HEAT TREATMENT OF PRESSURE VESSELS

WHAT IS HEAT TREATMENT? • MATERIALS TREATED BY APPLICATION OF HEAT NORMALLY DONE IN SOLID STATE • HEATING BY VARIOUS SOURCES • PARAMETERS – RATE OF HEATING – SOAKING TEMP. – SOAKING TIME – COOLING RATE – COOLING MEDIA WHY HT REQUIRED ? • CARRIED OUT IN – FABRICATION INDUSTRIES • TO ENHANCE PROPERTIES – Strength – Toughness – Hardness TO BRING THE PROPERIES SUITABLE FOR FABRICATION – STEEL PLANTS – FOUNDRY – FORGING SHOPS

MATERIALS HEAT TREATED ? • METALS & ALLOYS – SINGLE PHASE – MULTIPHASE • ALLOYS – Single Phase : Copper Nickel – Multiphase : Steels • METALS (Single phase ) – Titanium HEAT TREATEMENT CRITERIA • COLD WORKED to NORMAL – All materials • UNEQUILIBRIUM PHASES to EQUILIBRIUM – Stainless Steels ,Maraging Steels • STRESSED to UNSTRESED – All Materials • v CS • C-Mn , C-Mo , Cr-Mo , Cr-Mo-V, Ni -Steels • Stainless Steels • Non Ferrous Materials TYPES OF HEAT TREATMENT • NORMALIZING • ANNEALING • STRESS RELIEVING • SOLUTION ANNEALING • HARDENING • TEMPERING • AGEING

IRON CARBON DIAGRAM

To achieve • Uniform structure • Change in Mechanical properties. – UTS & YS – Hardness – Impact properties • To refine the grains ANNEALING • Steel is heated 10 to 50°C above the upper critical temperature and held for the desired length of time followed by very slow cooling within the furnace To achieve: • Softness & better ductility • Stresses free material – Stress generated due to mechanical working / previous HT • Uniform property through out the material SOLUTION ANNEALING • Austenitic Stainless steels is heated to above 1050°C and held for the desired time followed by cooling to room temperature within few minutes by quenching / blowing the air.NORMALIZING • The steel is heated to 40° C above the upper critical temperature followed by cooling in the still air. .

It is held at the temperature for a desired length of time. followed by cooling with a specific rate up to certain temperature. and held for the desired time.Solution annealing is done on stainless steel and non ferrous alloys to achieve following: • To soften the material • To remove carbide precipitation formed at grain boundaries during manufacturing process • To improve Corrosion Resistance AGEING The Material is heated to a certain temperature. There is no change in grain structure. Stress relieving is done Fabricated Components of CS & LAS: • To reduce Internal Stresses • To soften the steel partially • To soften HAZ . followed by quenching or cooling in air Ageing is done on materials susceptible for ageing characteristics : Maraging Steels • Normally increases strength • Improve Toughness STRESS RELIEVING The steel is heated to a temperature below or close to the lower critical temperature with a specific rate of heating.

SA204GrA.Mo Steels (Cr >2%) – SA 335P22 . SA387GR11CL1 • Temperature : 593° C Min – Normally 600 .640° C.Ni -Steels • Nickel Steels : 1.5% Ni Steels . C-Mo . SA 517 Gr E • Temperature : 538° C Typ – Normally < 600° C • Time : Minimum 15 minutes to 2 Hr – Time : 1 hr / inch thick • Heating Rate : 200° C per hr per inch thick • Cooling Rate : 260° C per hr per inch thick C-Mn . C . • Time : 60 mts min – Time : 1 hr / inch thick • Heating Rate : 200° C per hr per inch thick • Cooling Rate : 260° C per hr per inch thick Steels enhanced by Heat Treatments • Q&T Steels : – 9.640° C.Mo Steels.D • Temperature : 593° C Min – Normally 600 . Cr-Mo (< 2% Cr) • C .Mn Steels .2.3% Ni – SA 203 GrA . 650-690° C • Time : 15 minutes min – Time : 1 hr / inch thick • Heating Rate : 200° C per hr per inch thick • Cooling Rate : 260° C per hr per inch thick • Cr-Mo Steels Cr . Cr-Mo Steels – SA 515Gr 70 .SA335P5 .

