**POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS
**

1

Newton-Raphson Algorithm

The second major power flow solution method is

the Newton-Raphson algorithm

Key idea behind Newton-Raphson is to use

sequential linearization

General form of problem: Find an x such that

( ) 0 ˆ f x =

2

Newton-Raphson Method (scalar)

( )

( )

( ) ( )

( )

( ) ( )

2 ( )

2

( )

2

1. For each guess of , , define ˆ

- ˆ

2. Represent ( ) by a Taylor series about ( ) ˆ

( )

( ) ( ) ˆ

1 ( )

higher order terms

2

v

v v

v

v v

v

v

x x

x x x

f x f x

df x

f x f x x

dx

d f x

x

dx

A =

= + A +

+ A +

3

Newton-Raphson Method, cont’d

( )

( ) ( )

( )

1

( )

( ) ( )

3. Approximate ( ) by neglecting all terms ˆ

except the first two

( )

( ) 0 ( ) ˆ

4. Use this linear approximation to solve for

( )

( )

5. Solve for a new estim

v

v v

v

v

v v

f x

df x

f x f x x

dx

x

df x

x f x

dx

÷

= ~ + A

A

(

A = ÷

(

¸ ¸

( 1) ( ) ( )

ate of xˆ

v v v

x x x

+

= + A

4

Newton-Raphson Example

2

1

( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( ) 2

( )

( 1) ( ) ( )

( 1) ( ) ( ) 2

( )

Use Newton-Raphson to solve ( ) - 2 0

The equation we must iteratively solve is

( )

( )

1

(( ) - 2)

2

1

(( ) - 2)

2

v

v v

v v

v

v v v

v v v

v

f x x

df x

x f x

dx

x x

x

x x x

x x x

x

÷

+

+

= =

(

A = ÷

(

¸ ¸

(

A = ÷

(

¸ ¸

= + A

(

= ÷

(

¸ ¸

5

Newton-Raphson Example, cont’d

( 1) ( ) ( ) 2

( )

(0)

( ) ( ) ( )

3 3

6

1

(( ) - 2)

2

Guess x 1. Iteratively solving we get

v ( )

0 1 1 0.5

1 1.5 0.25 0.08333

2 1.41667 6.953 10 2.454 10

3 1.41422 6.024 10

v v v

v

v v v

x x x

x

x f x x

+

÷ ÷

÷

(

= ÷

(

¸ ¸

=

A

÷

÷

× ÷ ×

×

6

Newton-Raphson Comments

When close to the solution the error decreases quite

quickly -- method has quadratic convergence

f(x

(v)

) is known as the mismatch, which we would

like to drive to zero

Stopping criteria is when |f(x

(v)

) | < c

Results are dependent upon the initial guess. What

if we had guessed x

(0)

= 0, or x

(0)

= -1?

A solution’s region of attraction (ROA) is the set of

initial guesses that converge to the particular

solution. The ROA is often hard to determine

7

Multi-Variable Newton-Raphson

1 1

2 2

Next we generalize to the case where isan n-

dimension vector, and ( ) is an n-dimension function

( )

( )

( )

( )

Again define the solution so ( ) 0 and ˆ ˆ

n n

x f

x f

x f

( (

( (

( (

= =

( (

( (

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

=

A =

x

f x

x

x

x f x

x

x f x

x

ˆ÷ x x

8

Multi-Variable Case, cont’d

i

1 1

1 1 1 2

1 2

1

n n

n n 1 2

1 2

n

The Taylor series expansion is written for each f ( )

f ( ) f ( )

f ( ) f ( ) ˆ

f ( )

higher order terms

f ( ) f ( )

f ( ) f ( ) ˆ

f ( )

higher order terms

n

n

n

n

x x

x x

x

x

x x

x x

x

x

c c

= + A + A +

c c

c

A +

c

c c

= + A + A +

c c

c

A +

c

x

x x

x x

x

x x

x x

x

9

Multi-Variable Case, cont’d

1 1 1

1 2

1 1

2 2 2

2 2

1 2

1 2

This can be written more compactly in matrix form

( ) ( ) ( )

