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International Journal of Applied Science and Engineering 2004.

2, 1: 29-48

Plant Cell Cultures - An Alternative and Efficient Source for the Production of Biologically Important Secondary Metabolites
Vanisree Mulabagal and Hsin-Sheng Tsay∗ Institute of Biotechnology, Chaoyang University of Technology, Wufeng, Taichung county 413, Taiwan, R.O.C. Abstract: Plant cell culture systems represent a potential renewable source of valuable medicinal compounds, flavors, fragrances, and colorants, which cannot be produced by microbial cells or chemical synthesis. Biotechnological applications of plant cell cultures presents the most updated reviews on current techniques in plant culture in the field. The evolving commercial importance of the secondary metabolites has in recent years resulted in a great interest, in secondary metabolism, and particularly in the possibility to alter the production of bioactive plant metabolites by means of cell culture technology. The principle advantage of this technology is that it may provide continuous, reliable source of plant pharmaceuticals and could be used for the large-scale culture of plant cells from which these metabolites can be extracted. In addition to its importance in the discovery of new medicines, plant cell culture technology plays an even more significant role in solving world hunger by developing agricultural crops that provide both higher yield and more resistance to pathogens and adverse environmental and climatic conditions. This paper describes the callus and suspension culture methods that we have established in our laboratory for the production of bioactive secondary metabolites from medicinal plants. Keywords: bioreactors; callus cultures; secondary metabolites; suspension cultures; pharmaceuticals; precursor feeding. 1. Introduction Medicinal plants are the most exclusive source of life saving drugs for the majority of the world’s population. Bioactive compounds currently extracted from plants are used as food additives, pigments, dyes, insecticides, cosmetics and perfumes and fine chemicals [Balandrin and Klocke, 1988]. These compounds belong to a group collectively known as secondary metabolites. Studies on plant

secondary metabolites have been increasing over the last 50 years. The molecules are known to play a major role in the adaptation of plants to their environment, but also represent an important source of pharmaceuticals [Ramachandra Rao and Ravishankar, 2002]. In recent years, traditional system of medicine has become a topic of global importance. Although modern medicine may be available in developed countries, herbal medicines [phytopharmaceuticals] have often maintained popularity for historical and cultural reasons.
Accepted for Publication: Dec. 23, 2003

Corresponding author: e-mail: hstsay@mail.cyut.edu.tw

© 2004 Chaoyang University of Technology, ISSN 1727-2394

Int. J. Appl. Sci. Eng., 2004. 2, 1

29

Vanisree Mulabagal and Hsin-Sheng Tsay

Many of the plant species that provide medicinal herbs have been scientifically evaluated for their possible medical applications. It has been mentioned that natural habitats for medicinal plants are disappearing fast and together with environmental and geopolitical instabilities; it is increasingly difficult to acquire plant-derived compounds. This has prompted industries, as well as scientists to consider the possibilities of investigation into cell cultures as an alternative supply for the production of plant pharmaceuticals. Advances in biotechnology particularly methods for culturing plant cell cultures, should provide new means for the commercial processing of even rare plants and the chemicals they provide. These new technologies will extend and enhance the usefulness of plants as renewable resources of valuable chemicals. There has been considerable interest in plant cell cultures as a potential alternative to traditional agriculture for the industrial production of secondary metabolites [Dicosmo and Misawa, 1995]. Plant cell culture technologies were introduced at the end of 1960s as a possible tool for both studying and producing plant secondary metabolites. Different strategies using cell cultures systems have been extensively studied with the objective of improving the production of bioactive secondary metabolites. Cell culture systems could be used for the large scale culturing of plant cells from which secondary metabolites can be extracted. The advantage of this method is that it can ultimately provide a continuous, reliable source of natural products. The major advantages of cell cultures includes (i) synthesis of bioactive secondary metabolites is running in controlled environment, independently from climatic and soil conditions; (ii) negative biological influences that affect secondary metabolites production in the nature are eliminated (microorganisms and insects); (iii) it is possible to select cultivars with higher production of secondary metabolites; (iv) with automatization of cell growth control and metabolic processes regu30 Int. J. Appl. Sci. Eng., 2004. 2, 1