• Temperature : 676° C Min – Normally 680 .700° C 2. corrosion and contamination. Freedom from phase changes or other phenomenon giving rise to discontinuity in temperature emf relationships. Resistance to oxidation. If the temperature of reference junction is known. 4. 3. . 2.25Cr – 704 . THERMOCOUPLE MATERIAL REQUIREMENT 1. Continuously increasing relation of emf to temperature over a long range. High coefficient of thermal emf. the temperature of the measuring junction can be determined by measuring the emf generated in the circuit.720° C 5 Cr • Time : 15 mts min – Time : 1 hr / inch thick • Heating Rate : 200° C per hr per inch thick • Cooling Rate : 260° C per hr per inch thick THERMOCOUPLES • PRINCIPLE OF A THERMOCOUPLE • THERMOCOUPLE MATERIAL • TYPES OF THERMOCOUPLE BEING USED IN HZW PRINCIPLE OF THERMOCOUPLE The basic principle of thermoelectric thermometry is that a thermocouple develops an emf which is a function of the difference in temperature of its measuring junction & reference junction.

Homogeneity and reproducibility to fit an establish temperature & emf relationship.5. S’ TYPE THERMOCOUPLE • „S‟ TYPE THERMOCOUPLE ARE THE STANDARD THERMOCOUPLES. SO MORE LIFE . • IT IS USED FOR CALIBRATING “K” Type THERMOCOUPLES. • MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION 90% PLATINUM + 10% RHODIUM PLATINUM OXIDATION RESISTANCE . SPEED OF RESPONSE MAY BE IMPROVED AND RADIATION & CONDUCTION ERRORS MAY BE REDUCED BY THE USE OF SMALL DIAMETER THERMOCOUPLES. Instrumentation converts the millivolt signal to related temperature. . TYPES OF THERMOCOUPLE BEING USED IN HZW K type : Material : Chromel + Alumel Nickel based ( 10 %Cr ) + ( 2 % Al ) Properties : Non-Magnetic + Magnetic In this type of thermocouple. the wires are joined at one end only to form a point-type temperature sensor. • ISSUE METHODOLOGY • Users will send their requirement of thermocouple through Consumable slip ( mentioning HTR No ) to QA • QA shall issue the same .

I.D. THAT WHEN PROPERLY CONNECTED TO THERMOCOUPLE THE EFFECTIVE REFERENCE JUNCTION IS IN EFFECT TRANSFERRED TO THE OTHER END OF THE WIRES. COMPENSATING CABLE COMPENSATING CABLE IS DEFINED AS A PAIR OF WIRES HAVING SUCH EMF TEMPERATURE CHARACTERISTICS RELATED TO THE THERMOCOUPLE WITH WHICH THE WIRES ARE INTENDED TO BE USED. MATERIAL ==> +ve COPPER ( white ) -ve COPPER NICKEL (blue ) for “ K “ TYPE .• • QA shall issue identification sticker duly attached Users shall ensure availability of identification sticker on unused wire . PID = PROPORTIONAL INTEGRAL DERIVATIVE • PID FUNCTIONS BOTH AS PROGRAMMER AND CONTROLLER • PID CONTROLLER CAN BE ZONE WISE • PROGRAMME IS MADE IN SEGMENTS AS PER DIFFERENT STAGES OF HEAT TREATMENT . P.

