WORLD JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES

Arun Kumar et al. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Article ISSN 2278 – 4357 Volume 2, Issue 5, 3347-3359.

IN-VIVO, ANTI-HYPERGLYCEMIC AND ANTI-HYPERLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA (Linn.) LEAVES, COLLECTED FROM SOUTHERN ODISHA
Arun Kumar Panda1*, Mangala Charan Das2, Prasana Kumar Panda3, Suman Kumar Mekap3, Saumya Ranjan Pani3
1

Om Sai College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Gopalpur -761002, Ganjam, Odisha.
2

NRI Medical College Mangalagiri Road, Chinakakani-522503, Guntur, AP
3

University Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utkal University, Vanivihar Bhubaneswar-751004 Odisha, India ABSTRACT The present study was aimed to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyerlipidemic activity of ethanolic extracts of Annona squamosa (Linn.) leaves (AS), collected from southern Odisha. Alloxan induced, Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide (STZ-NA) induced diabetic models and

Article Received on 07 August 2013, Revised on 25 August 2013, Accepted on 29 September 2013

*Correspondence for Author: * Arun Kumar Panda Om Sai College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Gopalpur -761002, Ganjam, Odisha, India. arunpanda004@gmail.com,

Triton (WR 1339) induced hyperlipidemic models in rats were used in the said experiment. Treatment with AS (400 mg/kg) to alloxan treated rats for 10 days significantly (p<0.001) attenuated the blood glucose level (141.30 ± 11.56 mg/dl) of test animals when compared to alloxan control (293.16 ± 7.32 mg/dl). Similarly, in STZ-NA induced diabetic model, significant (p<0.001) reduction in blood glucose level (152.61 ± 6.83 mg/dl) in test animals were observed, following the treatment of AS (400 mg/kg) for 28 days. In Triton (WR 1339) induced hyperlipidemia (48 hour model), AS (400 mg/kg) treatment exhibited

significant (p<0.001) attenuation in serum total cholesterol (70.92 ± 3.46 mg/dl), triglyceride (125.67 ± 6.54 mg/dl) and LDL (10.42 ± 6.77 mg/dl) with significant (p<0.05) elevation in serum HDL (35.36 ± 5.32 mg/dl) levels. Statistical significance of data was assessed by Oneway ANOVA followed with Tukey-Kramer Multiple comparison between different groups. The data obtained from the study suggested, the anti-diabetic and lipid lowering activities of Annona squamosa (Linn.) leaves. www.wjpps.com 3347

Numerous . Annona squamosa (Linn. INTRODUCTION There is a growing interest in herbal remedies because of their effectiveness. commonly known as Sitaphal (local name) custard apple. AS leaves are used as insecticide. sugar apple etc. including diabetes mellitus. Diabetic dyslipidemia is a well-recognized manifestation of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. associated with significant abnormalities in lipoprotein metabolism resulting from either insulin insufficiency or dysfunction [1]. hypertension and peripheral vascular diseases [2]. styptic[5]. minimal side effects in clinical experience and relatively low cost. DM is also treated in Indian traditional medicine using anti-diabetic medicinal plants [3].wjpps. dosage and mechanism of action of these herbal drugs. The World Health Organization (WHO) approves the use of natural drugs for different diseases. insulin has important regulatory effects on lipid metabolism. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antidiabetic and anti hyperglycemic activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Annona squamosa Linn. coronary artery disease. anthelmintic. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences KEYWORDS: antidiabetic. anti-hyperlipidemic. custard apple. However. Therefore. cerebrovascular events. bark is used as tonic astringent. It is native to West. The treatment of DM is based on oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin.com 3348 . Diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by increased fasting and post prandial blood sugar levels. DM associated with dyslipidemia elevates the risk of cardiovascular diseases and patients with diabetes are at increased risk for all the manifestations like atherosclerosis. Postcoital [7] . even when their biological active compounds are unknown.Arun Kumar et al. www. In this regard. Ayurvedic .) (AS) belonging to the family Annonaceae. antidysentric and vermifuge Phytochemical and pharmacological studies have been carried out on AS practitioners use stem and leaf extracts of AS as indigenous uterotonic drug antifertility activity (seed extract) activity (leaf extract) [10] [8] [9] [5] [6] . safety. in different models of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. cardiotonic activity (leaf extract) and anti-cancer were reported for AS. Herbal drugs or their extracts are used widely. there is a constant need of newer herbal anti-diabetic medications with pronounced therapeutic effectiveness and comparatively lower side effects.Indies and now cultivated throughout India [4]. Unripe and dried fruit of AS are used as antidysentric. it is useful to know the efficacy. It is due to the fact that. However.

