One of the oldest surviving foreign descriptions of India comes from the Greco-Roman biographer of Alexander the

Great, Flavius Arrianus. He depended upon other Gree sources, such as !iarchus, "hich are no" lost. His short boo #he Indica, dealt "ith the $o%age of Alexander&s fleet from India to the !ear 'ast. (elo" is his general description of India.

Ancient India as described b% Arrian )'xcerpted from Arrian, *#he Indica* in Anabasis of Alexander, together with the Indica, '. +. ,hinnoc , tr. -.ondon/ (ohn, 01234, ch. 0-056 1. The district west of the river Indus as far as the river Cophen is inhabited by the Astacenians and the Assacenians, Indian tribes. But they are not so tall in stature or so courageous as those who dwell east of the Indus; nor are they so swarthy as the ma ority of the Indians. These were in ancient times sub ect to the Assyrians, afterwards to the !edes and finally they submitted to the "ersians, and paid tribute to Cyrus the son of Cambyses as ruler of their land. The #ysaeans are not an Indian race, but descended from the men who came into India with $ionysus%%perhaps from those &ree's who were rendered unfit for service in the wars which $ionysus waged with the Indians. "erhaps also he settled with the &ree's those of the natives who were willing to oin his colony. $ionysus named the city itself #ysa, and the land #ysaea, in honour of his nurse #ysa. The mountain near the city, at whose base #ysa was built, is called !eros (thigh) after the misfortune he e*perienced as soon as he was born. This is the story framed by the poets in regard to $ionysus, and let the writers of legends &recian and foreign e*pound it. Among the Assacenians is !assaca, a large city, where also is the stronghold of the land of Assacia; and there is also another large city, "eucelaitis, not far from the Indus. These tribes have been settled west of the Indus as far as the Cophen. +. ,et me call the country east of the Indus India, and the people Indians. Towards the north of India lies !ount Taurus; but in this land it is no longer called Taurus. This range commences from the sea near "amphylia, ,ycia, and Cilicia and e*tends as far as the -astern .ea, dividing the whole of Asia. It is called by various names in different districts; in one part it is called "arapamisus, in another -modus, in a third Imaus, and probably it has several other names. The !acedonians who accompanied Ale*ander/s e*pedition called it Caucasus. But this is 0uite a different Caucasus from that in .cythia. They called it by this name that the report might become current that

Therefore according to him the side of India towards the east would e*tend I.ambus. because Ale*ander did not advance further than that river. because he is careful to trace the circumference of the country. even if their waters came together into one. !agon.Ale*ander had marched even beyond the Caucasus. for it was the royal road. !egasthenes has stated that the former e*cels much in si=e. Ctesias the Cnidian says that India is e0ual to the rest of Asia./ and he made a plan of it. Agoranis. and .ea. I consider -ratosthenes the Cyrenaean the most trustworthy authority. which are also navigable. and that it receives into itself the Cainas.:+< miles.ea scarcely e0ual to this side. then the .343 miles. and besides these the Condochates. In the whole of the rest of Asia there are not so many rivers as in India. where it is narrowest. 3.ea and the outlets of the Indus. the largest city of the Indians. but li'e those of the #ile. This writer says that the side of India has a length of I. 2e says that where it is shortest it e*tends 166+ miles.o that the length of India upward is about +. and that from north to south.cythian Ister. by which the -gyptian $elta is formed. saying that it is the third part of all the earth. from the latter of which the country ta'es its name. and so does 1nesicritus. 1f the two largest rivers themselves. fall into it.ea itself. not near each other li'e the five mouths of the Ister. as do the 1*ymagis in the land of the people called "a=alaeans. Both of these are larger than the -gyptian #ile and the . the -rannoboas. I cannot be sure of the accuracy of any statements about the country beyond the river 2yphasis. This he considers the breadth of India. The length from west to east as far as the city of "alimbothra he says was measured in schoeni 7one schoenus e0ualled about 4 miles8. and the -rrenysis in that of the !athaeans. and 1malis. it e*tends +. The districts beyond this have not been so accurately measured.ittocatis. where it falls into the Indus. which flows from the land of the !adyandinians. The river Indus bounds India on the west as far as the &reat . but he ma'es a peninsula stretch far into the sea to the e*tent of about 343 miles.olomatis. 1n the south India is bounded by the &reat . and so say all other writers who mention it. the 2ydraotes. near the city of Catadoupe. along that river itself as far as the &reat . The largest are the &anges and the Indus. into which it discharges its water by two mouths. so that at this place its breadth is three and one%half miles. and the 2yphasis. the &anges and the Indus. The part of the country towards the south near "attala and the outlets of the Indus was seen by Ale*ander and the !acedonians and by many &ree's. . and the same sea bounds it on the east.19: miles. To !egasthenes the distance from the east to the west is the breadth of India. and the Cossoanus. 