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For other meanings of "Thoth", or of "Djehuti" and similar, see Thoth (disambiguation).
God of Knowledge, Hieroglyphs and Wisdom
Thoth, in one of his forms as an ibis-headed man
Major cult center
Moon disk, papyrus scroll
Seshat, Ma'at, Bastet or Hathor
Bah. Sep. Contents [hide] 1 Name o o 1. and his wife was Ma'at. Thoth's chief temple was located in the city of Khmun. animals sacred to him.  the arts of magic. Thoth (/ˈθoʊθ/ or /ˈtoʊt/.1 Etymology 1. Amen-heri-ab. Hat. he was often depicted as a man with the head of an ibis or a baboon. In art. Ta-ur. Talmsis. alternativelyRa or Horus and Hathor. from Greek Θώθ thṓth. Antcha-Mutet. Thoth played many vital and prominent roles in Egyptian mythology. and the judgment of the dead. such as maintaining the universe. Thoth became heavily associated with the arbitration of godly disputes. Rekhui. His feminine counterpart was Seshat. In that city. the system of writing. Urit. he led the Ogdoad pantheon of eight principal deities. and being one of the two deities (the other being Ma'at) who stood on either side of Ra's boat. Per-Ab. He also had numerous shrines within the cities of Abydos. the development of science. perhaps pronounced */tʃʼiħautiː/ or */ɟiħautiː/. Hesert. Pselket.2 Further names and spellings 2 Depictions 3 Attributes 4 Mythology 5 History 6 Titles 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References Name .Parents None (self-created). later called Hermopolis Magna during the GrecoRoman era (in reference to him through the Greeks' interpretation that he was the same as their god Hermes) and Ϣⲙⲙⲙⲙⲙⲙⲙ shmounein in the Copticrendering. from Egyptian ḏḥwty. depending on thephonological interpretation of Egyptian's emphatic consonants) was considered one of the most important deities of the Egyptian pantheon. and Takens. In the later history of ancient Egypt.
Hab. Sheps. Further names and spellings Djehuty is sometimes alternatively rendered as Jehuti. However.. Thaut as well as Bohairic CopticThōout. Khenti. great" (see Titles) was translated to the Greek τρισμεγιστος(Trismegistos) making Hermes Trismegistus. In addition. and writing 'w' as 'u'.) Among the names used are A. many write "Djehuty". for instance the moon god Iah-Djehuty. based on the Ancient Greek borrowingΘώθ Thōth or Theut and the fact that it evolved into Sahidic Coptic variously as Thoout. Techu. According to Theodor Hopfner. not a vowel. Mehi. Thoth (also Thot or Thout) is the Greek version derived from the letters ḏḥwty. (Similarly. Thoth had many names and titles. and A'an. Thōth. not the transliteration employed by Egyptologists. or Tetu. One of Thoth's titles. or Common names for Thoth in hieroglyphs The Egyptian pronunciation of ḏḥwty is not fully known. like other goddesses and gods. Tehuti. Lord of Khemennu. Thoth's Egyptian name written as ḏḥwty originated from ḏḥw. Zehuti. "Three times great. Not counting differences in spelling. The Greeks related Thoth to their god Hermes due to his similar attributes and functions. representing the Moon for the entire month. Depictions . but may be reconstructed as *ḏiḥautī. Tahuti. Hence his name means "He who is like the Ibis". Thoot. considered a god himself. claimed to be the oldest known name for the Ibisalthough normally written as hbj. had five different names used in public. The final -y may even have been pronounced as a consonant.Asten. as a convention of convenience for English speakers. The addition of -ty denotes that he possessed the attributes of the Ibis. inserting the letter 'e' automatically between consonants in Egyptian words. each Pharaoh.Etymology . Thoth was also known by specific aspects of himself.
1400 BC). "the feather of truth. he is depicted in his human form with the head of an ibis. or with a feather for a head. he sometimes takes the form of the ibis directly. in the British Museum Thoth has been depicted in many ways depending on the era and on the aspect the artist wished to convey. the god of equilibrium. he was depicted to be wearing the respective god's headdress. Usually. Attributes . When depicted as a form of Shu or Ankher. Sometimes he was also seen in art to be wearing the Atef crown or the United Crowns of Upper and Lower Egypt. For example. In the form of A'ah-Djehuty he took a more human-looking form. In this form. When not depicted in this common form.Depiction of Thoth as a baboon (c. Ma'at is often depicted with an ostrich feather. he can be represented as the reckoner of times and seasons by a headdress of the lunar disk sitting on top of a crescent moon resting on his head. He also appears as a dog faced baboon or a man with the head of a baboon when he is A'an. The Egyptians did not believe these gods actually looked like humans with animal heads. These forms are all symbolic and are metaphors for Thoth's attributes." on her head.