lation, cost price can decrease and production increase. The scheme of production of some important plant pharmaceuticals produced in cell cultures has been presented in Table 1. The objectives of many industries are to develop plant cell culture techniques to the stage where they yield secondary products more cheaply than extracting either the whole plant grown under natural conditions or synthesizing the product. Although the production of pharmaceuticals using plant cell cultures have been highlighted, other uses have also been suggested as new route for synthesis, for products from plants difficult to grow, or in short supply, as a source of novel chemicals and as biotransformation systems. It is expected that the use, production of market price and structure would bring some of the other compounds to a commercial scale more rapidly and in vitro culture products may see further commercialization. Recent research results indicate that plant cell suspension cells can be used for recombinant protein production under controlled conditions [Fischer et al., 1999]. The aim of the present review is to focus the successful research accomplishments obtained on callus and suspension cultures for production of bioactive secondary metabolites in our research laboratory. 2. Accumulation of secondary metabolites in plant cell cultures For plant cell culture techniques to become economically viable, it is important to develop methods that would allow for consistent generation of high yields of products from cultured cells [Berlin and Sasse, 1985]. Careful selection of productive cells and cultural conditions resulted in accumulation of several products in higher levels in cultured cells. In order to obtain yields in high concentrations for commercial exploitation, efforts have focused on the stimulation of biosynthetic activities of cultured cells using various methods (Ramachandra Rao, 2000; Dixon, 1999; Ravishankar and Venkataraman, 1993; Buite-

Caffeine Cornus kousa Polyphenols Corydalis ophiocarpa Isoquinoline alkaloids Croton sublyratus Kurz Plaunotol Cruciata glabra Anthraquinones Cryptolepis buchanani Roem. 1982. γ-glutamyl derivatives L-Canavanine Capsaicin Anthraquinones Indole alkaloids Catharanthine Furoquinoline alkaloids Culture type Callus Suspension Suspension Callus Suspension Callus Suspension Suspension Callus Suspension Callus Suspension Suspension Suspension Suspension Suspension Callus Suspension Suspension Suspension Suspension Suspension Callus Callus Suspension Callus Callus Suspension Callus Suspension Suspension Suspension Callus Suspension Reference Andrijany et al. Cassia acutifolia Catharanthus roseus Catharanthus roseus Choisya ternata Chrysanthemum folium Chrysanthemum folium Active ingredient Saponins Alkaloids Canthinone alkaloids Alliin Tetrahydroanthracene glucosides Altamisine Rosmarinic acid Canthinone alkaloids Saikosaponins Theamine. 2000. O'Dowd et al. 1987. Morimoto and Murai.. 1986. 1983. 1984. 1985. 1987.An Alternative and Efficient Source for Production of Biologically Secondary Metabolites laar and Tramper. 1987. 1989.. 1982 Heble and Staba. J. Bupleurum falcatum Camellia Sinensis Canavalia ensiformis Capsicum annuum L.. 1999. 1993.. 1999. 1999. 1990. 1986... Rajasekaran et al. Moreno et al. 1993. Yamada and Endo. Table 1. De-Eknamkul and Ellis.Ephedrine D-pseudoephedrine continued … Int. Schripsema et al. 2. cinerariae. Anthraquinones Cinchona succirubra Anthraquinones Citrus sp. Orihara and Furuya.. 1981. 1991. 1990.) Merr.. Koblitz et al. Ramirez et al... 1 31 . Appl. 1983. Johnson et al. Kueh et al. Anderson et al. 1982. Wijnsma et al. Iwasa and Takao.. 1993.Chrysanthemic acid and pyrethrins Cinchona L. Venkateswara et al... 2001. 1983.. Alkaloids Cinchona robusta Robustaquinones Cinchona spe.. 1990. Malpathak and David ..Plant Cell Cultures . Wang and Huang. Cardenolides Dioscorea deltoidea Diosgenin Dioscorea doryophora Hance Diosgenin Duboisia leichhardtii Tropane alkaloids Ephedra spp. Limonin Coffea arabica L. 1980. Sejourne et al. Bioactive secondary metabolites from plant cell cultures Plant name Agave amaniensis Ailanthus altissima Ailanthus altissima Allium sativum L. Huang et al... 1992).. Waller et al... 1985. Naringin. Barthe et al.. Zhao et al. Ishimaru et al. Liu et al. Hagimori et al. Dornenburg and Knorr. Sci. Goleniowski and Trippi . 1986. & Cryptosin Schult Digitalis purpurea L. 1992.. Anderson et al.Pyrethrins cinerariae. Yagi et al. Aloe saponaria Ambrosia tenuifolia Anchusa officinalis Brucea javanica (L. Khouri et al. 1993.. 2004. L. 1996. Eng. 1985.. Nazif et al.