( )

( ) ( ) ( )

( )

( ) ˆ

( )

( ) ( ) ( )

n

n

n

n n n

n

f f f

x x x

f x

f f f

f x

x x x

f

f f f

x x x

c c c

(

(

c c c

( A

(

c c c

(

(

A

(

(

c c c

= +

(

(

(

(

¸ ¸

(

c c c

(

c c c

(

¸ ¸

x x x

x

x x x

x

f x

x

x x x

higher order terms

n

x

(

(

(

(

(

A

¸ ¸

+

10

Jacobian Matrix

1 1 1

1 2

2 2 2

1 2

1 2

The n by n matrix of partial derivativesis known

as the J acobian matrix, ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

( )

( ) ( ) ( )

n

n

n n n

n

f f f

x x x

f f f

x x x

f f f

x x x

c c c

(

(

c c c

(

c c c

(

(

c c c

=

(

(

(

c c c

(

c c c

(

¸ ¸

J x

x x x

x x x

J x

x x x

11

Multi-Variable N-R Procedure

1

( 1) ( ) ( )

( 1) ( ) ( ) 1 ( )

( )

Derivation of N-R method is similar to the scalar case

( ) ( ) ( ) higher order terms ˆ

( ) 0 ( ) ( ) ˆ

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

Iterate until ( )

v v v

v v v v

v

c

÷

+

+ ÷

= + A +

= ~ + A

A ~ ÷

= + A

= ÷

<

f x f x J x x

f x f x J x x

x J x f x

x x x

x x J x f x

f x

12

Multi-Variable Example

1

2

2 2

1 1 2

2 2

2 1 2 1 2

1 1

1 2

2 2

1 2

x

Solve for = such that ( ) 0 where

x

f ( ) 2 8 0

f ( ) 4 0

First symbolically determine the J acobian

f ( ) f ( )

( ) =

f ( ) f ( )

x x

x x x x

x x

x x

(

=

(

¸ ¸

= + ÷ =

= ÷ + ÷ =

c c

(

(

c c

(

c c

(

(

c c

¸ ¸

x f x

x

x

x x

J x

x x

13

Multi-variable Example, cont’d

1 2

1 2 1 2

1

1 1 2 1

2 1 2 1 2 2

(0)

1

(1)

4 2

( ) =

2 2

Then

4 2 ( )

2 2 ( )

1

Arbitrarily guess

1

1 4 2 5 2.1

1 3 1 3 1.3

x x

x x x x

x x x f

x x x x x f

÷

÷

(

(

+ ÷

¸ ¸

A

( ( (

= ÷

( ( (

A + ÷

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

(

=

(

¸ ¸

÷

( ( ( (

= ÷ =

( ( ( (

÷ ÷

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

J x

x

x

x

x

14

Multi-variable Example, cont’d

1

(2)

(2)

2.1 8.40 2.60 2.51 1.8284

1.3 5.50 0.50 1.45 1.2122

Each iteration we check ( ) to see if it is below our

specified tolerance

0.1556

( )

0.0900

If = 0.2 then we wou

c

c

÷

( ( ( (

= ÷ =

( ( ( (

÷

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

(

=

(

¸ ¸

x

f x

f x

ld be done. Otherwise we'd

continue iterating.

15

NR Application to Power Flow

16

Real Power Balance Equations

* *

i

1 1

1

i

1

i

1

S ( )

(cos sin )( )

Resolving into the real and imaginary parts

P ( cos sin )

Q ( sin cos

ik

n n

j

i i i ik k i k ik ik

k k

n

i k ik ik ik ik

k

n

i k ik ik ik ik Gi Di

k

n

i k ik ik ik i

k

P jQ V Y V V V e G jB

V V j G jB

V V G B P P

V V G B

u

u u

u u

u u

= =

=

=

=

= + = = ÷

= + ÷

= + = ÷

= ÷

¿ ¿

¿

¿

¿

)

k Gi Di

Q Q = ÷

17

Newton-Raphson Power Flow

i

1

In the Newton-Raphson power flow we use Newton's

method to determine the voltage magnitude and angle

at each bus in the power system.

