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lIrn'k v/;k; %'

lIrn'kks·/;k;%
vtqZu mokpµ
;s 'kkL=fof/keqRl`T; ;tUrs J¼;kfUork%A
rs"kka fu"Bk rq dk Ï".k lÙoekgks jtLre%AAƒAA
vUo;µvtqZu% mokp (vtqZus dgk) Ï".k (gs Ï".k!) ;s (tks)
'kkL=fof/ke~ ('kkL=dh fof/kdks) mRl`T; (R;kxdj) J¼;kfUork%
(J¼k;qä gksdj) ;tUrs (iwtk vkfn djrs gSa) rs"kke~ rq (mudh) fu"Bk
dk (fLFkfr D;k gS) lÙoe~ (lkfÙodh) vkgks (vFkok) jt% re% (jktlh
;k rkelh)AAƒAA
vuqoknµvtqZuus dgkµgs Ï".k! tks yksx 'kkL=dh fof/k;ksadks R;kxdj
J¼k;qä gksdj iwtk bR;kfn djrs gSa] mudh fu"Bk ;k fLFkfr D;k gS\ os
lkfÙod vFkok jktfld ;k rkefld D;k gSa\AAƒAA
Jhfo'oukFkµ vFk lIrn'ks oLrq lkfÙoda jktla rFkkA
rkel´p fofoP;ksäa ikFkZ iz'uksÙkja ;FkkAA
uUoklqjlxZeqDRok rnqilagkjs ^^;% 'kkL=fof/keqRl`T; oÙkZrs dkepkjr%A
u l flf¼eokIuksfr u lq[ka u ijka xfre~AA** bfr Ro;ksäe~] r=kgfena
ftKkls bR;kgµ;s bfrA ;s 'kkL=fof/keqRl`T; dkepkjrks oÙkZUrs] fdUrq
dkeHkksxjfgrk ,o J¼;kfUork% lUrks ;tUrs riks;K&Kku;K&ti;Kkfnda
dqoZfUr] rs"kka dk fu"Bk fLFkfr% fdekyEcufeR;FkZ%A rr~ fda lÙoe~]
vkgksfLor~ jt% vFkok reLrn~czwghR;FkZ%AAƒAA
HkkokuqoknµvtqZuds iz'uds mÙkjesa JhHkxoku~us lkfÙod] jktfld
vkSj rkefld oLrqds fo"k;esa crk;k gSA
vtqZu iwNrs gSaµvPNk] vklqj lxZ (mRifÙk) ds fo"k;esa crkusds
ckn mlds milagkjesa vkius dgk fd tks yksx 'kkL=fof/kdk mYyÐudj
LosPNkpkjesa izo`Ùk gksrs gSa] os flf¼] lq[k vFkok ijexfr ugha izkIr
dj ikrs gSaA (xhrk ƒˆ@„…) ;gk¡ eSa ;g iz'u djrk gw¡ fd tks
'kkL=fof/kdk mYyÐudj LosPNkpkjesa izo`Ùk gksrs gSa] fdUrq dkeds Hkksxls

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%  JheÚxoåhrk %(

jfgr rFkk J¼k;qä gksdj ^;tUrs* vFkkZr~ riks;K] Kku;K] ti;K


vkfndk vuq"Bku djrs gSa] mudh ^fu"Bk* vFkkZr~ fLFkfr D;k gS vFkkZr~
vkyEcu D;k gS\ og lÙo gS vFkok jt% vFkok re%] ;g ÏikiwoZd
crkosaAAƒAA
lk- o- izdkf'kdk o`fÙkµ^^bruk lqudj vtqZuus dgkµgs Ï".k! eq>s
la'k; mifLFkr gqvkA vkius xhrk (†@…‹) esa dgk fd J¼koku~ yksx
gh Kku izkIr djrs gSa] iqu% xhrk (ƒˆ@„…) esa dgk fd tks 'kkL=fofèkdks
R;kxdj dkeukds lkFk (deZesa) izo`Ùk gksrs gSa] mudks flf¼] lq[k ;k
ijkxfr ugha izkIr gksrh gSA ;gk¡ iz'u gksrk gS fd ;fn J¼k 'kkL=ds
foijhr:iesa (vuq'khfyr) gks] rks D;k gksrk gS\ bl izdkjds J¼koku~
yksx Kku;ksx vkfndk Qy tks lÙola'kqf¼ gS] D;k mls ugha izkIr
djrs gSa\ vr,o eq>s Li"V:ils crkosa fd tks 'kkL=fof/kdk ifjR;kxdj
J¼kiwoZd Hktu djrs gSa] mudh fu"Bkdks D;k lkfÙodh dgk tk,xk
vFkok jktlh ;k rkelh\**µJhHkfäfouksn BkdqjAAƒAA
JhHkxokuqokpµ
f=fo/kk Hkofr J¼k nsfguka lk LoHkkotkA
lkfÙodh jktlh pSo rkelh psfr rka Ük`.kqAA„AA
vUo;µJhHkxoku~ mokp (JhHkxoku~us dgk) nsfguke~ (euq";ksadh)
J¼k (J¼k) lkfÙodh (lkfÙodh) jktlh p ,o (vkSj jktlh) rkelh
p (vkSj rkelh) bfr (;s) f=fo/kk Hkofr (rhu izdkjdh gksrh gS)
lk (og) J¼k (J¼k) LoHkkotk (izkphu laLdkjls mRiék gS) rke~
Ük`.kq (mls Jo.k djks)AA„AA
vuqoknµJhHkxoku~us dgkµeuq";ksadh J¼k rhu izdkjdh gksrh gSµ
lkfÙodh] jktlh vkSj rkelhA og iwoZtUeksads laLdkjls mRiék gksrh gS] mls
lquksAA„AA
Jhfo'oukFkµHkks vtqZu! izFkea 'kkL=fof/keuqRl`T; ;trka fu"Bka Ük`.kq]
i'pkr~ 'kkL=fof/kR;kfxuka fu"Bka rs o{;kehR;kgµf=fo/ksfrA LoHkko%
izkphulaLdkjfo'ks"kLrLekTtkrk J¼k] lk p f=fo/kkAA„AA
Hkkokuqoknµgs vtqZu! igys mudh fu"Bk Jo.k djks tks 'kkL=dh
fof/k;ksadk mYya?ku ugha dj Hktu djrs gSaA cknesa bu fof/k;ksadk
mYya?kudj Hktu djusokyksadh fu"Bk dgw¡xkA ^LoHkkotk* dk rkRi;Z
gSµizkphu laLdkjls mRiék J¼kA ;g Hkh rhu izdkjdh gSAA„AA

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%(! lIrn'k v/;k; % 

lk- o- izdkf'kdk o`fÙkµtks yksx 'kkL=h; fof/k&fo/kkuksadks d"Vdj


tkudj vFkok vkyL;o'k 'kkL=h; fof/k;ksadk ifjR;kxdj LosPNkiwoZd
dsoy iwoZ tUeksads laLdkjls mfnr ykSfdd J¼kiwoZd vU;kU;
nsoh&nsorkvksadh iwtk djrs gSa] mudh J¼k rhu izdkjdh gksrh
gSµlkfÙodh] jktlh vkSj rkelhA fdUrq] 'kkL=fon~ 'kq¼ HkDrksads
vkuqxR;esa HkxoÚfäds vuq'khyuesa tks J¼k ns[kh tkrh gS] og fuxqZ.kk
gksrh gSA blesa Hkh ,d fopkj ;g gS fd izkjfEHkd voLFkkesa Hkfälkèkddh
;g J¼k lkfÙodh gks ldrh gS] fdUrq lk/kqlÂds izHkkols og 'kh?kz
gh fuxqZ.kk J¼kds :iesa izfrf"Br gks tkrh gSA ml le; og 'kkL=ksads
fof/k&fo/kkuksadk leqfpr :ils ikyu djrk gqvk J¼kiwoZd gfjuke
vkSj gfjdFkkdk Jo.k&dhÙkZu&Lej.k djrk gqvk vxzlj gksus yxrk
gSAA„AA
lÙokuq:ik loZL; J¼k Hkofr HkkjrA
J¼ke;ks·;a iq#"kks ;ks ;PNzª¼% l ,o l%AA…AA
vUo;µHkkjr (gs Hkkjr!) loZL; J¼k (lcdh J¼k) lÙokuq:ik
(vUr%dj.kds vuq:i) Hkofr (gksrh gS) v;e~ iq#"k% (;g iq#"k)
J¼ke;% (J¼koku~ gS) ;% (tks O;fä) ;PNª¼% (tSlh iwT; oLrqesa
J¼koku~ gS) l% (og O;fä Hkh) l% ,o (oSlk gh gS)AA…AA
vuqoknµgs Hkkjr! lcdh J¼k vius vius vUr%dj.kds vuq:i
gksrh gSA ;g iq#"k J¼ke; gS] vr,o tks O;fä tSlh iwT; oLrqesa J¼k
djrk gS] og Hkh oSlk gh fpÙkokyk gksrk gSAA…AA
Jhfo'oukFkµlÙoeUr%dj.ka f=fo/ke~µlkfÙoda] jktla] rkel´p]
rnuq:ik lkfÙodkUr%dj.kkuka lkfÙoD;so J¼k] jktlkUr%dj.kkuka
jktL;so] rkelkUr%dj.kkuka rkeL;sosR;FkZ%A ;PNª¼% ;fLeu~ ;tuh;s
nsos·lqjs jk{kls ok J¼koku~ ;ks Hkofr] l ,o Hkofr rÙkPNCnsuSo
O;ifn';r bR;FkZ%AA…AA
Hkkokuqoknµ^lÙoe~* vFkkZr~ vUr%dj.k rhu izdkjdk gSµlkfÙod]
jktfld vkSj rkefldA rnuq:i lkfÙod vUr%dj.kokysdh J¼k
lkfÙodh gksrh gS] jktfld vUr%dj.kdh jktlh rFkk rkefld
vUr%dj.kdh rkelhA ^;PNª¼%*µftldk ;tuh; tks gksrk gS] og Hkh
oSlk gh gksrk gS vFkkZr~ nsork vlqj ;k jk{kl vkfndks iwtusokys Øe'k%
oSls gh gksrs gSaA ^rr~&rr~* 'kCnls ;gh fufnZ"V gksrk gSAA…AA

