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War, Heresy, Plagues & Extras
Crises of Late Medieval Europe • Division within the church • persecution of heretics • the hundred years war • the ‘black death’ • peasant uprisings • invasions from the east o 1Mongols o ottoman Turks Background on the development in the church in the 13th century The Medieval Search for Religious Harmony • The Church’s Mission of Reform o Innocent III first pope trained in the universities
strengthened the authority of the office o 4th Lateran Council  attempted to regulate every aspect of Christian life stipulated that Christians are to attend mass and confess at least once a year doctrine of transubstantiation the wine and bread taken at communion are the physical incarnation of blood and body of Christ the church had the right to investigate marriages and their legality to strengthened the legal authority of the church and in case a child was born out of wedlock they required for all Jews to wear an item to identify them as a Jew
they did not set a specific guideline, based on region by region basis the nobles liked it because they could charge so they would not have to wear the items o Suppression of Heretics It not only was a crime against the church but also against the secular government the pope also had an army, just not large enough to attack other kingdoms, just to enforce their doctrines o The Inquisition o Lay Piety Friars, townspeople, tertiary Friars are there to help the poor Tertiary were lay people that took the monastic life. They were religious, but were not part of the clergy
Piety of Women Stay at home, take care of the family nobles and wealthy women entered convents • Cultural Harmonies o Scholasticism Empiricism & Faith Thomas Aquinas [1225 – 1274] scholar John Duns Scotus [1266 – 1308] truth only came from the intervention of the divine they called themselves scholars they were looking for a combination and spiritual and empirical powers they wanted to create harmony and new authority for the Pope o New Artistic Syntheses
Literature Dante Alighieri • Published the divine trilogy o Very lengthy poem on his journeys through hell, purgatory and heaven o incorporated historical figures and from his lifetime Gothic Architecture High arches designed to lead people into knowledge stained glass with saints community efforts in financing, design and construction The Politics of Control • Weakening of the Empire o Frederick II conflict between him and the Pope
as emperor he needed to maintain his kingdom and the Pope wanted to expand the Papal states Innocent III wanted to separate from Frederick II the emperor was able to use the church’s office as his own ruling bureaucracy Constitutions of Melfi  pulls jurisdiction from the church back to the empire’s people “Statute in Favor of the Princes”  virtual independence of the German Kingdoms under his rule, in exchange for his recognition of the Italian rule The Pope excommunicates Frederick II, they call a crusade against him (unsuccessful)
o Blowback some people fight back on both fronts o Holy Roman Empire Frederick II is no longer a strong emperor he has no heirs Rudolf [Hapsburg, Swabia, 1273] takes the title of Holy Roman Empire elected by the rest of the princes of the empire consolidates power over the rule of Swabia the emperor is an honorary title and the title is elected by the princes of the German states Charles IV & the ‘Golden Bull’  declares the holy roman empire and its electoral system as official o Kings and Representation
Over 500 years does not become its own country Loosely co-coordinated kingdoms and principalities for 500 years Louis VIIII establishes its court and the Parliament is being established at this time as well • Weakening of the Papacy o The secular rulers did not tax the clergy before the 12th century o Philip IV (French) and Edward I (English) tax the church and do not have to submit to any other institution, be it the church or anyone else o Taxing the Clergy National Sovereignty The Pope Boniface VIII threatens to excommunicate the Kings
Both respond in similar ways Edward I declares if they do not pay taxes then they are not under the protection of its law • also publicly burns the Pope’s letter of excommunication • as a part of propaganda he distributes a forged letter that not only excommunicates the King but also says that the people of England are under the rule of the Pope • he tries (successfully) to garner hate against the Papacy Philip IV • Embargoes all payments to Rome
• calls a meeting of French nobles to gather their support as King and his authority of him over that of the Pope • he declares the Pope is a heretic and a trader to France o In 1302 The Pope issues Unam Sanctum it says you can’t have salvation unless you are under the Pope’s authority • follow the Pope or go to hell largely ignored Philip claiming that the pope is a heretic and sends mercenaries southwest of Rome in Anagni 
• the plan was to grab the pope and have him stand in trial for heresy and treason • they can't get a hold of him, the townspeople protect him o the pope is relatively safe This is the first time that a secular power not only took arms against the pope but also denied the authority of the pope and got away with it Philip IV has a lot of support, the nobles want to tax the clergy as well huge humiliation for the papacy o By 1305 Cardinals across Europe are deeply divided Also the Pope dies of natural causes
the cardinals are afraid of secular power in order to appease the French and English king they appoint a French archbishop that has royal ties with the English nobility Rome becomes a dangerous seat for the papacy the church moves the capital to Avignon. Close to France with very close ties to it Between 1305 – 1378 The next 5 popes are French Papacy in Crisis • Avignon Papacy [1305 – 1378] o French cardinals dominate the church and most church officials are French
o the church allows the king of France to use funding raised through the ties of the church to finance France’s wars o in practicality, despite the clear leaning toward France, the papacy is not just a vassal of the French king. They do go against the French king from time to time o However, overwhelmingly people think they church is just a vassal of the French kingdom o the Christians do not like the French rule of the papacy o the city of Avignon becomes a symbol of corruption crowded with merchants, prostitution industry, thriving industry of astrologers who are not in line with church doctrine there are 43 banking houses in Avignon
o people see it as corrupt and in bed with the king of France • Papal Authority o The pope is still very powerful and proficient in collecting money o The pope has its own army Most of the time in Italy, but still under his command o Profitable Doctrines Purgatory Intermediary between heaven and hell not damned, but you’ll get to heaven sooner or later Indulgences Jesus Christ and all the saints have a surplus of merit, a surplus of salvation