2004.3-b] quinolinium alkaloids Alkaloids Reserpine Suspension Suspension Callus Suspension Suspension Callus Callus Callus Suspension Suspension Suspension Suspension Suspension Suspension Suspension Suspension Callus Callus Callus Suspension Callus Callus Callus Suspension Callus Callus Suspension Suspension Suspension Suspension Suspension Callus Suspension Callus Callus Suspension Suspension Taniguchi et al. Skrzypczak et al. 1995.. 1988. Tabata and Hiraoka... J. 2003. Eucommia ulmoides Fumaria capreolata Gentiana sp. Ayabe et al.Vanisree Mulabagal and Hsin-Sheng Tsay Eriobotrya japonica Eucalyptus tereticornis SM. 1990. Ikuta and Itokawa... 1986. 1973. Jang et al.... Schroder and Bohm. 1987. 1998.. 1984. 2002. 1999.. 1986.. Carrier et al. R. Kitajima et al.. Wichers et al. 1987. Day et al. Phytolacca americana Picrasma quassioides Bennett Podophyllum hexandrum royle Polygala amarella Polygonum hydropiper Portulaca grandiflora Ptelea trifoliata L. Desbene et al. continued … 32 Int. Ayabe et al. Mantell et al.. 1991. Venkateswara et al. Furuya et al. 1983.. Fukui et al. 1999. Codeine β-Carboline alkaloids Betacyanin Quassin Podophyllotoxin Saponins Flavanoids Betacyanin Dihydrofuro [2. Nothapodytes foetida Ophiorrhiza pumila Panax ginseng Panax notoginseng Papaver bracteatum Papaver somniferum L. 1993. Triterpenes Callus Sterols and Phenolic com. 1985. Eng. 1986. Kitamura et al. Nakao et al.. 1999. 1993. Bassetti et al. Appl. 2. 1998. 1986. 1975. 1998. Fujita et al... 2002. Thengane et al. Yamamoto and Yamada. Furuya et al. Uden et al. Sasse et al. Chattopadhyay et al. Tanahashi and Zenk... 1990... Scragg and Allan. Zenk et al . 1998..... 1 . Wang et al. Rauwolfia sellowii Rauwolfia serpentina Benth.. 1986.. 1982.. 1990.. 1982. glandulifera Hyoscyamus niger Isoplexis isabellina Linum flavum L. Petit-Paly et al. Sakuta et al. Zhong and Zhu. 1976. Yamada and Hashimoto. 1972. Sci. Arrebola et al. Ginkgo biloba Glehnia littoralis Glycyrrhiza echinata Glycyrrhiza glabra var. Brain K. 1991.. Papaver somniferum Peganum harmala L. 1995. Lithospermum erythrorhizon Lithospermum erythrorhizon Lycium chinense Morinda citrifolia Morinda citrifolia Mucuna pruriens Mucuna pruriens Nandina domestica Nicotiana rustica Nicotiana tabacum L. Rech et al. Siah and Doran. Uden et al..Callus pounds Chlorogenic acid Isoquinoline alkaloids Secoiridoid glucosides Ginkgolide A Furanocoumarin Flavanoids Triterpenes Tropane alkaloids Anthraquinones 5-Methoxypodophyllotoxin Shikonin derivatives Shikonin derivatives Cerebroside Anthraquinones Anthraquinones L-DOPA L-DOPA Alkaloids Alkaloids Nicotine Camptothecin Camptothecin related alkaloids Saponins and Sapogenins Ginsenosides Thebaine Alkaloids Morphine . 2003. 1976. 1989.. 1981.