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% JheÚxoåhrk %("

lk- o- izdkf'kdk o`fÙkµthoksads 'kq¼Lo:iesa tks J¼k ;k jfr gksrh


gS] og vkRexr vFkkZr~ Lo:ixr gksrh gSA og Lo:ixr J¼k dsoy
Hkxor~&fo"k;d gksrh gSA ogh J¼k fuxqZ.kk gksrh gSA fdUrq] o¼koLFkkesa
thoksadk Lo:ixr LoHkko foÏr gks tkrk gS] ml le; izÏfrds lalxZls
'kqHkk'kqHk deks±ds dkj.k foÏr J¼k ftl dksfVds iwT;ds izfr fu;qä
gksrh gS] mlhds vuq:i og lkfÙodh] jktlh vkSj rkelh J¼kds :iesa
tkuh tkrh gSA
^^gs Hkkjr! lHkh yksx J¼ke; gSaA ftl iq#"kdk tSlk lÙo
(vUr%dj.k) gS] mldh J¼k Hkh oSlh gh gSA ftldh ftlesa J¼k
gS] og Hkh oSlk gh gSA ewy rÙo ;g gS fd tho LoHkkor% esjk
va'k gS] vr,o og fuxqZ.k gSA tks tho eq>ls viuk lEcU/k Hkwy
x;k gS] og lxq.k gks x;k gSA bl c¼n'kkds izos'kdkyesa izkphu laLdkjo'k
mldk ,d lxq.k LoHkko gqvk gS] ml LoHkkols gh mldk vUr%dj.k
xfBr gqvk gSA ml vUr%dj.kdks gh lÙo dgrs gSaA lÙola'kqf¼ gh
vHk; in gSA la'kq¼ lÙodh J¼k gSµfuxqZ.kk HkfDrcht ,oa v'kq¼
lÙodh J¼k gSµlxq.kkA J¼k tc rd fuxqZ.kk vFkok fuxqZ.kkdks mís';
djusokyh ugha gS] rc rd mldk gh uke dke gSA dkekfRedk lxq.kk
J¼kdh O;k[;k dj jgk gw¡] Jo.k djksA**µJhHkfDrfouksn BkdqjAA…AA
;tUrs lkfÙodk nsoku~ ;{kj{kkafl jktlk%A
izsrkUHkwrx.kka'pkU;s ;tUrs rkelk tuk%AA†AA
vUo;µlkfÙodk% tuk% (lkfÙod xq.kokys yksx) nsoku~ ;tfUr
(lÙo izÏfrokys nsorkvksadh iwtk djrs gSa) jktlk% (jtksxq.kokys yksx)
;{kj{kkafl (jtksxq.kh ;{k vkSj jk{klksadh iwtk djrs gSa) vU;s rkel%
(vU; reksxq.kokys yksx) izsrku~ Hkwrx.kku~ p (reksxq.kokys Hkwr&izsrksadh)
;tUrs (iwtk djrs gSa)AA†AA
vuqoknµlkfÙod xq.kokys yksx nsorkvksadh iwtk djrs gSa] tks fd
lkfÙod gSa] jtksxq.kokys yksx ;{k vkSj jk{klksadh iwtk djrs gSa] tks fd
jktlh gSa rFkk reksxq.kokys yksx Hkwr&izsrksadh iwtk djrs gSa] tks fd rkelh
gSaAA†AA
Jhfo'oukFkµmäeFk± Li"V;frµlkfÙodkUr%dj.kk% lkfÙoD;k J¼;k
lkfÙod'kkL=fof/kuk lkfÙodku~ nsokuso ;tUrs] nsos"oso J¼koRokr~ nsok
,oksP;UrsA ,oa jktlk jktlkUr%dj.kk% bR;kfn foofjrO;e~AA†AA

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%(#$ lIrn'k v/;k; % !

Hkkokuqoknµigys dgh xbZ ckrdks Li"V djrs gq, cksy jgs gSaµ
lkfÙod vUr%dj.kokys yksx lkfÙodh J¼k }kjk lkfÙod 'kkL=dh
fof/kds vuqlkj lkfÙod nsorkvksadks iwtrs gSaA nsorkvksads izfr J¼koku~
gksusds dkj.k os Hkh nsork gh dgykrs gSaA blh izdkj jktfld vkSj
rkefld vUr%dj.kokyksads fy, Hkh le>uk pkfg,AA†AA
lk- o- izdkf'kdk o`fÙkµbl 'yksdesa Hkxoku~ ykSfddh J¼kls fofHkék
nsorkvksadh iwtk djusokyksadh J¼kdk izdkj Hksn crk jgs gSaA 'kkL=ds
vuqlkj dsoy Hkxoku~ gh iwtuh; gSaA fdUrq] ukuk izdkjdh ykSfdd
dkeukvksals ifjpkfyr gksdj tks yksx fofHkék nsorkvksa ;k oLrqvksadh
iwtk djrs gSa] mudh J¼k rhu izdkjdh gksrh gSµlkfÙodh] jktlh
vkSj rkelhA tks yksx lkfÙodh J¼kokys gSa] os czãk] f'ko] bUnz] pUnz
lw;Z vkfndh iwtk djrs gSaA mlh izdkj ftudh J¼k jktlh gksrh gS]
os nqxkZ] ;{k] jk{kl vkfndh iwtk djrs gSa rFkk rkelh J¼kokys O;fä
Hkwr&izsr vkfndh iwtk djrs gSaA dHkh&dHkh ,d gh nsorkdh iwtk rhuksa
xq.kksaesa gksrh gSA tSls izy;ds le; ekdZ.Ms;th }kjk f'kothdh vkjkèkuk
rFkk dkxHkq"kqf.Mthds }kjk f'kothdh vkjk/kuk lkfÙodh gS] ftlds }kjk
ekdZ.Ms;th ,d dYi rd thfor jgs rFkk fo'odh l`f"V bR;kfndk
mUgsa Kku gqvk ,oa dkxHkq"kqf.Mthdks JhjkepUnzthdh Hkfä izkIr gqbZA
ok.kklqj] jko.k vkfnds }kjk dh xbZ f'kodh vkjk/kuk jktlh gS rFkk
HkLeklqj vkfnds }kjk dh xbZ vkjk/kuk rkelh gSA blh izdkj nqxkZ
vkfndh iwtkesa Hkh rhuksa izdkjdh J¼kvksadk lfEeJ.k ns[kk tkrk gSA
fdUrq] lRlÂds izHkkols bu rhuksa izdkjdh J¼k,¡ Øe'k% rkelhls jktlh]
jktlhls lkfÙodh vkSj lkfÙodhls fuxqZ.kkds :iesa cny ldrh gSA
fufoZ'ks"kokfn;ksadh J¼k Hkh lkfÙodh gksrh gSA os czãdks fujkdkj]
fufoZ'ks"k bR;kfn ekurs gSaA blfy, os ik¡p nsorkvksads :idh dYiukdj
mudh iwtk djrs gSA blls os fpÙkdh 'kqf¼ rFkk cknesa Kku izkIr
djusdh ps"Vk djrs gSaAA†AA
v'kkL=fofgra ?kksja rI;Urs ;s riks tuk%A
nEHkkgÁkjla;qäk% dkejkxcykfUork%AA‡AA
d'kZ;Ur% 'kjhjLFka Hkwrxzkeepsrl%A
ek´pSokUr%'kjhjLFka rku~ fo¼îklqjfu'p;ku~AAˆAA
vUo;µnEHk] vgÁkj&la;qäk% (nEHk vkSj vgÁkjls ;qä)

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% " JheÚxoåhrk %(#$

dke&jkx&cykfUork% (dke] jkx vkSj cy;qä) ;s vpsrl% tuk% (tks


vfoosdh yksx) 'kjhjLFke~ ('kjhjesa fLFkr) Hkwrxzkee~ (Hkwrlewgdks)
vUr%'kjhjLFke~ (vUr%'kjhjesa fLFkr) eke~ p ,o (eq>s) d'kZ;Ur% (Ï'k
vFkkZr~ {kh.kdj) v'kkL=fofgre~ (v'kkL=h; fof/kls) ?kksje~ ri% (dfBu
riL;k) rI;Urs (djrs gSa) rku~ (mudks) vlqjfu'p;ku~ (vklqfjd
/keZesa fuf"Br) fof¼ (tkuks)AA‡&ˆAA
vuqoknµnEHk] vgÁkj] dke] vklfä vkSj cyls ;qä tks vfoosdh
yksx 'kjhjesa fLFkr Hkwrlewgdks rFkk vUr%dj.kesa fLFkr eq>s {kh.kdj
v'kkL=h; fof/kls dfBu riL;k djrs gSa] mudks vklqfjd /keZesa fuf"Br
tkuksAA‡&ˆAA
Jhfo'oukFkµ;Ùo;k i`"Vaµ^^;S 'kkL=fof/keqRl`T; (dkeHkksxjfgrk%)
J¼;k ;tUrs rs"kka dk fu"Bk** bfr] rL;ksÙkje/kquk Ük`f.oR;kgµv'kkL=sfr
}kH;ke~A ?kksja izkf.kHk;dja riLrI;Urs dqoZUrhR;qiy{k.kfena
ti;kxkfndeI;'kkL=h;a dqoZfUrA dkekpj.k&jkfgR;a J¼kfUorRo´p Lor
,o yH;rsA nEHkkgÁkjla;qäk bfrµnEHkkgÁkjkH;ka fouk 'kkL=fo/;qYyÐ&
ukuqiiÙks%] ^dke%* LoL;ktjkejRojkT;k|fHkyk"k%] jkxLriL;klfä%] ^cya*
fgj.;df'kiqizHk`rhukfeo ri%dj.klkeF;±] rSjfUork% 'kjhjLFkekjEHkdRosu
nsgfLFkre~A Hkwrkuka i`fFkO;knhuka xzkea lewga d"kZ;Ur% d`'khdqoZUrks ek´p
ena'kHkwra tho´p nq%[k;Ur%A vklqjfu'p;ku~ vlqjk.kkeso fu"Bk;ka
fLFkrkfuR;FkZ%AA‡&ˆAA
Hkkokuqoknµgs vtqZu! rqeus iwNkµgs Ï".k! tks yksx 'kkL=dh
fofèk;ksadks R;kxdj J¼k;qä gksdj iwtk bR;kfn djrs gSa] mudh fLFkfr
D;k gS\ os lkfÙod vFkok jktfld ;k rkefld D;k gSa\
vc ^v'kkL=* bR;kfn nks 'yksdksaesa bldk mÙkj lquksA tks ^?kksj*
vFkkZr~ izkf.k;ksadks Hk; nsusokys riL;k vkfndk vuq"Bku djrs gSa] blds
miy{k.kesa tks v'kkL=h; ti&;K vkfndks Hkh djrs gSa] muesa
dke&vkpj.kdk R;kx vkSj J¼k LOkr% gh ikbZ tkrh gSA nEHk vkSj
vgÁkjds fcuk 'kkL=fof/kdk mYya?ku ugha gks ldrk gSA ^dke%*µvius
vtjRo] vejRo vkSj jkT; vkfndh vfHkyk"kk] ^jkx%*µriL;kesa
vklfä] ^cy*µfgj.kdf'kiq vkfn dh Hkk¡fr riL;k djusdk lkeF;Zµtks
bu lcls ;qä gSa] os ^'kjhjLFka*µvkjEHkdkyesa gh nsgesa fLFkr