We need to solve the power balance equations

P ( cos

n

i k ik ik

k

V V G u

=

= +

¿

i

1

sin )

Q ( sin cos )

ik ik Gi Di

n

i k ik ik ik ik Gi Di

k

B P P

V V G B Q Q

u

u u

=

= ÷

= ÷ = ÷

¿

*

*

18

Power Flow Variables

2 2 2

n

2

Assume the slack bus is the first bus (with a fixed

voltage angle/magnitude). We then need to determine

the voltage angle/magnitude at the other buses.

( )

( )

G

n

P P

V

V

u

u

÷ +

(

(

(

(

= =

(

(

(

(

¸ ¸

x

x f x

2

2 2 2

( )

( )

( )

D

n Gn Dn

G D

n Gn Dn

P

P P P

Q Q Q

Q Q Q

(

(

(

÷ +

(

(

÷ +

(

(

(

÷ +

¸ ¸

x

x

x

*

19

N-R Power Flow Solution

( )

( )

( 1) ( ) ( ) 1 ( )

The power flow is solved using the same procedure

discussed last time:

Set 0; make an initial guess of ,

While ( ) Do

( ) ( )

1

End While

v

v

v v v v

v

v v

c

+ ÷

=

>

= ÷

= +

x x

f x

x x J x f x

20

Power Flow Jacobian Matrix

1 1 1

1 2

2 2 2

1 2

1 2

The most difficult part of the algorithmis determining

and inverting the n by n J acobian matrix, ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

( )

( ) ( ) ( )

n

n

n n n

n

f f f

x x x

f f f

x x x

f f f

x x x

c c c

c c c

c c c

c c c

=

c c c

c c c

¸

J x

x x x

x x x

J x

x x x

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

(

¸

21

Power Flow Jacobian Matrix, cont’d

22

Two Bus Newton-Raphson Example

Line Z = 0.1j

One Two 1.000 pu 1.000 pu

200 MW

100 MVR

0 MW

0 MVR

For the two bus power system shown below, use the

Newton-Raphson power flow to determine the

voltage magnitude and angle at bus two. Assume

that bus one is the slack and S

Base

= 100 MVA.

2

2

10 10

10 10

bus

j j

V j j

u ÷

( (

= =

( (

÷

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

x Y

23

Two Bus Example, cont’d

i

1

i

1

2 2 1 2

2

2 2 1 2 2

General power balance equations

P ( cos sin )

Q ( sin cos )

Bus two power balance equations

P (10sin ) 2.0 0

( 10cos ) (10) 1.0 0

n

i k ik ik ik ik Gi Di

k

n

i k ik ik ik ik Gi Di

k

V V G B P P

V V G B Q Q

V V

Q V V V

u u

u u

u

u

=

=

= + = ÷

= ÷ = ÷

= + =

= ÷ + + =

¿

¿

Note: G

ik

= 0

Also note: Y

22

=-10

24

Two Bus Example, cont’d

2 2 2

2

2 2 2 2

2 2

2

2

2 2

2

2

2 2 2

2 2 2 2

P ( ) (10sin ) 2.0 0

( ) ( 10cos ) (10) 1.0 0

Now calculate the power flow J acobian

P ( ) P ( )

( )

Q ( ) Q ( )

10 cos 10sin

10 sin 10cos 20

V

Q V V

V

J

V

V

V V

u

u

u

u

u u

u u

= + =

= ÷ + + =

c c

(

(

c c

(

=

c c

(

(

c c

¸ ¸

(

=

(

÷ +

¸ ¸

x

x

x x

x

x x

25

Two Bus Example, First Iteration

(0)

2 2

(0)

2

2 2 2

2 2 2

(0)

2 2 2 2

(1)

0

Set 0, guess

1

Calculate

(10sin ) 2.0

2.0

f( )

1.0

( 10cos ) (10) 1.0

10 cos 10sin 10 0

( )