EH100 / Graph ET 201).CURRENTLY BEING USED IN MFS1 AND HFS1 ( CHINO MAKE -.• DIGITAL DISPLAY IS AVAILABLE FOR PROGRAMME TEMPERATURE AND FURNACE TEMEPERATURE • TYP ICAL OR REPETITIVE HEAT TREATMENT CYCLE CAN BE STORED IN P ID(PROGRAMMER) RECORDER TYPES OF RECORDER PAPERLESS -.model no. • Y-AXIS IS FOR GRAPH SPEED. COMPENSATING CABLES ARE CONNECTED BEHIND THE RECORDER SCREEN IN CHANNELS. • X-AXIS IS FOR TEMPERATURE (RANGE = 0 TO 1200‟C) • THE SCALE ON X-AXIS IS NON-LINEAR.CURRENTLY BEING USED IN PFS( CHINO MAKE-. • 12 CHANNEL -.WITH COLOUR DISPLAY SCREEN . • 24 CHANNEL -. NOT USED IN HZW.HARD DISC AND FLOPPY DRIVE.model no.CURRENTLY BEING USED IN HZW. .I003 /Graph ET 001). • WITH PAPER -.

5. STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR HFS-1 FURNACE . THEY ARE F ITTED ON THE RECORDER. USUALLY . GRAPH PAPER • GRAPH PAPERS ARE USED FOR PLOTTING THE FURNACE TEMPERATURE VIA THERMOCOUPLE. 50. JAPAN • THE LENGTH OF ONE BUNDLE OF GRAPH PAPER IS GENERALLY 2000 MM. 100 MM / HOUR • GENERALLY KEEP 25 MM / HOUR. • DOTTING TYPE RECORDER INK (CHINO MAKE. JAPAN) IS USED IN RECORDER FOR PLOTTING OF GRAPH. 25. 6 COLOURS ARE FILLED FOR PLOTTING. JAPAN GRAPH PAPER FOR PFS FURNACE ==> ET 001 CHINO MAKE. • GRAPH PAPER RECOMMENDED ON RECORDER ONLY TO BE USED • GRAPH PAPER FOR MFS1 AND HFS1 FURNACE ==> ET 201 CHINO MAKE.• VARIOUS SPEED OF GRAPHS ARE 12.

H. PROJECT NO: 2. SECTION NO : 9500 3. NO : BURNER 1195 7900 BOGGIE WIDTH 8700 1050 HFS-I FURNACE SKETCH 34 . REQ. CHARGE NO : 4. 3575 ( ZONE-5 ) 3575 ( ZONE-7 ) HFS-I FURNACE SKETCH 9000 33 1. T.( ZONE-2 ) ( ZONE-4 ) ( ZONE-6 ) ( ZONE-8 ) BURNER 1640 1650 7900 (BOGIE W IDTH ) 1650 3575 ( ZONE-1 ) 3575 ( ZONE-3 ) 14300.

13. Close the bogie door 17. Fix the thermocouples at locations shown in furnace charge. Insert heat treatment chart in recorder and adjust the speed of the graph. Clear inspection of job and get the signature ofinspector on graph paper for firing the furnace. Ensure that Insp. Ensure the spider arrangement as per attached annexure . Give power supply to the ignition panel 20 When the “system healthy” contact comes from the . 12. Check LPG level. Load the supporting arrangement as per the attached annexure -3 5. Switch on the power supply 16. pressure and temperature in the storage tanks and note down in logbook. 14. 7. 9. Follow the procedure for startup of furnace in zoneI 18. Secure it and then run it in fast mode as check. Clearance is available prior to loading for job. Pass the thermocouples through ports and connect it with compensating cables 11. Receive heat treatment request duly approved by metallurgy engineer. 15. Bring it back to the initial segment and hold. Set the program as per heat treatment request. 4. 2.STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR HFS-1 FURNACE Receive the job as per HT request.5 6. Move the bogie inside the furnace 10. Start the blower from the field push button station provided 19.-I). 3. Check the entire job as per check list (annex.

