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## SUBJECT : WAVE SHAPING TECHNIQES

SEM : IV(EVEN)
BRANCH : EXTC

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

SR NAME OF EXPERIMENT
NO.

1 ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR

2 MONOSTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR

## 3 TRIANGULAR WAVE GENERATOR

4 SCHMITT TRIGGER

5 DIGITAL--ANALOG CONVERTER

## 6 PRECISION HALF/FULL WAVE RECTIFIER

7 VOLTAGE REGULATOR

## 8 UJT SWEEP GENERATOR

EXPERIMENT NO. 1:

ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR

## AIM : To Design an Astable Multivibrator using Ic 555

APPARATUS :DC Power Supply (+5v), CRO, Bread Board, Connecting Wires.

COMPONENTS :
Resister (680 •,1K);
Capacitor( 10µF,.01µF);
Ic 555

THEORY :

## Explain the theory of Ic555 as Astable Multivibrator.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Vc c = 10V

4 8
R1 680

7
R2 1k

555
3 o/p

Vc
6
C1 10n

2
1 5
C2 10u
GND 1 8 VCC

Trigger 2 7 Discharge
555
Output 3 6 Threshold

Reset 4 5 Control

PROCEDURE :

## 1. Construct the Circuit as shown in the Diagram.

2. Obtain the rise time and fall time(THIGH and TLOW) by Connecting probes
across terminal 6 and 1.
3. Check if the Sweep starts at Vcc/3 and rises to 2Vcc/3
4. Check the output across terminal 3
5. Calculate the Duty Cycle using - %D = THIGH

## (THIGH + TLOW) x 100

6. Show the Sweep and the output wave form on graph paper.

OBSERVATION TABLE :

RESULT :

GRAPH :

CONCLUSION :
The Increase in Resistance Increases the charging time, which in turn
decreases the frequency.Timer IC555 as an Astable Multivibrator is Studied
and Verified.
EXPERIMENT NO. 2 :

MONOSTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR

## APPARATUS :DC Power Supply(+5v),CRO,Bread Board,Connecting

Wires.

COMPONENTS :
Resister 27K;
Capacitor (1µF,0.01 µF);
IC555

THEORY :

## Explain IC555 as an Monostable Multivibrator.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM :
Vcc = 10V

R1 1.5k
4 8

C1 1u 6

7
3 o/p
555

-v e trigger 2
1 5

C210n

GND 1 8 VCC

Trigger 2 7 Discharge
555
Output 3 6 Threshold

Reset 4 5 Control

PROCEDURE :
1. Construct the Circuit as Shown in the Figure.
2. Measure the Peak to Peak input Voltage,time Period and frequency of
trigger I/P
3. Measure TON and TOFF.
4. Compare it with Charging and Discharging Time of Capacitor.
5. By Varying Combination of R and C ,Delay Time can also be changed.
6. Show the Trigger and the output wave form on graph paper.

OBSERVATION TABLE :

GRAPH :

## CONCLUSION : IC 555 as a Monostable Multivibrator is Studied and

Verified.
EXPERIMENT NO.3 :
TRIANGULAR WAVE GENERATOR

IC741

## APPARATUS :DC Power Supply(±10v),CRO,Bread Board,

Connecting wires

COMPONENTS :
Resister (10K, 100K);
Capacitor( 0.1µF,1µF);
Pot 22K;
IC 741

THEORY :

## Explain the Working of IC741 as Triangular Wave Generator.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM :

R510k
R110k
C21u

-10VOP1!OPAMP
-10V
- R4100k OP2!OPAMP
uA741 - uA741
++
R2 10k

++
C1 100n

+10V
+10V
R6 100k
R3 10k
Offset 1 8 NC
Null

-I/P 2 7 +VCC

741 O/P
+I/P 3 6
-VCC 4 5 +VCC

PROCEDURE :

## 1. Construct the Circuit As Shown in the Diagram.

2. Observe the Square wave and Triangular wave at the test point on CRO.
3. Note down the frequency and amplitude of waveform.
4. Vary the Value of the potentiometer R and Observe the Changing waveforms
on the CRO.

OBSERVATION TABLE :

GRAPH :

CONCLUSION :
By Varying the Potentiometer , frequency and amplitude of triangular wave
changes.
EXPERIMENT NO. 4:
SCHMITT TRIGGER

## APPARATUS : DC Power Supply (±12v),CRO,Bread Board,

Connecting wires.

COMPONENTS :
Resister (100•,4.7K);
IC741

THEORY :

## Explain the functioning of IC741 as Schmitt Trigger.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM :

-12VOP1!OPAMP
R14.7k
Vi(sine wave) -
O/P
uA741
++
+12V

R24.7k
R3 100
PIN DIAGRAM :

Offset 1 8 NC
Null

-I/P 2 7 +VCC

741 O/P
+I/P 3 6
-VCC 4 5 +VCC

PROCEDURE :

## 1. Connect the Circuit as shown in the diagram.

2. Apply a Sine Wave at the Inverting input Vi.
3. Observe the output square wave Vo on the CRO.
4. Calculate The UTV,LTV and the Hysterisis Voltage CHV.

