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Attitudes and Behavior Atitudinile si comportamentul

Structura atitudinilor: Structura atitudinilor poate fi descrisa in termeni a trei componente : -comporatament afectiv : acesta implica sentimentele unei persoane/ emotiile despre obiectul atitudinii. De exemplu : Imi este frica de paianjeni. -componenta comportamentala(sau conotativa ) : felul in care atitudinea pe care o avem influenteaza felul in care actionam sau ne comportam. De exemplu „O sa evit paianjenii si o sa tip daca vad unul.” - componenta cognitiva: aceasta implica credinta/cunostinta unei persoane despre o atitudine. De exemplu : „Cred ca paianjenii sunt periculosi.” Acest model este cunoscut ca modelul ABC al atitudinilor. Cele trei componente sunt de obicei conectate. Totusi, este dovedit ca componentele cognitive si afective ale comportamentului nu se potrivesc mereu cu comportamentul. Acest lucru este aratat intr-un studiu al lui LaPiere (1934). The Function of Attitudes Attitudes can serve functions for the individual. Daniel Katz (1960) outlines four functional areas: Functiile atitudinilor: Atitudini pot servi functii pentru individ. Daniel Katz (1960) prezintă patru zone funcționale: • Knowledge. Attitudes provide meaning (knowledge) for life. The knowledge function refers to our need for a world which is consistent and relatively stable. This allows us to predict what is likely to happen, and so gives us a sense of control. Attitudes can help us organize and structure our experience. Knowing a person’s attitude helps us predict their behavior. For example, knowing that a person is religious we can predict they will go to Church. Cunostinta . Atitudinile furnizeaza semnificatii (cunoștinte) pentru viață. Functia de cunostinta se referă la nevoia noastră pentru o lume care este consistenta si relativ stabila. Acest lucru ne permite să prezică ceea ce este probabil să se întâmple, și așa ne dă un sentiment de control. Atitudini ne poate ajuta să organiza și structura experiența noastră. Știind atitudinea unei persoane ne ajută să ne prezice comportamentul lor. De exemplu, știind că o persoană este religios, putem prezice că vor merge la biserica. • Self / Ego-expressive. The attitudes we express (1) help communicate who we are and (2) may make us feel good because we have asserted our identity. Self-expression of attitudes

measure of an individual’s social attitude.E. Again. religion. picture or . I’m sick of ru gby anyway…”. unprejudiced. This function has psychiatric overtones. beliefs and values. For example. For example. Consequently. for example. sex etc. unclear) or incomplete stimulus (e. • Adaptive. Attitudes then. Indirect methods typically involve the use of a projective test. other people will reward them with approval and social acceptance. cap. People whose pride has suffered following a defeat in sport might similarly adopt a defensive attitude: “I’m not bothered. defense) and the outside world (adaptive and knowledge).can be non-verbal too: think bumper sticker. one way children might defend themselves against the feelings of humiliation they have experienced in P. People are often motivated to give replies that make them appear “well adjusted”. have a protective function (i. expression can be nonverbal [think politician kissing baby]. There are various problems that affect the validity of attitude scales. our attitudes are part of our identify. Either people are unaware of what is being measured (which has ethical problems) or they are unable consciously to affect what is being measured.g. A projective test is involves presenting a person with an ambiguous (i. an ego-defensive role) in helping us reserve our selfimage. lessons is to adopt a strongly negative attitude to all sport. Therefore. Projective Techniques To avoid the problem of social desirability. or accurate. The basic idea behind the functional approach is that attitudes help a person to mediate between their own inner needs (expression. • The ego-defensive function refers to holding attitudes that protect our self-esteem or that justify actions that make us feel guilty. as anyone who has every “faked” an attitude scales knows there are shortcomings in these self report scales of attitudes. or T-shirt slogan. If a person holds and/or expresses socially acceptable attitudes. People seek out others who share their attitudes.e.e. are heavily affected by socially desirability bias. Socially desirability refers to the tendency for people to give “socially desirable” to the questionnaire items. Positive attitudes towards ourselves. are to do with being apart of a social group and the adaptive functions helps us fit in with a social group. Evaluation of Direct Methods An attitude scale is designed to provide a valid. Self report scales that measure attitudes towards race. responses on attitude scales are not always 100% valid. open minded and democratic. and develop similar attitudes to those they like. when people flatter their bosses or instructors (and believe it) or keep silent if they think an attitude is unpopular. and help us to be aware through expression of our feelings. various indirect measures of attitudes have been used. Respondents who harbor a negative attitude towards a particular group may not wish be admit to the experimenter (or to themselves) that they have these feelings. the most common problem is that of social desirability. However. However.

The stimulus requires interpretation from the person. opinions or attitudes into the ambiguous situation. Examples of projective techniques include: • Rorschach Inkblot Test • Thematic Apperception Test (or TAT) • Draw a Person Task . thus revealing the attitudes the person holds. This method of attitude measurement is not objective or scientific which is a big criticism. The assumption about these measures of attitudes it that the person will “project” his or her views. the person’s attitude is inferred from their interpretation of the ambiguous or incomplete stimulus. However. Therefore. indirect methods only provide general information and do not offer a precise measurement of attitude strength since it is qualitative rather than quantitative.words).