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%(% lIrn'k v/;k; % #

^Hkwrxzkea*µHkwr (i`Foh vkfn) ^xzkea* (lewg) dks Ï'k ({kh.k) djrs gSa
,oa eq>s rFkk esjs va'kHkwr thokRekdks Hkh nq%[k iznku djrs gSaA ,sls
O;fä vklqjh fu"Bkesa fLFkr gksrs gSaAA‡&ˆAA
lk- o- izdkf'kdk o`fÙkµJhÏ".k ;gk¡ vtqZudks ;g crk jgs gSa fd
tks yksx viuh dkeukvksadh iw£Ùkds fy, 'kkL=&fof/k;ksadk mYya?kudj
v'kkL=h; ?kksj riL;k vkfn djrs gSa] mudk og miokl] riL;k vkfn
iwokZsä lkfÙodh] jktlh vkSj rkelhls cfgHkwZr gksrk gSA ,sls yksx cMs+
eUnHkkxh gksrs gSaA ;s yksx ik[kf.M;ksads lÂ&izHkkols 'kkL=&fo#¼
yksdHk;adj riL;k djrs gSaA ,slh riL;kesa o`Fkk d"Vdj miokl] vius
nsgds ekal }kjk gkse] ujcfy] i'kqcfy vkfn fgalkRed deks±ds }kjk
viuh vkRek rFkk ijekRekdks Hkh Dys'k iznku djrs gSaA ,sls yksxksadks
Øwj LoHkkofof'k"V vlqj gh le>uk pkfg,A vktdy dqN yksx LokFkZo'k
vFkok jktuSfrd dk;ks±ls v'kkL=h; miokl vkfn ozr /kkj.k djrs
gSaA 'kkL=ksaesa ikjekfFkZd uhfrds fy, gh miokldh fof/k nh xbZ gS]
jktuSfrd ;k lkekftd uhfrds fy, ughaA ,dkn'kh ozrds fnu futZyk
ozr j[kdj gfjdhÙkZuds ek/;els jkf= tkxj.kdk fo/kku 'kkL=ksaesa ns[kk
tkrk gS] fdUrq vktdy yksx 'kkL=h; fof/k;ksadk mYya?kudj
e|&ekaldk lsoudj ukuk izdkjds dqfRlr vkSj vHknz xkus xkdj
jkf= tkxj.k djrs gSaA ,slk jkf= tkxj.k Hkh f=fo/k izdkjdh J¼kvksals
cfgHkwZr vkSj Dys'knk;h gSA ,sls miokl vkSj tkxj.k tufgrdj Hkh
ugha gSaA oLrqr% ;s yksx xoZ] vgÁkj] dke vkSj HkkSfrd Hkksxds izfr
vR;klfäds dkj.k ,slk djrs gSaA blds }kjk 'kjhjdks Hkh o`Fkk d"V
fn;k tkrk gSA blls Lo;a ,oa nwljksadh Hkh 'kkfUr Hkax gksrh gSA dHkh&dHkh
,sls gBiwoZd mioklksads }kjk e`R;q Hkh gks tkrh gSA ,sls yksx iqu%
iqu% vklqjh ;ksfu;ksaesa HkVdrs gq, nq%[k ikrs gSaA nSoo'k 'kq¼ Hkäksadk
lax ikusls mudk Hkh dY;k.k gks ldrk gSA uydqcsj&ef.kxzho] egkjkt
lqjr vkfn blds mnkgj.k gSaAA‡&ˆAA
vkgkjLRofi loZL; f=fo/kks Hkofr fiz;%A
;KLriLrFkk nkua rs"kka Hksnfeea Ük`.kqAA‰AA
vUo;µloZL; (lcdks) vkgkj% rq vfi (vkgkj Hkh) f=fo/k% (rhu
izdkjdk) fiz;% Hkofr (fiz; gksrk gS) rFkk (oSls) ;K% (;K) ri%

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% $ JheÚxoåhrk %(%

(riL;k) nkue~ (nku) ýrhu izdkjds gSaþ rs"kke~ (mu lcds) be~e~
Hksne~ (bl Hksndks) Ük`.kq (lquks)AA‰AA
vuqoknµtSls vkgkj Hkh lcdks rhu izdkjdk fiz; gksrk gS] oSls gh
;K] riL;k vkSj nku Hkh rhu izdkjds gksrs gSaA mu lcds bl Hksndks
lquksAA‰AA
Jhfo'oukFkµrnsoa ;s 'kkL=fof/kR;kfxu% dkepkjs.k oÙkZUrs iwokZ/;k;ksäk%]
;s pkfLeék/;k;s vklqj'kkL=fof/kuk ;{kj{kizsrknhu~ ;tUrs] ;s pk'kkL=h;a
ri&vkfnda dqoZfUr rs losZ vklqjlxZe/;xrk ,o HkoUrhfr izdj.kkFkZ%
rFkkI;kgkjknhuka o{;ek.kkuka =Sfo/;kÙk}rka ;Fkk;ksxa nSoeklqj´p lx±
Lo;eso fofoP; tkuhghR;kgµvkgkjfLRoR;kfn =;ksn'kfHk%AA‰AA
Hkkokuqoknµbl izdkj fiNys v/;k;esa dfFkr ^tks 'kkL=fof/kdk
R;kxdj LosPNkpkjh gksrs gSa* ,oa bl v/;k;esa dfFkr ^vklqfjd
'kkL=fof/kds vuqlkj ;{k&jk{kl&izsr vkfndh iwtk djrs gSa*µ;s lHkh
vklqj Js.khesa gh izof"V gksrs gSa] ;gh bl izdj.kdk vFkZ gSA rFkkfi]
dgs tkusokys vkgkj vkfnds rhu Hksn gksusds dkj.k muds nSo vkSj
vklqj Js.kh dh foospuk Lo;a dj ysuh pkfg,A blhfy, ^vkgkjLrq*
bR;kfn rsjg 'yksd dgs tk jgs gSaAA‰AA
lk- o- izdkf'kdk o`fÙkµHkxoku~ JhÏ".k J¼kdk fo"k; o.kZudj
vkgkj] ;K vkfnds fo"k;esa fo'ks"k:ils crkusds fy, buds Hkh rhu&rhu
Hksn crk, gSaA tks yksx ftl xq.kls ;qä gksrs gSa] mudh oSls gh vkgkjesa
#fp] oSls ;K] ri vkSj nkuesa Hkh #fp ns[kh tkrh gSA oÙkZeku le;esa
dqN yksx ,slk le>rs gSa fd vkgkjds lkFk /keZdk dksbZ lEcU/k ugha
gSA dqN yksx ,slk Hkh le>rs gSa fd ^'kjhjek|a [kyq /keZlk/kue~* vFkkZr~
'kjhj&j{kk gh lc izdkjds /keZ&lk/kuksadk ewy gSA ;gk¡ ;g fopkj.kh;
gS fd tks yksx bfUnz;&riZ.k ;k fo"k;&Hkksxdks gh euq"; thoudk ,dek=
mís'; le>rs gSa] os yksx bfUnz;&r`fIrds fy, e|] ekal] v.Ms ;gk¡
rd fd xksekal vkfn [kkusesa gh vf/kd r`fIrdk vuqHko djrs gaSA
fdUrq] lkSHkkX;o'k ftu yksxksaus ,slk le> fy;k gS fd fo"k;&Hkksxdh
izo`fÙkus gh thoksadks ek;kds cU/kuesa Mkyk gS vkSj ek;kds }kjk c¼
gksusds QyLo:i tho tUe&tUekUrjksaesa ukuk izdkjds Dys'k Hkksx jgk
gS vkSj mu lkjs Dys'kksals fuo`Ùk gksusds fy, fo"k;&Hkksxdh Li`gkdk
otZu djuk vR;Ur vko';d gS] os yksx ekuo thouesa gh loZizFke

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%(% lIrn'k v/;k; % %

'kq¼ lkfÙod vkgkj xzg.k djusdh vko';drk le>rs gSaA os ek;kds


f=xq.kksadks ikj djusds fy, loZizFke jtksxq.kds }kjk reksxq.k] lRoxq.kds
}kjk jtksxq.k vkSj fuxqZ.kds }kjk ekf;d lRoxq.kdks /oal djusdh ps"Vk
djrs gSaA lk/kq&lUrksa vkSj 'kkL=ksaus euksfuxzgdks gh /keZlk/kudh tM+
crk;k gSA nsgds lkFk eudk fudVre lEcU/k gS] blfy, tSlk [kk|
gksrk gS] mlhds vuq:i ekufld o`fÙk Hkh vPNh ;k cqjh izLrqr gksrh
gSµ,slk loZ= gh n`f"Vxkspj gks jgk gSA ,sls v[kk| vkSj vklqjh [kk|ksadks
xzg.kdj vkt fo'ods vf/kdka'k yksx O;fHkpkj] Ny] diVrk vkSj
fgalkds dk;ks±esa fyIr gks jgs gSa] lnkpkj ukedh dksbZ Hkh pht ugha
jgh gSA blfy, foosdoku~ yksxksadks lksp&fopkjdj ,sls gh Hkkstu xzg.k
djusdh ps"Vk djuh pkfg,] ftlls 'kjhj&iqf"Vds lkFk&lkFk fueZy
cqf¼o`fÙkdh Hkh iqf"V gksA
blhfy, Hkxoku~us rhu izdkjds xq.kksadks izdk'k djusokys rhu izdkjds
vkgkjksadk o.kZu fd;k gSA tks yksx lkfÙod xq.kksadk vkJ; xzg.k djuk
pkgrs gSa] jktfld vkSj rkefld vkgkjksaeas #fp ugha gksdj lkfÙod
[kk|ksaesa gh mudh #fp ns[kh tkrh gSA
Jhjkekuqtkpk;Zthus bl 'yksddh Vhdkesa vkgkjds fo"k;esa Jqfr;ksals
nks izek.k izLrqr fd, gSaµ(d) véke;a fg lkSE; eu% ([k) vkgkj
'kq¼kS lÙo'kqf¼%A blls ;g lgt gh le>k tk ldrk gS fd Jqfr;ksaus
Hkh gesa lko/kku fd;k gS fd vkgkj&'kqf¼ls gh vUr%dj.kdh 'kqf¼
gksrh gSA blfy, gesa 'kkL=fuf"k¼ [kk|ksads ifjR;kxdh vko';drk gSA
JheÚkxoresa vkSj Hkh Li"V:ils JhÏ".kus Lo;a gh crk;k gSµ
^iF;a iwreuk;Lrekgk;± lkfÙoda Le`re~A
jktla psfUnz;isz"Ba rkela pk£Ùknk'kqfpAA*
(JheÚk- ƒƒ@„‡@„Š)
vFkkZr~] lc izdkjls fgrdj] ifo=] vuk;kl gh izkIr vkgkj lkfÙod
gksrk gSA vf/kd dVq] vEy] yo.k vkfnls ;qä bfUnz;&r`fIrdj vkgkj
jktfld gS] fxM+fxM+kdj ek¡xk x;k vkSj vifo= vkgkj rkefld gksrk
gS] fdUrq 'kkL= fofgr] eq>s fuosfnr [kk| inkFkZ fuxqZ.k gksrk gSA 'yksdesa
fn, x, ^p*&dkjds }kjk Jhy pØorhZ Bkdqj vkSj Jh/kjLokeh nksuksaus
Hkxoku~dks fuosfnr oLrqvksadks fuxqZ.k ekuk gSA tks yksx bu 'kkL=h;
fof/k;ksadk mYya?kudj LosPNkpkjiwoZd tSls&rSls vifo= vkgkj xzg.k
djrs gSa] mudks vklqj Js.khds vUrxZr gh ekuuk gksxkAA‰AA