OBSERVATION TABLE :

CALCULATIONS :

GRAPH :

CONCLUSION :

## Schmitt Trigger Can be used to convert any input waveform to a square

wave. The frequency of the square wave is equal to frequency of the input wave
form. The amplitude of output wave depends on the value of resister R1, R2 and
VSAT of opamp used.
EXPERIMENT NO. 5:

## APPARATUS : DC Power Supply (±12v ,±5v),CRO, Bread Board,

Connecting wires

COMPONENTS :
Resister (10K, 5.6K,2.2K,1.2K,1K);
IC741

THEORY :

## Explain the Function Of IC 741 as Digital to Analog Converter.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM :

+5V

b01
SW R1 10k R5 1k
-12VOP1!OPAMP
b12
SW R2 5.6k -
uA741 O/P
b23
SW R3 2.2k ++
+12V
b34
SW R4 1.2k
PIN DIAGRAM

Offset 1 8 NC
Null

-I/P 2 7 +VCC

741 O/P
+I/P 3 6
-VCC 4 5 +VCC

ROCEDURE :
1. Connect the circuit as shown in the diagram.
2. Note the output voltages for different combinations of
b3,b2,b1,b0.
3. Draw the graph of output Voltage v/s possible combination of
input.

OBSERVATION TABLE :

## CONCLUSION : It is observed that D/A converter produces a

produces a proportional Dc output Voltage
Corresponding to each n-bit input word.
EXPERIMENT NO. 6 :

PRECISION RECTIFIER

Using IC555.

## APPARATUS : DC Power Supply(±12v), CRO, Bread Board,

Connecting wires.

COMPONENTS :
Resister (1K,560K);
IC741;
Diode IN4997

THEORY :

## Explain the function of IC 741 as inverting half wave rectifier.

Explain the working of IC 741 as a precision full wave rectifier.

PROCEDURE :

## 1. Connect the circuit as shown in the diagram of Half Wave

Rectifier.
2. Apply an AC signal at the input terminal and observe the wave
form at the output terminal.
3. Repeat the procedure for Full wave Rectifier.
4. Draw the Wave forms on Graph.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM :

PIN DIAGRAM

Offset 1 8 NC
Null

-I/P 2 7 +VCC

741 O/P
+I/P 3 6
-VCC 4 5 +VCC

R21k

IN4007
D21N1183

-12V OP1!OPAMP
R11k
IN4007
D11N1183
-
uA741 V0
+ ++
VM1 +12V
V

## HALF WAVE RECTIFIER

R1 1k R4 1k R5 1k

D1 1N4007
-12vOP2!OPAMP
R3 1k -12v OP1!OPAMP
-
-
uA741 V0
uA741
++
+ ++
+12v
V VM1 +12v
D2 1N4007

R2 1k

## FULL WAVE RECTIFIER

OBSERVATION TABLE :

CONCLUSION :

Thus the Precision Half Wave Rectifier and Full Wave Rectifier are Studied
and Verified.
EXPERIMENT NO. 7 :

VOLTAGE REGULATOR

IC723

## APPARATUS : Variable DC Power Supply(0 – 15v, 0 -30v),Multimeter

Bread Board, Connecting wires.

COMPONENTS :Resistor(10K,4.7K,390•);
Capacitors(0.1µF,0.001µF)
IC723

THEORY :

## Explain the working of IC723 as High and Low Voltage Regulator.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM :

PIN DIAGRAM

NC
NC
Current
Limit Freq Compensation
Current +Vcc
Sense
Vc
-I/P
V0
+I/P LM
723 Vz
Vref I/P
NC
-Vcc

Vin 0 -15V

12 11
6
10
R3 10k

R1 4.7k

723

5
7 13
R2 10k
C2 100n

C1 1n

Vin(0-30V)

12 11

R2 390
10
6
2
R1 4.7k

723 3

R3 10k
5
4

R4 10k
7 13

C1 1n

PROCEDURE :

## 1. Connect the circuit as shown in the diagram of low voltage regulator.

2. Vary the input voltage and note Corresponding values of output voltage on
multimeter.
3. Repeat the procedure for High Voltage regulator.
4. plot the graph of input voltage v/s output voltage and observe variation.

OBSERVATION TABLE :

CONCLUSION : Thus the low voltage regulator and High Voltage Regulator
are syudied and verified.
EXPERIMENT NO. 8 :

## APPARATUS : DC Power Supply(±10v),CRO,

Bread Board, Connecting wires.

COMPONENTS :Resistor(33K,47K,470•);
Capacitors(0.1µF,)
2N2646

THEORY :

## Explain function of UJT.

Explain the working of UJT as a relaxation oscillator.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM :
PROCEDURE :

## 1. Connect the Circuit as shown in the diagram.

2. For a specific resistance on the potentiometer , note the rise time , fall time,
Vv and Vp by connecting the output across the capacitor.
3. Note the pulse amplitude across base 1.
4. Calculate the practical time period and frequency of sweep generated.
5. perform steps 2 and 4 for another value of potentiometer .
6. Compare the frequency with the calculated frequency.
7. plot the sweep and pulses for both the resistance values.

OBSERVATION TABLE:

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