2e says that this e*tends to 1. which is not smaller than that of -gypt. A few authors have described the country as far as the river &anges. an Indian nation. #earchus says that it is a ourney of four months through the plain alone of India. but into the part towards the east Ale*ander did not penetrate further than the river 2yphasis. But as many as have recorded rumours say that with the peninsula pro ecting into the sea it amounts to about I. after having ta'en up into its stream the 2ydaspes. miles. Thus also the river Indus forms the $elta of India. 2e says that it rises great from its sources. which others ma'e its length. A great river the Comminases. an Indian nation. !egasthenes says that none of these is . To me indeed it seems that even the Acesines is larger than the Ister or the #ile.onus . but he tal's nonsense.66+ miles. In addition to these the Amystis oins the &anges. which is its length according to him. <.4+5 miles to one going from !ount Taurus. And opposite this he ma'es another side from the same mountain to the -astern . all navigable rivers. . and the Cacouthis and Andomatis. in which are the sources of the Indus.. "erhaps also many other larger rivers flow in India.+. and where are the outlets of that river and near it "alimbothra. This delta is called in the Indian tongue "attala.

4. And having observed a certain cave in the land of the "arapamisadians. wearing spec'led garments li'e the bacchanals of $ionysus. though he visited more than those who went with Ale*ander the son of "hilip.aranges from that of the Cecians. advanced even into the land of the -gyptians in his victorious career. ta'ing with itself the !alantus . The Toutapus also. with its water swollen by these. ust as they called the "arapamisus Caucasus. The 2ydaspes also falls into the Acesines in the land of the 1*ydracians. 2e says that there are in all fifty%eight Indian rivers. the son of the Titan. a large river. in the land of . and having marched with his army as far as -urope.aparnus. the -nus and . and the #eudrus from that of the Attacenians. indeed. 2e says that the breadth of the &anges in its narrowest part is about twelve miles. That river. nor any other men with them. Two of these.cythia. ta'ing with itself the . >e 'now. the Indians themselves also marching into battle to the sound of drums and cymbals. but that she died before she could complete her plans. indeed. returned bac' home without attac'ing India. indeed. coming void of any other river from the mountainous land of the Abissarians. says that neither do the Indians wage war with any other men. Below these the "arenus and . having seen them myself. The Acesines oins the Indus in the land of the !allians. that Idanthyrsus the .ome one may 'now another navigable river which falls into the Ister. and subdued the Indians. the . so that the land opposite is not visible where it is flat and nowhere stands up in hills. they said that it was the famous cave of "rometheus. and subduing many nations in Asia. The place where the Ister and . falls into the Acesines. a very great 'ing of the Indians. >hoever wishes to consider the cause of the number and si=e of the Indian rivers let him consider. The Ister rises small from its sources. and though it receives many rivers. The -nus mingles with the Ister on the confines of the country of the #oricans and @haetians. Therefore we ought not to disbelieve that the Ister and the water of the #ile are not comparable with the Indus and the &anges. The same is the case with the Indus. and the . The Cophen falls into the Indus in the land called "eucelaitis.cythian started from . apart from the &anges and Indus.oastus. because 2eracles was not able to capture it. not far apart. !egasthenes says that most of these are navigable. The tale is current that even before Ale*ander $ionysus led an e*pedition into India. And besides. all navigable. it is sufficient for me to have recorded these statements as reports. . that . having received the 2yphasis in the land of the Astrybaeans. seems to me a piece of !acedonian boasting. But even !egasthenes does not seem to me to have traversed much of the land of the Indians. and that .aus have their confluence is called Taurounus.andracottus. 