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% & JheÚxoåhrk %(&

vk;q%lÙocykjksX;lq[kizhfrfoo¼Zuk% A
jL;k% fLuX/kk% fLFkjk â|k vkgkjk% lkfÙodfiz;k%AAŠAA
vUo;µvk;q%&lÙo&cykjksX;&lq[kizhfrfoo¼Zuk% (vk;q] mRlkg] cy]
vkjksX;] lq[k vkSj izhfro¼Zd) jL;k% (jl;qä) fLuX/kk% (fLuX/k) fLFkjk%
(fLFkj xq.kokys) â|k% (euksje) vkgkjk% (vkgkjlewg) lkfÙodfiz;k%
(lkfÙod yksxksadks fiz; gksrs gSa)AAŠAA
vuqoknµvk;q] mRlkg] cy] vkjksX;] lq[k vkSj izhfr c<+kusokys
jl;qä] fLuX/k] LFkk;h] ân;xzkgh vkgkjlewg lkfÙod izÏfrokyksadks fiz;
gksrs gSaAAŠAA
Jhfo'oukFkµvk;qfjfrµlkfÙodkgkjorkek;qoZ¼Zrs bfr izflf¼%]
lÙoeqRlkgks jL;k bfr dsoyxqMknhuka jL;Ros·fi :{kRoer vkgµ
fLuX/kk bfr] nqX/kQsuknhuka jL;RofLuX/kRos·I;LFkS;Zer vkgµfLFkjk bfr]
iulQyknhuka jL;RofLuX/kRofLFkjRos·fi ânqnjk|fgrRoer vkgµâ|k
ânqnj&fgrk bfr] rsu l&xO;'kdZjk 'kkfyxks/kqekékkn;] ,o jL;Rokfnprq"V;&
xq.koÙokr~ lkfÙodyksdfiz;k Ks;kLrs"kka fiz;Ros lR;so lkfÙodRo´p Ks;e~A
fd´p] xq.kprq"V;oÙos·I;ikfo«;s lfr lkfÙodfiz;rkn'kZukÙo= ifo=k
bR;fi fo'ks"k.ka ns;e~] rkelfiz;s"oes/;inn'kZukr~AAŠAA
Hkkokuqoknµtxr~esa ;g izfl¼ gS fd lkfÙod inkFkZds Hkkstuls vk;q
c<+rh gSA ^lÙoe~* dk vFkZ gSµmRlkgA ^jL;k%*µdsoy xqM+ vkfn inkFkZ
jloku gksusij Hkh :[ks gksrs gSa] blhfy, dgrs gSaµ^fLuX/kk%*µnqX/k&eykbZ
bR;kfn jL; vkSj fLuX/k gSa] rFkkfi ;s vfLFkj gSaA blhfy, dgrs
gSaµ^fLFkjk%* dVgy vkfn Qy jL; fLuX/k vkSj fLFkj gSa] fdUrq ân;
vkSj mnjds fy, vidkj djusokys gSaA blhfy, dgrs gSaµân; rFkk
mnjds fy, fgrdjA vr% xO; (nw/k] ngh bR;kfn) rFkk 'kDdjds
lkFk xks/kwe (xsgw¡) 'kkfy (,d izdkjdk pkoy) vék vkfn gh lÙo
bR;kfn pkj xq.kksals ;qä gksusds dkj.k lkfÙod yksxksadks fiz; gSaµ,slk
tkuuk pkfg,A fdUrq] mijksä pkjksa xq.kksals ;qä gksdj Hkh ;fn dksbZ
oLrq vifo= gks] rks lkfÙod O;fä;ksads fy, og fiz; ugha gSA blhfy,
'yksdesa ^ifo=* fo'ks"k.k in nsuk Hkh dÙkZO; gSA D;ksafd xhrk (ƒ‰@ƒŒ)
esa ^ves/;* fo'ks"k.k in rkel&fiz; yksxksads fy, O;oâr gqvk gSAAŠAA
lk- o- izdkf'kdk o`fÙkµoÙkZeku 'yksdesa Hkxoku~ ;g crk jgs gSa
fd [kk| oLrqvksads rkjrE;ls xq.kksadk rkjrE; gksrk gSA lk/kkj.kr%
dY;k.kdkeh O;fädks lkfÙod vkgkj gh xzg.k djuk mfpr gSA lkfÙod

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%(' lIrn'k v/;k; % '

vkgkj LokLF;o¼Zd gksusds lkFk&lkFk vk;qo¼Zd gS] lkFk gh ifo=


gksusds ukrs /keZo¼Zd Hkh gSA ,sls ifo= vkgkjds }kjk nsg vkSj eu
ifo= gksusij lc izdkjls dY;k.kizn gSA nw/kdk lsou djusls eudh
o`fÙk fdl izdkjdh gksrh gS rFkk e|ikuls eudh o`fÙk ftl izdkjdh
gksrh gS] bu nks izdkjdh o`fÙk;ksadks lgt gh ns[kk vkSj vuqHko fd;k
tk ldrk gSA dqlax] dqf'k{kk vkSj dqlaLdkjds dkj.k yksx lkfÙod
vkgkj xzg.k djusls fojr jgrs gSaAAŠAA
dV~oEyyo.kkR;q".krh{.k#{kfonkfgu% A
vkgkjk jktlL;s"Vk nq%[k'kksdke;iznk%AA‹AA
vUo;µdVq&vEy&yo.k&vR;q".k&rh{.k&#{k&fonkfgu% (vfrdVq]
[kês] yo.k;qä] cgqr xje] rh[ks] :[ks] nkgdkjd) nq%[k&'kksd&dke;iznk%
(nq%[k] 'kksd vkSj jksxtud) vkgkjk% (vkgkjlewg) jktlL; (jktl
O;fädks)s b"Vk% (fiz; gSa)AA‹AA
vuqoknµvf/kd dM+os] [kês] yo.k;qä] xje] rh[ks] :[ks] nkgdkjd]
nq%[k] 'kksd rFkk jksxizn vkgkjlewg jktl O;fädks fiz; gSaAA‹AA
Jhfo'oukFkµ^vfr%*µ'kCn% dV~okfn"kq lIrLofi lEc/;rsA
vfrdVqfuEckfnjR;Eyyo.kks".k% izfl¼ ,okfrrh{.kks ewfydkfo"kkfneZjhP;k|k
ok] vfr:{kks fgÂqdks nzokfnfoZnkgh nkgdjks Hk`"Vp.kdkfn%µ,rs
nq%[kkfniznk%A r= nq%[ka rkRdkfydks jlukd.BkfnlUrki%] 'kksd%
i'pkÚkfonkSEkZuL;eke;ks jksx%AA‹AA
Hkkokuqoknµ^vfr* 'kCn dVq bR;kfn lkr 'kCnksads lkFk gSA vfr&
dVq uhe vkfn] vfr&vEy] vfr&yo.k] vfr&m".k] vfr&rh{.k ewyh]
fo"k vFkok ejhp (dkyh fepZ) bR;kfn] vfr #{k ghax bR;kfn] nkgdkjh
Hkqus pus bR;kfn nq%[k] jksx] 'kksd iznku djrs gSaA buesa ls
^nq%[k*µrkRdkfyd ftàk] d.kZ bR;kfndk larki rFkk 'kksdµvkxs gksusokys
buds Qydh nqf'pUrk gSA ^vke;* dk vFkZ gSµjksxAA‹AA
lk- o- izdkf'kdk o`fÙkµjktfld Hkkstuds }kjk thHk] d.B vkSj
isVesa Tokyk] ok;q] vip lkFk&lkFk gksrs gaS vkSj cknesa nqf'pUrk gksusds
dkj.k ekufld v'kkfUr rFkk ukuk izdkjds jksx mRiék gksrs gSaA bl
izdkj euq"; thou nq%[kh gks tkrk gSA blds vfrfjä bu [kk|ksals
foÏr eudh #fp /keZfo#¼ dk;ks±esa gksus yxrh gSA blhfy, lkfÙodh
izo`fÙkds yksx ,sls vkgkj xzg.k ugha djrs gSaAA‹AA

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%! JheÚxoåhrk %(

;kr;kea xrjla iwfr i;qZf"kr´p ;r~A


mfPN"Vefi pkes/;a Hkkstua rkelfiz;e~AAƒŒAA
vUo;µ;kr;kee~ (,d izgj igys cuk gqvk BaMk nzO;) xrjle~
(uhjl) iwfr (nqxZU/k;qä) i;qZf"kre~ p (cklh) mfPN"Ve~ (mfPN"V) vfi
p ves/;e~ (,oa vifo=) ;r~ Hkkstue~ (tks Hkkstu gS) ýrr~µogþ
rkelfiz;e~ (rkel iq#"kdks fiz; gksrk gS)AAƒŒAA
vuqoknµ,d izgj igys cuk gqvk BaMk] uhjl] nqxZU/k;qä] cklh]
mfPN"V (twBk) vkSj vifo= vkgkjlewg rkel iq#"kdks fiz; gksrs gSaAAƒŒAA
Jhfo'oukFkµ;krks ;ke% izgjks ;L; iDoL;ksnuknsLr|kr;kea
'kSR;koLFkka izkIrfeR;FkZ%] xrjla R;äLokHkkfodjla fu"ihfMrjla
iDokezRox"Vîkfnda ok] iwfr nqxZU/ke~] i;qZf"kra fnukUrja iDoeqfPN"Va
xqokZfnH;ks·U;s"kka Hkqäkof'k"Vees/;eHk{;a dy´tkfnA rr'pSoa i;kZyksP;
LofgrSf"kfHk% lkfÙodkgkj ,o lsO; bfr Hkko%A oS".koSLrq lks·fi
HkxonfuosfnrLR;kT; ,o] HkxofékosfnreékkfndUrq fuxqZ.kHkäyksdfiz;fefr
JhHkkxorkTKs;e~AAƒŒAA
Hkkokuqoknµ^;kr;kee~*µtks vék ,d izgjls igysdk cuk gqvk gS
vFkkZr~ tks 'khry gks x;k gS] ^xrjle~*µftldk LokHkkfod jl u"V
gks x;k gS] ftldk jl fudy x;k gS vFkok ids gq, vkedk fNydk]
xqByh vkfn] ^iwfr*µnqxZU/k] ^i;qZf"kre~*µfiNys fnudk idk gqvk]
^mfPN"V*µxq#oxZds vfrfjä vU; fdlhds Hkkstudk vof'k"V vék]
^ves/;*µvHk{; ekal] rEckdw bR;kfnA blfy, vius fgrds ckjsesa
fopkjdj fgrdkeh iq#"k lkfÙod vkgkjdk gh lsou djsaxsaA fdUrq]
oS".kox.k Hkxoku~dks fuosfnr ugha gksusij bls Hkh R;kx nsaxsA
Jhen~Hkkxorls ;g tkuk tkrk gS fd Hkxoku~dks fuosfnr vék fuxqZ.k
gksrk gS vkSj Hkäksadks ;gh fiz; gksrk gSAAƒŒAA
lk- o- izdkf'kdk o`fÙkµvkgkjdk mís'; 'kjhjdks LoLFk ,oa
'kfä'kkyh j[kuk] eudks ifo= cukuk rFkk vk;qdks c<+kdj mls ijekFkZesa
izo`Ùk djuk gSA izkphudkyesa fo}ku~ yksx ,slk gh Hkkstu xzg.k djrs
Fks] tks vk;q vkSj LokLF;o¼Zd gksrs gSaA nw/k&ngh] xqM+&pkoy] xsgw¡]
Qy vkSj lfCt;k¡µ;s lrksxq.kh O;fä;ksadks fiz; gksrs gSaA