1983. Huang et al. Sci. 1995.. 1972.. baccatin III Taxoids Phenylpropanoid glycosides Berberin Berberin Diterpenoids Saponins Callus & suspension Callus Callus Suspension Suspension Suspension Suspension Suspension Suspension Suspension Suspension Callus Suspension Suspension Suspension Suspension Neera and Ishimaru. Cryptotanshinone Tannin Alkaloids Phenolics Spirostanol saponin Solasodine Solamargine L-DOPA Alkaloids Taxol Taxol.. Orihara et al. The tissue culture cells typically accumulate large amounts of secondary compounds only under specific conditions. Nakagawa et al. 1999). radicans Trigonella foenumgraecum 3-Oxo-rhazinilam Acridone and Furoquinoline alkaloids and coumarins Rosmarinic acid Callus Callus Gerasimenko et al. 1999. 2003 sion Morimoto et al. Lithospermic acid B and Ros.. For example. Callus & suspen... Brain and Williams.. Goleniowski and Trippi. Cusido et al. Optimization of cultural conditions: number of chemical and physical factors like media components.Callus marinic acid Suspension Miyasaka et al.. Wu et al. Until now. ginsenosides by Panax ginseng [Choi et al. 1 33 .. Eng. aeration. 1987. (ii) selecting high yielding cell clones. Culture productivity is critical to the practical application of plant cell culture technology to production of plant-specific bioactive metabolites. Franklin and Int.An Alternative and Efficient Source for Production of Biologically Secondary Metabolites Rauvolfia serpentina x Rhazya stricta Hybrid plant Ruta sp.. 1984. Fett-Neto et al.. Furuya et al.Karam et al. 2003.. 1997. 1989. 2001. 1996. 2000.. Villarreal et al. Taxus baccata Taxus cuspidata Tecoma sambucifolium Thalictrum minus Thalictrum minus Torreya nucifera var. Baumert et al.. Salvia fruticosa Salvia miltiorrhiza Salvia miltiorrhiza Sapium sebiferum Scopolia parviflora Scutellaria columnae Solanum chrysotrichum (Schldl.Plant Cell Cultures ... 1992. 1986. 1999.) Solanum laciniatum Ait Solanum paludosum Stizolobium hassjoo Tabernaemontana divaricata Taxus spp.. Stojakowska and Kisiel. Appl. agitation. Badaoui et al. Several products were found to be accumulating in cultured cells at a higher level than those in native plants through optimization of cultural conditions. (iii) precursor feeding. temperature. Sierra et al.. 1992. 1994.. That means maximization of the production and accumulation of secondary metabolites by plant tissue cultured cells requires (i) manipulating the parameters of the environment and medium.. Ketchum et al. 2004. Chandler and Dodds.. 1994. Pletsch et al. phytohormones. J. 2002. and (iv) elicitation. 1999. 1992. Manipulation of physical aspects and nutritional elements in a culture is perhaps the most fundamental approach for optimization of culture productivity. 1983. Tabata et al. 2. various strategies have been developed to improve the production of secondary metabolites using plant cell cultures. 2001. light affecting production of secondary metabolites has been extensively studied (Lee and Shuler.. 2002. 1993 Kobayashi et al. Wang et al. pH.