1f the e*pedition of $ionysus. and that Ale*ander alone led an invading army against the Indians. they are not e0ual in number to the Indian rivers which flow into the Indus and the &anges. itself falls into the Indus and surrenders its name to it. Aor !egasthenes has recorded the names of many other rivers. Aor the statement that Ale*ander forcibly subdued the roc' of Aornus.aus in the territory of the "aeonians. The 2ydraotes.oanus also falls into it. There is also a vague story about 2erades to the same effect. and &arroeas. The . I 'now.emiramis the Assyrian undertoo' an e*pedition into the land the Indians.aus. Aor he says that he was intimate with . as also are the mountain !eros.esostris the -gyptian. that no river falls into the #ile. But of 2eracles there are not many memorials. but he does not 'now many I am sure. ?ery few of the tributaries of the Ister are navigable. that in many places it forms la'es. the ivy which grows on this mountain. which fall into the eastern and southern e*ternal sea. fall into the Indus. and with "orus. This !egasthenes. but that canals have been cut from it through the land of -gypt. though it has no connection with it. in which he was hung for the theft of the fire.inarus in the land of the Arispians.inferior to the !aeander. the city of #ysa is no mean monument. falls into the Acesines in the land of the Cambistholians. where that river is navigable. having subdued most part of Asia. and giving its name to the united stream. still greater than he.

or this $ionysus came to India before Triptolemus . neither inhabiting cities nor consecrating temples to the gods. Aor !egasthenes also says this about an Indian river. and ate the inner bar' of certain trees. nor do many of the races have any intercourse with each this be a digression on my part from the narrative. that it supplies water of such a 'ind that there is nothing which it resists. this must have been another 2eracles. but those who too' part in Ale*ander/s e*pedition as far as the 2yphasis are not altogether unworthy of belief. They clothed themselves in the s'ins of the wild beasts which they 'illed. live at one time in one part of . and the #ile being filled from them overflows its ban's into the -gyptian country. and the Indian rivers produce crocodiles li'e the Aethiopian and -gyptian #ile. Therefore the #ile at this season flows in a muddy state. eating it raw.cythia and at another time in another part. >herefore from this it is possible to con ecture the cause of the similar condition of the #ile. 9. In the summer also the plains of India are visited by rain. and Ale*ander/s army had to avoid the river Acesines in the middle of the summer. and their hair is blac'. so that either Triptolemus did not come to this part when he was sent by $emeter to sow corn through the whole earth. "arapamisus. an Indian race.ibians were those who had been left behind from the e*pedition of 2eracles. so that a great part of them are covered with pools. he founded cities and made laws for them. nor the Tyrian. for he only visited a mere fraction of India. But when $ionysus came and con0uered them. and from these the rivers flow swollen and muddy. li'e that section of the .ome of them also produce fish and water%monsters besides. and the Imaic range. nor the -gyptian. as upon the tops of palm%trees.ibians. until $ionysus came into their country. I myself agree with him that there are many Indian nations. . e*cept the hippopotamus. . and the figure of a club was branded upon their o*en. li'e those of the #ile.o the Indians had no cities or temples built for the gods. who derive their name from the river and the spring.the . The more northern Indians would especially resemble the -gyptians in their bodies. whose name is . 2e says that in ancient times the Indians were nomads. . The Indians who live towards the south are more li'e the Aethiopians. but everything sin's to the bottom. neither the Theban. because they saw the inhabitants clothed in s'ins.ibians also carry cudgels. 1nesicritus says they produce even hippopotami. India is visited by rain in the summer. but wandering about on waggons. It is not beyond the bounds of probability that Aethiopia is visited by rain as India is%for in other respects India is not unli'e Aethiopia. They also fed upon the flesh of the wild beasts which they caught. the mountains of Aethiopia would not be snow%beaten on account of the heat.ilians. that nothing either swims or floats upon it. -modus. they are blac' in their faces. The loo's of the people of India and Aethiopia are not entirely dissimilar. that it flows from a spring with the same name as itself through the land of the .cythians who are not agriculturists. If anyone gives credit to these tales. especially the mountains. which are called tala in the Indian language. Besides. because it is probable that the mountains of Aethiopia are visited by rain in the summer. 2e also gave them seeds and taught them how to sow them in the earth. The . but they are not so flatnosed or so curly%headed as the Aethiopians. this too they e*plained to be a commemoration of the club of 2eracles. as it would not flow from the melting of snow. or if its water were driven bac' by the annual winds blowing in the season of summer. there grow upon them things li'e clews of wool. in order to show that what certain authors have recorded about the Indians on the other side of the 2yphasis does not appear credible. but I am not able to con ecture how he learned the e*act number and recorded it. and that water is wea'er and more mur'y than any other. and. they said that the . !egasthenes says that there are in all 116 Indian nations. and gave the Indians wine as he had given it to the &ree's. because the water overflowed into the plains. but some great 'ing of a land situated in the interior not far from India :.ilas.

