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MIRALab Copyright © Information 1998

State-of-the-Art in Computer Animation
Nadia Magnenat Thalmann MIRALab, University of Geneva Daniel Thalmann Computer Graphics Lab, EPFL Computer animation may be defined as a technique in which the illusion of movement is created by displaying on a screen, or recording on a device a series of individual states of a dynamic scene. The key issue of Computer Animation is the way of defining motion, what is commonly known as Motion Control Methods (MCMs). MCMs may be classified [2] based on the nature of the information, which is directly manipulated: geometric, physical, or behavioral. Methods based on Geometric and Kinematics information These methods are heavily relied upon the animator. Motion is locally controlled and defined in terms of coordinates, angles, velocities, or accelerations. The simplest approach is Performance Animation which consists in magnetic or optical measurement and recording of direct actions of a real person for immediate or delayed playback. The technique is especially used today in production environments for 3D character animation. Key frame animation is still another popular technique in which the animator explicitly specifies the kinematics by supplying keyframes values whose "in-between" frames are interpolated by the computer. Inverse kinematics[3] is a technique coming from robotics, where the motion of links of a chain is computed from the end link trajectory. Image Morphing[4] 5 is a warping-based technique which interpolates the features between two images to obtain a natural inbetween image. For geometric deformations, multi-layered models [6] 7 8 are particularly useful for modelling 3D characters. We should also mention the specific research in facial animation [9] 10 11 12. Methods based on Physical information In these methods, the animator provides physical data and the motion is obtained by solving the dynamic equations. Motion is globally controlled. We may distinguish methods based on parameter adjustment 13 and constraint-based methods, where the animator states in terms of constraints the properties the model is supposed to have, without needing to adjust parameters. For example, Witkin and Kass[14] propose the concept of Spacetime Constraints, for creating character animation by solving constrained optimization. Cohen[15] takes this concept further and uses spacetime window to control the animation interactively. For realistic simulation of deformations, Terzopoulos et al. use an elastic model[16] based on the Lagrange equation. Gourret et al.[17] propose a finite element method to model the deformations of human flesh due to flexion of members and contact with objects. Deformation of

I Badler.Korein.animated clothes [18] 19 is also an active area of physics-based animation. 30 as a main information channel between the environment and a virtual actor.Gascuel.R.Magnenat Thalmann. used as a basis for implementing behaviour such as visually directed locomotion [25] 26 27 or handling objects[28] 29. D. In order to implement perception. 11(5)32-44.Thalmann (1995) Interactive shape design using metaballs and splines. . With the existence of super graphics workstations and the advent of VR devices.Haumann. In the future. C. L. D.82-90. and VR-based animation will lead to systems allowing the user to interact with complex virtual worlds with living creatures. The Visual Computer. This new concepts drastically change the way of designing animation sequences.Korein.Lee. artificial life. A. pp. J. [6] J. In physics-based animation.Parent (1989) Layered construction for deformable animated character.Shin (1995) Warp Generation and Transition Control in Image Morphing in: N. Hahn[20] prevents bodies in resting contact as a series of frequently occurring collisions. 1996 [2] N. S.Radack. Tu and Terzopoulos[24] describe a world inhabited by autonomous artificial fishes. D.SIGGRAPH'89. Conclusion Computer animation tends to be more and more based on dynamic simulation methods and behavioral animation.E. 2.S.Magnenat Thalmann N. an integration between simulation methods. Proc. Reynolds[31] describes an evolved. G.[32] propose the use of an octree as the internal representation of the environment seen by an actor. Noser et al. IEEE CG&A. it is possible to create applications based on a full 3-D interaction metaphor in which the specifications of deformations or motion are given in real-time. virtual creatures should be equipped with virtual sensors.Brotman (1985) Positioning and Animating Figures in a Task-oriented Environment. Reynolds[22] introduces a distributed behavioral model to simulate flocks of birds and schools of fish. IEEE Computer Society Press. R.Y. Methods based on Behavioral information A behavioral motion control method consists of driving the behavior of autonomous creatures by providing high-level directives indicating a specific behavior without any other stimulus. Wolberg (1990) Digital Image Warping.P. vision-based behavioral model of coordinated group motion. [8] S. Wilhelms[23] proposes a system based on a network of sensors and effectors. Prentice Hall. pp.Thalmann (eds) Interactive Computer Animation. D.243-252] [7] M. J.E.Chadwick.U. 1(4)212-220 [4] G. Journal of Visualization and Computer Animation. The concept of synthetic vision was first introduced by Renault et al.Thalmann (1991) Complex Models for Animating Synthetic Actors.] [5] S. Baraff[21] presents an analytical method for finding forces between contacting polyhedral bodies. Jianhua. [1] Published in ACM Computing Surveys. collision detection and response are obviously important.M.Puech (1991) A modelling system for complex deformable bodies suited to animation and collision processing.Verroust. [3] N.D.