2 g/L of the medium and the strain was very stable. ubiquinone-10 by Nicotiana tabacum [Fontanel and Tabata. led to enhancement of volatile monoterpenes in cultures of Perilla frutiscens. 2004. which is an intermediate. 1993. Sci. thereby reducing the process time to attain high product concentrations (Barz et al. by supplying precursor or intermediate compounds. 1991].. Watanabe et al. rosmarinic acid by Coleus bluemei [Ulbrich et al. J. 1982. which grew faster and produced a higher amount of berberin and cultivated the strain in a 14 L bioreactor.. 1987. 1985. Biotic and abiotic elicitors which are classified on their origin are used to stimulate secondary metabolite formation in plant cell cultures. 1984). 1997). 1982].. Cell cloning methods provide a promising way of selecting cell lines yielding increased levels of product.. shikonin by Lithospermum erythrorhizon [Takahashi and Fujita. Eilert. 2002. Widholm. 1970]. 34 Int. amino acids have been added to cell suspension culture media for production of tropane alkaloids. were accumulated in much higher levels in cultured cells than in the intact plants. Increased capsaicin and rosmarinic acid in PEP cell lines of Capsicum annuum were reported (Salgado-Garciglia and Ochoa-Alejo.]. Addition of phenylalanine to Salvia officinalis cell suspension cultures stimulated the production of rosmarinic acid [Ellis and Towers. Moreno et al. glyphosate and biotin have also been studied to select high-yielding cell lines (Amrhein et al. 1993 and 1994]. addition of leucine.. Appl. 1988).. where as addition of geraniol to rose cell cultures led to accumulation of nerol and citronellol (Mulder-Krieger et al. i. A strain of Euphorbia milli accumulated about 7-fold the level of anthocyanins produced by the parent culture after 24 selections [Yamamoto et al. 1985].e. 1987]. Production of many valuable secondary metabolites using various elicitors were reported . 1998). Elicitation: plants produce secondary metabolites in nature as a defense mechanism against attack by pathogens. 1985). berberin by Coptis japonica [Matsubara et al. Elicitors are signals triggering the formation of secondary metabolites. 1974).. stands a good chance of increasing the yield of the final product. producing a high level of berberin even after 27 generations. For example. 1981]. indole alkaloids etc. Cell cloning using cell aggregates of Coptis japonica [Yamada and Sato. Selected cell line increased growth about 6-fold in 3 weeks and the highest amount of alkaloid was produced 1.. Selective agents such as 5-methyltryptophan..Vanisree Mulabagal and Hsin-Sheng Tsay Dixon. 1 This approach is useful when the precursors are inexpensive. 2.. Whitmer et al. Use of elicitors of plant defense mechanisms. Selection can be easily achieved if the product of interest is a pigment (Fujita et al. 1994. has been one of the most effective strategies for improving the productivity of bioactive secondary metabolites (Roberts and Shuler. The concept is based on the idea that any compound. Feeding ferulic acid to cultures of Vanilla planifolia resulted in increase in vanillin accumulation (Romagnoli and Knorr.. in or at the beginning of a secondary metabolite biosynthetic route. Furthermore.. Furuya. 1988). DiCosmo and Tallevi. elicitation. Selection of high-producing strains: plant cell cultures represent a heterogeneous population in which physiological characteristics of individual plant cells are different. 1990).. and obtained strain. have been effective in many cases (Silvestrini et al. Synthesis of several products in high amounts using selection and screening of plant cell cultures have been described by Berlin and Sasse [1985]. Addition of the same precursor resulted stimulation of taxol production in Taxus cultures [Fett-Neto et al. 1989]. 1988. Precursor feeding: exogenous supply of a biosynthetic precursor to culture medium may also increase the yield of the desired product. Eng. Attempts to induce or increase the production of plant secondary metabolites. 1988.

