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EUH2001 – The Crusades 10/07/2007 10:24:00

← Background

← Rise of Islam

• by the middle of the 8th century Islamic armies

have taken much of what is now Spain

• in 732 took some of France

← Muslim & Christian Relationship

• fairly amicable

• great interest among intellectuals and cooperation

• they also actively traded

o Christian kingdoms in the north transported

slaves to the Islamic kingdoms

 they also traded amber and honey

• many holy Christian sites rested in the Muslim


o 1Jerusalem

← Byzantine Troubles
• on its last legs

• greatly reduced by the invasions of Islamic armies

← Seljuk & Mongols

• manzikert (1071)

o the Seljuk take over a lot of the Byzantine

empire on this battle

• the Mongols take over the lands of the Seljuk and

make them move west

← Threats to Western Unity

• nobles & “just war”

o fighting one another to gain greater power

o “just war” Christians should not fight other

Christians, but could do so in the face of

oppression over authority

• papal authority

o the clergy are terrified by the violence that is

spreading through the countryside

o the church’s authority is not being followed

← Motives & Causes

← Unify Christendom

• they wanted to create a unity Christian Europe

← Recapture the Holy Land

• modern day Palestine and Israel

• the birth of Christianity and now in Muslim hands

← Convert some heathens

• conversion was not always the motive

← Reclaim Islamic holdings

• to reclaim lands that had once been part of the

roman empire that had fallen to the Islamic armies

← Aristocratic Prestige

• land

o they hoped to get land and carve out their

own place of rule

• spiritual gain
o they saw this as a great spiritual gain in the

eyes of Christianity and the Pope

o the pope said those who participated would be

absolved of their sins

← Economic Gain

• trade

o merchants could gain control of trade routes

• debt

o pope offered to cancel the debt of crusaders

← There are several crusades

• over 18

← The First Four Crusades

← First Crusade (1095-1099)

• Alexius (Byzantine emperor)

o urges pope for help

• Pope Urban II

o sees opportunity in this

o appeals to lesser nobles to recapture

Jerusalem from the Muslims

• Jerusalem

o by 1099 crusading armies reach Jerusalem

and take over

• one of the most successful crusades

• they establish the Christian kingdom of Jerusalem

← Second Crusade (1145 – 1149)

• Edessa (1144)

o pope calls for a second crusade

o located in the northern eastern of 5Jerusalem

• Louis VII & Conrad III

o They agree to set out and recapture Edessa

and expand the kingdom of Edessa

o they don't coordinate their efforts

o in 1149 they lay siege to Damascus

• Damascus

o They are defeated and turn back

← Third Crusade (1187 – 1192)

• Jerusalem

o An Islamic army from Egypt take over


• 4 Kings: Frederick of Barbarossa, Philip II, Leopold,

Richard I

o they set out to retake 6Jerusalem

o mixed results

 Frederick’s army goes through what is left

of Byzantium and takes over

o Byzantium

o Frederick drowns and most of his army goes


o Acre is Captured in the northern part of

o Richard is able to negotiate a safe passage for

Christian people going to Jerusalem

o Infighting

 Leopold and Richard begin to attack each


 Leopold’s soldiers capture Richard and

hold him for ransom

← Fourth Crusade (1202 – 1204)

• Innocent III

o He calls upon nobles to travel to the holy land

and recapture it

• Venice

o He was helped by the merchants of Venice

 The merchants make Innocent III take a

detour to Zara

 because of this the Pope excommunicates

everybody involved for a short while

 the merchants also had their eyes on


• Constantinople

o There was a dispute on who to put in charge

of Constantinople

o the Venetians find a way to put one of their

own as ruler

o the ruler is kicked off and the Venetians

ransacked the city for three days

← Crusader States

• “defender of the holy sepulcher”