. Alloxan induced Diabetes 30 rats were divided into five groups each comprising six animals. No: 1170/ac/08/ CPCSEA). The experimental protocols were approved by CPCSEA and cleared by Institutional Animal Ethical Committee (IAEC) at College of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Total cholesterol. screening of anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities were carried out at a fixed dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of AS leaf extract. (India).80C for further uses. Franco-Indian Ltd. Mohuda. After collection. The fraction extracted with taking ethanol (90%) was evaporated at room temperature to obtain test extract. The extract was stored at 2 . Odisha.. Animals Albino rats of either sex weighing between 150 – 200 gm were used for the experiment. Powder was weighed and extracted successively with different solvents. Atorvastatin (Storvas 20. CPS. of Biological Sciences. Plant material was authenticated by Prof. They were fed with standard chow diet and water ad libitum during the experiment. Berhampur. Plant Materials and Preparation of Extracts Leaves of Annona squamosa (Linn. Ranbaxy Laboratories Ltd. (India). Acute oral toxicity study was performed as per the OECD guidelines [11]. Dept. Animals were housed in a group of six in polypropylene cages at controlled room temperature 25 ± 2ºC. Mohuda. India. S.K. Triton (WR 1339). NovartisSandoz Ltd. Ltd. India) in the month of October – November. HDL cholesterol Triglycerides and Glucose assay kits were procured from Span Diagnostics Ltd. Extract was prepared using successive extraction method.) were collected from local regions near Mohuda (Berhampur. Metformin (Glyciphage 500. AS leaves were shade dried at room temperature for one week.Dash.com 3349 . at a dose of 160 mg/kg body weight [12]. India) were purchased from local market.9 % normal saline.. Following the oral toxicity study. www.wjpps. Dried leaves were crushed to fine powder by using mechanical grinder. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences MATERIALS AND METHODS Chemicals Alloxan. light: dark cycle. relative humidity 55% and 12 hrs.. Odisha (IAEC Regd. Ganjam. India).p) injection of alloxan dissolved in freshly prepared 0. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal (i. India) and Gliclazide (Glyred 40. Streptozotocin and Nicotinamide were procured from Hi-media laboratories Pvt. Odisha.Arun Kumar et al.

The experimental groups: Group 1: Normal rats.w.p) injection of STZ (50 mg/kg of b. Rats were fasted overnight before OGTT. p.Arun Kumar et al.o) once daily Group 5: (Test Group) diabetic rats treated with AS leaf extract (400 mg/kg of b.. treated with 0..w. p.3% w/v Sodium-CMC (5 ml/kg of b. in 0.o) once daily The treatment duration was of 28 days [15].. Streptozotocin Nicotinamide induced Diabetes 30 rats were divided into five groups each comprising six animals.o) once daily The treatment duration was of 10 days [13].3% w/v Sodium-CMC (5 ml/kg of b.w.o) www. p.w) followed with (i.w) freshly prepared in citrate buffer (pH: 4.o) Group 3: Received Metformin (11. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in normoglycemic rats 36 rats were divided into six groups each comprising six animals.o) once daily Group 4: (Test group) diabetic rats treated with AS leaf extract (200 mg/kg of b.w. p.w. i. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal (i.3 mg/kg of b.p) Group 3: (Standard group) diabetic rats treated with Gliclazide (25 mg/kg of b.w.w.w.o) once daily Group 2: Diabetic control rats (NA 120 mg/kg followed STZ 50 mg/kg.3 mg/kg of b. p.w. p.5% CMC.5% CMC.o) once daily Group 5: (Test Group) diabetic rats treated with AS leaf extract (400 mg/kg of b. treated with 0.o) Group 4: Received Gliclazide (25 mg/kg of b.5 % w/v Sodium-CMC (5 ml/kg of b.com 3350 . p. b. in 0. p..w. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Experimental groups: Group 1: Normal rats. treated with 0.wjpps. p. p. p. treated with (treated with demineralized water 10 ml/kg and glucose 2 gm/kg) Group 2: Vehicle Control rats.w.o) once daily Group 2: Diabetic control rats (Alloxan 160 mg/kg) Group 3: (Standard group) diabetic rats treated with Metformin (11.p) injection of NA (120 mg/kg of b. Group 1: Normal rats.w.o) once daily Group 4: (Test group) diabetic rats treated with AS leaf extract (200 mg/kg of b..5) [14].