An Alternative and Efficient Source for Production of Biologically Secondary Metabolites (Wang and Zhong. berberine. It depends on extraction from yew trees. This has included production of taxol. L-DOPA. and it also had significant activity in the treatment of patients with malignant melanoma. 2. It has been approved for clinical treatment of ovarian and breast cancer by the FDA. 2004. which is approximately a single dose in the course of a cancer treatment. Hu et al. Lee and Shuler. Int. Taxus mairei calli were induced from needle and stem explants on B5 medium [Gamborg's et al. Case study 1: Production of taxol from Taxus mairei by cell suspension cultures As early as 1969. In 1983.. The plant cell culture of Taxus spp. The total synthesis of taxol on an industrial-scale seems economically unrealistic due to the complexity of the chemical structure of this molecule [Holton et al. after precursor feeding and 6 weeks of incubation. taxol was approved to enter phase I clinical trials for ovarian cancer by the Food & Drug Administradon (FDA) in the USA. One of the cell lines. Wani and his colleagues discovered a novel anticancer diterpene amide. Different cell lines were established using stem and needle-derived callus. imperatorin from Angelica dahurica. 2002b. 2002a. 1991]. 3. and the bark is the only commercial source. 1993]. 2000). 2001. lung cancer.4-D or NAA. and the principle components such as docetaxel. Sci. produced 200 mg taxol per liter cell suspension cultures. is considered as one of the approach available to provide a stable supply of taxol and related taxane derivatives [Slichenmyer and Von Horf. Appl. we collected different tissues of Taxus mairei. 1993]. shikonin derivatives. We have successfully established cell cultures for production of taxol from Taxus mairei. Cell culture protocols for production of important secondary metabolites established in our laboratory Most applications of plant cell cultures in biotechnology are aimed at the production of bioactive secondary metabolites. morphine and codeine. Nicolaou et al.. capsaicin. diosgenin. 3. podophyllotoxin...001% of taxol by dry weight basis. gentipicroside and swertiamarin from Gentiana. A century old tree yields an average of 3 kg of bark. and 10-deacetylbaccatin in leaf extract were higher than those in bark extracts [Lee et al. 2001. vincristine and vinblastine [Dicosmo and Misawa. ajmalicine. Eng.. Because of the scarcity of the slow growing trees and the relatively low content of taxol [Cragg et al.. 1971]. "taxol" from the Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia) extract [Wani et al. baccatin III. 1 35 . and other solid tumors [Wickremesinhe and Arteca.. cryptotanshinone from Salvia miltiorrhiza and the results were described in the present review. Since cell suspension cultures are preferred for large-scale production due to its rapid growth cycles they have been used for generating large amounts of cells for quantitative or qualitative analysis of growth responses and metabolism of novel chemicals. J. we focus on the production of some important pharmaceuticals in plant cell cultures. Taxol is considered as the prototype of a new class of cancer chemotherapeutic agents [Cragg et al. The HPLC analysis revealed that the amounts of taxol and taxol related compounds varies in individual plants. The extracts of bark and leaf tissues were analyzed by using HPLC for the content of taxol and taxol related compounds. Dong and Zhong. 1968] supplemented with 2 mg/l 2.Plant Cell Cultures . corresponding to 300 mg of taxol. The thin bark of yew tree contains 0. alternative sources are needed to meet the increasing demand for the drug. ginsenosides.. However the supply of taxol for clinical use is limited. 1993 and 1994]. 1995]. a species found in Taiwan at an altitude of about 2000m above the sea level.1. For exploiting the source of taxol. diosgenin from Dioscorea doryophora. 1994]. 1995]. 1994. In our laboratory.

(Dioscoreaceae) is frequently used as tonic in Chinese traditional medicine. Influence of auxins on imperatorin production were investigated. 1994]. Sci. especially the nutritional factors optimal for imperatorin production were also investigated. The effects of the ratio of ammonium nitrate to nitrate in the medium had also been studied. the best medium composition was 1/2 strength of MS medium [Murashige and Skoog's. 0. formosana by cell suspension cultures Angelica dahurica var. The possible stimulating effect of elicitors on imperatorin synthesis were studied. and 3% sucrose. Increasing phosphate concentration (1 mM to 2 mM ) promoted imperatorin production.. 1 fructose in terms of their effects on imperatorin production. formosana commonly known as "Bai-Zhi" in Chinese is a valuable medicinal herb used in the treatment of headache and psoriasis in China [Zhou.2. It was found that MS basal media was the best among the media tested on imperatorin production. 2. Case study 2: Formation of imperatorin from Angelica dahurica var. [Tsukamoto et al..0 mg/L 2.. A moderate ammonium nitrate to nitrate ratio (2:1) increased the amount of imperatorin production.4-D. These results showed that the cultured cells possessed the biosynthetic potential of the intact plants from which they were derived. formosana is a perennial and indigenous plant in Taiwan [Chen et al. 4-D and 0. which can be used as a precursor for many important medicinal steroids such as prednisolone. which can be used as an alternative source for the synthesis of steroids [Yeh et al.. Eng. For establishing a rapidly growing and finely dispersed cell suspension culture. Angelica dahurica var. 2004. Callus was successfully induced on MS basal medium supplemented with 2. Al the cultures were routinely sub cultured at an interval of 14 days. The purpose of the present study was to establish the cell suspension cultures of Dioscorea doryophora Hance for the production of diosgenin. dexamethasone.2 mg/L BA. Glucose was found to be bettor carbon source than sucrose and 36 Int. the production of imperatorin was maximum between the 10th and 14th day. The most active ingredient discovered in the tuber is diosgenin. The quantity of imperatorin produced by this treatment (460 μ g/gd. 1994]. Appl. The most significant effect was recorded when vanadyl sulphate at the concentration of 30 mg/L was added to the medium on the 10th day of the culture. w. 3. Cell suspen- . Tsay et al. In a growth cycle of the suspension cells. A rapid and drastic increase in imperatorin synthesis was observed by adding 20 g/L of adsorbent Amberlite XAD-7 to suspension cells on the 10th day of culture. The constituent imperatorin has been suggested as the major active ingredient for curing the skin disease [Zhou et al. J. 1980]. Growth conditions. 1994]. Dioscorea doryophora Hance. The biosynthetic potential could be further facilitated by the addition of proper stimulants to the culture medium. Deletion of auxins from the medium was beneficial to imperatorin production and addition of BA (0.) was 140 folds higher than that produced by the check treatment [Tsay. As the production of Bai-Zhi by conventional cultural method is far short to meet the demand. Case study 3: Diosgenin production from Dioscorea doryophora by cell suspension cultures Dioscorea spp.. 1999. tubers are in high demand as it is used not only as crude drug but also as food. norethisterone and metenolone etc. depending on its concentration and the growth stage of the cells.1 mg/L kinetin.5-1 mg/L) promoted synthesis of imperatorin in suspension cells.3. cell suspension culture methods for production of imperatorin was therefore emphasized.. 1962] supplemented with 1 mg/L 2. 1988]. 1936].Vanisree Mulabagal and Hsin-Sheng Tsay 3. Addition of vanadyl sulphate to cell suspension cultures enhance the accumulation of imperatorin.