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%( lIrn'k v/;k; %!

vf/kdrj yksx ,slk le>rs gSa fd nso&nsfo;ksadh iwtkesa tks e|&ekal


vkfndk iz;ksx gksrk gS] mudks [kkusesa dksbZ nks"k ugha gSA 'kkL=ksaesa Hkh
,slk ns[kk tkrk gS] fdUrq ;g ckr loZFkk Hkze gSA D;ksafd 'kkL=ksaesa
;Kkfnds le; i'kqo/k e|iku vkfndh tks O;oLFkk ns[kh tkrh gS] og
dsoy vR;Ur rkel vkSj izo`fÙk ekxZds yksxksadks fuo`fÙk ekxZesa ykSVkusds
fy, gh ,d rkRdkfyd O;oLFkk vkSj dkS'kyek= gS JheÚkxoresa bl
fopkjdh iqf"V dh xbZ gSµ
^yksds O;ok;kfe"ke|lsok fuR;kLrq tUrksuZ fg r= pksnukA
O;ofLFkfrLrs"kq fookg;KlqjkxzgSjklq fuo`fÙkfj"VkAA*
(JheÚk- ƒƒ@‡@ƒƒ)
vFkkZr~] lalkjesa ns[kk tkrk gS fd e|] ekal vkSj eSFkqudh vkSj
izkf.k;ksadh LokHkfod izo`fÙk gksrh gS] rc mUgsa buesa izo`Ùk djusds fy,
fo/kku rks gks gh ugha ldrkA ,slh fLFkfresa fookg] ;K vkSj 'kkS=kef.k
;Kds }kjk gh muds lsoudh O;oLFkk nh xbZ gS] bldk vFkZ gSµyksxksadh
mPN`Ìy izo`fÙkdk fu;U=.k] mudk e;kZnkesa LFkkiuA okLroesa budh
vksjls yksxksadks gVkuk gh osnksadk xw<+ rkRi;Z gSA vkSj Hkh]
^;n~ ?kzk.kHk{kks fofgr% lqjk;kLrFkk i'kksjkyHkua u fgalkA
,oa O;ok;% izt;k u jR;k bea fo'kq¼a u fonq% Lo/keZe~AA*
(JheÚk- ƒƒ@‡@ƒ…)
'kkL=ksaesa mijksä mís';ls gh ;Kkfnds le; e|dks lw¡?kusek=dh
fof/k nh xbZ gS] ihusdh ughaA blh izdkj fgalk vkSj ekal [kkusdh ugha
cfYd Li'kZdj mRlxZ djusdh fof/k gSA dqN yksx ,slk le>rs gSa
fd ekal&Hk{k.kesa nks"k gksusij Hkh eNyhds Hk{k.kesa dksbZ nks"k ugha] D;ksafd
fd eNyh rks tydk Qwy&Qy gS] fdUrq euqlafgrkesa bls lokZf/kd
fuf"k¼ crk;k x;k gSµ
^;ks ;L; ekale'ukfr l rUekalkn mP;rsA
eRL;kn% loZekalknLrLekUeRL;ku~ footZ;sr~AA*
vFkkZr~] tks yksx ftudk ekal Hkkstu djrs gSa] os mlh i'kqds ekaldks
[kkusokysds :iesa tkus tkrs gSa] fdUrq eNfy;ksadk Hkkstu djusokys
lcdk ekal [kkusokys gSa] D;ksafd eNyh xk;] 'kwdj vkfn lHkh izkf.k;ksads
ekal] lc izdkjdh lM+h&xyh phtksadks fuxy tkrh gSA blhfy, eRL;Hkksth

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%! JheÚxoåhrk %(

lc izkf.k;ksads ekaldks [kkusokyk gksrk gSA vr% eRL;&Hkkstu lc izdkjls


ifjR;T; gSA
JheÚkxoresa vkSj Hkh ns[kk tkrk gSµ
^;s RousofEonks·lUr% LrC/kk% lnfHkekfuu%A
i'kwu~ nzqáfUr foJC/kk% iszR; [kknfUr rs p rku~AA*
(JheÚk- ƒƒ@‡@ƒ†)
vFkkZr~] /keZrÙols vufHkK] vnwjn'khZ] vgÁkjeÙk tks rkefld O;fä
fuHkZ; gksdj i'kqvksadh gR;k djrs gSa] os fugr i'kq nwljs tUeksaesa mUgsa
ekjdj [kkrs gSaA euq lafgrkesa Hkh ^ekal* 'kCndk vFkZ ;gh gSµ
^eka l Hk{kf;rkeq= ;L; ekalfegkùîge~A
,rUekalL; ekalRoa izonfUr euhf"ku%AA*
vFkkZr~] eSa ftl ekaldks ;gk¡ij [kkrk gw¡] og eq>s ijyksdesa [kk;sxkA
fo}ku~ iq#"k ^ekal* 'kCndk ;gh ekalRo (vFkkZr~ ekal 'kCndh fu#fDr)
crkrs gSaA
;gk¡ ;g Hkh fopkj.kh; gS fd lkfÙod vkgkj xzg.k djusls lÙodh
o`f¼ rks gksrh gS] fdUrq og Hkh lc izdkjls fu"iki ugha gS] D;ksafd
lkx&lCth&o`{k&yrk vkfnesa Hkh thou gksrk gSA bl izdkj fujkfe"k
vkgkjesa fdlh&u&fdlh :iesa fgalk gksrh gS] vr% mlls Hkh dqN&u&dqN
iki Li'kZ djrk gSA blhfy, 'kq¼Hkä yksx Hkxoku~dks fuosfnr egkizlkn
gh xzg.k djrs gSaA og fuxqZ.k vkSj lc izdkjls ikijfgr gSA blhfy,
Hkxoku~dks fuosfnr oLrq gh izlknds :iesa xzg.k djusds ;ksX; gSA
vfuosfnr oLrqek=dks vR;Ur ?k`f.kr le>uk pkfg,A czãoSorZ ,oa
iùiqjk.kesa ,slk gh dgk x;k gSµ
^véka fo"Bk tya ew=a ;n fo".kksjfuosnuaA*
vFkkZr~] tks vUu rFkk ty fo".kqdks fuosfnr ugha gks] og vUu
fo"Bk gS rFkk ty ew= gSAAƒŒAA
vQykdkfÀfHk;ZKks fof/kfn"Vks ; bT;rsA
;"VO;esosfr eu% lek/kk; l lkfÙod%AAƒƒAA
vUo;µbfr (bl izdkj) ;"VO;e~ ,o (;Kdk vuq"Bku dÙkZO;
gh gS) vQykdkfÀfHk% (Qydh dkeukls jfgr O;fäx.kds }kjk) eu%
lek/kk; (eudks ,dkxzdj) fof/kfn"V% ('kkL=fofgr) ;% ;K% (tks ;K)
bR;rs (vuqf"Br gksrk gS) l% (og) lkfÙod% (lkfÙod gS)AAƒƒAA

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%( ! lIrn'k v/;k; %!!

vuqoknµ^;Kdk vuq"Bku dÙkZO; gS*µbl izdkj eudks ,dkxzdj


Qydh dkeukls jfgr O;fäx.k }kjk tks ;K fd;k tkrk gS] og lkfÙod
gSAAƒƒAA
Jhfo'oukFkµvFk ;KL; =S f o/;ekgµvQykdkfÀfHkfjfrA
QykdkÀkjkfgR;s dFka ;Ks izo`fÙkjr vkgµ;"VO;esosfrA Lokuq"Bs;Rosu
'kkL=ksDRokno';dÙkZO;esrfnfr eu% lek/kk;AAƒƒAA
Hkkokuqoknµblds ckn rhu izdkjds ;Kksadks crk jgs gSaA ;fn iz'u
gks fd Qydh vkdkÀk ugha jgusij fdl izdkj ;Kesa izo`fÙk gksxh]
rks blds mÙkjesa dgrs gSaµvius fy, vuq"Bs; vkSj 'kkL=&dfFkr gksusds
dkj.k bldk djuk vo'; gh dÙkZO; gSµbl izdkj eudks ,dkxzdj
;K djrs gSaAAƒƒAA
vfHklU/kk; rq Qya nEHkkFkZefi pSo ;r~A
bT;rs HkjrJs"B ra ;Ka fof¼ jktle~AAƒ„AA
vUo;µrq (fdUrq) HkjrJs"B (gs HkjrJs"B!) Qye~ (Qydks)
vfHklU/kk; (mís';dj) nEHkkFkZe~ vfi ,o p (,oa nEHk&izdk'kds fy,)
;r~ (tks ;K) bT;rs (vuqf"Br gksrk gS) re~ ;Ke~ (ml ;Kdks)
jktle~ fof¼ (jktl tkuks)AAƒ„AA
vuqoknµfdUrq] gs HkjrJs"B! Qydks mís';dj ,oa nEHkds izdk'k
(viuh efgek fn[kkus) ds fy, tks ;K fd;k tkrk gS] mls jktl
tkuksAAƒ„AA
fof/kghuel`"Vkéka eU=ghuenf{k.ke~A
J¼kfojfgra ;Ka rkela ifjp{krsAAƒ…AA
vUo;µfof/kghue~ ('kkL=fof/kls jfgr) vl`"Vkéke~ (vUunku&jfgr)
eU=ghue~ (eU=jfgr) vnf{k.ke~ (nf{k.kkjfgr) J¼kfojfgre~ (J¼kghu)
;Ke~ (;Kdks) rkele~ (rkel) ifjp{krs (dgrs gSa)AAƒ…AA
vuqoknµfof/kghu] vUunkujfgr] eU=ghu] nf{k.kkghu vkSj J¼kghu
;Kdks if.Mrx.k rkel ;K dgrs gSaAAƒ…AA
Jhfo'oukFkµvl`"VkUueUunkujfgre~AAƒ…AA
Hkkokuqoknµ^vl`"VkUue~*µvUunku'kwU;AAƒ…AA