• French Duke Godfrey

o First ruler of the kingdom of Jerusalem

o Did not call himself king, but ‘defender of the

holy sepulcher’ where Christ was his king

• ‘multiculturalism’

o it can be used to describe the crusader states

o large amount of people living in the crusader


o there were indigenous people, people that

came to visit and those that came to settle

• Feudalism

o They adopted the system of feudalism in


o Nobles in western Europe were given vassals

in Jerusalem

• Military Orders

o Warrior monks

o Knights had been secular groups, this started

to change with the crusade

o Monks now had armor and became warriors to

protect those that lived in the kingdom of


o The Templar & Hospitallers

 The order of knights defended their

domain by erecting fortifications

throughout the area and presided in

fortified castles

o Christians

 Those that came from the west and those

that were already there

 West

 Installed their own bishops and their

own schools

 Intermarriage was punished by


 No interest for the practices of

orthodox Christians

 they imposed roman practices

o Muslims

 Barbarians
 Muslims saw the Europeans as


 They did not like the crusading

armies and had no interest in their


 Heathens

 They saw the Muslims as heathens

 depicted as inhuman

 widespread believe that Muslims

were polytheistic and pagan

← Jews and Heretics

• Efforts of reform by the pope to centralized the

authority of the doctrine

• campaigns against Jews and heretics

o it made no sense to fight the infidels beyond

their borders when there were infidels within

their own backyard

• Jews
o Europe

 Ostracized

 Forbidden from owning lands

 had extra taxes

 could not join guilds

 arbitrarily ceased the holdings of

Jews, businesses, family finances

 Blood Libel

 The myth that Jews killed children

and drank their blood

o Pogroms

 Spontaneous attacks against Jews within a


 a large group in the local population goes

into the Jewish population and destroy

their property

 Crusaders & Peasants

 Peter the Hermit

• Detoured the path of soldiers to

demand taxes from a Jewish


 Rhineland Massacres (1096)

• Those that did not pay were


 Response of the Church

 Some priests attempted to protect


 some had to flee for trying to protect


 the Vatican, however, remained


 during the first crusade there is no

mention about the pogroms that had

occurred throughout Europe

• Heretics

o Centralized of Church Doctrine

o Albigensian Crusades (1209 – 1229)

 gets its name from the French town of ali

 it is stronghold for the Cathars

 they believed that all worldly matter

was a representative of Satan and


 and god was represented by light

 they refused material possessions

and did not eat anything that came

from sex

 they did not like the secular authority

 Beziers

 They became very powerful

 they had their own bishops and the

king sent soldiers to Beziers and

killed a ton of people

 only a minority were actual Cathars

 15,000 only 700 cathars

 Political Motives

 The cathars were in a region that was

ruled by nobles that did not really

care about the cathars

 they did not just want to crush the

cathars they also wanted to

strengthen his hold over France

o Papal Inquisition (Innocent III)

 Secular obligation

 The secular rulers had an obligation

to stamp out heresy

 ad hoc

• a group of people got together

and investigated, no central


 “confession”

• people suspected of heresy were

forced to confess
• they were tortured until they


• you could confess and repent

and the bishop would sign a

paper saying that your soul was

absolved of your sins. However,

the nobles were going to kill

them anyway

← European Crusades

• Reconquista [1149 – 1215]

o Spain’s strongest kingdoms

o under Muslim rule at this time

o the strongest kingdoms moved away from the


 Aragon

 castile

 Portugal

o Lisbon [1147]
 Battle of Lisbon begin to push Muslims out

of Portugal

 They say and opportunity because of

a conflict between the Islamic


o Muslim Disunity

 Al-Andalus

 Rule Spain and northern Africa

 Almohads

 began in northeastern Africa saw the

al-andalus as a corruption of the

Islamic faith

 start to attack territories ruled by the


 they take over the territories of Spain

under al-dalus’s rule

o Navas de Tolosa [1212]

 Aragon and castile defeat the army of the


 this is the beginning of the end for the

Muslim rule in Spain

 very slow process of decline

 it doesn't completely end until 1492

o The Long Road

• Northern Crusades

o Baltic peoples

 Slavs and wends

 Parts of Holland

 they had established a trade system

with the western kingdoms

 Trade and Raiding

 Mostly amber, fur, and they also had


• Raided Denmark and others

o St. Bernard
 Traveled through the Danish kingdoms

asking them to move east and convert the


 the Danish were happy to do so because

they were not happy with the raids taking

place in their coasts

o Valdemar and Henry

 They push eastward until the Oder River

(boundary between Germany and Poland)