10 sin 10cos 20 0 10

0 10 0

Solve

1 0 10

v

V

V V

V

V V

u

u

u u

u u

(

= =

(

¸ ¸

+

(

(

= =

(

(

÷ + +

¸ ¸ (

¸ ¸

(

(

= =

(

(

÷ +

¸ ¸

¸ ¸

(

= ÷

(

¸ ¸ ¸

x

x

J x

x

1

2.0 0.2

1.0 0.9

÷

÷

( ( (

=

( ( (

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

26

Two Bus Example, Next Iterations

(1)

2

(1)

1

(2)

0.9(10sin( 0.2)) 2.0

0.212

f( )

0.279

0.9( 10cos( 0.2)) 0.9 10 1.0

8.82 1.986

( )

1.788 8.199

0.2 8.82 1.986 0.212 0.233

0.9 1.788 8.199 0.279 0.8586

f(

÷

÷ +

(

(

= =

(

(

÷ ÷ + × +

¸ ¸

¸ ¸

÷

(

=

(

÷

¸ ¸

÷ ÷ ÷

( ( ( (

= ÷ =

( ( ( (

÷

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

x

J x

x

(2) (3)

(3)

2

0.0145 0.236

)

0.0190 0.8554

0.0000906

f( ) Done! V 0.8554 13.52

0.0001175

÷

( (

= =

( (

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

(

= = Z÷ °

(

¸ ¸

x x

x

27

Two Bus Solved Values

Line Z = 0.1j

One Two 1.000 pu 0.855 pu

200 MW

100 MVR

200.0 MW

168.3 MVR

-13.522 Deg

200.0 MW

168.3 MVR

-200.0 MW

-100.0 MVR

Once the voltage angle and magnitude at bus 2 are

known we can calculate all the other system values,

such as the line flows and the generator reactive

power output

28

Two Bus Case Low Voltage Solution

(0)

2 2

(0)

2

2 2 2

This case actually has two solutions! The second

"low voltage" is found by using a low initial guess.

0

Set 0, guess

0.25

Calculate

(10sin ) 2.0

f( )

( 10cos ) (10) 1.0

v

V

V V

u

u

(

= =

(

¸ ¸

+

(

=

(

÷ + +

(

¸ ¸

x

x

2 2 2

(0)

2 2 2 2

2

0.875

10 cos 10sin 2.5 0

( )

10 sin 10cos 20 0 5

V

V V

u u

u u

(

=

(

÷

¸ ¸

(

(

= =

(

(

÷ + ÷

¸ ¸

¸ ¸

J x

29

Low Voltage Solution, cont'd

1

(1)

(2) (2) (3)

0 2.5 0 2 0.8

Solve

0.25 0 5 0.875 0.075

1.462 1.42 0.921

( )

0.534 0.2336 0.220

÷

÷

( ( ( (

= ÷ =

( ( ( (

÷ ÷

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

÷ ÷

( ( (

= = =

( ( (

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

x

f x x x

Line Z = 0.1j

One Two 1.000 pu 0.261 pu

200 MW

100 MVR

200.0 MW

831.7 MVR

-49.914 Deg

200.0 MW

831.7 MVR

-200.0 MW

-100.0 MVR

Low voltage solution

30

Two Bus Region of Convergence

Slide shows the region of convergence for different initial

guesses of bus 2 angle (x-axis) and magnitude (y-axis)

Red region

converges

to the high

voltage

solution,

while the

yellow region

converges

to the low

voltage

solution

31

PV Buses

Since the voltage magnitude at PV buses is fixed

there is no need to explicitly include these voltages

in x or write the reactive power balance equations

– the reactive power output of the generator varies to

maintain the fixed terminal voltage (within limits)

– optionally these variations/equations can be included by

just writing the explicit voltage constraint for the

generator bus

|V

i

| – V

i setpoint

= 0

32

Three Bus PV Case Example

Line Z = 0.1j

Line Z = 0.1j Line Z = 0.1j

One Two 1.000 pu

0.941 pu

200 MW

100 MVR

170.0 MW

68.2 MVR

-7.469 Deg

Three 1.000 pu

30 MW

63 MVR

2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3

2 2 2

For this three bus case we have

( )