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%!" JheÚxoåhrk %("$

nsof}txq#izkKiwtua 'kkSpektZoe~A
czãp;Zefgalk p 'kkjhja ri mP;rsAAƒ†AA
vUo;µnso&f}t&xq#&izkK&iwtue~ (nsork] czkã.k] xq# vkSj
izkKx.kdh iwtk) 'kkSpe~ ('kkSp) vktZo% (ljyrk) czãp;Ze~ (czãp;Z)
vfgalk p (,oa vfgalk) 'kkjhje~ ri% ('kjhj&lEcU/kh ri dgykrs
gSa)AAĠAA
vuqoknµnsork] czkã.k] xq# vkSj izkKx.kdh iwtk] 'kkSp] ljyrk]
czãp;Z ,oa vfgalk 'kjhj&lEcU/kh ri dgykrs gSaAAƒ†AA
Jhfo'oukFkµrilL=Sfo/;a onu~ izFkea lkfÙodL; rilL=Sfo/;ekgµ
nsosR;kfn f=fHk%AAĠAA
HkkokuqoknµriL;kds rhu Hksn gSaµ;g crkusds ckn ^nso* bR;kfn
rhu 'yksdksaesa igys lkfÙodh riL;kds Hkh rhu Hksnkasdks crk jgs gSaAAƒ†AA
vuq}sxdja okD;a lR;a fiz;fgr´p ;r~A
Lok/;k;kH;lua pSo ok³~e;a ri mP;rsAAƒ‡AA
vUo;µvuq}sxdje~ (m}sx ugha nsusokyk) lR;e~ (lR;) fiz;fgre~
p (fiz; vkSj fgrdkjh) ;r~ okD;e~ (tks okD; gS) Lok/;k;kH;lue~
p ,o (,oa osnikBdk vH;kl) ok³~e;e~ (okfpd) ri% mP;rs (ri
dgykrs gSa)AAƒ‡AA
vuqoknµm}sx ugha nsusokyk] lR;] fiz; vkSj fgrdkjh opu ,oa
osnikBdk vH;klµ;s okfpd ri gSaAAƒ‡AA
Jhfo'oukFkµvuq}sxdjeaµlEcks/; fHkékkukeI;uq}Stde~AAƒ‡AA
Hkkokuqoknµ^vuq}sxdje~*µlEcks/kuds :iesa Hkh vU; yksxksadks m}sx
ugha nsusokykAAƒ‡AA
eu%izlkn% lkSE;Roa ekSuekRefofuxzg%A
Hkkola'kqf¼fjR;srÙkiks ekuleqP;rsAAƒˆAA
vUo;µeu%izlkn% (fpÙkdh izlékrk) lkSE;Roe~ (ljyrk) ekSue~
(ekSu) vkRefofuxzg% (fpÙk&la;e) Hkkola'kqf¼% (O;ogkjesa fu"diVrk)
bfr ,rr~ (;s lc) ekule~ (ekufld) ri% (riL;k) mP;rs (dgykrs
gSa)AAƒˆAA
vuqoknµfpÙkdh izlUurk] ljyrk] ekSu] fpÙkdk la;e] O;ogkjesa
fu"diVrkµ;s lc ekufld ri dgykrs gSaAAƒˆAA

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%(%& lIrn'k v/;k; %!#

J¼;k ij;k rIra riLrfR=fo/ka ujS%A


vQykdkfÀfHk;ZqäS% lkfÙoda ifjp{krsAAƒ‰AA
vUo;µvQykdkfÀfHk% (Qydkeukls jfgr) ;qäS% ujS% (,dkxzfpÙk
euq"; }kjk) ij;k J¼;k (ije J¼kds lkFk) rIre~ (Ïr gksusls)
rr~ (og) f=fo/ke~ (rhuksaµ'kkjhfjd] okfpd] ekufld) ri% (ridks)
ý/khjk%µif.Mrx.kþ lkfÙode~ ifjp{krs (lkfÙod dgrs gSa)AAƒ‰AA
vuqoknµQydkeukjfgr ,dkxzfpr euq"; }kjk ije J¼kds lkFk
fd, tkusij if.Mrx.k bu rhuksa riksadks lkfÙod dgrs gSaAAƒ‰AA
Jhfo'oukFkµf=fo/keqäy{k.ka dkf;dokfpdekule~AAƒ‰AA
Hkkokuqoknµf=fo/ke~µdfFkr y{k.k;qä dkf;d okfpd vkSj
ekufldAAƒ‰AA
lRdkjekuiwtkFk± riks nEHksu pSo ;r~A
fØ;rs rfng izksäa jktla pye/kzqoe~AAƒŠAA
vUo;µlRdkjekuiwtkFkZa (lRdkj&eku vkSj iwtkds fy,) nEHksu
p ,o (vkSj nEHkds lkFk) ;r~ ri% fØ;rs (tks riL;k dh tkrh
gS) rr~ (og) br~ (bl yksdesa) pye~ (vfuR;) v/kzqoe~ (vfuf'pr)
jktle~ (jktlh) izksäe~ (dgh tkrh gS)AAƒŠAA
vuqoknµlRdkj] eku] vkSj iwtkds fy, nEHkds lkFk tks riL;kdh
tkrh gS] ogh vfuR; vkSj vfuf'pr jktfld ri gSAAƒŠAA
Jhfo'oukFkµ^lRdkj%* lk/kqj;feR;U;S% dÙkZO;k okd~iwtk] ^eku%*
izR;qRFkkukfHkoknukfnfHkjU;S% dÙkZO;k nSfgdh iwtk] iwtkU;SnhZ;k&
ekuS/kZukfnfHkHkkZfouh ;k ekulh iwtk] rnFk± nEHksu p ;r~ fØ;rs rn~jktla
ri%] pya fdf´pRdkfyde/kzqoefu;rlRdkjkfnQyde~AAƒŠAA
Hkkokuqoknµ^lRdkj%*µnwljksads }kjk ;g dÙkZO; okd~&iwtk fd ;s
lk/kq gSa ;k okD; }kjk lEekuA ^eku%*µizR;qRFkku vkSj vfHkoknu vkfn
}kjk nwljsls nSfgdh iwtkA ^iwtk*µblds }kjk /ku vkfn izkIr djkusokyh
ekulh iwtkA bu lcds fy, ,oa vgÁkjiwoZd tks ri vuqf"Br gksrk
gS] og jktlh riL;k gSA ;g ^pye~*µvYidkyrd LFkk;h jgusokyh
^v/kzqoe~*µvfu;r lRdkj vkfn Qy iznku djusokyh gSAAƒŠAA

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%!$ JheÚxoåhrk %(' 

ew<xzkgs.kkReuks ;RihM;k fØ;rs ri%A


ijL;ksRlknukFk± ok rÙkkeleqnkâre~AAƒ‹AA
vUo;µew<xzkgs.k (ew<+ksfpr gB }kjk) vkReu% ihM;k (Lo;adks
ihfM+rdj) ok ijL; (;k nwljsds) mRlknukFkZe~ (fouk'kds fy,) ;r~
ri% (tks ri) fØ;rs (fd;k tkrk gS) rr~ (og) rkele~ mnkâre~
(rkel dgykrk gS)AAƒ‹AA
vuqoknµew<+ksfpr gB }kjk Lo;adks ihfM+rdj ;k nwljsds fouk'kds fy,
tks ri fd;k tkrk gS] og rkel dgykrk gSAAƒ‹AA
Jhfo'oukFkµ^ew<xzkgs.k ekS<îxzg.ksu] ^ijL;ksRlknukFk±* fouk'kkFkZe~AAƒ‹AA
Hkkokuqoknµ^ew<xzkgs.k*µew<+rk xzg.k }kjk ^ijL;ksRlknukFkZ*µnwljsds
fouk'kds fy, fd;k x;k ri rkel ri gSAAƒ‹AA
nkrO;fefr ;íkua nh;rs·uqidkfj.ksA
ns'ks dkys p ik=s p ríkua lkfÙoda Le`re~AA„ŒAA
vUo;µvuqidkfj.ks (izR;qidkj djusesa vleFkZ O;fädks) ns'ks (rhFkZ
vkfn LFkkuksaesa) dkys p (iq.;dkyesa) ik=s p (,oa ;ksX; ik=dks) nkrO;e~
(nku nsuk pkfg,) bfr (bl izdkj fu'p;dj) rr~ nkue~ (og nku)
lkfÙode~ Le`re~ (lkfÙod dgykrk gS)AA„ŒAA
vuqoknµizR;qidkj djusesa vleFkZ O;fädks] rhFkZ vkfn LFkkuksaesa]
iq.;dkyesa ,oa ;ksX; ik=dks nku nsuk dÙkZO; gSµbl izdkj fu'p;dj tks
nku fn;k tkrk gS] og lkfÙod dgykrk gSAA„ŒAA
Jhfo'oukFkµnkrO;feR;soa fu'p;su] u rq QykfHklfU/kuk ;íkue~AA„ŒAA
HkkokuqoknµnkrO;e~µ;ksX; dky&ik=ds vuqlkj nku nsuk pkfg,]
,slk fu'p;djA Qydh dkeukls fn;k x;k nku] nku ugha gSAA„ŒAA
lk- o- izdkf'kdk o`fÙkµoÙkZekuesa rhu izdkjds nkuds lEcU/kesa crkrs
gq, JhHkxoku~ dg jgs gSa fd ftlus dHkh Hkh viuk midkj u fd;k
gks vFkok ftlesa midkj djusdk lkeF;Z ugha gS] ,sls ik=dks fdlh
izdkjds cnysdh vk'kk ugha j[kdj dsoy dÙkZO;ds fy, tks nku fn;k
tkrk gS] og lkfÙod gksrk gSA mlesa ns'k] dky vkSj ik=dk fopkj
djuk vko';d gSAA„ŒAA

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%(  lIrn'k v/;k; %!%

;Ùkq izR;qidkjkFk± Qyeqfí'; ok iqu%A


nh;rs p ifjfDy"Va ríkua jktla Le`re~AA„ƒAA
vUo;µ;r~ rq (fdUrq tks) izR;qidkjkFkZe~ (izR;qidkjdh vk'kkls)
ok (vFkok) Qye~ mís'; (Qyds mís';ls) iqu% p ifjfDy"Ve~ (cknesa
iNrkosds lkFk) nh;rs (iznÙk gksrk gS) ríkue~ (og nku) jktle~ Le`re~
(jktl dgykrk gS)AA„ƒAA
vuqoknµfdUrq] tks nku izR;qidkjdh vk'kkls] Qyds mís';ls vFkok
cknesa iNrkosds lkFk fn;k tkrk gS] og nku jktl dgykrk gSAA„ƒAA
Jhfo'oukFkµifjfDy"Va dFkesrkon~O;f;rfefr i'pkÙkki;qäe~] ;}k]
fnRlk;k vHkkos·fi xqokZ|kKkuqjks/ko'kknso nÙke~] ifjfDy"VedY;k.k&
nzO;deZda okAA„ƒAA
Hkkokuqoknµ^ifjfDy"Va*µbruk O;; D;ksa gqvkµnku nsusds ckn bl
rkils ;qä vFkok nku nsusdh bPNkds fcuk Hkh xq# vkfndh vkKk
;k vuqjks/kls fn;k x;k nku ;k ^ifjfDy"Va*µvdY;k.kdj nzO;&deZ;qä
nku rkel gksrk gSAA„ƒAA
vns'kdkys ;íkueik=sH;'p nh;rsA
vlRÏreoKkra rÙkkeleqnkâre~AA„„AA
vUo;µvns'kdkys (v;ksX; LFkku vkSj v;ksX; le;esa) vik=sH;%
p (,oa v;ksX; ik=ksadks) vlRÏre~ (frjLdkjiwoZd) voKkre~
(voKkiwoZd) ;r~ nkue~ (tks nku) ýfn;k tkrk gSþ rr~ (og) rkele~
mnkâre (rkel dgykrk gS)AA„„AA
vuqoknµtks nku v;ksX; LFkku vkSj v;ksX; le;esa rFkk v;ksX;
ik=ksadks frjLdkjiwoZd rFkk voKkiwoZd fn;k tkrk gS] og rkel dgykrk
gSAA„„AA
Jhfo'oukFkµvlRdkjks·oKk;k% Qye~AA„„AA
Hkkokuqoknµ^vlRdkj%*µvoKkdk QyAA„„AA
lk- o- izdkf'kdk o`fÙkµtks nku fdlh vifo= LFkkuesa] vuqfpr
LFkkuesa] dqik=dks vFkkZr~ uÙkZd] os';k] vHkko'kwU;] ikikpkjh vkfn ik=ksadks
fn;k tkrk gS] og rkefld gSA blh izdkj lRik=dks fcuk lEekuds
vkSj voKkiwoZd fn;k x;k nku rkefld dgyrk gSAA„„AA