the gods would not exist. Duat.e. he appeared as an ape. Thoth's roles in Egyptian mythology were many. the alphabet. Earth. Washington. and magic. He also served as scribe of the gods. representing the principle of Ma'at. and everything in them.e. Without his words. who reported when the scales weighing the deceased's heart against the feather. the science of numbers. religion. making proper use of Ma'at. In the underworld. was exactly even. making sure neither had a decisive victory over the other. human and divine. mathematics. He was the master of both physical and moral (i.Lee Lawrie. geometry. writing. Compare this to how his feminine counterpart. The ancient Egyptians regarded Thoth as One. stars. medicine. self-begotten. He served as a mediating power. A'an. theology. Library of Congress John Adams Building.C. the Egyptians believed. Mythology .He is said to direct the motions of the heavenly bodies. Ma'at was the force which maintained the Universe. credited with the invention of writing and alphabets (i. and oratory. hieroglyphs) themselves. His power was unlimited in the Underworld and rivaled that of Ra and Osiris. botany. The Egyptians credited him as the author of all works of science.  The Greeks further declared him the inventor ofastronomy. especially between good and evil. He is credited with making the calculations for the establishment of the heavens. Thoth(1939). They further claimed he was the true author of every work of every branch of knowledge. and self-produced. philosophy. reading. the god of equilibrium.Divine) law. D. land surveying. civilized government. astrology.
When Horus was slain. Osiris. the former god represented order while the latter represented chaos.Thoth has played a prominent role in many of the Egyptian myths. Thoth gambled with the Moon for 1/72nd of its light (360/72 = 5). he had overseen the three epic battles between good and evil. he gave her the words to resurrect him so she could be impregnated and bring forth Horus. Nut gave birth to Kheru-ur (Horus the Elder. the son of Osiris. sitting on his throne . Set. History Thoth. After Isis gathered together the pieces of Osiris' dismembered body. Displaying his role as arbitrator. and Nephthys. In each instance. Thoth was the god who always speaks the words that fulfill the wishes of Ra. Thoth would heal them to prevent either from overtaking the other. Thoth gave the magic to resurrect him as well. Thoth was also prominent in the Osiris myth. During these 5 days. and the third between Horus. Face of Heaven). according to the myth. or 5 days. the year was only 360 days long and Nutwas sterile during these days. and Set. and won. If one god was seriously injured. Isis. being of great aid to Isis. the second between HeruBekhutet and Set. Originally. The first battle took place between Ra and Apophis. This mythology also credits him with the creation of the 365 day calendar. All three battles are fundamentally the same and belong to different periods. unable to bear children.
both civil and religious. Likewise. The cycles of the moon also organized much of Egyptian society's rituals and events. For this reason Thoth was universally worshipped by ancient Egyptian scribes. and I have brought unto thee thine ink-jar. he was depicted as a baboon holding up a crescent moon. The rise of his cult also led to his cult seeking to adjust mythology to give Thoth a greater role. Khnum (Hermopolis Magna). and millions of dead ibis were mummified and buried in his honour. On other occasions. as the baboon was seen as a nocturnal and intelligent creature. Consequently. Thoth became credited by the ancient Egyptians as the inventor of writing. It is more widely accepted that Thoth was a record keeper. and his association with learning and measurement led him to be connected with Seshat. and withMa'at (truth/order) stood next to Ra on the nightly voyage across the sky. The association with baboons led to him occasionally being said to have as a consort Astennu. O Thoth. Anubis (or Hermanubis) was viewed as the messenger of the gods. meaning city of Hermes. In the Papyrus of Ani copy of the Egyptian Book of the Dead the scribe proclaims "I am thy writing palette. now that Thoth had less association with it and more with wisdom. due to its main centre. Astennu was said to be Thoth himself. as he travelled in and out of the Underworld and presented himself to the gods and to humans. who was said to be his daughter. and the measurement and regulation of events and of time. Thoth gradually became seen as a god of wisdom. Thoth was usually depicted with the head of an ibis. It is also considered that Thoth was the scribe of the gods rather than a messenger.  There was also an Egyptian pharaoh of the Sixteenth dynasty of Egypt named Djehuty (Thoth) after him. magic. but its phases and prominence gave it a significant importance in early astrology/astronomy. During the late period of Egyptian history a cult of Thoth gained prominence. Sometimes. He was thus said to be the secretary and counselor of the sun god Ra. also becoming the capital. The moon not only provides light at night. possibly because the Egyptians saw curve of the ibis' beak as a symbol of the crescent moon. Thoth's qualities also led to him being identified by the Greeks with their closest matching god Hermes. one of the symbols for scribes was that of the ibis. allowing time to still be measured without the sun.Thoth was originally a moon god. or variably his wife. also leading to the Greeks' naming Thoth's cult centre as Hermopolis. one of the (male) baboons at the place of judgment in the underworld. I am not of those who work iniquity in their secret places. and the Moon became occasionally considered a separate entity. not a divine messenger. Many scribes had a painting or a picture of Thoth in their "office". and who reigned for three years. let not evil happen unto me. In art. Thoth was inserted in many tales as the wise counselor and persuader. and was also considered to have been the scribe of the underworld." Chapter XXXb (Budge) of the Book of the Dead is by the oldest tradition said to be the work of Thoth himself. with whom Thoth was eventually combined as Hermes Trismegistus. the earlier deification of wisdom. .