o Teutonic Knights

 Established in Jerusalem in 1190 to

protect pilgrims coming to the holy land

 they spread throughout Europe and

became very powerful

 they conquered the Prussian tribes that

started modern Germany

 97 towns, 1400 villages

o Cooperation of Eastern Rulers

The Later Crusades

• Children’s Crusade [1212]

o They recruited adolescents from impoverish


o send them to convert people, were captured,

and sold as slaves

o big disaster

• Fifth Crusade [1217 1221]

o Innocent III calls for a 5th crusade

o the idea was that Christians would land in

Egypt, cease it and use it as a base to cross

into Jerusalem and 20Palestine

o they arrived to the city of Damietta

 the sultan of Egypt offers a bargain

 if they leave he will grant them the

city of Jerusalem

 the crusaders would not negotiate

 they attack the city of damietta

 they cease it

 within two years the Islamic armies expel


• Sixth Crusade [1228 – 1229]

o Frederick II

 Takes it upon to himself to take over


 he gets to Jerusalem and arranges a truce

with the sultan and negotiates the return

of Jerusalem to the Christendom

 the pope excommunicates him for


 he comes back to the church later on

• Seventh Crusade [1248 = 1254]

o Jerusalem is seized yet again by the Muslims,


o Louis IX
 he tries to retake Jerusalem

 he lands in damietta and begins to move

up the Nile

 the Islamic armies come up behind him

and the king is captured

 they have to pay a ransom and leaves

• Eight Crusade [1270]

• The End

o They don’t really end

o these were just the largest

o there is a crusade of the sea as well

o the crusades end as major expeditions after

the eight crusade

o Islamic armies cease Jerusalem and acre by


o Political Change

 the European people are starting to look

at crusades as a waste of time

 the end of independent warrior


← Muslim Resistance

• Delayed reaction

o They don’t really react at first

o Islamic kingdoms are not really unified at this

time and they don’t see this as permanent

o for about a generation they don’t do very


o they let diplomacy work for a while instead of


• Zengi [Aleppo and Mosul]

o He is having trouble from Damascus that is

not following his rule

o to consolidate his rule he beings a campaign

to take over Damascus

o he has to go through Edessa to get there

 this wasn’t his goal

o he became a hero and is revered, all by


o this leads to the crusades as a jihad

• Nur ed-Din

o Reinventing Jihad

 To consolidate his own power amongst

the Islamic kingdoms

 the earliest idea of jihad had been

devised from the time of Islamic

expansion. It was a form to justify

expansion before this time

 Nur ed-Din changes that meaning to be

used as a form of just war because Islam

was under threat and therefore they had

the right to defend themselves

o He defeats crusaders in Damascus

o attacks the kingdom of 24Egypt

• internal crackdown
o schools that teach scriptures

• Saladin

o Became major figure during the crusades

o he started as a lieutenant, and was granted

governance of 25Egypt

o once Nur ed-Din dies he takes over and takes

over Syria and Mosul into his empire

o Saladin consolidates his empire and surrounds

the crusader states

o his army defeats them in the battle of Hattin

o three months later in Oct. 1197 he ceases


• Baibars

o He defeats the crusaders once and for all

o he was an Egyptian sultan

o in 1253 he moves back the crusaders

o he takes over all the military castles stationed

in the holy land

• Edward the first takes over when the king of the

eight crusade dies

o He makes a deal with Balbars for a peace

treaty of sorts

← Legacy and Impact

• End of Byzantium

o Ceases to be influential with the end of the


o Constantinople is sacked, borders are shrunk

and lost its power as an empire

• Papal Authority

o Gain strong influence as political leaders

o a unified force among European 26Christians

• Plenary Indulgence

o A way of financing the crusades

o encouraging people to go on crusades when

the pope offers absolution in the afterlife

• Spanish Inquisition [1478]

o Descendent of the reconquista

o expel the last of the Muslims form the Iberian


o crack down on Jews in Spain, force to convert

or leave

• Precursor to Imperialism

o Crusades are a precursor to the imperialism in


• Muslim-Christian Divide

o Bitterness and resentment between the

Christian and Muslim empires

10/07/2007 10:24:00

10/07/2007 10:24:00