observed in alloxan induced diabetic model. rats of each group were administered with glucose (5 gm/kg of b.w. 2nd and 3rd hours and blood glucose level was determined [16].com 3351 . p. following the treatment with AS (200 and 400 mg/kg of b.o) once daily Group 2: Lipidemic control rats. i. Blood samples from each test animals were drawn at 0. Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were calculated by Friedewald’s formula: VLDL cholesterol = Triglyceride/5 and LDL cholesterol = Total cholesterol – (VLDL + HDL cholesterol) [21].p) injection of Triton WR-1339 (200 mg/kg of b. total cholesterol. Triton Induced Hyperlipidemia 30 rats were divided into five groups each comprising six animals.o) once daily Group 4: (Test group) lipidimea induced rats. p. HDL cholesterol. p. Statistical significance of data was assessed by Oneway ANOVA followed with Tukey-Kramer Multiple comparison between different groups.w. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Group 5: Received Annona squamosa Linn.w. extract (200 mg/kg of b.o) for 10 days.wjpps. p. RESULT Alloxan induced Diabetes Table 1 constitutes the blood glucose levels and change in body weight of test animals. treated with AS leaf extract (200 mg/kg of b.5% CMC. treated with 0.o) once daily Group 5: (Test Group) lipidimea induced rats..5% CMC.2 mg/kg of b. Hyperlipidemia was induced by single intraperitoneal (i.o) Group 6: Received Annona squamosa Linn.o).w in 0.o) once daily The treatment duration was of 2 days [17].p) Group 3: (Standard group) lipidimea induced rats.Arun Kumar et al. p. STATISTICS Results are expressed as mean ± SEM. treated with Atorvastatin (7. p.w in 0.3% w/v Sodium-CMC (5 ml/kg of b. treated with Triton WR-1339 (200 mg/kg of b.. p.w in 0. Alloxan treated rats showed significant change in body www.5% NaCl solution) [17]. 1st . treated with AS leaf extract (400 mg/kg of b.w. extract (400 mg/kg of b.w. p.w in distilled water.w.o) After 30 minutes of said treatments. Blood glucose (GOD/POD method) [18] . triglyceride levels were estimated by using commercially available biochemical kits in standard procedures [19-20]. Group 1: Normal rats.