where the daughter of 2eracles reigned. !egasthenes says. But if these statements about the maturity of the girls of this country are correct. and therefore he married her himself when she was seven years old. 5. Arom her father she received 4.. such as up to the present day those who bring wares from India to us still buy with =eal and carry away. the man most versed in the mysteries of Bacchus.ourasenians. Cradeuas. the son of Boudyas. and 13. and that many of them live in the sea at the same place. to have sprung from the earth. The ornament seemed so fine to 2eracles that he collected pearls li'e this from all the sea and brought them to India to be an adornment for his daughter. in whose land are two great cities. Arom this time for the most part the 'ingdom passed in regular succession from father to son. The men allow the flesh of those which are caught to rot. 2eracles therefore made her marriageable at that age. >herefore even to the time of Ale*ander the Indians still advanced into battle with the sound of cymbals and drums.. >hen $ionysus had arranged these affairs and was about to leave India. among the Indians themselves. 2e taught the Indians the . that when he had passed over every land and sea and had rid them of every evil beast. and through it flows the navigable river Bobares. and especially himself with the beating of drums and the clashing of cymbals. to me at any rate they seem to have some analogy with what is said . In former times the &ree's and now the @omans who are fortunate and wealthy with still greater =eal buy what is called in the Indian tongue the marine pearl. and the land where she was born. cavalry. he appointed as 'ing of the land . ?ery many male children. 6. the women at seven years of age become marriageable. he found in the sea a woman/s ornament.and gave to the inhabitants the seeds of cultivated crops. the others are no longer to be caught by them.. an Indian nation. If at any time direct heirs were wanting. elephants. and the men live forty years at most. >hoever has the good fortune to capture the 'ing. and from that time all this race over which "andaea ruled have this same gift from 2eracles. $ionysus first taught them to yo'e o*en to the plough.atyr%dance which among the &ree's is called the corda*. so that he might marry his daughter at a mature age. This metal is also dug up in India. 2e also taught them to worship the gods. and the son twenty years.. when he perceived that his end was near. as the Indians themselves assert. To me it seems that if 2eracles was able to accomplish such marvellous things. The 2eracles. easily throws the net around the rest of the swarm of pearlmussels. infantry. for among the Indians the pearl is worth thrice its weight in refined gold. This girl was born to 2eracles in his old age. This 2eracles is especially worshipped by the . and that the pearl%mussels have a 'ing or 0ueen as bees have. In this country. was named "andaea after her. 2e could not find a man worthy to receive his daughter in marriage. so that the family born from him and her might supply 'ings to the Indians. and made most of them become husbandmen instead of being nomads. The father reigned fifty%two years. but if the 'ing escapes the fishermen. and taught them how to anoint themselves with unguents. one of his companions. 2e also showed them how to wear the turban. and armed them with martial weapons. Certain of the Indians tell the following story about 2eracles. The daughter/s name was "andaea. but only one daughter were born to him in India. !egasthenes says that the mussel of it is caught in nets. !ethora and Cleisobora. succeeded to the throne.. he would also have been able to ma'e himself longer lived. then the Indians appointed 'ings according to merit. who according to the current report came to India is said. In regard to this the following story is told among the Indians. but they use the shell for ornament.. and to let their hair grow long in honour of the god. li'e bees. >hen this man died his son Boudyas succeeded to his 'ingdom... that this 2eracles wore a similar dress to that of the Theban 2eracles. <. for he married many women.patembas. and over which 2eracles placed her as ruler.