This can be viewed through the glass window provided in the ignition panel. In that case. After all zones are started. 31. 26. 28. the lamp for the “system healthy” signal is on. . P ress start cycle button on doing so the cycle starts and purging start indicator lamp is on. This indicates that the combustion air pressure and gas pressure are within the specified limits 21. which may contain air. Flame healthy signal LED gets on which is provided on the flame sensor relay. For startup of furnace in other zones. repeat the above mentioned procedure. 30. 24. After 10 seconds the ignition start lamp gets OFF By this time the pilot burner should have been fired and the pilot flame is established. 29. the burner may not light up in the first attempt. 22. start recording time and temperature from recorder every 30 minutes in the logbook. Once the main flame is established. Now the firing on the cycle can start. 25. 27. the control is passed on to the temperature controller. After 3 minutes ( time adjusted through timer ) the purging is completed and ignition start lamp is ON At the same time the purging start lamp gets OFF. Due to certain length of pipe between the burner and solenoid valves. Open the pilot and main gas valves 23.instrument panel. 32. follow the same steps no 16 to 27 mentioned above. Conduct spot checks for heat treatment every 4hours and fill the spot check format. Monitor the heat treatment process and graph till the completion to ensure that it is as per program and heat treatment request.

Shut off the main power supply. Remove the thermocouples from the job carefully without damaging the junction of thermocouples and without making impression on parent material of job. shut off all LPG supply valves and let furnace run with blowers on for 15 minutes. After heat treatment cycle is completed.PFS 43 .33. Submit the graph and duly filled spot check formats to inspection for approval of heat treatment. 39. 125T Bogie hearth furnace -. 38. Retrieve the thermocouples from the ports and the bogie out of the furnace. Disconnect thermocouples from compensating cable. 40. 36. 34. 37. 35. Close the furnace. Unload the job from the bogie and move the bogie inside the furnace. Open the bogie door. Allow the job to reach room temperature.

Check the entire job as per check list attached as annexure-III 9. Switch on the power supply. pressure and temperature in the storage tanks and note down in logbook. 14. 3.II. 2. Ensure that Insp. Pass the thermocouples through ports and connect it with compensating cables. Clear inspection of job and get the signature of inspector on graph paper for firing the furnace. Load the job on the bogie as per the heat treatment furnace request. 8. Insert heat treatment chart in recorder and adjust the speed of the graph. Receive the job as per HT request. 10. Ensure that pressure of LPG from yard to inlet of pressure regulator is always less than 20psi (1. Ensure the spider arrangement as per annexure.5kg/CM2). Check LPG level.STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR PFS FURNACE 1. 5. 7. Ensure the supporting arrangement as per the attached annexure-I. . 12. 11. Switch on ID blower first and then the air blower and maintain pressure at about 800mm WG by slowly opening the suction valve. 6. 4. 16. clearance is available prior to loading for job. Receive heat treatment request duly approved by metallurgy engineer. Move the bogie inside the furnace. 17. 15. 13. Fix the thermocouples at locations shown in furnace charge. Close the bogie door.

After all zones start. Open the inlet valve to the regulator and open the outlet valve. 29. Allow the job to reach room temperature. Disconnect thermocouples from compensating cables. 19. 21. Remove the thermocouples from job carefully and without marking impression on parent material of job. Shut off the power supply. Unload the job from bogie and move the bogie inside the furnace. Retrieve the thermocouples from the ports and move the bogie out of the furnace. Light up alternate main burners and adjust the flame lengths uniformly. After the heat treatment cycle is completed. 33. 20. 25. If pressure exceeds 1600 mm WG . 23. 32. Immediately start lighting the pilot burners and adjust the flame with the air valve . . 30.18. Lock the doors by pneumatic locking. Conduct spot checks for heat treatment every 4 hours and fill the spot check format. shut off all LPG valves and let furnace run with blowers on for 15 minutes. record time and temperature from recorder every 30 minutes in the logbook. Monitor the heat treatment process and graph per heat treatment request. 24. Submit the graph and duly filled spot check formats to inspection for approval of heat treatment. Open the bogie door. isolate the pressure by lifting the handle of safety shut off valve. 26. 27. 31. Close the furnace. Open the isolating valve for pressure gauge and adjust the pressure regulator by turning the screw provided in the stem so that the pressure is maintained at about 1000mm WG. 28. 22.