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%!& JheÚxoåhrk %( ! "

¬ rRlfnfr funsZ'kks czã.kfL=fo/k% Le`r%A


czkã.kkLrsu osnk'p ;Kk'p fofgrk% iqjkAA„…AA
rLeknksfeR;qnkâR; ;Knkuri%fØ;k%A
izoÙkZUrs fo/kkuksäk% lrra czãokfnuke~AA„†AA
vUo;µ¬ rr~ lr~ (¬] rr~] lr~) bfr (;s) f=fo/k% (rhu
izdkjds) czã.k% funsZ'k% (czãds funsZ'kd uke) Le`r% (dgs x, gSa)
rsu (buds }kjk) iqjk (izkphudkyesa) czkã.kk% (czkã.kx.k) osnk% p
(vkSj osnlewg) ;Kk% p (vkSj ;Klewg) fofgrk% (fufeZr gq, gSa)
rLekr~ (vr,o) ¬ bfr (^¬* 'kCn) mnkâR; (mPpkj.kdj)
czãokfnuke~ (osnokfn;ksads ) fo/kkuksäk% ('kkL=ksä) ;K&nku&ri&fØ;k%
(;K] nku] riL;k] deZ vkfn) lrre~ (loZnk) izoÙkZUrs (vuqf"Br
gksrs gSa)AA„…&„†AA
vuqoknµczãds rhu izdkjds funsZ'kd uke dgs x, gSaµ¬] rr~ vkSj
lr~A buds }kjk izkphudkyesa czkã.kx.k] osnlewg vkSj ;Klewg fufeZr gq,
gSaA vr,o ^¬* 'kCnds mPpkj.kls osnokfn;ksads 'kkL=ksä ;K] nku] ri]
deZ vkfn loZnk vuqf"Br gksrs gSaAA„…&„†AA
Jhfo'oukFkµrnsoa riks;Kknhuka =Sfo/;a lkekU;rks euq";&
ek=ef/kÏR;ksäe~A r= ;s lkfÙods"ofi e/;s czãokfnuLrs"kkUrq
czãfuísZ'kiwoZdk ,o ;Kkn;ks HkoUrhR;kgµ¬ rr~ lfnR;soa czã.kks fuísZ'kks
ukEuk O;ins'k% Le`r% f'k"VSnZf'kr%A r= vksfefr loZJqfr"kq izfl¼eso
czã.kks ukeA txr~dkj.kRossukfrizfl¼sjrfékjlusu p izfl¼sLrfnfr p]
^^lnso lkSE;snexz vklhr~** bfr Jqrs% lfnfr pA ;Lekr~ ^¬ rr~ lr~*
'kCnokP;su czã.kSo czkã.kk osnk ;Kk'p fofgrk% ÏrkLrLekr~ vksfefr
czã.kks ukeksnkâR;k mPpk;Z oÙkZekukuka czãokfnuka ;Kkn;% izoÙkZUrsAA„…&„†AA
HkkokuqoknµlkekU; Hkkols ;g crk;k x;k fd vf/kdkjds vuqlkj
euq";ek= gh rhu izdkjds ri] ;K vkfnds vf/kdkjh gSaA muesa
lkfÙodksaesa tks czãoknh gSa] muds ;K vkfn czãfunsZ'k }kjk gh gksrs
gSaA blhfy, dgrs gSµ¬] rr~] lr~µbu rhu izdkjds czã&funsZ'kdds
ukels lk/kqx.k Lej.k ;k izn'kZu djrs gSaA buesa Hkh lHkh Jqfr;ksaesa
izfl¼ ^¬* czãdk gh uke gSA txr~ds dkj.kds :iesa vfrizfl¼
vkSj ^vrr~* nwj djusds dkj.k izfl¼ gSµ^rr~*A ^lfnfr*µgs lkSE;!

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%( # lIrn'k v/;k; %!'

igys ,dek= ^lr~* gh Fks (Nk- m- ˆ@„@ƒ)µbl Jqfrds vuqlkj lr~A


D;ksafd ^¬ rr~ lr~* 'kCnokP; czã }kjk gh czkã.kx.k] osnlewg]
;Klewgdk fueZk.k gqvk gS] vr% ^¬* 'kCndk mPPkkj.kdj oÙkZeku
osnokfn;kssads ;K vkfn lEikfnr gksrs gSaAA„…&„†AA
lk- o- izdkf'kdko`fÙkµ^^vc rkRi;Z dgrk gw¡] lquksA riL;k] ;K]
nku vkSj vkgkjµ;s lHkh lkfÙod] jktfld vkSj rkefldds Hksnls rhu
izdkjds gSaA lxq.k&voLFkkesa bu vuq"Bkuksaesa tks J¼k jgrh gS] og
mÙke] e/;e vkSj v/ke gksusij Hkh lxq.kk vkSj fujFkZd gSaA tc fuxqZ.kk
J¼k vFkkZr~ Hkfädks mfnr djkusokyh J¼kds lkFk ;s lHkh deZ fd,
tk;¡] rHkh ;s lÙo&la'kqf¼:i vHk; izkIr djusds mi;ksxh gksrs gSaA
'kkL=esa loZ= gh mlh ijkJ¼kds lkFk dekZuq"Bku djusdk vkns'k gSA
'kkL=esa ^¬] rr~] lr~*µ;s rhu czã&funsZ'kd O;oLFkk,¡ ifjyf{kr gksrh
gSaA ml czãfunsZ'kdds lkFk czkã.k] osn vkSj ;Klewg Hkh fufeZr gq,
gSaA 'kkL=&fof/kdk ifjR;kxdj ftl J¼kdk voyEcu djksxs] og lxq.k]
vczãfunsZ'kd ,oa dkeQynk;d gksxhA vr,o 'kkL=&fo/kkuesa gh
^ijkJ¼k* dh O;oLFkk gSA 'kkL= vkSj J¼kds fo"k;esa rqEgkjh tks 'kÁk
gS] og dsoy vfoosdtfur gSA vr,o osnokfnx.k czãdks mís';
djusokys ¬&'kCn O;ogkjiwoZd leLr 'kkL=ksä ;K] nku] ri vkSj
fØ;kvksadk vuq"Bku djrs gSaA**µJhHkfDrfouksn BkdqjAA„…&„†AA
rfnR;ufHklU/kk; Qya ;Kri%fØ;k%A
nkufØ;k'p fofo/kk% fØ;Urs eks{kdkfÀfHk%AA„‡AA
vUo;µrr~ bfr (rr~µbl 'kCndk) ýmnkâR;µmPpkj.kdjþ Qye~
(deZQydh) vufHklU/kk; (dkeuk ugha dj) eks{kdkfÀfHk% (eqqeq{kqx.k
}kjk) fofo/kk% (vusd izdkjds) ;Kri%fØ;k% (;K] ri dk;Z) nku
fØ;k% p (vkSj nku dk;Z) fØ;Urs (vuqf"Br gksrs gSa)AA„‡AA
vuqoknµeqeq{kqx.k ^rr~* 'kCndk mPpkj.kdj deZQydh dkeuk ugha
djrs gq, vusd izdkjds ;K] ri] nku vkfn dk;Z djrs gSaAA„‡AA
Jhfo'oukFkµrfnR;qnkâR;sfr iwoZL;kuq"kÂ%A vufHklU/kk; QykfHk&
lfU/keÏRokAA„‡AA
HkkokuqoknµiwoZ 'yksdesa dfFkr ^rr~*µbl 'kCndk mPpkj.kdj]
;Kkfn dk;ks±dks djuk pkfg,A ^vufHklU/kk;*µQydh dksbZ vfHkyk"kk
u dj fofo/k fØ;kvksadks djuk pkfg,AA„‡AA

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lk- o- izdkf'kdk o`fÙkµ^bne~* 'kCnls ifjn`';eku bl txr~dks ,oa


^rr~* 'kCnls txr~ls ijs czãrÙodks le>uk pkfg,A ijrÙo&izkfIrds
mís';ls gh ;Kdk vuq"Bku djuk dÙkZO; gSAA„‡AA
lÚkos lk/kqHkkos p lfnR;srr~ iz;qT;rsA
iz'kLrs deZf.k rFkk lPNCn% ikFkZ ;qT;rsAA„ˆAA
vUo;µikFkZ (gs ikFkZ!) lÚkos (czãRoesa) lk/kqHkkos p (vkSj
czãokfnRoesa) lr~ bfr (;g ^lr~* 'kCn) iz;qT;rs (iz;qä gksrk gS) rFkk
(mlh izdkj) iz'kLrs (ekÂfyd) deZf.k (deZesa) lr~ 'kCn% (^lr~*
'kCn) ;qT;rs (;qä gksrk gS)AA„ˆAA
vuqoknµgs ikFkZ! czãRoesa vkSj czãokfnRoesa bl ^lr~* 'kCndk iz;ksx
gksrk gSA mlh izdkj ekÂfyd deZesa Hkh ^lr~* 'kCndk iz;ksx gksrk
gSAA„ˆAA
Jhfo'oukFkµczãokpd% lPNCn% iz'kLrs"ofi oÙZkrs] rLekr~
iz'kLrek=s deZf.k izkÏrs·izkÏrs·fi lPNCn% iz;ksäO;% bR;k'k;sukgµlÚko
bfr }kH;ke~A lÚkos czãRos lk/kqHkkos czãokfnRos iz;q´trs laxPNrs
bR;FkZ%AA„ˆAA
Hkkokuqoknµczãokpd ^lr~* 'kCndk O;ogkj iz'kLr ;k ekÂfyd
dk;Zesa Hkh gksrk gSA vr% leLr izkÏr vkSj vizkÏr ekÂfyd dk;ks±esa
^lr~* 'kCn iz;ksT; gSA blhfy, ^lÚkos* bR;kfn nks 'yksd dg jgs gSaA
^lÚkos*µczãRoesa rFkk lk/kqHkkoesa vFkkZr~ czãokfnRoesa bldk vFkZ lÂr
gksrk gSAA„ˆAA
lk- o- izdkf'kdk o`fÙkµ¬&dkj ijrÙo czãdk uke gSA ^rr~*
'kCnls Hkh mUgsa gh vfHkfgr fd;k tkrk gSA ^lr~* 'kCn Hkh mlh izdkj
mudh fuR; fo|ekurk rFkk loZdkj.kRodk cks/k djkrk gSA os gh
,dek= ^lr~* oLrq gSaA Jqfr;k¡ Hkh ,slh gh dgrh gSaµ^lnso lkSE; bnexz
vklhr* vFkkZr~ gs lkSE;! igys ;g lalkj ,d vf}rh; lr~&Lo:iesa
oÙkZeku Fkk ,oa bl fo'o&l`f"Vds iwoZ ,d vf}rh; lr~&oLrqek= FksA
mUgha lr~dk Hkko ftuds ân;esa fLFkr gS] os gh lk/kq gSaA JheÚkxor
(…@„‡@„‡) esa Hkh ns[kk tkrk gSµ^lrka izlÂkr~* ;gk¡ Hkh rÙon'khZ
HkxoÚä lUrksads fy, lr~ 'kCndk iz;ksx gqvk gSA blds vfrfjä
bl txr~esa Hkh ekÂfyd dk;ks±dks Hkh lk/kkj.kr% ^lRdk;Z* dgk tkrk
gSA xkSM+h; oS".ko Le`fr laj{kd vkpk;Zizoj JhxksikyHkê xksLokeh }kjk