not a single Indian being a slave. the first time they en oyed it for 3. and :.about the age of the men. for they thin' that the virtues of men are sufficient to perpetuate their memory after their death... Aor no doubt the flower of perfect manhood blooms sooner in proportion in those upon whom old age advances 0uic'er. being actuated by a respect for ustice. is in the land of the "rasians. where is the confluence of the river -rannoboas and the &anges. 2owever they admit that Ale*ander came and overcame in battle all the nations whom he visited. But those which have been founded in commanding places. The largest city in India. !egasthenes says that on one side where it is longest this city e*tends ten miles in length. so that among them men of thirty years of age would be. 2owever the 2elots are slaves to the . are built of bric' and mortar. fresh. I suppose. It is not their business to practise their art in regard to the private affairs of individuals.cythians. Those which are situated near the rivers or the sea are built of wood. for if they were built of bric' they could not long endure on account of the rain and because the rivers overflowing their ban's fill the plains with water. They practise divination in regard to the seasons of the year. either because the art of divination does not e*tend to smaller matters. nor do they contribute anything to the commonwealth from the effects of their labour. but among the Indians no other Indian at any rate is a slave. >hoever sacrifices in his private capacity has one of these wise men as a director of the sacrifice. But it yields itself up to the &anges when it has discharged its water into it. But none of the Indians ever marched out of their own country for war. and that he would have con0uered them all if his army had been willing.acedaemonians and perform servile offices.acedaemonians and the Indians are ali'e. . Among them are the wise men. being also larger than those elsewhere. This is a great thing in India. In this the .<+ years. that the Indians do not construct monuments for the dead. but most esteemed in reputation and dignity. as well as the songs which they sing in their honour. $uring all these years they only twice asserted their freedom. the son of Cambyses. and it is not lawful for anyone to practise the art e*cept for a man who is a wise man. and sooner waste away. Aor this same !egasthenes has recorded that in this country the fruits ripen 0uic'er than those elsewhere. and death with old age. @easoning from analogy the women would thus become marriageable at seven years of age. that all the inhabitants are free. fewer in number than the others. though he marched against the . and that no other ever invaded India for war. not even Cyrus. years. 11. that the city has been surrounded with a ditch in breadth :. lofty and raised above the ad acent country. towers and :< gates. or because it is not worthy of them to labour about such things. They say that $ionysus was earlier than 2eracles by fifteen generations. and the prime of early manhood would be about fifteen years of age. and the second for 1+. that the oldest of them do not live beyond forty years. and if any calamity befalls the commonwealth.. which is the greatest of rivers. This also is said. active old men.andracottus the Indians rec'oned 143 'ings. nor in a word have they any compulsory duty e*cept to offer sacrifices to the gods on behalf of the commonwealth of India. and that its wall has 49. named "alimbothra.. striplings of twenty years old would be past their early manhood. These also are the only Indians s'illed in divination. feet. Arom $ionysus to . and in other matters was the most meddlesome of the 'ings of Asia. since otherwise he does not offer acceptable sacrifice to the gods. and that its breadth is one and three0uarters miles. It would not be possible to record with accuracy the number of their cities on account of their multiplicity. and in depth <4 feet.. The -rannoboas would be third of the Indian rivers. All the Indians have been divided into seven castes. Aor no necessity is incumbent upon them to do any bodily labour. 1.