p<0.5 ± 1.Arun Kumar et al. 3rd and 4th week when compared with STZ-NA control group.001 ) when compared with alloxan control group.36 ± 3. where the value of blood glucose on 10th day being the lowest (86.001) weight gain (11.01) treatment groups when compared to the STZ-NA group.12) gm and attenuation of blood glucose levels on 2nd. Rats treated with Metformin (11.09 mg/dl.05) and elevation in blood glucose levels in all test days as compared to the normal group.001). STZ-NA treated rats showed significant (p<0.001) less than that of STZ-NA control group.001) less than that of alloxan control group. followed with a decrease in 3rd hour (117. p<0. 5 ml/kg) has no alternating effects on blood glucose levels of test rats.94 ± 3. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in normoglycemic rats Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) data for AS extracts are cited in Table 3.53 ± 3.04) gm/dl.28) gm and elevation in blood glucose levels in all test weeks as compared to the normal group.w) showed significant weight gain (3.34) mg/dl. Normal group rats (treated with demineralized water 10 ml/kg and glucose 2 gm/kg) exhibited an elevation in blood glucose level up to 2nd hour (142.w) exhibited significant (p<0.41 ± 1.87 gm.3 mg/kg b.32 mg/dl. p<0. The glucose levels in AS 200 and 400 mg/kg treated rats on 4th week were found to be 176. observed in STZ-NA induced diabetic model. From the www.16 ± 7.12 and 152.44 gm.30 ± 11.wjpps. (5. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences weight (-3.11 ± 10.25 ± 1. p. p<0. (9.56) mg/dl respectively which are significantly (p<0.w.o) for 28 days. 7th and 10th day.5% w/v sodium CMC. Treatment with vehicle (0. Streptozotocin Nicotinamide induced Diabetes Table 2 constitutes the blood glucose levels and change in body weight of test animals.36 ± 2. following the treatment with AS (200 and 400 mg/kg of b. Significant changes in body weights were observed in AS (200 mg/kg).51 gm.64 ± 10.13) mg/dl. The glucose levels in AS 200 and 400 mg/kg treated rats on 10th day were found to be (179. Treatment groups (AS 200 and 400 mg/kg) showed progressive reduction in blood glucose levels.05) and in AS (400 mg/kg).05) and marked differences in blood sugar levels on 4th.05 ± 3.03) mg/dl. p<0. where the value of blood glucose on 4th week being the lowest (112.com 3352 .001) change in body weight (-6.34) and (141. Rats treated with Gliclazide (25 mg/kg b.94 ± 3.97 ± 1. where blood glucose level on 4th week being the highest (376.54 ± 4.61 ± 6. where blood glucose level on 10th day being the highest (293.83 mg/dl respectively which are significantly (p<0. Vehicle control group followed the same increase/ decrease pattern in blood glucose levels as that of normal group. p<0.52 gm.

Similarly. Serum cholesterol (64.001) levels and elevation in serum HDL (34. triglyceride (125.3 mg/kg) and Gliclazide (25 mg/kg) treatment groups. they are the major cause of CV morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients [23].01) less as compared to the Triton control group.57 ± 6. p<0.35) mg/dl levels were attenuated significantly (p<0. reduction in serum total cholesterol (103.42 ± 6.w) treated rats were observed to be significantly less than the Triton-control group.35) mg/dl and LDL (69. Triton-induced hyperlipidemia is prominent in triton treated rats at 48th hour as.86 ± 3.2 mg/kg b. it can be inferred that. AS (200 mg/kg) treatment group showed.75± 2.53 ± 4.67 ± 6. p<0.001) when compared to normal and vehicle control group on 3rd hour.17 mg/dl. AS (400 mg/kg) treatment group exhibited significant (p<0.71 ± 2.14) mg/dl in Atorvastatin treated rats as compared to the Tritoncontrol group. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences data obtained in Metformin (11.18) gm in AS (400 mg/kg b. p<0. and together.wjpps.63 mg/dl. Triton Induced Hyperlipidemia Table 4 constitutes the data of effect of AS (200 and 400 mg/kg b.46) mg/dl. p<0. triglyceride.w. www.05) mg/dl and LDL (6.54 gm and reduced serum HDL level (18.82 gm.Arun Kumar et al.29 ± 0.58 ± 2.001) with a net weight gain of 7.17 ± 5.) on change in body weight.com 3353 . p<0. Weight gain (2.w) treated rats were found to be significantly (p<0. serum levels of total cholesterol (122.36 ± 5. AS (200 and 400 mg/kg) treatments reduced blood glucose levels in test rats significantly (p<0. Change in body weight (3. serum total cholesterol.59) mg/dl were elevated significantly (p<0.54) mg/dl and LDL (10.75 ± 0.05) and LDL (37. a prediabetic state [22] . LDL and HDL levels in Triton-induced hyperlipidemia in rats.63) mg/dl as compared to the normal rats.32 mg/dl. there are more than 150 million people with diagnosed disease and 314 million with impaired glucose tolerance.34 ± 1. Similarly.01) in Atorvastatin (7.92 ± 3.77) mg/dl levels and elevation in serum HDL (35.001) with a elevation in serum HDL level (41.06 ± 4. plays a significant role in the manifestation and development of premature atherosclerosis leading to cardiovascular (CV) disease. Dyslipidemia. the selected reference drugs attenuated blood glucose levels significantly (p<0.05) level when compared with tritoncontrol group.001) decrease in serum total cholesterol (70.04 ± 1. Presently. in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes.07 mg/dl.05) level when compared with triton-control group.001) as compared to the normal and vehicle control group on 3rd hour. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION The number of people with diabetes mellitus worldwide is increasing rapidly.