Put the job either on support or on heat treatment fixture inside the furnace. 8. Ensure that the furnace is calibrated. Receive heat treatment request duly authorized by metallurgy engineer. 5. Take a trial run of program to ensure the accuracy. 2. Connect thermocouples with compensating cable to PID. 4. 9. .FIRE BRICK INSULATING CAST ABLE CERMIC BLANKET OUTER SHELL GROUND LEVEL CERMIC FIBER SLABER BLOCK HEATING ELEMENT BAFFLE ROOF CERAMIC BLANKET 4150 ( REFRACTORY I/S ) 3700 1/D OF BAFFLE BLOW ER 4020 125 250 TROLLEY STRUCTURE 1380 PIT FURNACE SKETCH 4961 1000 52 STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR PIT FURNACE 1. 7. Calibrate all 5 PID‟s prior to starting the furnace. 6. 3. Ensure that equal clearance is available on all sides between job and baffle. Set the program in the programmer as per heat treatment request. Receive the job for heat treatment with inspection clearance.

17. It the job doesn‟t call for anything above. Care should be taken to clean the wires and terminals thoroughly before connections are made. 18. 20. Connect the millivolt source to the temperature indicator or controller by a compensating cable. . lift the job and dip it in quench tank. 2. open the furnace cover. Insert the graph inside the recorder and take the signature of inspector on the graph paper. Close the furnace cover after the furnace is cooled down to room temperature. 14. After the heat treatment is over. If the job calls for water quenching. 3. Keep the job outside after removing from furnace. 11. Close the furnace door. The millivolt output for various temperature ranging from 00C to 10000C in steps of 500C is fed to the indicator / controller. 16. 21.10. Start the furnace by giving power supply „ON‟ 13. 12. 19. Start recording the time and temperature in the logbook every 30 minutes. lift the job and put it outside on supports in open air. Ensure that the cycle is functioning as per program. allow the job to cool down in furnace. 15. Submit the heat treatment graph to inspection for approval of heat treatment cycle. After the millivolt value / temperature reading displayed is steady. the reading of indicator/controller shall be noted. PROCEDURE FOR EMP TY FURNACE CALIBRATION Calibration of PIDS ( indicator & controller ) 1. It the job calls for air cooling in still air.

3. Connect the millivolt source to the recorder by a compensating cable. 6. big K-type thermocouples +/. 2. Calibration of recorder 1.10C ). small K-type thermocouples +/. Care should be taken to clean the wires and terminals thoroughly before the connections are made. then correction to be carried out for the recorder and points 1 to 4 shall be repeated till the specified accuracy is obtained.10C Recorder +/. The graph thus obtained is reviewed for time and temperature values.0.25% Millivolt source (wahl unit ) ( 1 micro volt at 1000 micro volts ) Heat treatment fixture. 5. then correction to be carried out for the indicator / controller and points 1 to 4 shall be repeated till the specified accuracy is obtained is obtained.0.4.on temperature scale. 2. 4. ACCURACY 20 Nos. 4. If the error in the indicated readings is more than the specified accuracy ( +/.minutes on time scale. EQUIP MENT REQUIRED 1. These values should meet the accuracy requirements.25% 10 Nos. If there is error in the values plotted on the graph. 3. The millivolt output for various temperature ranging from 400 C to 10000C is fed to the recorder and is allowed to plot on a graph. Temperature indicators (PID) +/. +/. .