( ) ( ) 0

V ( )

G D

G D

D

P P P

P P P

Q Q

u

u

÷ +

( (

(

(

= = ÷ + =

(

(

+ ( (

¸ ¸

¸ ¸

x

x f x x

x

33

Modeling Voltage Dependent Load

So far we've assumed that the load is independent of

the bus voltage (i.e., constant power). However, the

power flow can be easily extended to include voltage

depedence with both the real and reactive l

Di Di

1

1

oad. This

is done by making P and Q a function of :

( cos sin ) ( ) 0

( sin cos ) ( ) 0

i

n

i k ik ik ik ik Gi Di i

k

n

i k ik ik ik ik Gi Di i

k

V

V V G B P P V

V V G B Q Q V

u u

u u

=

=

+ ÷ + =

÷ ÷ + =

¿

¿

34

Voltage Dependent Load Example

2

2 2 2 2

2 2

2 2 2 2 2

2 2 2 2

In previous two bus example now assume the load is

constant impedance, so

P ( ) (10sin ) 2.0 0

( ) ( 10cos ) (10) 1.0 0

Now calculate the power flow J acobian

10 cos 10sin 4.0

( )

10

V V

Q V V V

V V

J

u

u

u u

= + =

= ÷ + + =

+

=

x

x

x

2 2 2 2 2

sin 10cos 20 2.0 V V V u u

(

(

÷ + +

¸ ¸

35

Voltage Dependent Load, cont'd

(0)

2

2 2 2

(0)

2 2

2 2 2 2

(0)

1

(1)

0

Again set 0, guess

1

Calculate

(10sin ) 2.0 2.0

f( )

1.0

( 10cos ) (10) 1.0

10 4

( )

0 12

0 10 4 2.0 0.1667

Solve

1 0 12 1.0 0.9167

v

V V

V V V

u

u

÷

(

= =

(

¸ ¸

(

+

(

= = (

(

¸ ¸

( ÷ + +

¸ ¸

(

=

(

¸ ¸

÷

( ( (

= ÷ =

( ( (

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

x

x

J x

x

(

(

¸ ¸

36

Voltage Dependent Load, cont'd

Line Z = 0.1j

One Two 1.000 pu

0.894 pu

160 MW

80 MVR

160.0 MW

120.0 MVR

-10.304 Deg

160.0 MW

120.0 MVR

-160.0 MW

-80.0 MVR

With constant impedance load the MW/Mvar load at

bus 2 varies with the square of the bus 2 voltage

magnitude. This if the voltage level is less than 1.0,

the load is lower than 200/100 MW/Mvar

37

Solving Large Power Systems

The most difficult computational task is inverting the

J acobianmatrix

– inverting a full matrix is an order n

3

operation, meaning

the amount of computation increases with the cube of the

size

– this amount of computation can be decreased substantially

by recognizing that since the Y

bus

is a sparse matrix, the

J acobianis also a sparse matrix

– using sparse matrix methods results in a computational

order of about n

1.5

.

– this is a substantial savings when solving systems with

tens of thousands of buses

38

Newton-Raphson Power Flow

Advantages

– fast convergence as long as initial guess is close to

solution

– large region of convergence

Disadvantages

– each iteration takes much longer than a Gauss-Seidel

iteration

– more complicated to code, particularly when

implementing sparse matrix algorithms

Newton-Raphson algorithm is very common in

power flow analysis

39

Dishonest Newton-Raphson

Since most of the time in the Newton-Raphson

iteration is spent calculating the inverse of the

J acobian, one way to speed up the iterations is to

only calculate/inverse the J acobian occasionally

– known as the “Dishonest” Newton-Raphson

– an extreme example is to only calculate the J acobian for

the first iteration

( 1) ( ) ( ) -1 ( )

( 1) ( ) (0) -1 ( )

( )

Honest: - ( ) ( )

Dishonest: - ( ) ( )

Both require ( ) for a solution

v v v v

v v v

v

c

+

+

=

=

<

x x J x f x

x x J x f x

f x

40

Dishonest Newton-Raphson Example

2

1

(0)