32ns body Blood glucose level Blood glucose level Blood glucose level Blood glucose level on 0 day (gm/dl) on 4th day (gm/dl) on 7th day (gm/dl) on 10th day (gm/dl) 76.43 76.001.95±11.71±7. on Blood glucose levels in STZ-NA induced diabetic rats: Group Normal STZ-NA Std (Gliclazide) AS (200 mg/kg) AS (400 mg/kg) Change in weight (gm) 14. Vehicle control Vs STZ-NA Control.66±11.29±5.00±7.05.34** 217.com 3354 .85ns 302. *: P≤0.22±14.50±7.41±1.34*** 176.06*** 376.08*** 238.33±3.35±9.22±14.38*** 292. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Table 1: Effect of Annona squamosa Linn.93*** 271.29±2.81±3.09*** 201.14±1.50±4.23 -6.39 ns 240.94±3.94±3.35*** 203.3. ns: non-significant.11±10.02*** 234. www.34*** 141.72ns 299.Arun Kumar et al.46±10. all Treatment groups.13 77. Table 2: Effect of Annona squamosa Linn.46*** 174.64 75. *: P≤0.33±10.41 268.56*** Values are expressed as mean ± SEM.39±5.39±2.45±7. n=6.59 ns 262.01. **: P≤0.05.94±3.87* 1.25±1.00±13.54±4.63±18. on Blood glucose levels in alloxan induced diabetic rats: Group Normal Alloxan Std (Metformin) AS (200 mg/kg) AS (400 mg/kg) Change in weight (gm) 4.12*** 5.04*** 112.21*** 347.26*** 182.61±6.07 80.09*** 179. all Treatment groups.34 ns 281.32 287.80±2.36 .51±9.97±1.32*** 140.16±7.93*** 180.12*** 152.00±3.05±3.wjpps. STZ-NA Control Vs.89 80.23±2. ns: non-significant.83*** Values are expressed as mean ± SEM.96±3.64±10. n=6.41 ns 290.52* 3. Vehicle control Vs Alloxan Control.41±5.30±11.89ns 302.44** body Blood glucose level Blood glucose level Blood glucose level Blood glucose level on 0th week (gm/dl) on 2nd week (gm/dl) on 3rd week (gm/dl) on 4th week (gm/dl) 77.00±10.5±1.28*** 11.001.31ns 2. ***: P≤0.53±3.32*** 79.01.22±12.89*** 180.16±11. Alloxan Control Vs. **: P≤0. ***: P≤0.51* 9.39±2.50±11.77* 214.38*** 293.32*** 86.30±0.39±17.00±9.96*** 156.

ns 2nd hour (gm/dl) 142. ns 3rd hour (gm/dl) 117. ns. ns. Normal Vs all groups: a: P≤0. d 89.51±3.wjpps. ns 80. ns.19 79.001.41±3.17 b. f.04±4.20 ns.51 ns 66. ***: P≤0.61 ns.01.93 c.10 ns.66 ns 73. www. ns.55 c. ns 75.05.05. d 75. f: P≤0.Arun Kumar et al. *. c: P≤0. ns. b: P≤0. Vehicle Vs Metformin. 69. ns 84.com 3355 .67 ns 75.41±2. Metformin Vs AS (200 mg/kg) and EEAS (400 mg/kg): *: P≤0. ns.33 ns.54±3. ns: non-significant.51±4.07 c.95±6. **: P≤0.01. ns Values are expressed as mean ± SEM. f 85. ns.69 ns.03 c.19 c.36±2.00±2. ns 76. Glicazide.01 ns.47±9.35±6.30 c. on Blood glucose levels in oral glucose tolerance test in normal rats Group Blood glucose level on Blood glucose level on Blood glucose level on Blood glucose level on 0th hour (gm/dl) 1st hour (gm/dl) 99.29 c. Glicazide Vs AS (200 mg/kg) and EEAS (400 mg/kg): #: P≤0. # # #: P≤0. ns. ns.13 151.35±2. f 81.31±6.05.01.001. ns.00±5. 81.05.36±3.33±4.55±4.001. # #: P≤0.09 97.25±7. ns Normal Vehicle Std1 (Metformin) Std2 (Gliclazide) AS (200 mg/kg) AS (400 mg/kg) 72.83±3. ns.73 c.001. f. f 78.47±5. f.01. EEAS (200 mg/kg) and EEAS (400 mg/kg): d: P≤0. e: P≤0.31±5. ns.62±5.55±6. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Table 3: Effect of Annona squamosa Linn.33±1.03 124.41 ns 70. n=6. f 80. f. ns.03 b.