They themselves fight. These supervise what is done throughout the country and in the cities. Arom them are chosen their rulers. It is not lawful for anyone to marry a woman from another caste. not less so than dates. who are the most numerous class of Indians. or to e*change from one caste into another. but in the summer.. who in number come ne*t to the husbandmen and en oy very great freedom and good cheer. or are gathering in the vintage. e*cept those who ma'e weapons of war. and they receive such high pay from the state that they can easily support others from it. and others serve them in the camp. These have no martial weapons. admirals.. These men practise nothing but warli'e e*ercises. and there is no one who can compel that man to spea'. They pay a ta* from their floc's and herds. who groom the horses for them. or to lay waste the country itself by destroying the crops. but are nomads and live up and down the mountains. The seventh caste consists of those who assist the 'ing in deliberating on public affairs. in the winter in the sun under the open s'y. But while others are waging war against each other and slaying each other as they find the chance. 1thers ma'e the weapons for them. they live in the meadows and in the marshes under great trees.. or are reaping their crops. he may not cease to be a shepherd and become a husbandman.. for instance. nor do they care for deeds of war. and ma'e reports to the 'ing. governors of provinces. These receive pay from the commonwealth.>hoever has made three errors in his practise of divination receives no other punishment e*cept that for the future he is compelled to be silent. The third caste of Indians are the shepherds and the cowherds. upon whom the udgment of silence has been passed. but when there is peace. or cease to . After these the second caste are the agriculturalists. The fourth caste is that of the artisans and retail tradesmen. which is both pleasant and nutritious. If any war happens to brea' out among the Indians with each other it is not lawful for them to touch the tillers of the soil. These men perform public duties at their own cost. These men also catch birds and hunt wild beasts throughout the land. and I. they are ploughing in peace and 0uietness near them. for husbandmen to marry from the class of artisans or the reverse. but in wisdom and ustice e*cels all the others. when the sun holds sway. They pay dues to the 'ings or to those cities which are independent. This class is small in number. These wise men pass their lives na'ed. The fifth caste of the Indians consists of the warriors.. where the Indians are ruled by a 'ing. or to the magistrates where the people have a democratic government. men could be shaded under one tree.o large are these trees. feet all round. and pay a ta* upon their wor'. and drive the horses. deputies. generals. controllers of e*penditure. It is not lawful for the same man to e*ercise two trades. and superintendents of agriculture. It is unlawful for these men to ma'e false reports. they live with good cheer. or are pruning their vines. In this caste are the shipwrights and sailors who sail up and down the rivers. . the shadow of which #earchus says e*tends 4. others provide them with horses. 'eep their weapons bright. 1+. as long as it is necessary to wage war. manage the elephants. They feed on the fruits of the seasons and the inner bar' of trees. for e*ample. The si*th caste of Indians consists of men who are called overseers. but till the soil. or assist the officials in the cities which en oy a democratic government. but no Indian has incurred the charge of falsehood. treasurers. 'eep the chariots in order. who dwell neither in cities nor in villages.

Aor.ome of them have of their own accord pic'ed up their riders who have been 'illed in battle and carried them away for burial. beating drums and clashing cymbals. 1<. leaving holes in them. the elephant is most naturally intelligent. made by bridging over the trench. so that on account of the wound they must 'eep their head and nec' 0uiet.oon. and the Indians stand round them and lull them to sleep by singing songs. They choose a place that is level and e*posed to the sun/s heat. but in the night they wander in all directions and gra=e in droves. they run at full speed towards the inclosed place. Those of them which are 0uite young. dismounting from the elephants. I myself have seen an . as soon as they light upon the bridge. ust as cows follow the bulls. others have held the shield over them when lying on the ground. and leave only one entrance. being severely depressed by loss of spirit and want of food. 'eep themselves out of the way. Then they order the tame ones to chastise them with many blows until they fall to the ground in their severe distress. >hen they hear this they mount the bravest and most tractable of their elephants and drive them towards the inclosure. or through badness not worth possessing. The men. They ma'e the breadth of this trench about thirty feet. they rush forward into the inclosure over this. . The wild elephants by day do not approach inhabited places. for if they should turn their head round through rec'lessness. tie together the feet of the wild ones. >hen they approach the inclosure they hear the noise of the females and discerning them by the scent. which are now e*hausted. as might be e*pected. The earth which they cast up from the ditch they heap up on each ban' of the trench and use it in place of a wall. &oing 0uite round the ban' of the trench. through which the light may enter for them. And in order that they may not sha'e off their riders or do any other rec'less thing. 