• It acts as a treasury • if you donate enough money the treasury will pay out to you for your own salvation this is an active system they have their own people meeting with nobles • kind of like salesman pitching the system of ‘salvation’ • Benefices Conflict o Church offices become a point of conflict o the offices were also solicited o specially a problem within the German Kingdoms o this reduces local influence in the church o papal tax collectors are prevented from collecting on an office that is essentially empty
o the German kingdoms get together and come out with the ‘Statue of Provisors’ forbids offices in absentia money will not go to offices that are empty o Edward III of England makes the election of papal authority to the Bishops in England. • Criticism o Catherine of Siena A greatly influential spiritual leader at her time given to raptures and trances, described Avignon as a city in distress and urged the papacy to return to Rome o William of Ockman & Nominalism Church power derived from the covenant of the faithful nominalism
he believed that truth was only derived from the spiritual absolvation o Patriarch & “Babylonian captivity” The church was gathering and spending too much money, living a lavish life while to giving enough to the people o French and Scandinavians supported the pope, however, not the English o William of Ockman and Catherine of Siena They are not heretics They want change but they don’t dispute its authority Extra Popes, Angry Councils & Heretics • Gregory XI Returns to Rome [1377 – 1378] o Lure of a crusade o Byzantium appeals for help against the ottoman Turks from the pope
The consensus is that if there is going to be another crusade, it should be launched from Rome A greater symbolic power to combine European powers o Papal states Growing agitation between the papal states The pope believes if he stays in Avignon then the papal states might become independent from the church o Threat of Schism He is afraid that they will appoint their own bishops • The Great Schism o He dies shortly after coming to Rome o The cardinals, majority of whom are French, have to pick a new pope
They convene in Rome to chose a new pope and fearing a return to Avignon the Romans stand outside the Vatican chanting “Romano lo volemo!” (We want a roman) however, they’ll settle for an Italian They chose an Italian bishop, Urban VI o Urban VI The cardinals regret the decision 11 of the 16 cardinals choosing the Pope are French they are hoping to chose an Italian and still move back to Avignon urban VI says no he also says that cardinals are corrupt the practice of collecting money from a place that they are not even at. The cardinals retreat
13 retreat to a town outside of Rome where they conclude that the election of urban VI was not legitimate the pressure of the mob nullifies the election they elect their own pope Clement VII (Aug. 1378) Clement VII They return to Avignon and now Europe has two popes • Europe at Sixes and Sevens o Europe is divided, some go for urban VI and some for clement VII • Pisa 
o The cardinals and nobles from both sides of the divide are disconcerted enough by the fact that there are two popes and religious divide that they take it upon themselves to meet at Pisa in 1409 o This is a revolutionary event New pope used to be chose when the pope dies This is the first time that a pope is elected while there is a living pope. Two in fact The idea is to create one pope and nullify the other two o They come with this however from church law A sitting pope can be deposed on account of heresy and corruption And that ultimate authority rests upon the church as a whole o They elect pope John XXIII
Now there are three popes A lot people do not take much seriousness to the new pope or the convention at Pisa They don’t believe they have the authority to create a new pope Some people DO take the council of Pisa seriously and the new pope but is not widespread as they had hoped o The authority of the church has been weakened by this People do not believe the church can direct itself anymore • Conciliar Movement o In 1415 the holy roman emperor calls for a council of bishops and nobles to reform church doctrine and elect a new pope that will finally end this mess
o At the council of Constance they come up with Haec Sancta The council itself is now under the authority of Jesus Christ and therefore have authority over the pope They order john xxiii to resign They then deposed the other two popes and elect the pope Martin V They believe that this type of councils should meet over and over and direct the church from time to time o The conciliar movement fails at directing the church from then on, however, they do stop the schism • Heresy o This allows for everybody to come together o Three groups of heretics (major groups) The Free Spirits
They are called Beghards and Beguins They stressed the direct contact of god in the individual which not only rejects the sacrament of the church but declares a quality among men and women They set up communal sites for men and women worked, preached and rejected the church and did not submit to its authority together There were rumors of orgies and free love and all sorts of sexual perversions The church acted to stamp out this movement by moving bibles which they had translated to French and burning some free spirits at the stake
John Wycliffe and the Lollards This is in England He was appalled at the corruption of the church • The sale of indulgences Not only rejected the authority of the church but proposed that the state should direct the church • Bishops in England dismiss him of his position as a monk and a professor of theology • He lives the rest of his life in exile His followers are called the Lollards Hussites Revolt (shortly before of the council at Constance) Jan Hus was powerful theologist
• He was excommunicated by john XXIII in 1410 • But he is still active in preaching and gains a following • In 1415 he is invited to Constance and guaranteed safe passage and safety once he arrives o This is false o He believes he is going to Constance for an important theological debate o He walks into a trap and burned at the stake When words comes back of his death his followers openly revolt • They demanded greater freedom from the church
• They demanded that they could take wine (only the priest could do so at this time) • They also asked that priests should be punished by secular courts for corruption During the revolt Ziska led an army to a hill and lived together and fought together They are able to hold off all the attacks mounted against them then in 1433 a council convenes in Switzerland The council negotiates a truce with the Hussites They give in to the Hussites demands
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