it is allowed to stabilize for half an hour. Place the heat treatment fixture inside the furnace with thermocouples in position. The temperature is to be read through WAHL UNIT. After reaching the set temperature. Ensure that the thermocouples are attached to the heat treatment fixture as shown in sketch-I. 3. 8. Set the temperature of controller to 4000C. 2. 6. After reaching the set temperature. Close the furnace lid. Measure and record the temperature indicated by each of the 20 thermocouples. 4. 10. . 11. Set the temperature of controller to 4000C. Also record the readings indicated by each of the thermocouples at an interval of 10 minutes. 7. Three sets of readings are to be taken for each thermocouples at an interval of 10 minutes. 9. 9. 7. Three sets of readings are to be taken for each thermocouples at an interval of 10 minutes. 11. 5. Ensure that the PIDs are calibrated as mentioned above. Measure and record the temperature indicated by each of the 20 thermocouples. The temperature is to be read through WAHL UNIT. 8.PIT FURNACE CALIBRATION PROCEDURE 1. Ensure that the recorder is calibrated as mentioned above. 10. Start the furnace and the recorder. Also record the readings indicated by each of the thermocouples at an interval of 10 minutes. it is allowed to stabilize for half an hour. Ensure that all the thermocouples used are calibrated.

STANDARD OPERATING PRACTICES FOR LOCAL STRESS RELIEVING LOCAL STRESS RELIEVING WHY? • Local SR to be done only when furnace SR not feasible • When only certain components to be PWHT HOW? • • Can be done by Electrical / Gas / diesel / Induction etc. DETAILS ON ENSURING P WHT TEMP. IN WELDMENT AREA • Soaking band(SB) = Widest weld width „x‟+ ‟t‟ or 2 inches whichever is less from edge of weld • Heating band width (HB) • Induction stress level • Through thickness criteria • SB + 4 rt where r = Inside radius. t = thickness • Insulation band width (IB) • Axial gradient • HB + 4 rt ..

prevent airflow so that temperature on inside surface do not drop down. 3. Spider/prop shall be provided in such a way that upper portion of spider / prop is not welded with inside surface to allow contraction/expansion of shell surface. 4.500mm from heating zone. The distance between the flame of burner and saddle support shall be 600mm. Minimum distance between floor of the furnace and lower most part of the job shall be 300mm. however 120 degree saddle is desirable. PRACTICES FOR FURNACE CHARGES &LSR SUPPORTING ARRANGEMENTS 1. Minimum 90 degree saddle to be used. provide insulation from inside. If both ends are open during LSR. 6. Minimum distance between wall of furnace and the job shall be 600mm. Provide multitonne roller on one end of vessel during LSR of circular seam when job is horizontal. provided for holding insulation. Temporary attachments. . 3. 5. 2. when accessible. Spider/prop shall be between 200. 4.LOCAL STRESS RELIEVING SET UP 1. Minimum two thermocouples shall be provided from inside. Saddle shall be arranged in such away that open end of the vessel is maximum 450mm from saddle support. 2. 5. GOOD ENGG. If not possible . shall be within soak band only.

Checklist shall be prepared and attached with HT request before furnace is fired as per Ann-1 14. Flame shall not directly impinge on job 4. Spot check report shall be filled by supervisor as per Annexure-2 during job is being heat treated. . center and below man way/nozzles above 24” 10. General idea about thermocouple locations and its attachments is as per Annexure-6 GENERAL 1. Keep all job nozzles open during heat treatment 6.6. Burner shall have blue flame and not yellow 3. restricting the movement (axial/lateral) during heat treatment shall be avoided. 15. Locking/clamping of job. Gasket / machined face of loose assemblies shall not be touching any object. Blocking the flame of the burner is not desirable 2. Above “24” nozzles / manways shall be located towards bottom 7. All long nozzles projecting outside job surface shall be supported 13. All burners shall be fired at a time 5. Saddle shall be located as close to spiders (temporarily arranged to control deformation) as possible. Moonplate support and welding inside surface prior to release for Heat treatment as per Annexure-4 16. Spiders or vertical prop shall be provided at open ends. Avoid gap between saddle support and job surface 11. 7.-3 9. Spiders shall be provided as per annexure-5 8 Saddle supports shall be selected as per annexure. 12. Deoxidization agent shall be applied on all machined and gasket faces 8.