1ne. they then place the bridge over again and advance into the inclosure. They cover this with earth and thic' turf. The men. in order that the beasts may not notice the bridge and thin' some tric' is being played them. The Indians hunt other wild animals li'e the &ree's. 1nly a man from any caste is allowed by them to become a wise man. their wound is chafed under the rope. because the duties of the wise men are not easy. they cut their nec's all round with a sharp 'nife and tie the noose round along the cut. and the depth about twenty% four feet. In the mound upon the outer ban' of the trench they dig hiding%places for themselves. >hen the men perceive the entrance of the wild an artisan and become a shepherd. of all animals. having 'illed his rider in a fit of passion died from remorse and de ection of spirit. the wild ones are overcome. and changing their minds of their own accord. lur'ing in the hiding%places near the trench. large enough for a great army to encamp in. Then at length they 'eep 0uiet. who are especially tame in spirit. following the largest and bravest of their number. At first an obstinate battle is fought between the tame elephants and those that have been caught . and to enable them to observe the beasts approaching and charging into the inclosure. >hen they arrive they do not immediately oin battle. but the way they hunt elephants is 0uite different from any other 'ind of hunting. but allow the wild elephants to be severely distressed with hunger and to be cowed by thirst As soon as they thin' they are in a wea' state. within the inclosure. 13. There. and others have incurred danger on their behalf when they have fallen wounded.tanding near them they throw nooses round their nec's and mount upon them as they lie on the ground. because these animals are li'e no other beasts. some of them 0uic'ly remove the bridge. therefore. They refuse to eat anything from loss of spirit. others run to the neighbouring villages and tell the people that the elephants are shut up in the inclosure. are allowed to ta'e themselves off to their own haunts The captives are led into the villages and at first some green reeds and grass are given them to eat. they are now led by the tame ones into imprisonment. They then dig a trench all round it. they place some three or four female elephants. . but the most severely laborious of all.

raising and bending their front legs alternately in regular time. This she suc'les till the eighth year. and a garment which is partly thrown round the shoulders and partly rolled round the head The Indians who are very well%off wear earrings of ivory. I willingly dismiss the story of the ants. not without the help of god. but that the Indians assured him that it is as large as the largest horse. They have a linen froc' reaching down halfway between the 'nee and the an'le. #one of the &ree' physicians found any cure for any one who was bitten by an Indian serpent. and that no other animal can compare with it in swiftness and strength. but as I myself have seen many and I 'now others are ac0uainted with the bird I shall give no description of it as of a marvel. >ith his trun' he struc' the cymbal alternately against each of his legs in regular time. but many of them die before that age from disease. The Indians themselves said that the largest serpents are much larger than this. for they do not all wear . 1:. "or' is roasted and the fat is sprin'led upon wounds to effect a cure. If anything worse than usual sei=ed them they communicated with the wise men. . but the Indians themselves healed those who had been smitten. These men were also curers of other diseases and infirmities. not for the sa'e of the metal itself. and that "eithon. and brings forth one. >hen the tiger comes into conflict with an elephant he leaps upon his head and easily strangles him. In regard to the ants. and as I myself am unable to say anything more certain than this. But among the Indians there are not many infirmities. but larger than the ordinary ac'als. and eighteen at the most. !egasthenes only relates hearsay.. though they are 0uic' in movement. but that he saw many s'ins of these animals which had been brought into the !acedonian camp. made from the fla* ta'en from the trees. #earchus says that he himself did not see one li'e those which some other authors have described as e*isting in India. If they die from old age they reach that age. because the seasons there are temperate. but not the tiger itself. son of Antigenes. and the others moved round him as in a dance.he carries her young si*teen months at the least. >hen their eyes are sore they are cured by pouring into them cow/s mil'. li'e the cow or mare. and had it proclaimed through the camp that whoever was bitten should come to the 'ing/s tent. The Indians adopt these cures for them. The female elephant copulates in the season of spring. and describes what 'ind of a bird it is and how it utters human speech. 