An Alternative and Efficient Source for Production of Biologically Secondary Metabolites sion cultures was successfully established by subculturing callus into a liquid medium containing MS basal medium supplemented with 0. formosana (Hayata) T. the dried roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. prevent obesity and aging. commonly known as Long-dan in Chinese is a perennial herb indigenous to Taiwan. The maximum content of the two principles. Differences in the quality and diosgenin content of the induced callus were observed among the six source organs. 1996]..5. nourishing blood and tranquilizing the mind and cooling blood to relieve carbuncles [Verpoorte. 1 37 . collected from the wild habitat. 2004.. davidii var. Regular consumption of Long-dan has been believed to enhance memory. Dan-shen.2 mg/ L 2. where as. Using this standard protocol.Ho cell suspension cultures Gentiana davidii var.2 mg/L kinetin and 3% sucrose. Case study 5: Production of cryptotanshinone from callus cultures of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. As the amount of diosgenin obtained from tuber derived cell suspension is high and comparable with that found in the intact tuber [Chen. The major active principles of the organic extract of Dan-shen are tanshinones. 1996 and Zheng et al.33 μ E m-2 s-1 at 25 ± 1 ℃ . under 80-100 rev/min shaker speed. We have optimized the conditions for establishment of cell suspension cultures of G.5%). Analysis by HPLC revealed that both stem-node and microtuber derived suspension cells contained diosgenin.Plant Cell Cultures . The entire dried herb. pH between 4. which justify the use of most species of this family in traditional medicine or for the preparation of bitter tonic [Rodriguez et al. Although 6% sucrose was an optimum concentration for the growth and increasing dry weight of the cell suspension culture. 2.. 3. Bitter principles of Gentianaceae constitute many pharmacologically important compounds. davidii for the production of gentipicroside and swertiamarin.2-5. Fast growing cell suspension cultures were established by subculturing the callus in MS basal medium supplemented with 0. 1998]. 4-D. is one of the most popular Chinese medicines and widely used for promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis. cell suspension culture could be used for production of diosgenin. Callus was initiated by culturing stem explants of G.2% diosgenin per gram dry weight. it may be possible to study the effect of precursor feeding on the content of active principles. is used as a crude drug in traditional Chinese medicine in Taiwan. Case study 4: Establishment of Gentiana davidii var. J. formosana (Hayata) T. formosa on MS basal medium supplemented with 0. N. Sci. and protect the liver by removing toxic metabolites [Lou and Chin.4.2 mg/L kinetin and 3% sucrose [Chueh et al. 900 species in the family Lamiaceae and some species of Salvia have been cultivated worldwide for use in folk medicine.3-3. Eng. 1985]. The content of microtuber derived cell suspension culture contains 3. 1997]. 3% sucrose gave better results of the diosgenin production. 2000]. the quinoid Int. Optimal cell growth was obtained when callus cultured in 25 mL liquid MS basal medium supplemented with 0. clearing away heat. Secoiridoid glycosides are the main compounds with medicinal properties in roots of Gentiana species [Skrzypczak et al.3%.2 mg/L kinetin and 1. 3. swertiamarin and gentipicroside.2. Ho (Gentianaceae).. N.0 mg/L α -naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Salvia is an important genus consisting of ca. the stem-node derived cultures contains only 0. Callus from microtuber showed yellowish color and granular in appearance and contained the highest diosgenin content (3. relieving vexation. Sucrose concentration optimal for diosgenin production was investigated. 1993]. the two pharmacologically important compounds. Appl. in cell suspension were obtained after 12 and 24 days of culture respectively.. incubated in light 2.