01.Arun Kumar et al.07*** 10.05.35*** 37.32* LDL (gm/dl) HDL (gm/dl) weight (gm) Normal Triton Std (Atorvastatin) AS (200 mg/kg) AS (400 mg/kg) 2.44 ± 2.wjpps.69 ns 156. Triton Control Vs.05*** 103.54 ns 82.31 ± 2. www.71 ± 2. Vehicle control Vs Triton Control.001.14** 34. ***: P≤0.57 7. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Table 4: Effect of Annona squamosa Linn.92 ± 3.30±2.63* 70.145 ns 125.54*** 2.com 3356 .77*** 40. n=6.20 172.20 ± 0.18 ± 3.86±3.82** 5.53±4.51 ± 3.67 ± 6.59*** 6.86 ± 5.04 ± 1.17 ± 5. ns: non-significant.75±2.35*** 64.46*** cholesterol Triglyceride (gm/dl) 78.29 ± 0.17* 35. *: P≤0.55 18.18** Values are expressed as mean ± SEM.17±2.75 ± 0.34±1. **: P≤0.54*** 9.06±4.52 ns 3.72 122.48 69.63** 41. all Treatment groups. on Triton (WR-1339) induced hyperlipidemic model (data observed at 48th hour) Group Change in body Total (gm/dl) 65.75 ± 0.36±5.42±6.58±2.57 ± 6.

Metformin and Gliclazide has been used for many years to treat diabetes. www. These results confirmed the use of AS leaves of traditional practice as an antidiabetic. Diabetes. to stimulate insulin secretion from pancreatic cells [25]. The possible mechanism by which AS leaves brings about a decrease in blood sugar level may be by potentiation of the insulin effect of plasma by increasing either the pancreatic secretion of insulin from β-cells of the islets of Langerhans or its release from the bound form. Ghaskadbi S. Devasagayam A. that is. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences The present study was an effort to investigate the hypoglycemic and anti-Hyperlipidemic activity of the ethanolic extract of A. by the above said mechanism. 2.wjpps. Amaral JAP. Biochemistry. squamosa leaves in alloxan and STZ-NA induced diabetic animals and Triton induced hyperlipidemic rats. 25: 509–15.) in-vivo. 40(3): 163-73. cholesterol 7-αhydroxylase thereby stimulating the conversion of cholesterol to bile acid. Bierman EL.com 3357 . Additionally. Balknap BH (1975): Hyperlipidemia and diabetes mellitus. The study suggested significant anti-hyperglycemic and anti-Hyperlipidemic activity of ethanolic extract of Annona squamosa (Linn. It may be suggested that the mechanism of action of AS is similar to gliclazide. Modak M. which indicating profound lipid-lowering activity. Further comprehensive chemical and pharmacological investigations are needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of the hypoglycemic effect of AS leaves. Several researchers have reported that the lipid lowering effect of different plants may be due to mobilization of cholesterol from extra hepatic tissues to the liver where it is catabolised.Arun Kumar et al. Journal of Clin. REFERENCES 1. A number of other plants have been reported to exert hypoglycemic activity through insulin release-stimulatory effects [26-27] . It was also reported that several plants due to presence of some phytoconstituents such as (glycosides. an important pathway in the degradation of cholesterol [28] . Paul T (2007): Indian Herbs and Herbal Drugs for the treatment of Diabetes. the phytochemical screening of AS leaves reveled similar phytoconstituents which may produce significant fall in serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The continuous treatment of the extracts of AS for a period of 10 (in alloxan induced diabetes) and 28 (STZ-NA induced diabetic) days respectively produced a significant decrease in the blood sugar levels of diabetic rats. Dixit P. Londhe J. saponins and steroids) activate the rate limiting step in cholesterol catabolism.[24] The standard drug.

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