I furnace if the job occupies all 8 zones 4. A list of qualified person shall be by Welding Eng. Minimum two thermocouples to be attached for any charge. 3. Use only TAU-90 capacitor Discharge Welding for thermocouple connection 2. Only trained person by welding engineering shall attach thermocouple 4. Maximum distance between two thermocouples for a sample job is as shown in annexure. (For PIT furnace only) 2. All the thermocouples shall be tagged with aluminum sheet and identification hard punched on it. machine . PTC shall have separate thermocouple THERMOCOUPLES ATTACHMENTS 1.THERMOCOUPLES 1. Use WPS:999-154 R0 for attachment of thermocouple for cs/alloy steel material 3. Minimum 8 thermocouples to be used for a charge in HFS.6 5.

5.UAT80. 7.UHA-32. Two wire of thermocouple shall be attached one after another.UHA-32.UCS-56. Clean surface prior to attachment. 9. Only calibrated thermocouple shall be used. UW-40. Calibration shall be by QA. 3.0mm 8.UCS56.UAT-80. UW-40. 6.UNF-79) • THICKNESS (UG-85. After PWHT. Gap between two wire of a thermocouple shall be max.-1 • SERVICE CONDITION (UW-2) • MATERIAL (UG-85.UNF-79) • LOW TEMERATURE . SPECIAL NOTE IF THE TEMPERATURE OF HEAT TREATMENT EXCEEEDS 650-DEGREE CENTIGRADE. THE MATERIAL AND SIZE OF SPIDERS AND SUPPORTS TO BE DECIDED BY PLANNING AND APPROVED BY DESIGN. thermocouple area shall be ground and DP shall be carried out. REQUIREMENT OF HEAT TREATMENT AS PER ASME-SEC VIII Div.

any circumferential joints not provisionally heat treated may be thereafter locally postweld heat treated by heating such joints by any appropriate means that will assure the required uniformity. ( 3 ) When the vessel is required to be postweld heat treated.5m). the soak band shall extend around the full circumference. ( 5 ) Heating a circumferential band containing nozzles or other welded attachments in such a manner that the entire band shall be brought up unifo rmly to the required temperature and held for the specified time. The cross section where the vessel projects from the furnace shall not intersect a nozzle or other structural discontinuity. CODE EXTRACT FOR HEAT TREATMENT ( 1 ) The soak band shall contain the weld. and it is not practicable to postweld heat treat the completed vessel as a whole or in two or more heats. The term „T‟ is the nominal thickness. ( 2 ) The operation of postweld heat treatment shall be performed either by heating the vessel as a whole in an enclosed furnace or heating the vessel in more than one heat in a furnace. . ( 4 ) While carrying out local postweld heat treatment. on each side or end of the weld.OPERATION (UCS-68) • COLD WORKING (UG-79) • CUSTOMER SPEC. When this procedure is used. The minimum width of this volume is the widest width of weld plus 1T or 2 inches. The portion outside the soak band shall be protected so that the temperature gradient is not harmful. provided the overlap of the heated sections of the vessel is at least 5 feet ( 1. the portion outside of the furnace shall be shielded so that the temperature gradient is not harmful. whichever is less. heat affected zone and a portion of base metal adjacent to the weld being heat treated.