14.elephant playing the cymbals. and throw up the soil. ust as our small ants burrow a little under the ground. that these were the animals who dig up gold. e*cept that mon'eys are beautiful anywhere. #earchus says he saw a tiger/s s'in. and their other diseases by giving them dar'%coloured wine to drin'. but they burrow under the ground from instinct. But !egasthenes asserts that the story of these ants is correct. or the people being blac' ma'e the fla* appear whiter. Two cymbals were fastened to the forelegs of the playing elephant. li'e the mare. while others danced. when the air%vents near the temples of the females being opened e*hale an odour. besides. Aor these things are well 'nown. Those which we see and call tigers are only spec'led ac'als. These ants are larger than fo*es and therefore they burrow a distance proportionate to their si=e. #or shall I spea' of the si=e of the mon'eys. Those which live longest live for +. who seemed to cure whatever was curable. that Ale*ander had collected around him all the Indians who were cleverest in the medical art. as says #earchus. nor how they are caught. #earchus also says spec'led serpents are caught. and another to the trun'. ust as the one who played the cymbals directed them. in order that they may lie hidden in their holes. And this fla* is either whiter in colour than any other fla*. The Indians thin' the tiger much mightier than the elephant. about which I have already spo'en. years. or how beautiful those of India are. #earchus says. #earchus relates as a wonder that parrots are bred in India. These also wal'ed. The Indians use linen clothing. caught one twenty%four feet long. As this contains gold ore the Indians obtain their gold from it.

16. !ost of the Indians ride camels. to ma'e his choice. >hen the battle is at close 0uarters. These live upon the flesh of wild animals. They marry. Their arrows are little less than four and one%half feet long. elephants. Their women who are very chaste and would not go astray for any other reward. The Indians are spare in body and tall and much lighter than other men. in order that they may appear taller. "lacing this downward to the ground and stepping against it with the left foot. but not much inferior in length. others have them red. . It is no honour to ride on horsebac'. turned inwards. 19. in order that the blow may be a mighty one. They wear shoes of white leather. They carry on their left arms targets of raw o*%hide. horses. All wear a sword which is broad. neither shield nor breast%plate nor anything else that is strong. and not less than four and onehalf feet in length. others dar' blue. or who has been ad udged winner in any manly contest. #e*t to this in honour is the four%horsed chariot. third camels. neither giving or receiving any dowry. a thing which very rarely happens to be the case between Indians. The rich men have ivory spi'es. Their horses are not saddled or bridled li'e those of the &ree's or &auls. some that they may appear white as the whitest. li'e a spit. and in this there are brass or iron spi'es not very sharp. As my design in compiling this boo' was not to describe the customs of the Indians. >hen therefore they draw the rein. they bring this sword down upon the antagonist with both hands. but a piece of raw o*%hide stitched is fastened right round the front of the horse/s mouth. The Indians do not thin' it disgraceful for them to prostitute themselves for an elephant. Those who are of any ran' have umbrellas held over them in the summer. and those who are well off. but to relate how Ale*ander/s fleet was conveyed from India into "ersia. two esteemed authors. and nothing can withstand one shot by an Indian archer. Aor among the Indians royal personages ride on elephants. to which the reins are attached. The Indians are not all armed in the same way. and asses. I have copied the very well%'nown statements made by #earchus and !egasthenes. and the soles of their shoes are many%coloured and raised high. I thin' I have given sufficient information about the Indians. and others green. but their infantry have a bow e0ual in length to the man who carries it. e*cept those who live in the mountains. let the preceding portion of it be considered a digression from my narrative. the spit curbs the horse and the spi'es which are fastened to it pric' him and do not allow him to do anything else than obey the rein. bo*ing or running. 1thers have Bavelins instead of arrows. and to the women it even seems an honour that their beauty should appear e0ual in value to an elephant. #earchus says that the Indians dye their beards various colours. The cavalry have two darts li'e the darts called saunia. and a shield smaller than that of the infantry. but the fathers bring forward the girls who are of marriageable age and station them in a public place for the man who wins the pri=e for wrestling.them. others purple. they discharge the arrow. In the mouth their horses have a piece of iron. on the receipt of an elephant have intercourse with the donor. drawing the string far bac'. narrower than the men who carry them. elaborately wor'ed. The Indians are bread%eaters and agriculturalists.