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%( % lIrn'k v/;k; %"

jfpr lfRØ;klkj&nhfidk xzUFkesa ^lr~* indk vFkZ bl izdkj crk;k


x;k gSµ,dkfUrd JhxksfoUnds Hkä lf}pkj ijk;.k gksrs gSa] blfy,
muds lHkh deZ HkxoRizhfrds fy, gksusds dkj.k ^lr~* dgs tkrs gSaA
muds vfrfjä nwljs deZ ^vlr~* gksusds dkj.k otZuh; gSaA
bl izlÂesa Hkxoku~ JhÏ".k vtqZudks bu nks 'yksdesa ^lr~* 'kCndk
vFkZ crk jgs gSaµ^^gs ikFkZ! ^lr~* 'kCndk iz;ksx ^ln~Hkko* vkSj
^lk/kqHkko* ds fy, gksrk gSA blh izdkj iz'kLr ('kqHk) deZesa Hkh *lr~*
'kCndk iz;ksx gksrk gSA**
^lr~* 'kCndk iz;ksx ^czã* ds fy, gksrk gSA loZ'kfäeku~ leLr
dkj.kksads dkj.k vf[ky jlksads vk/kkj oztsUnzuUnu JhÏ".k gh iw.kZ
^lr~* oLrq gSaA buds ifjdj] budk /kke] bu Ï".k&lEcU/kh muds
lHkh vorkj] vorkjksads /kke] muds ,sdkfUrd Hkä] xk;=h eU=esa
izfrf"Br nsork vkSj czkã.k] Hkfä vkfnds fy, Hkh ^lr~* 'kCndk iz;ksx
gksrk gSA buds vfrfjä Hkxoku~ds uke] :i] xq.k] yhyk] vkfnds fy,
Hkh bldk iz;ksx gksrk gSA fdlh J¼kyqdks nhf{kr djusds le; ;k
;Kksiohr /kkj.k djkusds le; ^¬ rr~ lr~* dk mPpkj.k fd;k tkrk
gSA nh{kkds le; xk;=h eU= vFkok Hkxoékke&eU= iznkrk Jhxq#nsodks
Hkh ln~xq#] eU= xzg.k djusokys f'k";dks lr~&f'k"; rFkk ml vuq"Bkudks
lnuq"Bku dgk tkrk gSA bl izdkj Hkxoku~ JhÏ".k&lEcU/kh lHkh Hkko]
lsok vkSj oLrqvksaesa ^lr~* 'kCndk iz;ksx 'kkL=&lEer gSAA„ˆAA
;Ks rifl nkus p fLFkfr% lfnfr pksP;rsA
deZ pS o rnFkhZ;a lfnR;sokfHk/kh;rsAA„‰AA
vUo;µ;Ks (;Kesa) rifl (riL;kesa) nkus p (vkSj nkuesa) fLFkfr%
p (vkSj ;K vkfnesa tks ,dkUr Hkkols vofLFkfr gS] mlesa Hkh)
lr~ bfr (;g ^lr~* 'kCn) mP;rs (dgk tkrk gS) rnFkhZ;e~ (czãdh
ifjp;kZds mi;ksxh) deZ p ,o (Hkxoku~ds efUnj&ektZu bR;kfn deZ)
lr~ bfr ,o (bl ^lr~* 'kCnls) vfHk/kh;rs (vfHkfgr gksrs gSa)AA„‰AA
vuqoknµ;K] riL;k] nku vkSj buds fy, fu'p;iwoZd voLFkkuesa
Hkh ^lr~* 'kCndk O;ogkj gksrk gSA czãdh ifjp;kZds mi;ksxh efUnj&ektZu
bR;kfndks Hkh ^lr~* 'kCnls vfHkfgr fd;k tkrk gSAA„‰AA
Jhfo'oukFkµ;KknkS fLFkfr;ZKkfnrkRi;Zs.kkoLFkkufeR;FkZ%A rnFkhZ;a
deZ czãifjp;ksZi;ksfx ;r~ deZ HkxoUefUnjektZukfnda rnfiAA„‰AA

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Hkkokuqoknµ;K vkfnesa ^fLFkfr%*µ;Kkfnds rkRi;Z:iesa vofLFkfrA


^rnFkhZa;a deZ*µczãdh ifjp;kZds mi;ksxh tks deZ gSa vFkkZr~ efUnjdk
ektZu djuk bR;kfnAA„‰AA
lk- o- izdkf'kdk o`fÙkµ^^;K] riL;k vkSj nkuesa Hkh lr~&'kCndk
rkRi;Z gS] D;ksafd ;s lHkh fØ;k,¡ czãds mís';ls gksusij ^lr~* 'kCnls
vfHkfgr gksrh gSaA czã mís'; ugha gksusls ;K] riL;k] nku vkfn leLr
fØ;k,¡ ^vlr~* gSaA leLr tM+h; deZ gh thods Lo:ids fojks/kh gSa]
fdUrq ftl le; ;s lHkh deZ czãfu"B gksdj ijkHkfädks mfnr djkusdh
izfrKk djrs gSa] ml le; ;s lHkh fØ;k,¡ Hkh thodh lÙo&la'kqf¼
vFkkZr~ Lo:iflf¼:i Ï".knkL;ds mi;ksxh gksrh gSaA**µJhHkfDrfouksn
BkdqjAA„‰AA
vJ¼;k gqra nÙka riLrIra Ïr´p ;r~A
vlfnR;qP;rs ikFkZ u p rRizsR; uks bgAA„ŠAA
bfr JhegkHkkjrs 'krlkglzîka lafgrk;ka oS;kflD;ka Hkh"eioZf.k
JheÚxoåhrklwifu"kRlq czãfo|k;ka ;ksx'kkL=s JhÏ".kktZqulaokns
^J¼k=;foHkkx;ksxks* uke lIrn'kks·/;k;AA
vUo;µikFkZ (gs ikFkZ!) vJ¼;k (vJ¼kds lkFk) gqre~ (gkse)
nÙke~ (nku) rIre~ ri% (vuqf"Br ri) ;r~ p ývU;r~þ (,oa tks
vU;) Ïre~ (fd, tkrs gSa) rr~ (os) vlr~ (vlr~) bfr mP;rs
(dgs tkrs gSa) ýrr~µosþ u bg (u bl lalkjesa) uks p izsR; (vkSj
u ijdkyesa) ýQyfrµQy iznku djrs gSaþAA„ŠAA
bfr JhegkHkkjrs 'krlkglzîka lafgrk;ka oS;kflD;ka Hkh"eioZf.k
JheÚxoåhrklwifu"kRlq czãfo|k;ka ;ksx'kkL=s JhÏ".kktZqulaokns
^J¼k=;foHkkx;ksxks* uke lIrn'kks·/;k;L;kUo;%AA
vuqoknµgs ikFkZ! vJ¼kiwoZd tks gkse] nku] riL;k ,oa vU;kU;
deZ vuqf"Br gksrs gSa] os vlr~ dgs tkrs gSaA os u rks bl yksdesa vkSj
u gh ijyksdesa Qynk;d gksrs gSaAA„ŠAA
JheÚxoåhrkds lIrn'k v/;k;dk vuqokn lekIrA
Jhfo'oukFkµlRdeZ Jqre~] rFkk vlRdeZ fdfeR;is{kk;kekgµvJ¼;sfrA
gqra goua] nÙka nkua] riLrIra] Ïra ;nU;Ppkfi deZ Ïra rr~ loZelfnfr
gqreI;gqreso nÙkeI;nÙkeso riks·I;rIrseo ÏreI;Ïreso] ;rLrr~~ u
izsR; u ijyksds Qyfr ukihgyksds QyfrAA„ŠAA

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%( & lIrn'k v/;k; %"!

mäs"kq fofo/ks"oso lkfÙoda J¼;k Ïre~A


;r~ L;kÙknso eks{kkgZfeR;/;k;kFkZ bZfjr%AA
bfr lkjkFkZof"kaZ.;ka gf"kZ.;ka Hkäpsrlke~A
xhrkLo;a lIrn'k% lÂr% lÂr% lrke~AA
HkkokuqoknµlRdeZds ckjsesa lquk] fdUrq vlr~ deZ D;k gS\ bl
iz'udh vis{kkdj JhHkxoku~ ^vJ¼;k* bR;kfn dg jgs gSA vJ¼kiwoZd
^gqra*µgkse] ^nÙka*µnku] ^ri%*µriL;k] ^Ïra*&vU; tks dqN fd, tk;¡]
os lHkh vlr~ gSa vFkkZr~ gkse djusij Hkh og gkse ugha gS] nku djusij
Hkh nku ugha gS] riL;k djusij Hkh og riL;k ugha gS vkSj tks dqN
Hkh fd;k tkrk gS] og ugha fd;k x;kA D;ksafd] ^rr~ u izsR; u bg*µ
ijyksddh rks ckr nwj jgs] bl yksdesa Hkh ;s Qy ugha nsrsAA„ŠAA
fofo/k izdkjds dgs x, deks±esa lkfÙodh J¼kds lkFk fd, tkusij
gh os deZ eks{knk;d gksrs gSaµ;gh bl v/;k;esa fu:fir gqvkAA
JheÚxoåhrkds lIrn'k v/;k;dh lk/kqtulEerk HkDrkuUnnkf;uh
lkjkFkZo£"k.kh Vhdk lekIrA
JheÚxoåhrkds lIrn'k v/;k;dh lkjkFkZo£"k.kh
Vhdkdk fgUnh vuqokn lekIrA
lk- o- izdkf'kdk o`fÙkµHkxor~&lsokds mís';ls gfj&xq#&oS".koksadh
lsokds fy, fHk{kk&laxzg] dwi&fuekZ.k] rkykc&fuekZ.k] iq"iks|ku] rqylh
,oa o`{kkjksi.k] efUnj&fuekZ.kµ;s lc rnFkhZ; deZ Hkh ^lr~* gSaA
^^gs vtqZu! fuxqZ.k J¼kds vfrfjä tks ;K] nku vkSj riL;k
vuqf"Br gksrs gSa] os lHkh vlr~ gSaA ;s lHkh fØ;k,¡ vHkh ;k cknesa
dHkh Hkh midkj ugha djrhaA vr,o 'kkL=lewg fuxqZ.kk J¼kdk gh
mins'k nsrs gSaA 'kkL=dk ifjR;kx djusls fuxqZ.kk J¼kdk ifjR;kx djuk
iM+rk gSA fuxqZ.kk J¼k gh Hkfä&yrkdk ,dek= cht gSA**µJhHkfäfouksn
BkdqjAA„ŠAA

JheÚfäosnkUr ukjk;.kÏr JheÚxoåhrkds lIrn'k


v/;k;dh lkjkFkZo£"k.kh&izdkf'kdk&o`fÙk lekIrA

lIrn'k v/;k; lekIrA

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