Practical No.

7
Objective: i. Introduction to Group Technology
ii. On the basis of Optiz’s classification system, develop a code for the following part

iii. Write down benefits of Group Technology

Tools & Equipment:
Computer with Office , Techniques used for Optiz’s coding system.

Theory:
GROUP TECHNOLOGY Group technology is an operations management philosophy based on the recognition that similarities occur in the design and manufacture of discrete parts. Similar parts can then be arranged into part families. To implement such a system, some form of classification of parts and coding is required. Part classification and coding is concerned with identifying the similarities and using these similarities to evolve a classification code. Similarities are of two types: design attributes (such as geometric shape and size), and manufacturing attributes (the sequence of processing steps required to make the part). In companies which employ several design engineers and manufacturing a diverse range of products, such classifications and coding has a number of other uses. One of the major benefits is avoiding the duplication of similar components. This can result in considerable savings in terms of design cost, processing cost and tooling cost. One prime necessity to realize this is to have a good design retrieval system. The parts classification and coding is required in a design retrieval system, and in computer aided process planning the process routing is developed by recognizing the specific attributes of the part and relating these attributes to the corresponding manufacturing operations. PART FAMILIES part family is a collection of parts which are similar either because of geometry and size or because similar processing steps are required in their manufacture. The parts within a family are different, but their similarities are close enough to merit their identification as members of the part family. The major

Production flow analysis iii. i. Visual inspection ii. Similar prismatic parts requiring similar milling operations Dissimilar parts requiring similar machining operations (hole drilling.obstacle in changing over to group technology from a traditional production shop is the problem of grouping parts into families. Parts classification and coding system What is desirable in a computer integrated manufacturing environment is a software which will analyze the geometric model of the part and come out with a set of alphabetic/ numeric characters which can broadly embed similarities. surface milling Identical designed parts requiring completely different manufacturing processes . There are three general methods for solving this problem.

• One of the important manufacturing advantages of grouping workparts into families can be explained with reference to figures below .

Parts classification and Coding Parts classification and coding systems can be grouped into three general types: i.Grouping Part Families There are three general methods for solving part families grouping.Visual Inspection Method • The visual inspection method is the least sophisticated and least expensive method. All the three are time consuming and involve the analysis of much of data by properly trained personnel. and other production related functions. tool design. The types of design and manufacturing attributes typically included in classification schemes are listed below: . Systems based on design attributes ii. Parts classification and coding. Systems based on part manufacturing attributes iii. Production flow analysis. 3. 1. Systems in the second category are used for computer-aided process planning. It involves the classification of parts into families by looking at either the physical parts or their photographs and arranging them into groups having similar features 2. 2. The third category represents an attempt to combine the functions and advantages of the other two systems into a single classification scheme. The three methods are: 1. Visual inspection. Systems based on both design and manufacturing attributes Systems in the first category are useful for design retrieval and to promote design standardization.

Chain-type structure. large part families can be grouped as: i. The three basic coding structures: 1. ii. However. . Spindles (long shafts. these considerations are extraneous to the process planning function. group technology can bring in considerable economy in tooling. machine specifications etc. columns etc. also known as a polycode. characterized by large L/D ratios iii.Part Design Attributes  Basic (External/Internal) shape  Axisymmetric/Prismatic/sheet metal  Length/diameter ratio  Material  Major dimensions  Minor dimensions  Tolerances  Surface finish Part Manufacturing Attributes  Major process of manufacture  Surface treatments/coatings  Machine tool/processing equipment  Cutting tools  Operation sequence  Production time  Batch quantity  Production rate  Fixtures needed If we take a look at a machine tool manufacturing industry. Gears. The classification of components in groups can lead to formation of cells where similar components are machined. Non-rounds (small prismatic parts) v. it does not depend on the value of the preceding symbols.beds. screw rods included) iv. Heavy parts . set up time. in which the interpretation of each symbol in the sequence is always the same. disc type parts (whose L/D ratios are small) From the manufacturing point of view. Shafts. part changeover times.

2. . also known as a monocode. Hierarchical structure. a combination of hierarchical and chain-type structures. Hybrid structure. 3. in which the interpretation of each successive symbol depends on the value of the preceding symbols.

& sequence .Opitz Classification and Coding System • It is intended for machined parts and uses the following digits sequence • Form Code 1 2 3 4 5 for design attributes • Supplementary Code 6789 for manufacturing attributes • Secondary Code A B C D for production operation type .

Digits (1-5) for Rotational parts in the Opitz System .

The procedure of Production flow analysis (PFA) consists of the following steps: • Data Collection.3. Clustering Analysis. Work parts with identical or similar process plans are classified into part families. From the pattern of data in the PFA chart. .Production Flow Analysis (PFA) • • • • Production flow analysis (PFA) is a method for identifying part families and associated machine groupings that uses the information contained on process plans rather than on part drawings. The processes used for each group are then displayed in a PFA chart as shown below. • PFA Chart. which is obtained from process plans. These families can then be used to form logical machine cells in a group technology layout. related groupings are identified and rearranged into a new pattern that brings together groups with similar machine sequences. which means deciding on the population of parts to be analyzed. The minimum data needed in the analysis are the part number and operation sequence. A sortation procedure is used to group parts with identical process plans. The procedure in production flow analysis must begin by defining the scope of the study. • Sortation of process plans.

etc.Activity: On the basis of Optiz part coding System develope a code for the following part: Solution: • • • • • Length-to-diameter ratio: L/D = 1. gear teeth.: none Digit 5 = 0 The form code in the Optiz system is 15100 .5 Digit 1 = 1 External shape: both ends stepped with screw thread on one end Digit 2 = 5 Internal shape: part contains a through hole Digit 3 = 1 Plane surface machining: none Digit 4 = 0 Auxiliary holes.

a manufacturing company will typically realize the following benefits: Product engineering Reduce part proliferation Help design standardization Provide manufacturing feed back Manufacturing engineering – Process selection Tool selection Machine purchases Material handling Production engineering Reduce lead time Reduce delays Reduce set-up time Improve product quality Production planning and control Group scheduling Stock accountability Reduce expediting Improved product design Reduced materials handling Better employee satisfaction Other benefits: • Increased productivity . The likely impact of group technology can be seen in Table When group technology is applied.BENEFITS OF GROUP TECHNOLOGY Implementation of group technology results in more focused factories.

• Improved accuracy in estimation of costs • Greater standardization and variety reduction • Reduced set up times • Better product delivery (Helps to implement just-in-time (JIT) manufacturing) • Reduced cost of purchasing • Improved plant efficiency .