2003]. [ 3] Anderson. The increased use of genetic tools and an emerging picture of the structure and regulation of pathways for secondary metabolism will provide the basis for the production of commercially acceptable levels of product. A glyphosate-tolerant plant tissue cultures. J. Primary callus was induced by culturing leaf explants on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) basal medium supplemented with 1. Roberts. Studies on Ailan- . miltiorrhiza). References [ 1] Amrhein. Miyasaka et al.4-D and 0. The increased appeal of natural products for medicinal purposes coupled with the low product yields and supply concerns of plant harvesation has renewed interest in large-scale plant cell culture technology. 1989 and Shimomura et al. In: Neumann.05 mg/g dry wt. These results shows that plant cell culture systems have potential for commercial exploitation of secondary metabolites.. is also likely to be a significant step towards making cell cultures more generally applicable to the commercial production of secondary metabolites. Johanning. Berlin: Springer-Verlag: 355-361.4-D) in darkness. 0. Sci. F. Barz.0 mg/L of BA was significantly higher than the marketed crude drug (processed underground parts of S. Hay.4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2.4-D from the medium resulted in a marked increase in the content of cryptotanshinone in callus.0 mg/L of 2. C. D. Because of the complex and incompletely understood nature of plant cells in in vitro cultures.1.2 mg/L BA for sixty days [Wu et al. C. Studies on Ailanthus altissima cell suspension cultures. E. strategies are needed to develop an information based on a cellular and molecular level.5. The callus proliferated further on MS basal medium containing 1. 2004. 1. M. Maximum yield of cryptotanshinone (4.5 mg/L BA and was analyzed for cryptotanshinone by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). “Primary and Secondary Metabolism of Plant Cell Cultures”. and 2. and consequently. C. Plant Cell Reports. so as to produce transgenic cultures and to effect the expression and regulation of biosynthetic pathways. 2.0 mg/L 2... [ 2] Anderson.. Since Dan-shen preparations constitute a basis for considerable commercial activity.Vanisree Mulabagal and Hsin-Sheng Tsay diterpenes [Bruneton. Roberts. editors. The HPLC results indicated that it contained small amounts of cryptotanshinone (0. In this experiment effect of N 6.. K. 1995]. H. Omission of 2. A..2. and Phill ipson.. W..26 ± 0. In our continuing study of the application of tissue culture of medicinal plants to the production of bioactive secondary metabolites. 1985. D... L. 1991]. A. 0. A. Knowledge of biosynthetic pathways of desired compounds in plants as well as in cultures is often still in its infancy. The HPLC analysis revealed that the content of cryptotanshinone in the callus cultured on the MS basal medium supplemented with 0. J.09 mg/g dry wt. 1993. Reinhard.0. J. and Phillipson. Appl. Conclusions The use of plant cell culture for the production of chemicals and pharmaceuticals has made great strides building on advances in 38 Int.. miltiorrhiza through callus cultures.) was observed in the callus cultured on MS basal medium supplemented with 0. there is a continued interest in development of biotechnology-based approaches to the production of tanshinones [Hu and Alfermann.benzyladenine (BA) on cryptotanshinone formation in callus cultures of Salvia miltiorrhiza was examined.. L.59 ± 0.. and Smart. Eng. 5: 387-390. we have adopted an approach to the production of cryptotanshinone from S. N. 4.). F. The introduction of the techniques of molecular biology.. M. case-by-case studies have been used to explain the problems occurring in the production of secondary metabolites from cultured plant cells. D. 1987. 1 plant science. 1986.

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