Jump up^ (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. Jump up^ Thutmose III: A New Biography By Eric H Cline. 1 p. Jump up^ Hopfner. 2006)p. (Produced by the Cartographic Division) 3. in part. 4) 12. 7. Jump up^ (Collier and Manley p. Theodor. 1913. Jump up^ National Geographic Society: Egypt's Nile Valley Supplement Map : Western Desert portion. 2 –4. revealed in (Collier and Manley pp. 402) and (Collier and Manley p. Jump up^ National Geographic Society: Egypt's Nile Valley Supplement Map. wife of Thoth Seshat – goddess of writing and measure. Der tierkult der alten Agypter nach den griechisch-romischen berichten und den wichtigeren denkmalern. and explanations on how to pronounce based upon modern rules. in (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 6. ^ Jump up to: a b (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. Wien. 127 2. 1 pp. Jump up^ (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Thoth was said to be born from the skull of set also said to be born from the heart of Ra. 403) Jump up^ Hieroglyphs verified. 1886. Jump up^ Information taken from phonetic symbols for Djehuty. wife of Thoth The Book of Thoth Notes 1. 8. 9. 402) 14. You can help by adding to it. 402–3) . Call#= 060 VPD v. (Produced by the Cartographic Division) 4. 20) 15. In kommission bei A. 1 p. Jump up^ (Collier and Manley p. (December 2013) See also Eye of Horus Maat. Jump up^ (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol.Titles This section is empty. b. 414) Jump up^ (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians p.p. 161) 10. 401) 5. 1 p.57 13. 405) Jump up^ (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 161) 11. 1 p. or Ma'at. David O'Connor University of Michigan Press (January 5. Holder. 400) Jump up^ (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. Egyptian goddess and concept of truth.
1973. (2000). New York: Dover Publications. Jump up^ (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. 415) 19. 1900. Jump up^ (Budge Gods of the Egyptians Vol. J. 408) (Budge Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1948.16. E. Jump up^ (Budge Gods of the Egyptians Vol. pp. p. Jump up^ (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. Jump up^ The Book of the Dead". Jump up^ Wilkinson. E. 80–81 34. 1 p. Thoth. 1 pp. E. 1 p. 401) 31. Jump up^ (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p. the Hermes of Egypt: A Study of Some Aspects of Theological Thought in Ancient Egypt. Jump up^ (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians p. Richard H. 407) 30. E. Budge. Wallis. 1922." Journal of Egyptian Archæology 34:121–122. ISBN 0-517-12283-9 References Bleeker. Jan. James P. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1 p.. 1 p. Egyptian Religion. The Search for God in Ancient Egypt. Wallis. Leiden: E. 2001. Jump up^ (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 1969 (original in 1904). 408–9) 22.A Wallis Budge. p. 407–8) 32. 1 plate between pp. ^ Jump up to: a b a b (Budge Gods of the Egyptians Vol. Jump up^ The Book of the Dead. 1 p. Jump up^ Allen. Hathor and Thoth: Two Key Figures of the Ancient Egyptian Religion. op. Jump up^ (Budge Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 23.. London: Oxford University Press. 115 24. 1 p. orig pub 1895. 416) 25. 1 p. Kessinger Publishing. p562. Boylan. 414) 28. The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt. Brill. Jump up^ Assmann. 403) 29. Studies in the History of Religions 26. Claas Jouco. p. "Thoth as Creator of Languages. 401) 20. 1 pp. Patrick. 2003. Jump up^ (Budge Gods of the Egyptians Vol. ^ Jump up to: 27. A. 412–3) 17. The Gods of the Egyptians Volume 1 of 2. 44. Gramercy Books 1999. ^ Jump up to: a b (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. 217 35.A Wallis Budge. org pub 1895.. Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs. 1 p. A. 224) 33. Budge. p282. 402) 18. ISBN 0-517-12283-9 36. Jump up^ (Hall The Hermetic Marriage p. (Reprinted Chicago: Ares Publishers inc. Jump up^ Allen. cit. Jaroslav Černý. 403) 21. 1979). Jump up^ (Budge The Gods of the Egyptians Vol. Gramercy books 1999. 405) 26. .
The Egyptian Hermes: A Historical Approach to the Late Mind. Berkeley: University of California Press. by Aleister Crowley & Lady Fred Harris) . The Book of Thoth. Garth. by Aleister Crowley. ISBN 0-691-02498-7. Bill. 1993). Fowden. 1986. 1974 (accompanied by The Thoth Tarot Deck. first paperback edition. Inc 1969. 1998. Mark and Manley. How to Read Egyptian Hieroglyphs: Revised Edition. (200 signed copies. 1944) Reprinted by Samuel Wiser. (Reprinted Princeton: Princeton University Press. Collier. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.
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