( ) ( )

( ) ( ) 2

(0)

( 1) ( ) ( ) 2

(0)

Use the Dishonest Newton-Raphson to solve

( ) - 2 0

( )

( )

1

(( ) - 2)

2

1

(( ) - 2)

2

v v

v v

v v v

f x x

df x

x f x

dx

x x

x

x x x

x

÷

+

= =

(

A = ÷

(

¸ ¸

(

A = ÷

(

¸ ¸

(

= ÷

(

¸ ¸

41

Dishonest N-R Example, cont’d

( 1) ( ) ( ) 2

(0)

(0)

( ) ( )

1

(( ) - 2)

2

Guess x 1. Iteratively solving we get

v (honest) (dishonest)

0 1 1

1 1.5 1.5

2 1.41667 1.375

3 1.41422 1.429

4 1.41422 1.408

v v v

v v

x x x

x

x x

+

(

= ÷

(

¸ ¸

=

We pay a price

in increased

iterations, but

with decreased

computation

per iteration

42

Two Bus Dishonest ROC

Slide shows the region of convergence for different initial

guesses for the 2 bus case using the Dishonest N-R

Red region

converges

to the high

voltage

solution,

while the

yellow region

converges

to the low

voltage

solution

43

Honest N-R Region of Convergence

Maximum

of 15

iterations

44

Decoupled Power Flow

The completely Dishonest Newton-Raphson is not

used for power flow analysis. However several

approximations of the J acobianmatrix are used.

One common method is the decoupled power flow.

In this approach approximations are used to

decouple the real and reactive power equations.

45

Decoupled Power Flow Formulation

( ) ( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

( ) ( ) ( )

( )

2 2 2

( )

( )

General form of the power flow problem

( )

( )

( )

where

( )

( )

( )

v v

v

v

v

v

v v v

v

D G

v

v

n Dn Gn

P P P

P P P

(

c c

(

(

(

A c c

A

(

÷ = =

(

(

(

A A ( c c (

¸ ¸

¸ ¸

(

c c

(

¸ ¸

(

+ ÷

(

A =

(

(

+ ÷

¸ ¸

P P

θ θ V

P x

f x

Q x V Q Q

θ V

x

P x

x

46

Decoupling Approximation

( ) ( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

Usually the off-diagonal matrices, and

are small. Therefore we approximate them as zero:

( )

( )

( )

Then the problem

v v

v

v

v

v

v

v

v

c c

c c

(

c

(

(

(

A

A

c

(

÷ = =

(

(

(

c

A A ( (

¸ ¸

¸ ¸

(

c

¸ ¸

P Q

V θ

P

0

θ

P x

θ

f x

Q

Q x V

0

V

1 1

( ) ( )

( )

( ) ( ) ( )

can be decoupled

( ) ( )

v v

v

v v v

÷ ÷

( (

c c

A = ÷ A A = ÷ A

( (

c c

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

P Q

θ P x V Q x

θ V

47

Fast Decoupled Power Flow

By continuing with our J acobian approximations we

can actually obtain a reasonable approximation that

is independent of the voltage magnitudes/angles.

This means the J acobian need only be built/inverted

once.

This approach is known as the fast decoupled power

flow (FDPF)

FDPF uses the same mismatch equations as

standard power flow so it should have same solution

The FDPF is widely used, particularly when we

only need an approximate solution

48

FDPF Approximations

ij

( ) ( )

( )

( ) 1 1

( ) ( )

bus

The FDPF makes the following approximations:

1. G 0

2. 1

3. sin 0 cos 1

Then

( ) ( )

Where is just the imaginary part of the ,

except the slack bus row/co

i

ij ij

v v

v

v

v v

V

j

u u

÷ ÷

=

=

= =

A A

A = A =

= +

P x Q x

θ B V B

V V

B Y G B

lumn are omitted

49

FDPF Three Bus Example

Line Z = j0.07

Line Z = j0.05 Line Z = j0.1

One Two

200 MW

100 MVR

Three 1.000 pu

200 MW

100 MVR

Use the FDPF to solve the following three bus system

34.3 14.3 20

14.3 24.3 10

20 10 30

bus

j

÷

(

(

= ÷

(

÷

(

¸ ¸

Y

50

FDPF Three Bus Example, cont’d

1

(0)