5” nominal thickness.  If a fillet weld is used in conjunction of groove weld. ( 9 ) For P –1 material ( carbon steel). 10 ) Postweld heat treatment is mandatory in Following conditions : • For welded joints over 1. the nominal thickness is the depth of the groove or the throat dimension.  For groove weld. ( 8 ) For pressure vessels or parts of pressure vessels being post weld heat treated in a furnace charge.( 6 ) Where more than one pressure vessel or more pressure vessel part are postweld heat treated in one furnace charge. thermocouples shall be placed on vessels at the bottom. The nominal thickness is the total depth of the weld exclusive of any permitted weld reinforcement. minimum holding temperature during postweld heat treatment shall be 1100 Deg. F ( 593 Deg. shall be done before the hydrostatic test and after any welded repairs. and top of the charge or in other zones of possible temperature variation so that the temperature indicated shall be true temperature for all vessels or parts in those zones.  For stud welds. the nominal thickness is the depth of the groove. .c). the nominal thickness is the throat dimension. Whichever is greater. the nominal thickness shall be the diameter of the stud. ( 7 ) Postweld heat treatment. A preliminary hydrostatic test to reveal leaks prior to PWHT is permissible. center.  For fillet welds. it is the greatest weld thickness in any vessel or vessel part which has not previously been postweld heat treated. When required.

For welded joints over 1. Temperature of 200‟F ( 94„c ) during welding.5” nom. unless preheat is applied at a min. Thickness through 1. • Vessels or parts of vessels constructed of base material with corrosion resistant integral or weld metal overlay cladding or applied corrosion resistant lining material shall be postweld heat treated when the base material is required to be postweld heat treated.25”. SERVICE CONDITION • LETHAL SERVICE PWHT IS MANDATORY • EXEMP TIONS ARE FEW ( 11 ) Postweld heat treatment is not mandatory for carbon steel jobs (P1 material ) in Following conditions (UG2):  If groove welds is not over ½” in size or fillet weld with a throat thickness of ½” or less used for attaching non pressure parts to pressure parts provided preheat to a minimum temperature of 200‟F is applied when the thickness of pressure Part exceeds 1. the determining thickness shall be the total thickness of base material.25” nom. • When the PWHT is a service requirement. In applying this rule.  If studs are welded to pressure parts provided preheat to a • . Thickness.

the rate of heating shall not be more than 4000F Per hour (2000C/Hour) divided by the maximum metal thickness of the shell or head plate in inches. . • Above 8000F( 4270C). There shall not be a greater variation in temperature throughout the portion of the vessel being heat treated than 2500F( 1390C) within any 15 feet ( 4. • During the heating period. • The temperature of furnace shall not exceed 800‟F ( 4270C) at the time when the vessel or part is placed in it.25”.6m) interval of length.minimum temperature of 200‟F is applied when the thickness of the pressure parts exceeds 1. but in no case more than 4000F Per hour( 2220C Per hour ).25”. the furnace atmosphere shall be so controlled as to avoid excessive oxidation of the surface of the vessel.  for corrosion resistant weld metal overlay cladding or for welds attaching corrosion resistant applied lining provided preheat to a minimum temperature of 200‟f is maintained during application of the first layer when the thickness of the pressure part exceeds 1. The furnace shall be of such design as to prevent direct heat impingement of the flame on the vessel. • During the holding period. there shall not be a greater difference than 1500f ( 830c) between the highest and the lowest temperature the portion of the vessel being heated • During the heating & holding periods.

when it is impractical to postweld heat treat at the temperature specified in table mentioned in Sr. The rate of cooling shall not be more than 5000F Per hour (2780C/Hour) divided by the maximum metal thickness of the shell or head plate in inches. 9. but in no case more than 5000F Per hour ( 2780C Per hour).Above 8000F ( 4270C). It is permissible to carry out the post weld heat treatments at lower temperatures for longer periods of time as shown in table below • DECREASE IN TEMP. BELOW MIN.. No. SPECIFIED TEMPERATURE IN ‘F 50 (10’C) 100(38’C) 150(68’C) 200(94’C) MINIMUM HOLDING TIME AT DECREASED TEMPERATURE (NOTE 1) 2 HOURS 4 HOURS 10 HOURS 20 HOURS NOTES ------2 2 .