Math 31AH - Fall 2010 - Final Exam

Name:
Student ID:
Instructions:
Please print your name and student ID.
During the test, you may not use books or notes. Read each question carefully, and show all your work.
Answers with no explanation will receive no credit, even if they are correct.
Question Score Maximum
1 8
2 15
3 10
4 7
5 10
6 15
7 10
8 8
9 10
10 10
11 6
12 6
Total 115
Problem 1. [8 points.]
Discuss the definiteness of the following quadratic forms:
(i) [3] Q(x, y) = 2x
2
+ 3y
2
−4xy;
(ii) [5] Q(x, y, z) = x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
+ 6xy + 6xz + 6yz.
Problem 2. [15 points.]
Consider the subspace V ⊂ R
4
spanned by the vectors V = span
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0
1
0
1
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
,
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
3
1
4
1
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
.
(i) [4] Find the orthogonal complement V

.
(ii) [4] Find an orthonormal basis for V.
(iii) [4] Calculate the projection of the vector u =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−1
2
7
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
onto V .
(iv) [3] Find the orthogonal projection of the vector u onto V

.
Problem 3. [10 points]
Which of the matrices below are diagonalizable?
(i) [4] A =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
2 0 0
0 1 1
0 0 1
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(ii) [3] A =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 1 2
1 3 1
2 1 5
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(iii) [4] A =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−1 1 2 8 19 1 1
0 1 3 2 −11 3 0
0 0 0 2 4 8 1
0 0 0 2 2 2 6
0 0 0 0 3 9 4
0 0 0 0 0 4 17
0 0 0 0 0 0 10
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
.
Problem 4. [7 points.]
Consider the system of equations
x −z + 4w = b
1
2x + y + 9w = b
2
−x + 2y + 5z −2w = b
3
(i) [4] What conditions must b
1
, b
2
, b
3
satisfy for the system to have solutions?
(ii) [3] Find a basis for the column space of the matrix
A =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 0 −1 4
2 1 0 9
−1 2 5 −2
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
.
Problem 5. [10 points.]
Consider a matrix A such that rref A =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 2 0 1 2
0 0 1 1 2
0 0 0 0 0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
and A
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
0
0
−1
−1
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
3
4
4
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
.
(i) [5] Find the set of solutions to the system Ax =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
3
4
4
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
. Is this set of solutions a subspace?
(ii) [5] It is known that the second column of A is
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
2
2
2
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
and the fourth column of A is
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
−1
−1
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
. Find
the matrix A.
Problem 6. [15 points.]
Company XY Z monitors the dollars spent each year by its customers on apples and oranges. With a(k)
representing the number of dollars spent (in millions) on apples in year k, and o(k) the number of dollars
(in millions) on oranges in year k, they determine that
a(k + 1) =
2
5
a(k) +
1
5
o(k)
o(k + 1) =
3
5
a(k) +
4
5
o(k).
Let v
k
=
_
¸
¸
_
a(k)
o(k)
_
¸
¸
_
.
(i) [3] Find a matrix A such that Av
k
= v
k+1
. Show that
v
k
= A
k
v
0
.
(ii) [4] Find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of A.
(iii) [4] Express the vector
_
¸
¸
_
3
1
_
¸
¸
_
as a linear combination of the eigenvectors of A.
(iv) [4] Assume that the customers of XY Z spend 3 million dollars on apples in year 0, and 1 million
dollars on oranges. What is a good estimate for the sum (in millions) spent on apples in year 2010?
How about dollars spent on oranges in year 2010?
Problem 7. [10 points.]
Consider the basis B consisting of vectors
v
1
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1/3
2/3
2/3
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
, v
2
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
2/3
1/3
−2/3
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
, v
3
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
2/3
−2/3
1/3
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
.
Let T : R
3
→R
3
be the linear transformation such that
• T(v
1
) = v
1
+v
2
,
• T(v
2
) = v
3
,
• T(v
3
) = −v
2
+v
3
.
Find the matrix of T first in the basis B and in the standard basis.
Hint: What can you say about the basis B?
Problem 8. [8 points.]
(i) [4] Let R be the reflection in a subspace V ⊂ R
n
. What are the eigenvalues of R?
(ii) [4] Assume that T is a linear transformation with T
5
= T. What real numbers can be eigenvalues
for T?
Problem 9. [10 points.]
Consider Rot
θ
the rotation in R
3
around the y axis by angle θ in the direction that takes the positive x
axis to the positive z axis.
(i) [5] Find the matrix of the linear transformation Rot
θ
in the standard basis.
(ii) [5] Possibly using (i), calculate A
3006
where
A =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_

3 0 −1
0 2 0
1 0

3
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
.
Hint: Think geometrically. Note that sin
π
6
=
1
2
. What is
1
2
A?
Problem 10. [10 points.]
Is the matrix
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
1 2 0 0 0 0 0
π 1 4 −1 1 0 0
−19 −
1
23
1 0 0 0 0
0 1 −2 2 1 9 −1
−1 0 0 1 0 0 0
12 −
1
2

1
3
0 0 −1 0
−5 0 −
1
3
0 1 0 3
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
invertible?
Problem 11. [6 points.]
Assume that A, B are invertible square matrices. Show that AB and BA have the same characteristic
polynomial.
Hint: When can you be sure that two matrices have the same characteristic polynomial?
Problem 12. [6 points.]
If A is a symmetric matrix with exp(A) = I show that A = 0.