(0)

2

2

3

3

34.3 14.3 20

24.3 10

14.3 24.3 10

10 30

20 10 30

0.0477 0.0159

0.0159 0.0389

Iteratively solve, starting with an initial voltage guess

0 1

0 1

bus

j

V

V

u

u

÷

÷

(

÷

(

(

= ÷ ÷ =

(

(

÷

¸ ¸

÷

(

¸ ¸

÷ ÷

(

=

(

÷ ÷

¸ ¸

(

( (

= =

(

( (

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

¸ ¸

Y B

B

(1)

2

3

0 0.0477 0.0159 2 0.1272

0 0.0159 0.0389 2 0.1091

u

u

(

(

¸ ¸

÷ ÷ ÷

( ( ( ( (

= + =

( ( ( ( (

÷ ÷ ÷

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

51

FDPF Three Bus Example, cont’d

(1)

2

3

i

i i 1

(2)

2

3

1 0.0477 0.0159 1 0.9364

1 0.0159 0.0389 1 0.9455

P( )

( cos sin )

V V

0.1272 0.0477 0.0159

0.1091 0.0159 0.0389

n

Di Gi

k ik ik ik ik

k

V

V

P P

V G B u u

u

u

=

÷ ÷ (

( ( ( (

= + =

(

( ( ( (

÷ ÷

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

¸ ¸

÷ A

= + +

÷ ÷ ÷

( ( (

= +

( ( (

÷ ÷ ÷

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

¿

x

(2)

2

3

0.151 0.1361

0.107 0.1156

0.924

0.936

0.1384 0.9224

Actual solution:

0.1171 0.9338

V

V

÷

( (

=

( (

÷

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

(

(

=

(

(

¸ ¸

¸ ¸

÷

( (

= =

( (

÷

¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

θ V

52

“ DC” Power Flow

The “DC” power flow makes the most severe

approximations:

– completely ignore reactive power, assume all the voltages

are always 1.0 per unit, ignore line conductance

This makes the power flow a linear set of equations,

which can be solved directly

1 ÷

= θ B P

53

Power System Control

A major problem with power system operation is

the limited capacity of the transmission system

– lines/transformers have limits (usually thermal)

– no direct way of controlling power flow down a

transmission line (e.g., there are no valves to close to

limit flow)

– open transmission system access associated with industry

restructuring is stressing the system in new ways

We need to indirectly control transmission line flow

by changing the generator outputs, for example

54

Indirect Transmission Line Control

What we would like to determine is how a change in

generation at bus k affects the power flow on a line

from bus i to bus j.

The assumption is

that the change

in generation is

absorbed by the

slack bus

55

Power Flow Simulation - Before

One way to determine the impact of a generator change

is to compare a before/after power flow.

For example below is a three bus case with an overload

Z for all lines = j0.1

One Two

200 MW

100 MVR

200.0 MW

71.0 MVR

Three 1.000 pu

0 MW

64 MVR

131.9 MW

68.1 MW

68.1 MW

124%

56

Power Flow Simulation - After

Z for all lines = j0.1

Limit for all lines = 150 MVA

One Two

200 MW

100 MVR

105.0 MW

64.3 MVR

Three

1.000 pu

95 MW

64 MVR

101.6 MW

3.4 MW

98.4 MW

92%

100%

Increasing the generation at bus 3 by 95 MW (and hence

decreasing it at bus 1 by a corresponding amount), results

in a 31.3 drop in the MW flow on the line from bus 1 to

2.

57

Operating Areas

An operating area has traditionally

represented the portion of the interconnected

electric grid operated by a single utility

Transmission lines that join two areas are

known as tie-lines.

The net power out of an area is the sum of the

flow on its tie-lines.

The flow out of an area is equal to

total gen - total load - total losses = tie-flow

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