Volino.21-30. pp. pp.Williams (1990) Performance Driven Facial Animation. Perception.Carignan. Behavior.Thalmann (1989) Simulation of Object and Human Skin Deformations in a Grasping Task.Armstrong. [9] P. [13] W. 2(9)5359.159-168. [25] D. [19] M.Wilhelms (1990) A Notion for Interactive Behavioral Animation Control.Proc. J.P. IEEE CG&A. R. K. Proc.H. pp.K.Gourret.99-104.Reynolds (1987) Flocks. N. Y.Implicit Surfaces`95. N. A. [11] L.Witkin.Magnenat Thalmann (1995) Versatile and Efficient Techniques for Simulating Cloth and Other Deformable Objects. Proc. pp. IEEE CG&A. 10(3)14-22 [24] X.205-214.Terzopoulos (1994) Artificial Fishes: Physics. M.Thalmann (1992) Dressing Animated Synthetic Actors with Complex Deformable Clothes.W.F.223-232. N. [10] K. N. [18] M.Magnenat Thalmann.Barr. A. pp. 7( 6)28-38. Siggraph'92. [14] A. M. pp. [21] D.Baraff (1989) Analytical Methods for Dynamic Simulation of Non-Penetrating Rigid Bodies. Proc.Platt. [20] J.SIGGRAPH '92. Herds. Proc.SIGGRAPH'87.Thalmann (1992) Simulation of Facial Muscle Actions Based on Rational Free Form Deformations.SIGGRAPH '87.299-308. IEEE CG&A . D.Courchesnes.Fleischer (1987) Elastically Deformable Models.Kass (1988) Spacetime Constraints.Yang. Proc. . pp.17-24. Proc.Tu. pp. Proc. 2(4)123-128. D.Cohen (1992) Interactive Spacetime Control for Animation. [15] M. Proc. D.25-34.SIGGRAPH '87. Proc. pp.Mangili. Proc SIGGRAPH '90. Proc.C.Waters. [22] C.Terzopoulos.Green. 235242. P. Journal of Visualization and Computer Animation.SIGGRAPH '89. [16] D.293302. SIGGRAPH '89.SIGGRAPH'88.Magnenat-Thalmann.Eurographics'92. SIGGRAPH `95. Proc.SIGGRAPH '88. pp.Hahn (1988) Realistic Animation of Rigid Bodies.Magnenat-Thalmann.Terzopoulos (1991) Modeling and Animating Faces using Scanned Data. [17] J. and Schools: A Distributed Behavioral Model. D.42-48.Lake (1987) Near real-time Control of Human Figure Models. D.Kalra. Locomotion. [12] K.Waters (1987) A Muscle Model for Animating Three-Dimensional Facial Expression. pp. Zeltzer (1982) Motor Control Techniques for Figure Animation. [23] J. Proc. Grenoble.SIGGRAPH'94.

Thalmann.Noser.339-348.Mas. Dynamic Animation of Human Walking. Memory and Learning. pp.W. Proc. 2nd International Conf. T. The Visual Computer.Eurographic'94. N.SIGGRAPH`91.Thalmann (1994) A Hand Control and Automatic Grasping System for Synthetic Actors. D. D. MIT Press. 6(6).SIGGRAPH'89. N.W.Thalmann (1990) A Vision-Based Approach to Behavioural Animation. Proc. Proc. on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior.Reynolds (1993) An Evolved.Bruderlin.Renault. Vision-Based Behavioral Model of Coordinated Group Motion.Magnenat-Thalmann.Girard (1991) Computer Animation of Knowledge-based Grasping. Magnenat-Thalmann (1990) A Global Human Walking Model with Real Time Kinematic Personification.384-392. Boulic. in: J. . pp. 1993.Renault. Computers and Graphics.233-242 [27] R.Thalmann.Rijpkema. 19(1)7-19.1(1).A. Proc. (eds) From Animals to Animats.] [29] R. pp.167-178. O. [28] H. [31] C. D.Meyer et al. D. Visualization and Computer Animation Journal.[26] A. M. [32] H.Magnenat Thalmann (1995) Navigation for Digital Actors based on Synthetic Vision. pp.Calvert (1989) Goal Directed. N. [30] O.